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BASICS OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS

CELLS, MODULES, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS

S. K. SANGAL
12 Oct. 2018
Topics Covered
• Fundamentals and Working Principle of Solar Photovoltaics.

• Types of PV systems,
 Classification of PV Systems.

• Major components of a typical SPV System.

• Overview of:
 Solar PV Applications.
 Roof-Top & Ground-Mounted Solar Sector in India.
Solar Energy

Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic


Utilizes thermal component of Converts solar radiation to electricity
sunlight (i.e. heat)

Example:
For water heating,
cooking, drying, etc.

Off-Grid Grid Connected


ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR PV TECHNOLOGY

• SOLAR PV TECHNOLOGY DIRECTLY CONVERTS


SUNLIGHT INTO ELECTRICITY

• NO NEED FOR TRANSMISSION LINES


- GENERATE ELECTRICITY AT THE POINT OF USE

• NO MOVING PARTS
- MINIMAL MAINTENANCE

• NO FUEL COST
- FREE SUNLIGHT AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE

• MODULER & RELIABLE

• ECO FRIENDLY
Solar PV Power Generator

A.C.
Inverter Loads

M.P.P.T.
& D.C.
Solar
Charge Loads
PV Array
Controller

Battery
Basics of Solar Radiation
Irradiance
• The amount of solar power available per unit area is
knows as Irradiance.
• Unit is – kW/sqm or watts/sqm or mW/sqcm.
• Measuring Device – Pyranometer.
• Peak Value – 1kW/sqm.

• Irradiation fluctuates according to the Sun’s location


in the sky.

• The power produced by solar cells is proportional


to the intensity of global radiation.
Tilt Angle
• It is the angle, between array and horizontal surface, which
gives maximum solar irradiation
• Solar panels should always face true south in the northern
hemisphere, or true north in the southern hemisphere
Standard Test Conditions

Standard Test Conditions are defined as:

• The solar irradiation of one kilowatt (kW) per


square metre,

• Module Temperature of 25 degrees Celsius


and
Solar Insolation
• Solar Insolation is ‘Incident Solar Radiation’.
It is the incident radiant energy per unit area per day.
Unit : kWh/m2 /day

• Average daily solar radiation data for each of the 12 Months:


– Provide average long-term average daily solar radiation data
– Data is useful in predicting long-term performance and in
analysing the economics of solar energy system

• Peak Sun Hours:


– The number of peak sun hours per day at a given location is the
equivalent time at peak sun condition that yields the same total
insolation
Peak Sun Hours

This data is essential for photovoltaic system design


Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) TECHNOLOGY

• Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells, convert sunlight


directly into electricity.

• PV gets its name from the process of converting light


(photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect.

• Edmond Becquerel is credited with the discovery of


the PV effect, in 1839.

• In1954, Scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon


created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight.
Types of Solar Photovoltaic Technology

• First -generation (or Traditional) solar cells are made from crystalline
Silicon:
 Are usually flat-plate, and
 Generally are the most efficient.

• Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV)


 Some solar cells use plastic lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto
a very small piece of high efficiency PV material.
 However, because the lenses must be pointed at the sun, the use of
concentrating collectors is limited.
Types of Solar Photovoltaic Technology (contd.)
• Second-generation Solar Cells are called Thin-film solar cells:
 Since they are made from amorphous silicon or non-silicon materials:
- Amorphous Silicon,
- Cd Te (Cadmium Telluride).
- C.I.G.S. (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide)
 Thin film solar cells use layers of semiconductor materials only a few
micrometers thick.

• Third-generation Solar Cells are being made from a variety of


new materials besides silicon,
 including solar inks using conventional printing press technologies, solar
dyes, and conductive plastics.
- Dye Sensitized and Polymer solar Cells
Solar Photovoltaic Technology (Contd.)

• Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology directly converts


sunlight into electricity through Solar Cells.

