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A )k + l
Pen ~ k) = J 1
Jctuation of queue length = Var(n) = A )1(/J1 _ }.)2 Jbability
that the queue is non-empty:

= 1 -1 (-~- )- ( 1- ~) ~)(

Pen > k) = fA'
~) k + l

= f~ Pr (t) set) dt

=A r
(~) L'" e-(A.+p)1 [' dt

_Ar (J1) r(r +1) - r! (A

+ J1 ),+ 1
(a) Utilization of equipment
(b) Average cost due to waiting on the part of type-

EXAMPLE 8.1 In a bank, eight customers arrive on an average every 4 minutes, while the cashier can
serve 9 customers in 4 minutes. Use Poisson distribution for arrival rate and exponential distribution
for service rate. Determine: Solution We have Service rate J 1= 9 per hour
(a) Average time a customer spends in the system (b) Arrival rate A- = 6 per hour
Average time a customer keeps waiting in line (c) (a) Utilization of equipment
Average number of customers in the system (d) Average
queue length A- 6 2
Solution Firstly find,
Arrival rate, A- = 8/4 = 2 customers/min Service (b) Average cost due to waiting on h
t e part of the typewriter per day
rate, J 1= 9/4 = 2.2 customers/min
(a) Average time a customer spends in the system: = 8 x (1 - -9)6

1 1 5' x Rs, 1.75

Ws = - - - = - -nunutes
J 1- A- 2.2 - 2 = Rs. 6.16
EXAMPLE 8.3 In a car washin s '
A- with an average time of 9 minutesg b ~stem, cars arnve a,ccording to Poissol
=--- is 1 1 3per minute. It is assumed t ~ ween two ,consecutIve arrivals. Averag
q J 1 {J 1- A-) o e exponentIally distributed. Determine'
(a) Probability that a person will have to ' .
Wq = = 4.5 minutes (b) Probability that an arrival will h wal~
2.2(2.2 - 2) system is free ave to walt for more than 10 minute
(c) The probability that he will have to wait f
syste' 'I or more than 10 minute
m IS ava, able and the service is also completed
L_ A-
Solution Now
s - (J1 -A-) ,
Arrival rate A- = 1 1 9 per minute
= 2 =10 Service rate J 1= 1 1 3per minute
(2.2 - 2) (a) Probability that a person 'II h
WI ave to wait:

A-2 A- 119
L =. . - = - =0.33 /..l
q J 1 {J 1- A-)
(b) Probability that an arrival 'II h
22 WI ave to wait more than 10 minutes
q 2.2 (2.2 - 2)
= i~ ( 1 ~)- A- e(A-Il)1 dt
EXAMPLE 8.2 A sales tax office has only one typist. Since number of pages to type is random, typing
rate is randomly distributed according to a Poisson distribution with mean service rate of 9 letters per
hour. The letters arrive at the rate of 6 per hour during the 8-hour working day. If the typewriter is
valued as Rs. 1.75 per hour, Find:
= 1/9 e{(l/9) - (1/3)} x 10 1/3
= 30

1. A T.V. repairman finds that the time spent on his jobs has afT exponential distribution with mean of 30 minutes. If he repairs sets in the order in which they came in, and if the arrival of sets is approximately
Poisson with an average rate of 10 per 8 hour per day. What is repairman's expected idle time each day? How many jobs are ahead of the average set just brought in?
[Kerala Univ., M.Sc.(Math), 2001; Madras Univ., MBA
, 2000]
6. Customers arrives at a sales counter manned by a single person according to a Poisson process at a mean rate of 20 per hour. The time required to serve a customer has an exponential distribution with a mean of 100
seconds. Find the average waiting time of a customer.
[Poona Univ., MBA, 1998]
3. A supermarket has a single cashier during the peak hours. Customers arrive at a rate of 20 per hour. The average number of customers that can be processed by the cashier is 24 per hour. Calculate:
(a) The probability that the cashier is idle
(b) The average number of customers in the queuing system (c) The average time a customer spends in the system
(d) The average number of customers in the queue
(e) The average time a customer spends in the queue waiting for service.
[CA., Nov., 1998]
4. At what average rate must a clerk serve the customers at a supermarket in order to ensure a probability of 0.90 that the customer will not have to wait longer than 12 minutes? It is assumed that there is only one
counter to which customers arrive in a Poisson fashion at an average rate of 15 per hour. The length of service by the clerk has an exponential distribution.
-~:-~-~-------- _________________________ ~C~H.~~~P~~~'E~ R~8!-: ~Q ~U'!.£~U'!!.IN ~G ~M~O ~D £l
5. A warehouse has only one 10 d' -
arrive at the loading dock at a 109 dock manned by a three person ere' rate is Poisson. Each truck 1 dan .average rate of 4 trucks per hour and t
oa s 10 every 10 m' t
cost of truck is Rs. 20 er ho IOU es on the average. The
@ Rs. 6 per hour. W oU): ou ur .and each member of the loading cre'
persons? y adVIse the truck owner to add anoth
. er crev
8.6 MODE L 2: (M/M/I):(oo/SIRO)

This model is quite similar to Model 1 Th .

