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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1238-1244. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_126 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3 ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

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0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON WORK

Scopus Indexed

THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON WORK EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CORPS SUPPLY OFFICER AT TNI AL MABES, JAKARTA

Hery Setiyo Nugroho * Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta, DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia

Wibowo Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta, DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia

Muchlis R Luddin Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta, DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia *corresponding author

ABSTRACT This quantitative research examined the influence of leadership on work effectiveness of Corps Supply Officers. The sample in this study was all financial officers in Navy Secretariat Headquarters Jakarta by the financial specialization of the rank of Flag Officer and the rank of Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, Captain and Middle- ranked Officers with the rank of Major and Lieutenant Colonel at the Navy Headquarters which numbered 120 people. The results of the study indicate that leadership has a direct influence on the effectiveness of the Supply Corps Officer.

Keyword head: Leadership; Work Effectiveness; Supply Corps Officer

Cite this Article Hery Setiyo Nugroho, Wibowo and Muchlis R Luddin, the Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes, Jakarta, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp. 1238-1244.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION

In this study, the author focused on the discussion of the Corps Supply Officer specializing in Finance at financial institutions of the Indonesian Navy Headquarters. Based on that, the government has carried out reforms quickly and sustainably including bureaucratic reform

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The Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes, Jakarta

carried out on all fronts, in order to realize good governance in the administration of the state. Potential problems that can be occured are not all Kasatker understand the system of administration and management of state finances and all its consequences, so that they do not understand the importance of transparency of the independence of treasurers, in this case the Finance Officer in realizing financial management in a professional, transparent and accountable organization. Facing these challenges, officers in charge of the financial sector are required not only to work professionally in their fields but also to be able to work intelligently to anticipate and solve problems that arise as a consequence of carrying out tasks in their fields. Based on the description, it can be seen that the work effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer with financial specialization is influenced not only by intellectual intelligence, but also requires mastery of social skills well which includes leadership, level of trust and interpersonal communication.

2. METHOD

This study used a quantitative approach, survey methods with path analysis techniques consist of exogenous and endogenous variables. Exogenous variables are leadership and trust, while endogenous variables are interpersonal communication and work effectiveness. The population in this study were all financial officers in Navy Headquarters Jakarta. The sample in the study is a portion of the population. The sampling technique used is Random Sampling, which is a simple random sampling method. Affordable target populations are all supply specialists with financial specialization with the rank of First Officer with the rank of Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant and Middle Officers with the rank of Major and Lieutenant Colonel at the Navy Headquarters which numbered 120 people. Calculate the number of samples using the Slovin formula, as follows:

n =

N

Nd 2 + 1

Description:

n

= Number of Samples

 

N

= Total Population

D

= Prescribed Precision[1]

 

n

= 120

 
 

(120 x 0.05% 2 ) + 1

 
 

= 120

 
 

1,0003

n

= 119.996 or 120 (rounded off)

It is obtained the sample number = 120 people, while for the trial of the instrument as many as 30 people. Data collection techniques are carried out using a research instrument in the form of a questionnaire. The instrument was tested before being used in research. The testing of these instruments includes validity tests and reliability tests. From the results of the test, there were items that were valid and invalid. Invalid instrument was removed. The method used in this research is quantitative research with correlational analysis. Correlational study aims to determine the correlation between variables. The correlation between two or more variables is determined by using the regression equation to make predictions on the population. The total population used in this study is 120 people. The

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research variables include two variables: Variable X is Leadership and variable Y is Work Effectiveness, with hypothesis as follows:

H

1

:

Leadership has significant influence on Work Effectiveness

H

0

:

Leadership does not have a significant influence on Work Effectiveness

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Based on the results of this study, it is known that there is a positive direct influence of leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y), which can be seen from the results of the py 1 path coefficient greater than 0.05, which means that the correlation value r 1 y of 0.416 occurs due to indirect effects other variables. The direct effect / influence of leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y) is 0.281 while indirectly through trust (X 2 ) is 0.057 through interpersonal communication (X 3 ) of 0.064 so the effect of total leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y) is 0.403. The results of the hypothesis analysis showed that the leadership has a direct positive effect on work effectiveness. Increasing the leadership will lead work effectiveness. The results of this study are in line with the opinions of some experts including Steven L. MCShane said “Leadership is about influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute that the effectivenes and success of the organizations of which they are members”[2]. (Leadership is influencing, motivating, and allowing others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of their organization within members). Different from Locke: At the individual level of analysis, empowerment is ultimately experienced when followers engage in effective self - leadership, where self - leadership is defined as “a process through which people influence themselves to achieve the self - direction and self - motivation needed to perform”[3]. This study supports the hypothesis that leadership has a positive direct effect on effectiveness (effective). Supportive leadership that provides support and gives them the freedom to take policies will increase work effectiveness. This research is also in line with the theory put forward by Blase and Blase that:

As for modeling, Blase and Blase found that, according to teachers effective principals demonstrated teaching techniques in classrooms and during conferences; they also modeled positive interactions with students. These forms of modeling were viewed as impressive examples of instructional leadership that primarily yielded positive effects on teacher motivation as well as on reflective behavior. This research also demonstrated how praise significantly affected teacher motivation, self-esteem, efficacy, and fostered, “teacher reflective behavior, including reinforcement of efektifitas mengajar( effective teaching) strategies, risk taking, and innovation/creativity[4]. As described above, the main problem in leadership is how to make or influence people who are led to want to consciously carry out their duties well in order to achieve the stated goals. Leadership has often an impact in determining organizational goals for achieving goals, and improving groups and culture. This can be seen from the success of a leader in moving others in achieving their stated goals. The meaning of "leadership" is closely related to the meaning of the word "lead". The word lead contains the meaning of being able to move all existing resources in an organization so that it can be utilized maximally to achieve the stated goals. According to Stephen P Robbins “leadership as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals[5]. (Leadership as the ability to influence a group towards achieving a vision or achieving a goal). The opinion above reveals that leadership is an attempt to influence others, high ability to influence others or strong influence possessed by leaders towards subordinates will have an impact on the success of leaders in achieving goals, conversely if the leader has a weak

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The Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes, Jakarta

influence on subordinates it will have an effect to subordinates who are less supportive to achieve the desired goals of the leader so that the desired goals are difficult to achieve. According to Colquitt “leadership as the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. That direction can affect followers interpretation of events, the organization of their work activities, their commitment to key goals, their relationships with other follower, and their access to cooperation and support from other work unit”[6]. Bass (2000) the leadership in the organization has to change with the development and maturation of the organization[7].Then the findings of Hao & Yazdanifard (2015) mention that leadership is one of the main factors in bringing positive change to the organization; if there is no leadership in the organization they will not be able to change in the direction they desire and could experience negative change instead[8]. Colquitt said that there are two important words in leadership, namely power (power) and influence (influence). Power and influence are used to direct followers towards the target to be achieved. The leader can influence his followers in the activity bond, or the activities of the organization with the targets to be achieved and also direct how to work together and support from other units. Furthermore Steven L. MCShane said “Leadership is about influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute that the effectivenes and success of the organizations of which they are members”[9]. (Leadership is influencing, motivating, and allowing others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of their organization within members). From this opinion, there are three important implications of leadership, namely: 1) Leadership must involve other people or subordinates, 2) leadership involves uneven distribution of power between leaders and group members, and 3) leaders can direct and influence others. Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that leadership is a person's effort in influencing, directing and guiding and regulating others to achieve the goals to be achieved. According to Ivancevich the leadership “as the process of influencing others to facilitate the attainment of organizationally relevant goals”[10]. (as a process of influencing others to facilitate the achievement of relevant organizational goals). Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that leadership is a person's effort to influence others to achieve the goals to be achieve. The leadership definition implies that it involves the use of influence and that all interpersonal relationships can involve leadership. A second element in the definition involves the importance of being a change agentbeing able to affect followers’ behavior and performance. Finally, the definition focuses on accomplishing

goals[11].

Meaningful leadership implies that it involves the use of influence and that all interpersonal relationships can involve leadership. The second element in the definition involves the importance of being an agent-able to influence followers' behavior and performance changes. Finally, the definition focuses on achieving the goal. The same thing was expressed by Kreitner and Kinicki, leadership is as “a process whereby an individual influences a group of individulas to achieve a common goal”[12]. (a process where an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal). Leadership revealed by Robert Kreitner and Kinicki is a person's effort to influence the activities of group members to achieve common goals designed to benefit individuals and organizations. From the opinion expressed by Edward, Kreitner and Kinicki explained that leadership as an effort to influence people to be willing to take actions directed at achieving common goals. Meanwhile Yukl defines “leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives”[13].

