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Chapter 2.

Review of Related Literature

OJT is typically ignored by professional trainers and is left to the devices of well-

intentioned co-workers, supervisors, managers, and executives, who recognize its

importance but often lack the necessary skills to plan and execute it successfully.

Rothwell and Kazanas discuss the history of planned On-the-Job Training (OJT) as

a result of wartime needs in twentieth century. During World War 1, Charles R. (Skipper)

Allen introduced a method of training shipbuilders that led to the first distinction between

planned and unplanned OJT. Basing his approach to OJT on the ideas of the nineteenth-

century German psychologist Johann Friedrich Herbart, Allen suggested that trainers go

through the following four steps and accompanying actions to improve training efficiency.


1. Preparation – Show: demonstrate to learners what they should do.

2. Presentation – Tell: explain to learners what they should do and why they should do


3. Application – Do: allow learners to try out the work.

4. Inspection – Check: follow up with the learners, providing praise for what they do

right and specific feedback about what they should do to improve.

Taking his cues from Frederick W. Taylor and others who stressed industrial

efficiency, Allen believed that the proper focus of OJT should be job rather than the
individual. Workers should be selected based on job demands and trained to carry out the

specific tasks they were hired to perform. Any training should be preceded by job

breakdown to clarify what the learner should perform or not. OJT, Allen, believed, should

be carried out by supervisors so job incumbents could be held directly accountable for what

they learned.

During World War II, Allen’s simple four-step formula for training was expanded to

seven steps:

1. Show learners how to perform the task.

2. Review key points.

3. Allow learners to watch the instructor/ supervisor perform the task second time.

4. Allow the learners to perform the simple parts of the job.

5. Guide learners to perform the whole job.

6. Let learners perform the whole job, but monitor their performance.

7. Release learners from training and allow them to perform their own.

These seven classic steps came to be called job instruction training (JIT), after the war

program of the same name. Training based on these steps, it was discovered, resulted in

increased production in the wartime industries, and these steps still work efficiently and

effectively in today’s industries. One possible reason for their enduring usefulness is that,

taken together, they may effectively tap all four styles identified by Kolb.
The planned OJTs are those in accordance with the mentioned steps of planned OJT

while the unplanned OJTs are those that do not have at least the initially formulated 4 steps

on planned OJT adopted during World War I mentioned above in this paper.

In recent years, however, OJT has been largely ignored for three major reasons.

First, recent advances in the use of instructional technology have overshadowed OJT as

training method. Second, employees and employers alike assume it will just happen – and,

of course it usually does. But the important question is, How efficiently and effectively does

it happen? Third, OJT is often difficult to distinguish from the work itself. In the

workplace, training, learning and performance are often inextricably intertwined. Without

a roadmap, managers of OJT find it difficult to tell when training is happening, or when it

should be happening.

The On the Job Training by Prime gives possible scenarios of trainings particularly

Determining Training Needs and how to manage trainings efficiently and effectively. It

teaches how to recognize when learning has taken place, the goals of a training program,

the kinds of training necessary for successful work performance, progress check, symptoms

of poor training or lack of training, and signals to the supervisors that he should forecast

training needs.

Gellerman’s Motivating Superior Performance tackles about the importance of

supervisor’s motivation because motivation does not merely improve performance, it

multiplies performance. Motivation can greatly increase the return on a company’s

investment in people.
Equation of Motivation Multiplies Performance: P = (K+S) x M

P = Performance

K + S = Knowledge and Skills

M = Motivation

Gellerman pointed out that some effects of motivation are direct; others are indirect:

Direct Effects:

1. Job performance

2. Efficiency

3. Quality

Indirect Effects:

1. Cost

2. Market shares

3. Profits

Motivation includes payroll, benefit programs, and costs of recruiting, training and

insurance. He says that people cannot be motivated quickly, easily and cheaply. It is

therefore, worth investing time, effort and money to handle motivation effectively. He

stressed out that the main cost is time and convenience, not money.
In the book Total Job Training by Paul Strokes, effective training doesn’t just

happen. It is a combination of –1. Programing designed to accomplish results as soon as

possible; 2. Instructors who can transmit know-how in the shortest possible time; 3.

Trainees who are capable and who can be motivated to learn; 4. Methods that best fit the

material to be transmitted; 5. Know-how, both technical knowledge and understanding of

training techniques; 6. Standards to measure results obtained against program plans; 7.

Administration that coordinates all phases of the activity, minimizes problems, and

motivated the participants. The proper blending of these ingredients can make skills

training so important that sponsors and executives will readily agree that it is indispensable.