• A number of solar cells are joined in series /parallel


combination to make a PV Module.

• Solar PV modules connected in series/parallel make a


PV Panel.

Solar PV Panel connected in series/parallel make a PV


Array .
Solar PV Value chain
Working of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Characteristics

No power is delivered when the circuit is open (a) or shorted (b). When the load is connected (c), the
same current flows through the load and module and the same voltage appears across them.
Effect of irradiance
Module I-V characteristics
The performance of a solar module is best indicated by its current-voltage (I-V)
characteristics.
Rated Under Standard Test Condition (STC)
The performance of a solar module is best indicated by its current-voltage (I-V)
characteristics.
he
Module Power characteristics
The power generated by a solar cell will reach a maximum when the internal
resistance of the cell is equal to the resistance of the load and is known as the
maximum power point (MPP) or PMAX
The performance of a solar module is best indicated by its current-voltage (I-V)
characteristics.
he
Effect of Solar Radiation

Power output increases as insolation increases;


Current increases proportionately;
Voltage increase is little
Effect of Temperature

Cell
Operating
Temperature

As cell operating temperature increases Open


Circuit Voltage decreases and short circuit current
increases marginally
Effect of
Temperature

• Increases in temperature reduce the band gap of a semiconductor


• Lower energy is therefore needed to break the bond
• open-circuit voltage decreases with temperature
• For Si, Temperature coefficient of Voc= -2.3 mV/°C /Cell
• Short-circuit current increases slightly with temperature
• Temperature coefficient of Isc = +6 μA /°C/cm2 of Cell
• Net reduction in Power output due to increase in temperature
Effect of temperature

Technology Power temperature Technology Power temperature


coefficient /deg C coefficient /deg C

Mono -crystalline silicon -0.485% CdTe / CdS -0.25%


Multi -crystalline silicon -0.46% HIT -0.35%
Amorphous silicon -0.3% CIGS -0.36 %
CIS -0.31% Micro-morph -0.3%
Series Connection of Solar Cells
• Achieved by connecting the positive at the front of one
cell with the negative at the back of the second cell
• Voltage of solar cells adds together when these are in
series
• When we connect two solar cells with different
currents in series the current in the series circuit
corresponds to that of the weakest solar cell;
• the same effect occurs when a solar cell is partially or
completely covered due to shadow of a tree or a fallen
leaf etc.
• Same effect occurs if there is a break in the module or
a solar cell
Parallel Connection of Solar Cells

• Achieved by connecting all positives and all


negatives together.
• Current through individual cells is added
together.
• In practice, a module has all solar cells in
series and modules are connected in parallel
Interconnection of solar cells in a PV module

Series connection:
adds voltage

Parallel connection:
adds current Cell interconnection

Series – parallel
connection: adds both
current and voltage
Solar Photovoltaic Module
• To achieve required voltage Solar Cells are
connected with each other in series.
• When current higher than what one solar cell is
required, cells are connected in parallel.
• Such a unit of solar cells
combined together is known
as PV Module.

• PV Modules are basic building blocks of a Solar PV Generator


PV Module Structure
Module specs
Module specs contd…..
PV module Data Sheet provides following information:
• I-V characteristics under STC and NOCT
• Pmax, Vmp, Imp, Voc, Isc, FF, Rs, Rsh
• Temperature coefficient of module Power, Voc and Isc
• Low illumination (>=20%) behaviour of Isc and Voc
• NOCT : 45 Deg C
• Typical system voltage: 12 V/ ….. / 800/ 1000 / 1500 V
• Module operating Temperature range: -45 to 85 Deg C
• Mechanical Description of the Module
• Reliability and safety standards
• Recycling procedures
• Warranty Details
• Key features and details about the company
Basics of PV SYSTEMS
Classification of Solar PV Systems
• Solar PV systems are classified according to:
 Functional and operational requirements,
 Connection to other power sources.