Pn does not depend upon que?ue 1 . H e only dIfference is of queue rules In t~
\.. ru es. ence . t,

Remaining factors of model 2

are similar to that of model 1.

8.7 MODEL 3: (M IM I):

I (N/FCFS) In this model , the conc ept of ca acit
mor~ than N Customers can be ac~om~~:aSystem has .bee~ introduced. It is assumed res~ncts the customers to enter in the s ted. at.a?y tIme 10 system. This capacity C( theIr requested services or it arises d yst~m
IOfInItely for proper handling of custon
ue 0 some emergency situation.
APO = JiPn-IJ+(A.JiP
+ Ji) P = A.P
n +
n I
Points to remember
1. Expected number of Customers in
2. Expected queue length:.

Ls = L n
(1 _ )
P pn


EXAMPLE 8.4 Suppose a single server system with Poisson distribution and service rate is
exponential. Here arrival rate is 3 units per hour and service time is 0.25 hour and the capacity of the
system is 2 units. Determine the probability that system is empty.
Solution Here
average arrival rate A. = 3 units/hour
average service rate J 1= 4 units/hour
and N =2
A. 3
P = - = - =0.75J 14

p = (l - P)P"
" 1 _ pN + 1

p, _ (l - P)po o - 1 _

1 - 0.75
Po= ---- 1-
Po = 0.431

1. If for a period of 2 hours in the day (8 to 10 a.m.), trains arrive at the yard every 20 minutes
but the service time continues to remain 36 minutes, calculate for this period:
(a) the probability that the yard is empty.
(b) average number of trains in the system; on the assumption that the line capacity of the yard is limited to 4 trains only.

WaIting line '\

an arriving unit will have to wait
jn{onnation will be better equipped to make
with service costs.
lytiCal and simulation models of waiting lines
waiting line problems. As an illustration of
_consider the problem Schips, Inc. is presently 's
Western Hills store.
that has six branch stores located throughout
• which was built some years ago, has
recently receiving and shipping department because
of volume. Unfortunately, the store's truck dock at a
time, and the branch's increased business dock area.
At times the branch manager has waiting to be
loaded or unloaded. As a result,
alternatives for improving the operation of waiting
CIllIISidering is to speed up the loading/unloading
at the truck dock. As another alternative, the
truck dock so that two trucks could be loaded

order to improve the operation of the truck dock?

before a course of action can be taken. While the
the truck waiting times, they may also increase Ibe
manager will want to know how each alternative the
cost of operating the dock before making a line model
of the truck dock operation can assist
operation is an example of a single-channel waiting
eatering the system must pass through one channel-
l1cte the loading and/or unloading process. The lor the
truck dock to become available. A diagram
line is shOwn in Figure 13.1 ")
lIIodel for the truck dock operation, we will need ics
of the system: (I) the arrival distribution for ion for
the truck loading and unloading operation; 'lpline for
the trucks.
of Truck Arrivals in an Hour is 3

3 4 5 6
T lU < :kAs ..
mvmg in I-Hour Perio.d

= 3e 3 = 3(0.0498) =

J ge-3 _

9(0.0498)= 02241

lr U C karriving in a I-hour
period is 0.0498, the 10 a I-
hour period is 0.1494, and
the probability -bour period
is 0.2241. Continuing the
probability provide
additional probability
information ab.<>ut I-hour
period. Figure 13.2 shows a
graphIcal for Schips trucks
based on the assumption of

use the Poisson

distribution to describe the
truck assumption of a
Poisson arrival
distribution will line
problem. In practice you
would want to time period
for several days or weeks
and compare number of
arrivals to the Poisson
distribution JOOd
approximation of the
arrival distribution for

A service time probability distribution is needed to describe how long it takes to load or unload
(that is, service) a truck once the loading or unloading operation begins. Since the trucks cim-y
different quantities of different items, the loading and unloading service times will vary from truck
to truck. Management scientists have found that the exponential probability distribution often
provides a good description of a service time distribution.

The Mean Number With an exponential service time distribution, the probability of a service being
completed within a specific period of time, t, is
given by
P(service time:5 t) = I -
e-Il.t (13 .3)