(1966, p19)

Paul M. Stokes’s book Total Job Training: A Manual for Working Managers, 1966

provides for planning the program. According to him, the first thing that an instructor must

do is to determine his objectives. These are stated in terms of what the trainee is expected

to do when the program is completed. He must decide what he wants to accomplish in his

total program. He explains that these objectives can then be translated into specific

schedules and goals. Then, the schedule is the roadmap the instructor uses to enable him to

achieve his all objectives.

Strokes also discusses in the book the standards for trainers. He explains that

generally speaking, the performance of the instructor is measured by the performance of

the trainee. The best way to measure the effectiveness of training is to evaluate the

development of the trainee. The combination of skill on the job and skill in showing others
how to do it makes the ideal leader for a training program. The trainer must be objective

about the progress of the learner or the student-trainee and be willing to admit that perhaps

both could do better. He enumerated the following questions that will help in taking a look

at the progress if all his trainees:

1. Are the trainees making proper progress toward the program objectives?

2. Is this progress as rapid as it should be?

3. Are the trainees applying what they have been learning to new situations?

4. What else should they be doing?

5. What objectives are not being met?

6. Is the level of interest as high as it was in the beginning of the program?

Stroke states that the answers to these questions will give the instructor a good

measure of his success. He also added that if he is not satisfied with the results, he should

begin to plan different approaches to improve the program and his own performance (1966,

p. 40-41)

On the other hand, Strokes discusses that the goals of the effective supervisor in

minimizing training effort is to fit each employee into a position where he can be most

efficient. The objective of the “right man on the right job” sums up the need for an

intelligent approach to selection.

Strokes also points out that the immediate goal of OJT training is to develop skill.

It has to do with teaching things that are so automatic that they appear to be easy. He says
that the skilled man doesn’t have to rethink each problem situation as it arises. And,

practice is the factor which leads to this smooth work pattern and the method by which

learners develop skill. There is no need to think out each step after it has become a habit.

Performing the work is the only way a trainee can get the necessary practice. He must use

the prescribed tools, materials, equipment and methods for performing the operation. He

explains that the only place to get this practice is on the job itself (1966,p54).

Paul M. Strokes also explains the technique of questioning. He says that the

interchange of questions and answers between the trainee and the trainer is an essential part

of training. The trainee should have an opportunity to settle questions which are bothering

him or her and clear up points of doubt.

Strokes gives numerous reasons for asking questions frequently, as follows:

1. To check the progress of the trainee.

2. To ensure understanding.

3. To stimulate thought.

4. To plant new ideas.

5. To encourage response.

6. To locate areas of doubt.

He says that queries should be phrased so that they cannot be answered by a simple

yes or no. The trainee should be asked the type of questions which stimulate discussion.

They should begin with such words as why, when, where, how and where. The two
questions that are frequently asked by inexperienced instructors have little or no value,

particularly in the beginning of the program when the trainee and the instructor are still

unsure of each other. These questions are: “Do you have any questions?” and “Do you

understand?” He elaborates that the trainee will almost always indicate that he is familiar

with the material. This is a natural reaction, since he does not want to appear to be stupid

or attentive. The nature of these two questions seems to indicate that the instructor feels

that his job has been done. They discourage the pursuit of knowledge or questions to clarify


Training can turn attitudes into action. Strokes pointed out that it is the duty of the

instructor to monitor the progress of the trainee. The instructor must keep a close watch on

the progress of each man as training continues. There are several questions which must be

answered regularly concerning each individual:

1. How is he progressing?

2. What problems does he have?

3. Does he have any handicaps?

4. What should he be doing differently?

Paul M. Stokes points out that the answer to these questions can be found by regular

observation of the trainee at work and from scrap reports, customer complaints, production

reports, remarks of other employees. Any difficulty should be instantly brought to the

attention of the instructor. In fact, the instructor should seek it out. In most cases the trouble
will be with one or more steps of the operation rather than with some intangible factor

away from the job (1966, p. 59)

Stokes also tackles about the difference between coaching process and the training

process. (1966, p. 59). According to him, coaching process is one step more advanced than

the training pattern. The former is the process for dealing with specific difficulty after the

initial pattern has been completed. Usually this will concern only one step of the operation.

If more than one step is giving trouble, attack them one at a time.

He provided the steps for coaching process with analogous samples, as follows:

Step1. Observe. The instructor must watch closely the step which is giving the learner

trouble. He must be sure to make a mental note of every movement and factor which is


Example: A trainee carpenter is bending nails while driving them, yet he seems to

be using a normal hammer stroke.