• Two principal classifications are :


 Stand-Alone or Off-Grid PV systems
 Grid-Connected or Grid Tied or Grid Export
PV systems

• PV-Hybrid systems :
 The system may use D.G. set or Grid, as an auxiliary power source in
addition to Solar PV.
Off-Grid /Stand-Alone PV Systems
• Designed to operate in stand Alone mode, i.e.
independent of the ‘Electric Grid’.
• Generally have Battery Storage:
 Supply power to desired DC and/or AC
electrical loads.

• In Direct-coupled system: ‘No Battery Storage’.


 Output of the PV array is directly connected to load
(e.g. Solar Pumps).
A Typical Off-grid D.C. PV system
Major Components of Stand Alone PV Systems
• Solar PV Module/ Panel/ Array :
 Converts sunlight into electricity.
• Battery:
 Stores Energy.
• MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker):
 For extracting maximum power from PV panel.
• Charge Controller:
 Regulates the voltage and current from PV panel to battery.
 Prevents battery over charge/ deep discharge .
• Inverter:
 Converts DC into AC for AC appliances.
• Load :
 Electrical appliances connected to Solar PV system
Battery Basics
Battery Terminology :
 Battery
 A device that stores electrical energy in the form of chemical energy. The
rechargeable battery can convert it back to electrical energy and vice-
versa.
 Batteries have three parts, an anode (-), a cathode (+), and the electrolyte.
 Capacity
 Amount of electrical energy the battery stores (in AH )
 State of Charge (SOC)
 Energy available in battery (in %)
 Depth of Discharge (DOD)
 Energy drawn out of the battery (in %)
 Efficiency
 Energy out/Energy in (typically 80-85%)
Battery Capacity

Capacity:

 Amps x Hours = Amp-hours (Ah)


100 amps for 1 hour
100 Amp-hours = 1 amp for 100 hours
10 amps for 10 hours

 Capacity changes with Discharge Rate


 The higher the discharge rate the lower the capacity and vice versa
 The higher the temperature the higher the percent of rated capacity (below 30
Deg C)
SOLAR PV- Off Grid : Indian Perspective

• India is a power deficit country


• The supply of electricity does not match up with
demand, though the grid extension is rising rapidly
• In many rural areas either power supply is not
available or erratic
• Many remote areas are with thin population density
where grid extension is not economically viable
• Solar Off -grid systems are the best option for their
electricity need
SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS
(Broad Classification)

• Rural

• Urban

• Consumer

• Strategic

• Commercial

• Decentralized Power Generation

• Large Scale Centralized Power Generation


SOLAR STUDY LAMPS
SOLAR LANTERNS
SOLAR HOME LIGHTING
SOLAR STREET LIGHTING
WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS
POWER PACKS / HOME SYSTEMS
VACCINE REFRIGERATION
COLD ROOMS / STORAGES
VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION MICRO /
MINI GRID
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SOLAR STUDY LAMP
• A lighting device consisting of a PV module, battery, lamp, and
electronics.
• Battery, lamp, and electronics are placed in a suitable housing.
• Especially suitable for study purposes.
• Lamp look is similar to table lamp, lamp base connected to LED
with gooseneck type of arran
Models of Solar Study Lamps:
• Model I
- Designed to provide 4-5 hours of study light every day
• Model II
-The Solar lamp is designed to provide 4-5 hours of study light every day
-An additional provision for Mobile Phone Charging in emergency to
charge Mobile phone battery up to 1000mAH capacity
SOLAR LANTERN
• Comprises SPV module, Battery and a lantern
• 4 hrs./ day Average duty cycle
• Facility for Mobile Phones Charging
• Many Models available
• Light Source :2-4 watts White LED
•Warrantee:
2 years for Models with SMF Battery
5 years with Lithium-Ferro Phosphate Battery
Solar Home Lighting System
Solar Home Lighting system
• 6-40 Wp PV Module, Lead Acid battery
• Provides a comfortable level of illumination in house.
• Several SHS models featuring one, two, or four Lamps
based on W-LED
• A small DC fan or a 12-V DC television could also be used
along with Lamps
• 5 hrs./ day Average duty cycle
• Facility for Mobile Phones Charging
• 3 days Autonomy
• Minimum Five Years Warrantee
• An outdoor lighting unit used for illuminating a street.
• Consists of PV module, a luminaire, storage battery &
control
• Luminaire is based on W-LED