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The above opinion denotes that leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and to do it, and the process facilitates individual and collective efforts to achieve common goals. Debra L. Nelson said that “leadership the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment”[14]. (The leadership process guides and directs people's behavior in environmental activities). Debra L Nelson, said that leadership is as a person's effort in influencing, directing, guiding, and organizing a group of other people's behavior in carrying out the work assigned to them. From the opinions stated above, it can be concluded that leadership basically contains common assumptions that are general in nature such as: (1) in a group phenomenon involves interaction between two or more people, (2) in involving influential processes, where the influence is intentional ( intentional influence) is used by leaders against subordinates. In addition to the common similarity of assumptions, the expert opinion also has general differences such as: (1) who uses influence, (2) goals rather than efforts to influence, and (3) the way the influence is used. The element of leadership is the influence a person has and in turn due to that influence for the person who wants to be influenced. An important role in leadership is the effort of someone who plays a role as a leader to influence other people in certain organizations / institutions to achieve goals. So, it is clear that leadership is someone's effort in influencing others so that they will give their cooperation, and want to carry out their duties well so that goals can be achieved efficiently. In essence, for the success of every effective implementation of work, every leader in the implementation of work must be able to carry out leadership well. As described above, the main problem in leadership is how to make or influence people who are led to want to consciously carry out their duties well in order to achieve the stated goals. Related to the problem above, the study of leadership consisting of various approaches is essentially an attempt to answer or provide solutions to the problems contained in these problems. According to Gary Yukl leadership can be grouped into five types of approaches, namely; 1) the trait approach, 2) the behavior approach, 3) the power-influence approach 4) the situsional approach 5) the integrative approach[15]. According to Robert N. Lussier[16], When we combine our knowledge, skills, and ability, they are often referred to as “human capital” and “competencies.” Leadership effectiveness stems from managerial competence and support. now let’s discuss the three management skills that all leaders need to be successful technical, interpersonal, and decision-making skillsand the differences in the skills needed based on the level of management. the most important attributes were: (1) communication and interpersonal skills, 89%); (2) ability to work well within a team (which takes interpersonal and decision making skills, 87%; and (3) analytical and problem-solving skills (which is part of decision-making skills, 85%. Lussier also said that Effective leadership can make a positive difference in the lives of people, the functioning of groups, and the success of organizations. Effective leadership has been shown to enhance employees’ satisfaction with their jobs, motivation at work, and task performance. Some scholars have even suggested that effective leadership is essential for societies to progress in positive directions, and without it, the social fabric of our communities and organizations would fall apart. On the other side, a bad boss can cause employees a lot of stress and health-related problems.1 Effective leadership can make a positive difference in people's lives, group functions, and organizational success. Effective leadership has been proven to increase employee satisfaction with their work, motivation at work, and task performance. Some experts even claim that effective leadership is important for the community to progress in a positive direction, and

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without it, the social structure of our society and organization will fall apart. On the other hand, a bad boss can cause employees a lot of stress and health-related problems. A leader can do various ways in activities that influence or motivate other people or subordinates to take actions that are always directed towards achieving organizational goals. This method reflects the attitudes and views of the leader towards the person he leads, and is an illustration of his leadership style.

4. CONCLUSION

Based on the results of this study, it is known that there is a positive direct influence of leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y), which can be seen from the results of the py 1 path coefficient greater than 0.05, which means that the correlation value r 1 y of 0.416 occurs due to indirect effects other variables. The direct effect / influence of leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y) is 0.281 while indirectly through trust (X 2 ) is 0.057 through interpersonal communication (X 3 ) of 0.064 so the effect of total leadership (X 1 ) on work effectiveness (Y) is 0.403. The results of the hypothesis analysis showed that the leadership has a direct positive effect on work effectiveness. Increasing the leadership will lead work effectiveness. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a significant influence between leadership on work effectiveness of Corps Supply Officers in the Indonesian Navy Headquarters, Jakarta.

NOTES

1. Robert N. Lussier,Ph.D, leadership . (New York: Mc Graw Hill, Inc.,2013), p.4

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