Step2. Diagnose. “Diagnose” means to decide what is causing difficulty. It answers the

question why? To determine the cause of trouble, the instructor compares the step as he

has observed it with the step as should be performed. This is often the most difficult part

of the process, according to Strokes. The instructor who can see quickly what is wrong in

the situation can be well on his way to correcting it. However, the problem is often hard to

pinpoint, and he should not jump to conclusions.

Example: The hammer head is not striking the nail squarely, either because of a

faulty stroke or because the man is holding the grip at the wrong angle.

Step 3. Prescibe. The coach must decide what changes the learner must make to remedy

the situation. He then instructs the learner in the correct method and explains why it is

better than the old. This instruction might be given directly, but it is often better to approach

the problem in an indirect way by asking questions. This will lead the trainee to discover

his own mistakes.

Example: The trainer decides that the most likely solution is to have the trainee

correct the arc of the hammer.

Step 4. Motivate/ Practice. The trainer should suggest or show in some way the benefits of

the new method. The learner should be convinced that the new method is an improvement.

If the results are immediately improves, this should be a natural reaction.

The instructor should guide the trainee through the step in the correct way, just as

he did in the original instruction. The same need for practice exists to set the pattern of

correct operation. In this step, the instructor insures successful performance and encourages

the learner to continue. This builds the trainee’s confidence in both the coach and his own

ability to do the job.

Example: The instructor has the trainee hit a piece of soft wood scrap, just as he

would nail it. The imprint shoes that the front of the head makes a deeper impression that
the back, indicating that it is applying force to the nail at an angle. He then demonstrates

how the hammer should strike the nail and has the trainee practice the right method.

Step 5. Review. The coach explains what made the difference with the trainee. He

commends the trainee on efforts to improve. At this time, too, he discusses any other

difficulty he can see by way of preparing for the next round of improvement.

Example: After the trainee has driven several nails correctly, the trainer again

explains what happened when the head does not strike the nail squarely. He also

compliments the trainee on his improved performance.

Strokes points out that a successful trainer is willing to put forth the effort required

to do a positive job of instruction and coaching. It takes extra time and effort but, in the

long run, pays tremendous dividends.

He also elaborates the topic keeping with developments (1966, p. 41). He explains

that as instructors gain experience, they find that they constantly revise the outline and

procedures. They should not be afraid to try something new in an attempt to get a specific

point across to a group. He further explains that if the original schedule doesn’t seem to

get the job done in one or more specific areas, it may be necessary to revise the time

estimate. The instructors may also find some areas which will not take as much time as

originally planned. The schedule should be flexible enough to make allowances for these

changes and still not affect the overall time requirement. There are also new developments

in tools, materials and equipment which the instructors will want to keep up with as they
go along. And as the instructors discover new materials, they should put them to use, either

to supplement the program or to replace material which is less effective.

With regard to the workplace, Strokes explains that every supervisor can be faced

with the need to fill a job suddenly. Employee turnover is constant, and new job is always

being created. People quit, retire, or are promoted; new methods, materials, equipment, and

processes are created. Each one of these changes means a change in operations and creates

a training situation. He said that rush selection or “crash” programs result in mismatching

of employees job. The effort required of the workers can be minimized if they have been

given some concrete knowledge of a situation before it arises. The amount of knowledge

required for a job is necessary but it varies depending on the nature of the job. For instance,

a worker capable of learning a simple job and doing it efficiently might be a total failure in

a position which requires different or variety of operations. It can be disastrous to put a

man in a position which is either beyond his limitations or does not offer some challenge

to his skill and ability. Many potentially valuable employees have been lost because of

such placements.

In the book, Employe Training Handbook by Bleick von Bleicken, attitude

development through training is discussed. Bleicken explains that modern training also has

a job to do to combat other negative effects on the worker’s attitude induced by

mechanization and work routinization.

Also, Strokes points out that every job has something to offer the right person -just

as individuals are interested in different benefits. He says that the efficient supervisor will
determine carefully what is offered in terms of steadiness, challenge, security and

possibility of promotion. He says also that the efficient supervisor will then be in a position

to make a better match between the requirements and available personnel. He says that the

best way to become aware of all the strong and weak points of the employees, their desires

and aptitudes, is to become personally acquainted with each of them. The good supervisor

knows as much as he can about every employee. This is a key to success not only in

selection and training but in the day-to-day operation of the department. A guideline to

effective supervision is the “fair, firm and friendly” attitude. Friendliness is most helpful

when it comes to selection for promotion or retraining. Any item of information which can

be gathered about a man is potential factor in future decisions.

Strokes says also that the supervisor as well as instructor who has a wealth of

information about each one of the trainee or employee is in the best position to make an

intelligent and thoughtful selection. Supervisors and instructors can appeal to individual

interests and desires to improve performance in many situations.