Many Models:
• With Lead Acid Battery.
 The Street light operates from dusk to dawn at full Brightness.
 First Four hours at full Brightness And then, rest of the time at lower
light level, with motion sensor.
• With Lithium Ferro phosphate Battery.
 The Street light operates from dusk to dawn at full Brightness.
 First Four hours at full Brightness And then, rest of the time at lower
light level, with motion sensor.
Solar Power for Hospitals

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Solar System for Public Clinics

• DC operated refrigerator for storing lifesaving drugs and vaccines.

• 5 lamps placed at suitable locations in the health center, to operate for 5-


6 hours per day.

• Specifications of the Solar System for Health Centre :

a. Nominal PV array capacity 225 Wp

b. Battery Bank Capacity 12 V, 200 AH

c. Charge controller 12V, 30 A

d. Refrigerator 12V DC

e. Luminaries 12V, 7 W, W-LED

(4 Nos.)
• /-
Solar System for Public Health Centres

• DC operated refrigerator for storing lifesaving drugs and vaccines.

• 10 Luminaires placed at suitable locations in the health center, to operate for 12

hours per day.

• Specifications of the Solar System for Health Centre :

a. Nominal PV array capacity 500 Wp

b. Battery Bank Capacity 12 V, 300 AH

c. Charge controller 12V, 50 A

d. Refrigerator 12V DC

e. Luminaries 12V, 7 W, W-LED (10 Nos.)


Solar System for Small Hospitals
To meet the basic power requirements like

- lighting and

- operating the critical equipment .

Specifications of the Solar System for Health Centre :

• SPV Array: 2.0 KWp


• Battery Bank: 48 V, 300AH
• Inverter: 48V, 3 KVA ( sine wave)
• Charge Controller 48V, 50Amp.
• D. C. Refrigerator 225 litres
Solar Powered Micro Cold Storage
Compressor Operation Battery-Less for better efficiency
Temperature Temperature Range: 2-10 ⁰C
Model 1 (1.8 TR) :
Room Size > 15.3 m3
Pre-cooling: 450 kg
Solar panel :4500 Wp
Battery-less Backup ~30 hrs
Model 2 (2.4 TR) :
Room Size > 20.4 m3
Pre-cooling: 600 kg
Solar panel :6000 Wp
Battery-less Backup ~30 hrs

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PARKING/PUBLIC AREA LIGHTS

• COMMON AREA PARKING LIGHTS MAY BE SOLAR


POWERED

- SPACE FOR INSTALLATION OF SOLAR PANELS


IS EASILY AVAILABLE

• DMRC HAS TAKEN THE INITIATIVE AND HAS GOT


TWO OF ITS PARKING LOTS ALREADY SOLAR
POWERED

- MORE PARKING LOTS SHALL BE SOON ON SOLAR

• MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS TAKING LEAD


- PUBLIC CONVENIENCE BEING SOLAR POWERED
PARKING/PUBLIC AREA LIGHTS
PARKING/PUBLIC AREA LIGHTS
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