Strokes mentions that there are also two ready sources of information about

employees: records and personal observation. To him, if test results are included in

personnel profile, they also can be very helpful. These sources must be carefully worked

and evaluated to gain the maximum benefit from them. There are definite values from each

and which should be fully explored for the betterment of the working situation and

When it comes to company personal records, it is important that organizations have

some records of the individual employee other than payroll record. In addition to these

files, Strokes mentions that other materials as applications, reference check data and

personal history sheet similar as to that in Philippine setting of record as personal data sheet

(PDS) of the individual employee must be filed and kept. Any record should be used

carefully, though. The information contained in it may be entirely correct, or it may be

subject to interpretation.

On-the-job trainees must fill out application forms as a formality requirement of

OJT. It is important to sign the personal data about them such as marital status, address,

military service, community service, academic and extra-curricular activities in order to

have an adequate background about them.

Moreover, Strokes tackles about job theory. For Strokes, job theory is defined as the

development of skills and knowledge which will be required in addition to physical ability

to perform the job. In other words, it includes all requirements other than physical skills. It

is the responsibility of the instructor who is in charge of the training to see that job theory

is taught effectively. He can either do it himself or arrange to have it done. Strokes

identifies the materials which can be sources of job theory, as follow:

1. Local library. Ask the librarian for help in finding the material needed for the

job. It may be necessary to excerpt it from several different sources to fit your

special needs.
2. Trade journals. Many articles are written each year and published in various

trade journals and other publications. Many of these deal with training programs

which have been carried out in various fields. The articles themselves are often

of help, and the authors are usually willing to give you additional advice if you

will just write them.

3. Manufacturer’s literature. While some of this material is primarily intended for

sales and advertising use, it can often be adapted to training. It is usually a

valuable source of information concerning new process and equipment. Such

literature as operator’s instructions, shop manuals, and service bulletins can be

extremely helpful.

4. Manufacturer’s representatives. These persons are always eager to pass along

information concerning products and their capabilities. They can help you by

obtaining additional information from the home office. This kind of technical

assistance is given without charge to users or prospective buyers of equipment.

5. Major companies’ training departments. Most large companies have extensive

training departments which have developed programs in many fields. They are

usually happy to pass along information or material to a smaller organization,

provided there is no direct competition. Such progressive companies as Ford

Motor, Standard Oil, Westinghouse, John Deere, Armour, Motorola,

International Harvester, and U.S. Steel have large training organizations and can

often help others to solve their training problems.

6. Trade associations. Groups like the trade associations of the tool and die

manufacturers, retail merchants, and automobile dealers, in addition to certain

cooperatives, also have developed training programs. Usually these are available

only to member firms or individuals.

7. Other trainers. Most trainers are glad to help an association with the problem of

setting up a new program or improving one which is in operation. In United

States, for instance, most cities have a chapter of the American Society of

Training Directors, whose members are often most cooperative. Even if they

have never done training in a specific area with which you are concerned, they

can be helpful in suggesting sources of materials.

8. Standard publications. Every field has certain publications which are used as

handbooks or reference material.

9. Publisher. Write to the customer relations or sales department of the major

publishers, telling them what you need, and they will send you catalogues and

offer suggestions as well.

10. Local Teachers. Most teachers are willing to help in the search for material. They

will probably have the catalogue of the big textbook publishers or can tell you

where to write for them.

11. Professional Individuals. Engineers, chemists, horticulturists, veterinarians,

physicists, agriculturists – all professional people have a good knowledge of

publications in their fields which may be of help to you.

Others are state libraries, government publications and the Internet. All these are

available to the trainer who wants to organize or improve his job theory training. It will

save time and money if the instructor can find suitable material ready-made.

Strokes also deals with the essentials of job theory training which are the timing,

selection of instructor and course materials.

In timing, Strokes explains that, theoretical training should practicably coincide

with the stage of progress reached in the workplace training. The proper time to teach

related skills is when they are to be used on the job.

In selection of instructors or trainers, qualification is essential to the success of the

theoretical training program. He must be a person who not only knows the subject matter

but has some skills in teaching. Any subject matter can be enlivened and enriched by a

good instructor.

In course material, the course content requires careful thought to be sure that it

relates directly to the skills area. It is a waste of time and effort to include materials which

is not essential. On the other hand, nothing important must be omitted (1966, p. 70)

Strokes clarifies that there are standards for theoretical training. In general, he says

that the same standards apply to theoretical training and workplace training. However,

there are additional questions to be considered when the program is planned, as follows:
It must be complete. Great care must be taken to be sure that all the required material

is included. Anything the skilled man will need to solve a repetitive work problem should

be included in the training.

It must be coordinated. Theoretical training should proceed hand in hand with

workplace training as much as possible. The instructor must make every effort to see that

outlines and timetables for both training areas are closely related.

It must be pertinent to the skills desired. In a surprising number of training programs,

the theoretical training for specific occupation has included material which has little or no

relationship to it. For example, there is no reason why a trainee tune-up mechanic should

be taught the mechanics of an automobile transmission. There is no doubt that the details

would be nice for him to know, but they are not related to the specific objectives of his


Strokes also discusses about the trainee’s role in job theory. He says that the trainee

must consider theoretical training and physical skills training of equal importance in

learning his occupation. Strokes says that this point is often neglected, with the result that

the trainee simply tolerates the theoretical training without developing the interest or

putting forth the effort required to make the most of it. He says that proper emphasis should

be place on this training from the beginning of the program. The proper motivation of the

learner to do well in this related work is absolutely essential to his success. He adds that

homework assignments, particularly, require self-discipline and concentration on the part

of the trainee. He must realize the value of his success in reaching his goal. He will
probably have to give up some of his normal leisure-time activities, such as TV, bowling,

and social engagements, in favor of the necessary reading. Good study habits are required

to get the most from the assignments. Developing these good habits will add to the benefits

of training program even for a limited time each day. The student must keep in mind that

he is reading for a definite purpose. His aim is to acquire the most possible information,

not simply to see how many pages he can cover. The trainee who can relate his on-the-job

studies to his off-the job studies will have a better understanding of the job and more

interest in it, than the person who works on routine or mechanical basis. This close

association is one of the keys to success.

Strokes says that job theory training as part of a workplace training program can be

considered only the beginning for many trainees. He says that over the years, hundreds of

thousands of men have used such knowledge as stepping stones to advance themselves far

beyond their original skills. It is the trainees who study systematically, off the job, to

prepare themselves for greater opportunities who are first promoted to a more difficult and

better-paying job.

Strokes also deals with learning as continuous process. He says that all learning is

the result of experience. He gives three types of experience which contribute to learning,


1. Actual experience. Performing the physical activities of the OJT is one of the best

methods of gaining the knowledge, skills and attitude required. Workplace training

is designed to give the learner his actual experience.

2. Simulated experience. This is an imitation of the real thing. It is often desirable and

necessary to give part of the physical training in some spot other than the workplace.

This training can be made realistic through the use of actual tools and a close

imitation of actual experience. Another form of simulated experience calls for the

use of models, mock-ups, or cutaway assemblies. Visual aids such as movies, film

strips, and pictures are widely used in this sort of training.

3. Vicarious experience. By vicarious experience we mean simply, using knowledge

which represents the experience of others; that is, reading and listening to what they

have discovered. Most of the world’s knowledge has been recorded in books, films,

drawings, Internet, and so on. By utilizing these stores of knowledge and

experience, we are able to build upon it and continue our own development.

In summary, Strokes points out that the successful instructor not only understands how

people learn but puts this knowledge to practical use in setting up his program. Its

application are as follows:

1. Learning progresses from the simple to the complex. The training program must be

planned to progress naturally from the simple skills, either physical or mental, to the

more difficult or complex knowledge required.

2. Learning is based upon what is already known. The trainee must be able to relate

his new knowledge and skills to what he already knows. The skilled instructor will

develop a store of comparisons and analogies which will help the trainee understand

what is being presented.

3. Repetition is necessary. In many cases, the learner will not understand all the new

material completely when it is first presented. The trainer must develop the habit of

repeating it and presenting it in different ways to be sure it is thoroughly understood.

4. Learning must be used. Everyone tends to forget those items of knowledge and those

skills which are used regularly. The training program must provide opportunities to

use what is gained.

5. Success is important. Knowledge not only must be used successfully to become

permanent. The instructor should be careful to see that the trainee is successful in

the application of his new knowledge.

6. Incorrect habits must be changed. Where incorrect responses have been learned, the

trainer must first show the trainees why they are wrong or undesirable and then help

them build a new pattern of response.

7. Learning can be transferred. A pattern of response or a fund of knowledge which

has been developed to meet one situation can be used to solve a problem or meet

new needs. The training program should provide opportunities to develop this


8. Learning does not always progress steadily. The instructor must be prepared to meet

situations where the learning slows down for a period of time and then shows an

upward trend. Individual trainees may have different patterns of progress, and the

trainer must adjust to these.

9. Learning depends upon experience. The workplace training program should provide

a variety of experiences in order to give the student the greatest possible number of

opportunities to learn.