CENTRALISED POWER PLANTS


CENTRALISED POWER PLANTS

200 KWp Roof-MountedSPV POWER PLANT

IN Village Pataudi (Haryana) 60 Kms from Delhi


For Brhamma Kumaris Education Society

Caters to the Electricity Requirement of


OM SHANTI RETREAT CENTRE
Solar Power for
Village Electrification

68
55 kW PV POWER PLANT AT MAUSHUNI ISLAND
Solar Mini Grid System
• To provide power in remote un-electrified areas for
lighting and other small household appliances.
• Typically a Mini Grid System Provides electricity to 50 to
500 households.
 Solar System is installed centrally at some convenient
place in the village and
 A distribution line is run through the village to each
household.
• Each household would be provided the following loads:
i. 4 nos. of Light Points, each 10 watts for 5 hrs. / day
ii. Power for one Colour TV
(or any other load of 100 watts for 5-6 hrs. / day)
iii. Power for Mobile charger, Radio etc.
100 kW PV POWER PLANT AT KILTAN ISLAND, LAKSHADWEEP
Solar Power Solution for Telecom Towers
• More than 3 lakh B.T.S. (Base Trans-receiver station) towers
have been set up in India
- Diesel Gen Sets are deployed at almost all the stations
due to unreliable grid or no grid supply
- Solar power solutions have been found technically
feasible

• On an average 10 kWp PV system can be connected to 3 BTS


outdoor towers to meet up to 6-8 hours requirement every
day.

• Already tried out at a number of locations by major service


providers and tower companies
MICROWAVE REPEATER STATION AT SAWAIMADHOPUR
SPV POWER PACK FOR TELECOM EQUIPMENTS

 1 KWp SPV POWER PACK CAN RUN A SMALL RAX


- e.g. A 32 LINES SMALL RURAL EXCHANGE, WHICH
CONSUMES AROUND 2 AMP FOR 24 HOURS DUTY CYCLE

 WITH ADDITIONAL SPV CAPACITY, CAN SUPPORT


A COUPLE OF LIGHTS AND OTHER RELATED
EQUIPMENT
50 KWP SPV POWER PLANT & 100 STREET LIGHTS IN RASHTRAPATI BHAWAN
Solar PV Water Pumping Systems

• One of the largest Off-Grid Solar PV application


• Total Installed Capacity More than One Lakh Solar Pumps
• One million pumps planned in next 5 years.
Targeted Applications
Irrigation Drinking Water

Fisheries Salt Pan operation

Others
Components of Solar PV Pumping System

• A Solar PV Pumping System consist of:


 Solar Panel
 The Controller (MPPT) and an Inverter in
case of A. C. Motor-pump set
 Motor- Pump set
 Sun Tracker
• The size of the Water Pumping System is
directly dependent on the total Head at site
and the amount of water required per day
Mounting Structures
• PV arrays must be mounted on a stable, durable structure
that can support the array and withstand wind, rain, hail,
and corrosion.
• These structures are inclined at an angle equal to the local
latitude.
• For PV arrays mounted on the ground, tracking mechanisms
automatically move panels to follow the sun across the sky,
which provides more energy and higher returns on
investment.
• One-axis trackers are typically designed to track the sun
from east to west.
• Two-axis trackers allow for modules to remain pointed
directly at the sun throughout the day.
• tracking involves more up-front costs and sophisticated
systems and require more maintenance.
• As systems have improved, the cost-benefit analysis
increasingly favors tracking for ground-mounted systems.
Tracking System
• Most of the Solar PV Systems are with Fixed Tilt.

• Single Axis Tracking:


Daily Tracking (East to West)
Seasonal Tracking (North-South)

• Two axes tracking:


 Allows PV Array to continuously face the SUN and
produce more energy output.
 With tracking , INSOLATION increases by almost 20-40 %
depending on location and type of tracking used
• .
Performance Specifications and Requirements
• Performance Specifications :
- Under the “Average Daily Solar Radiation” condition of 7.15 KWh / sq.m.
on the surface of PV array (i.e. coplanar with the PV Panel),
- the minimum water output from a Solar PV Water Pumping System at
different “Total Dynamic Heads” should be as specified .
• Requirement for D.C. Motor Pump Set
- 100 liters of water per watt peak of PV array, from a Total Head of 10 m
• Requirement for A.C. Motor Pump Set:
- 90 liters of water per watt peak of PV array, from a Total Head of 10 m
• For Example:
For a 1 HP D.C. Solar Pump (with 900 Wp Panel), 90,000 litres per day from a
total head of 10 mtrs
For a 1 HP A.C. Solar Pump (with 900 Wp Panel), 81,000 litres per day from a
total head of 10 mtrs
INDICATIVE SPECIFICATIONS
With A.C. Induction Motor Pump Set & Inverter

Description Model-I Model-II Model-III Model-IV Model- V Model- VI


PV array 900 Wp 1800 Wp 2700 Wp 2700 Wp 4800 Wp 4800 Wp
Motor 1 hp 2 hp 3 hp 3 hp 5 hp 5 hp
capacity
Shut Off 12 12 metres 12metres 25 metres 12 metres 25 metres
Dynamic metres
Head
Water 81,000 162,000 243,000 121,500 432,000 216,000
output litres per litres per litres per litres per litres per litres per
day from day from a day from a day from a day from day from
a total total head total head total head a total a total
head of of 10 of 10 of 20 head of head of
10 mtrs metres metres metres 10 metres 20 metres
Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Systems
• Electricity generating Solar PV Power System is
connected to the Utility Grid.
• A Grid-Connected Solar PV System consists of :
 Solar PV Array,
 Power conditioning unit (P.C.U.)
(Includs MPPT & Inverter)
 Grid connection Switchgear.
• NO Battery
• PV System exports power to the Utility Grid.
Grid Connected PV Power Plants

33 KV
11 KV FEEDER
GRID

Solar
Array POWER CONDITIONING UNIT LOCAL GRID
Grid Connected PV Power Plants
Grid Connected (OR GRID TIED) Systems

• Designed to operate in parallel and interconnected


(OR GRID TIED) with the ‘Electric Grid’.

• The primary component is the “Power Conditioning


Unit” (PCU).
 PCU converts the DC power produced by the PV array
into AC power:
- Compatible with the voltage and power quality
requirements of the ‘Grid’, and
- Exports power to the Grid.
 Automatically stops supplying power to the Grid when
the electric Grid fails.
Typical grid tied PV System
Typical BOS Components
Typical BOS Components Contd..
Components of a Grid Tied Solar PV System

1. PV modules- The Generator


Convert solar radiation into electricity
2. Combiner box
In large scale installations, multiple strings of modules are connected through
combiner box, providing surge protection, current and voltage protection and
monitoring
3. DC switch
Allows for separation between the solar generator and balance of system
components for maintenance or repair work
4. Inverter
Used to convert the DC electricity generated by the PV modules to AC electricity
used by most appliances
5. Transformer
Used to step up the voltage to the high voltage required by the grid
6. AC Switch
Required to separate the grid from PV system during faults or maintenance
Details of Components

Power Conditioning Unit (P.C.U):


• Changes the DC voltage from PV Array to AC voltage.
• Monitors grid voltage, waveform, and frequency.
• Synchronizes it with the grid waveform, and
export electricity to grid.
• If the grid fails, it trips and does not export any solar
electricity.
 As soon as Grid is restored, it again synchronizes
with the grid and starts exporting the power.
Details of Components
PCU (Contd.)
• Protections:
- Mains Under / Over Voltage
- Over current
- Over/Under Grid frequency
- Over temperature
- Short circuit
- Lightening
- Surge voltage induced at output due to
external source
- Anti Islanding
Detailes of Components (Contd.)
• Modules of the panel should be mounted on a structure
and connected together in series in the daisy chain manner.
• The two ends of the modules series should be brought to
the panel junction box (PJB) mounted on the panel
structure.
• Series blocking diodes should be located in the panel
junction box and the panel output should be taken to field
junction box (FJB) where outputs of all the panels should be
brought for paralleling.
• In the control room a DC Distribution board (DCDB) should
be provided where the cables coming from the FJB should
be terminated and taken to the PCU.
• The Batteries, PCU, DCDB and ACDB etc. should be placed
inside a weather-proof location.
PROTECTIONS
• LIGHTNING PROTECTION:
 The entire space shall be suitably protected
against Lightning:
- by deploying Lightning Arrestors.
 Lightning protection as per IEC 62305 Standard.
• SURGE PROTECTION
shall consist of three MOV type surge-arrestors
connected from +ve and –ve terminals to earth.
• EARTHING PROTECTION
Each array structure of the PV yard should be
grounded/ earthed properly as per IS:3043-1987
GRID ISLANDING
• In the event of a power failure on the electric grid:

 Any independent power-producing inverters attached


to the grid should turn off in a short period of time.
 This prevents the P.C.U. against continuing to feed
power into the grid, known as “ISLANDS.”
- Powered islands present a risk to workers who
may expect the area to be unpowered, and
- It would also damage P.C.U.
• The Rooftop PV system should also be equipped with
islanding protection.
Grid-Connected Solar Rooftop systems
Concept…

• These are installed on rooftops of residential,


commercial or industrial premises.
• Electricity generated is Used for self
consumption with net-metering:
 If PV generation is less than consumption,
electricity is drawn from Grid as needed.
 If PV generation exceeds consumption,
the excess power is exported to Grid.
• Consumer pays only for the ‘Net Energy’ drawn
from the Grid.
Grid-Connected Solar Rooftop systems
(contd.)

• Savings in transmission and distribution losses.


• No requirement of additional land.
• Improvement of tail-end Grid voltage.
• Reduction in system congestion with higher self-
consumption of solar electricity
• The Net Metering mechanism allows the
consumer to reduce its electricity import from
Grid.
• The utility benefits by avoiding purchase of
electricity from short term market.
GRID CONNECTED ROOFTOP
SOLAR POWER PLANTS

DESIGN, SUPPLY, INSTALLATION, TESTING


AND COMMISSIONING
INCLUDING
WARRANTY, SPARE PARTS
AND OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
(TURNKEY PROJECTS/ WORKS)
Grid-Connected Solar Rooftop systems
(contd.)

LINK for Model Tender


• http://mnre.gov.in/schemes/decentralized-
systems/solar-rooftop-grid-connected/

 Tender/Model MoU, PPA and Capex


Agreement
- Model Tender Document for Grid connected
Rooftop Solar PV (Posted on 21.10.2015)
“ Capacity Utilization Factor”
(CUF)
• CUF is Ratio of :
 The actual output from a solar plant over
the year (in KWh) and
 The maximum possible output from it for a
year (KWh) under ideal conditions.
• Actual Plant Output in KWh over the year /
(24*365*Installed Plant Capacity in KWp))
“Performance Ratio” (PR)

• Ratio of plant output versus installed plant capacity


at any instance with respect to the radiation
measured.
• PR =
[{(Measured output in kW)/(Installed Plant capacity in kWp)}

x
{(1000 W/m2) / (Measured radiation intensity in W/m2)}]
Grid Parity
• Grid parity:
- occurs when Solar Energy can generate power at
a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less
than or equal to the price of purchasing power
from the electricity grid.