10. Individual learns at different rates. Training programs must be flexible enough to

allow each trainee to progress at the rate which is best for his own development.

Strokes emphasizes that the skilled instructor is familiar with many different ways

of imparting ideas and knowledge, as well as the accepted methods of bringing about

knowledge and skills. A lecture or talk is effective in some ways, assigned reading in

others, and so it goes. Just which methods gets the best results will depend on the

requirements of the learning situation. The good instructor will consider and use the

method which will help him get the job done most efficiently.

He also explains the importance of communication. He says that the instructor

should develop a two-way avenue of communication. According to him, the trainee should

have the opportunity to talk over his problems and goals. Also, the trainee should feel that

he is getting all pertinent information about his job and his organization.

With regard to frustrations, Strokes said that this is the negative factor in motivation.

He said that it means that the individual does not see his way clear to reaching one or more

of his goals. Stokes added that removing roadblocks for the trainee is therefore one of the

functions of the instructors. He said that this may be a relatively easy task – such as helping

him find for a job or showing him where to find information he needs. In other cases the
instructor may have to give the problematic trainee some extra help on assignments, get

his pay records straightened out, or advise him on some personal problems.

Strokes says that the causes of frustrations may be too deep or unrelated to the job

of the trainer to do anything about them. However, if he can find a method of relieving the

trainee’s frustration in any way, he should use it, thus permitting the individual to release

his energies in work rather than in worry (1966, p 96)

Strokes deals also with common problems of employees which the instructor must

deal. For practical purposes, Strokes classified them into four groups, to wit:

1. Mistake that show up in spoilage wastage, and poor production. For example,

the so-called “human errors.”

2. Mistakes in methods of working, operating, performing or producing. For

example, selection of the wrong tool, equipment or work method.

3. Mistake in personal or group behavior. For example, horsing around, tardiness,

absenteeism, carelessness.

4. Mistakes of attitude and point of view which may ultimately show up in poor

production, working methods, or personal or group behavior. For example,

grouches, opposition to theory, lack of cooperation, poor morale and so on.

Strokes emphasizes that discussion of problems an instructor will encounter and the

variety of sources from which the problem will arise clearly indicates that a sound approach

to discipline must be built into training or workplace situation. How the class of on-the-job
trainees about the discipline will influence how the trainees applies it, so a sound approach

should start with a sound definition of what the term discipline means:

Discipline is a conscious effort to influence conduct toward the achievement of

desired results and toward the prevention of undesired result.

Strokes stresses out that in this definition the emphasis is on preventing problems

rather than on correcting them after they occur. In this definition, influencing behavior

should be towards the desired result and away from the undesired results. This means that

before we can influence behavior we must first define desirable and undesirable results.

Strokes says that in typical business this is accomplished by listing of standards of

performance and rules. Examples of standards which define desired result might include:

1. Absenteeism should not exceed an average of one day per month.

2. Tardiness should not exceed an average of five minutes per month.

3. Scrap should not exceed 3 percent per dat.

4. Typists should produce 50 words of error-free copy per minute.

And here are some examples of rules and regulations which define unacceptable behavior:

1. No dealing or using of prohibited drugs.

2. No smoking, drinking or littering.

3. No vandalism.

4. Aisle must be kept clear all the time.

5. Brakes must be engaged before living the truck.

6. At the end of the day, all tools and materials must be returned to the supervisor

or school instructor, as the case may be.

7. No bullying and/or violence.

8. Non engagement in sexual immorality.

Strokes clarifies that the purpose of having a well-defined rules and standards of

performance is to enable an individual to influence people to conduct themselves in the

desired manner. This means that pains must be taken to insure that everyone knows and

understands what is expected of him – which is usually best accomplished by preparing

written standards and rules and issuing them to employees in booklets, posting them on

bulletin boards or in other conspicuous places at the job sites or at school, and holding

sessions at which they are reviewed and discussed.

Strokes discussed that the right attitude for approaching disciplinary problems is

one of helpfulness and as much objectivity as possible. An instructor cannot administer

good discipline if the instructor maintains a closed mind toward what went wrong and what

should be done to correct it. According to Strokes, the real disciplinarian will have few

preconceived ideas about the problem. He will make every effort to get all the available

information, carefully examine this information to determine what is fact and what is

opinion, and then draw his conclusions.

Stroke says that in dealing with problems, the instructor or supervisor, as the case

may be, may show that he too has made a mistake and that he may be more at fault than

the trainee. He adds that the properly objective attitude requires that the person dealing
with problem must be willing to admit that the individual himself also has a problem. The

instructor or the supervisor may also find that if he or she shoulders his or her share of the

blame, the employee may more likely to accept his own responsibility for what happened.

Strokes says, it is well to keep in mind, too, that the mistakes of the students are indirectly

those of the instructor or supervisor. He elaborates that perhaps, the instructor or supervisor

failed to train the employee properly or to make his orders and instructions clear, or

perhaps, he has not inspired his students to their best effort. A willingness to accept

responsibility for the mistakes of trainees goes hand in hand with the authority or the

instructor or supervisor.

Stroke stresses that the right attitude for administering discipline is positive and

optimistic . The people assume that the every trainee wants to do a good job until the

instructor finds out differently. This means that the people (school authorities, trainers,

instructors, supervisors, company employer, customers, clients and the community) should

give the trainees they encounter the benefit of the doubt and that the people should

approach the disciplinary procedure with the belief that correction can be achieved; it

means that the instructor’s attitude should convey every confidence in the individual’s

ability to make good. Then positive results will mostly follow.

The key to handling trainee’s problem effectively lies in identifying the root cause

of the problem correctly. Strokes says that instructor must determine in each case what has

caused the problem and what kind of corrective action is needed. What is needed may be

1. More understanding.

2. More information.

3. Better training in skills.

4. A change in attitude.

5. Better habits of workmanship.

6. Fuller realization of the effects of mistakes.

7. More encouragement.

8. A penalty or punishment.

9. A transfer to work that is more suitable.

10. Dismissal.

Strokes says that there is no standard solution. The problem may have a single cause

listed here, perhaps not – or a combination of causes. Whatever it may be, the instructor

should check the understanding of the employee to determine that he -

1. Knows what he is supposed to do.

2. Knows how to do it.

3. Understands what he is responsible for.

4. Understands whom he is responsible to.

5. Understands the rules and regulations that apply to a situation.

Strokes elaborates that if the investigation reveals that the difficulty isn’t lack of

information, skill or experience, or the fact that the employee is dull or mean or

unconcerned, then the instructor may need to look beyond the job situation to determine
whether illness, fatigue, domestic problems, or something else outside the job may not be

the underlying cause of the disciplinary problem. Thus it is necessary to know a great deal

about the trainee –not only what he reveals about himself on the job but what can be learned

without prying about his or her home situation

Strokes stresses that in applying discipline, it helps to start the instructor’s

discussion of the problem by mentioning and commenting favorably on the good things

the trainee has done. Let the trainee know he or she is appreciated and that the instructor is

just as anxious to avoid the problems as the trainee. This also serves to let the employee

know that you do not think he is all bad and that you are making an effort to be helpful

rather than vindictive. (1966, p 109-110).

Furthermore, Strokes says that in attempting to correct an employee or trainee’s

behavior, the instructor should try to appeal to basic motivation:

1. Trainee’s reputation for craftsmanship;

2. His desire to have respect of fellow employees;

3. His desire for decreased responsibility;

4. His desire for increase responsibility.

Strokes says that it can help if it will make it easy for the employee to correct his

mistake of change his ways by giving him additional instructions or assigning an

experienced person to him to help him. It may also mean giving the trainee the opportunity

to check with the instructor regularly for a few days or moving the trainee to an easier
assignment until the trainee is able to overcome his problem. Strokes emphasizes that the

measure of how well the instructor handled the problem is whether or not it happened

again. There are steps an instructor can take that will help to prevent recurrence of the

problem. Stroke says that instructors must to conduct discussion of the problem in such a

way it will be easy for the trainee to come back to the instructor for further consultation. If

the instructor approached the matter with the proper attitude and have conveyed to the

trainee a genuine desire to help him, chances are that the trainee is likely feel free to come


Strokes explains that instructor or supervisor should think of corrective discussion

as teaching situation. The instructor’s or supervisor’s objective is to teach the trainee how

to avoid future mistakes by helping him to discover ways of preventing these problems, by

helping him or her to develop the ability to analyze his situation and anticipate problems

before it arise. In such situations, the instructor must not expect perfection immediately.

He must approach correction by giving the employee a series of progressively higher goals

to achieve. With this point in mind, the employee must be convinced that he can do what

is being asked of him.

Group discussions can also be held to deal with common problems. Such discussion

helps to show people that they are not alone in committing mistakes. Members of the group

can frequently give examples of how they overcame problems and be helpful in getting

others to cooperate.
Stroke says that another method of dealing with common problems is to put the

trainees in friendly competition with another group that is having similar problems. For

example, if absenteeism or tardiness is a persistent difficulty, the instructor may can

perhaps arrange to have the record of the group and record of the other group posted to see

which show the most improvement. This type of approach can promote brisk teamwork.