• The Levelized Cost Of Electricity (LCOE):


- is the net present value of the unit-cost of
electricity over the lifetime of a generating asset.
Trends of Indian Solar Power Tariff, 2011-2017

Lowest solar power tariffs received in India in nominal terms is Rs. 2.44/ KWh in 2017.
[Bid received during the online bidding for a 750 MW solar power park Bhadla near Jodhpur.]
Off-grid Vs. Grid-connected systems
OFF - GRID GRID - CONNECTED
Not connected to utility grid Generally connected to utility grid

Generally Provided with storage Generally not provided with storage


options for backup options

Used for extending electricity to rural Used to augment power at the grid
remote areas where grid extension is level to support peak shaving or
not economically justified either due voltage support
to inhospitable terrain or low density
of load

Generally in W or kW range Generally in kW or MW range


Standards for Solar PV Modules
• The Solar PV modules must conform to the latest edition of any
of the following BIS / equivalent IEC Standards for PV module
design qualification and type approval:
 Crystalline Silicon Terrestrial PV Modules : IS14286/ IEC 61215

 Thin Film Terrestrial PV Modules :IS 16077 / IEC 61646


(a-Si, CiGS and CdTe)

• In addition, the modules must conform to IS /IEC 61730


Part1- requirements for construction &
Part 2 - requirements for testing, for safety qualification

• Solar PV modules to be used in a highly corrosive atmosphere


(coastal areas etc.) must qualify Salt Mist Corrosion Testing as
per IS 61701/ IEC 61701 .
S. N. Product Indian Standard Title of Indian Standard
(1) (2) Number (3) (4)
1. Crystalline Silicon Terrestrial IS 14286 Crystalline Silicon Terrestrial Photovoltaic (PV)
Photovoltaic (PV) modules modules - Design Qualification And Type
(Si wafer based) Approval
2. Thin-Film Terrestrial IS 16077 Thin-Film Terrestrial Photovoltaic (PV) Modules -
Photovoltaic (PV) Modules Design Qualification and Type Approval
(a-Si, CiGs and CdTe)
3. PV Module IS/IEC 61730 Photovoltaic (PV) Module Safety Qualification
( Si wafer and Thin film) (Part 1) Part 1 Requirements for Construction
IS/IEC 61730 Photovoltaic (PV) Module Safety Qualification
(Part 2) Part 2 Requirements for Testing
4. Power converters for use in IS 16221 Safety of Power Converters for use in
photovoltaic power system (Part 1) Photovoltaic Power Systems Part 1- General
IS 16221 Requirements
(Part 2) Safety of Power Converters for Use in
Photovoltaic Power Systems Part 2-Particular
Requirements for Inverters
5. Utility –Interconnected IS 16169 Test Procedure of Islanding Prevention Measures
Photovoltaic inverters for Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters
Storage battery IS 16270 Secondary Cells and Batteries for Solar
6. Photovoltaic Application General-Requirements
and Methods of Test
QUALITY AND WARRANTY
• All components and sub systems of the Plant should conform to
“MINIMAL TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS / STANDARDS” specified by MNRE

• The PV modules to be warranted for a minimum period of 25 years from


the date of supply. (output wattage should not be less than 90% at the end
of 10 years and 80% at the end of 25 years).

• The mechanical structures, electrical works including Inverters/Charge


Controllers, Battery, Distribution Board/ Meters and overall workmanship
of the Solar System must be warranted for a minimum of 5 years.

• Necessary maintenance spares for five years trouble free operation should
be supplied with the system.

• It is mandatory for the contractor to open an authorized service center in


the concerned district before the supply/installation of the system.
1.0 MW Rooftop plant at Punjab Engineering College,
Chandigarh
Largest rooftop plant in the world on single roof* (12.4
MWp)
• 12.4 MWp rooftop
plant installed in a
single roof.

• Another 7.1 MWp on


seven different roofs
in the campus.

• Cumulative 19.5
MWp rooftop systems
in the campus of Dera
Beas, Amritsar in
Punjab.
Floating Solar panels

112
5MWp Solar PV Plant at Khimsar(Rajasthan)
150 MW in Neemuch, MP

Workshop on the India Energy Outlook • MNRE 13 April, 2015


26
Gujarat Solar Park- Charanka

Workshop on the India Energy Outlook • MNRE 13 April, 2015


25
SOLAR AERORPLANE
- Solar Impulse 2

116
Thank You