Stroke emphasizes that the instructor or supervisor who follows these rules for

investigating and discussing problems with the On-the-Job trainees will find that in the

majority of cases favorable result will ensue.

However, Stroke considers that there are instances in which firm action is needed.

The question of when to draw the line between correction and serious disciplinary action

is never an easy one. Thus, he gives the following guidelines in making such firm decisions:

1. Consider the seriousness of the offense;

2. Consider the frequency of the offense;

3. Consider the employee’s attitude;

4. Consider how much you know about the cause of the problem;

5. Compare the action taken to that taken with other trainees for similar offenses;

6. Consider the adequacy of warning to the employee.

Once the instructor has determined that firmness is definitely required, the approval

of the superior is required before taking action. The instructor must make sure that the

superior has been carefully advised of the situation and have given the necessary consent.
The instructor must not delay the action and must document carefully the situation and the

action taken. This information may become part of the trainee’s OJT file, since it is quite

possible that the employee may, at later date, become the responsibility of someone else.

The book entitled Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting & Orienting New Employees

by Diane Arthur is of importance in this study because it deals with the success in entry

level of the soon-to-be employee. It gives a number of steps in employment process that

may be accomplished by the employer-supervisor before sitting down with the OJT

candidate for a face-to-face interview with the instructor and the employer. Arthur explains

that the very first preparatory step to be taken is familiarization with the details of the job.

This important step will provide necessary answers to four key questions:

1. Is the employer thoroughly familiar with the qualities being sought in an applicant?

2. Are these qualities both job-related and realistic?

3. Can the employer clearly communicate duties and responsibilities of the position to

the applicants?

4. I the employer prepared to provide additional relevant information about the job and

the company to the applicants?

Moreover, Arthur gives the following recommended orientation schedule:

Day 1: A.M. –Familiarization with the office.

P.M. –Organizational Orientation, Segment 1: General Session.

Day 2: A.M. Organizational Orientation, Segment 1: General Session


P.M. – Organizational Orientation, Segment 2: Tour.

Day 3: A.M. – Organizational Orientation, Segment 2: Tour (Conclusion).

P.M. – Departmental Orientation.

Week 2 One-half day- Organizational Orientation, Segment 3: Detailed Benefits


Week 3 One-half day – Organizational Orientation, Segment 4: Detailed Policies

and Procedures Sessions.

Arthur further recommends to the readers to modify program ans schedules to suit

the needs of their particular environment.

The book by Arthur is related on how the trainee is initially deployed to work and

recommended approach of the employer or human resource manager on how to accept the

trainee in coordination with the academe. However, this book elaborates not only for the

On-the-Job trainee but for all kinds of employees in general. Thus, in the entry level of the

trainee, it must be considered that there must be responsibility on the part of the employer-

supervisor or human resource specialist to know the background of the trainees through

interviews. It is also important for the trainee to be familiarized about the nature of the OJT
he or she will undergo through orientation since the trainee will become part of the work

force of their office.

The employer must keep in mind that the OJT Program is a good manpower

utilization therefore they must take serious effort and cooperation with the academe on how

the OJT program will be successfully integrated with their company. It is important to treat

the trainees well as people also. They must see to it that the trainees are respected and their

rights provided by the Philippine Constitution and the Labor Code are upheld because not

only will the trainees benefit from them but also the employer will benefit with the training

program economically and socially. Economic wise, they are able to use the services of the

trainees and socially when they are able to impart knowledge to the trainees and attract

more customers and clients because of the OJT program.

In the book Employees are People by Harry King Tootle, morale is discussed (1947,

p 316). According to Tootle, morale in the world of production for profit is the sum total

of the atitudes of a designated group of workers engaged in a pursuit in which, in some

degree, success is measured by the amount of cooperation knowingly and willingly given.

He added that the chief concern of personnel director is to increase morale because it is

teamwork, and teamwork speeds production, lowers costs. Morale is the organization’s

engine oil, he says. And, good engine oil makes for smooth-running parts. While, poor

engine oil gums up the works. No engine oil – the engine oil ceases to run.
Tootle explains further that good morale is basically the product of spiritual process.

Like family affection it comes from intimate knowledge, thoughtfulness, sharing,

courtesies and loyalties. An organization that has good morale wears a garment of light.

Tootle says that a personnel director fosters good morale only by the exercise of

constant vigilance. He explains further that every executive, boss, and straw boss, is a direct

contact personnel director. If he shrinks his personnel responsibilities, if his vigilance

relaxes, morale suffers. Thus, efficiency drops and discontent mounts. So the personnel

director with the title has the big responsibility of watching morale as it is affected by the

attitudes of the departments and division heads, the supervisors and foremen.