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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

In this chapter the researcher‘s will present both local and foreign studies that maybe

significant to the researcher’s topic which is The Factors for having Depression. This

study seeks to investigate and to discover. People of any age, gender and life situation

can have depression. There are several researches that say women and adults are

most affected for having this mental illness. It says that women are nearly twice as likely

as men to be diagnosed with depression. In this study, the researcher attempt to

discover about whom the most really are affected and the other factors for having


Foreign Studies

1. As studied by Janet Hyde, She is a professor of psychology and gender and

women's studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Gender differences in

depression diagnosis and symptoms start to appear around the age of 12.

According to Janet Hyde, they found that twice as many women as men were

affected. They used to think that the gender differences emerged at 13 to 15

years, but the better data they examined has pushed that down to age 12. Also

she added, hormonal changes may have something to do with it, but it’s also true

that social environment changes for girls at that age. As they develop in puberty,

they face more life situations which might cause a mental illness.
2. Depression can affect both the personal and professional areas of a person's life.

In the study, nearly 90 percent of people with severe depressive symptoms

reported having difficulty at home, with work or in their social activities. Almost

half of the people who had mild depression reported having such difficulties. The

report also found that 15 percent of people who live in poverty had depression,

meaning that they were more than twice as likely to have depression as people

living above the federal poverty level, who have a depression rate of 6.2 percent.

The rate of depression generally increased with age, with 5.7 percent of youth

ages 12 to 17 reporting having the condition, but 9.8 percent of adults ages 40 to

59 saying the same. However, people ages 60 and over had a lower rate of

depression (5.4 percent) than people in other age groups.

3. As stated by Psychologist Albert Bandura's ( social cognitive theory (SCT)

suggested that people are shaped by the interactions between their behaviors,

thoughts, and environment. Each piece in the puzzle can and does affect the

shape of the other pieces. Human behavior ends up being largely a product of

learning. This learning can happen through observation, as well as through

direct experience.

4. As studied by Professor Anthony Jorm, (1987) It is commonly believed that

depression is more common in females than in males. A quantitative synthesis of

published research showed, however, that the sex difference is age specific.
There is little sex difference in either childhood or advanced old age, but a

notable sex difference in middle life. This sex difference appears because rates

for females rise sharply from childhood to adulthood and then decline somewhat

in old age. By contrast, rates for males show a small rise in early adulthood but

are otherwise fairly stable throughout life. The age-specific nature of these sex

differences may be explainable in terms of differences in social roles at various


5. As mentioned by Rashmi Nemade, Ph.,D Physical health is an important

foundation of mental health. People who are not physically healthy are at an

increased risk for developing mental conditions such as depression. People who

participate in unhealthy lifestyle practices also have a more difficult time

overcoming depressive episodes than healthier people. Their unhealthy lifestyle

practices tend to work against many treatment effects. Negative lifestyle factors

that can contribute to a depressive episode or drag one out.

Local Studies

1. As eloquently said by Romeo B. Lee (2013) Depression can be prevented if its

symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression

among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the

rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically

identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We

carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated
with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university

students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on

lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11

factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more

intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of

smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction

with one’s financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of

closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion

were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for

depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and

peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool

of local knowledge on student depression.

2. As studied by Ibarra C. Mateo (2017) MORE than 3.29 million people in the

Philippines are living with depression and an almost equal number of individuals

are suffering from anxiety. This was learned Friday as the Department of Health

(DOH) and the World Health Organization–Philippines (WHO-PH) calls on

everyone – the public, private, and civil society sectors – to engage in a “serious

national chat” using multi-media platforms to understand depression and other

mental health problems burdening millions of Filipinos. The WHO-PH’s latest

global statistics said that more than 300 million people are battling depression, or

an increase of more than 18 percent during the period 2005-2015. In the

Philippines alone, it is estimated that 3.29 million people are living with
depression and that 3.07 million are be living with anxiety. Depression is a

leading factor in suicide.

3. According to Ma. Joycelyn A. Go-Molina, (2018) The study investigates the

relationship between the personal problems and depression among college

students. Three hundred ninety three (393) first year college students

participated in the study. They ranged in age from 16 to 17 years old. The

sample purposively considered students enrolled across programs: fine arts,

business administration, engineering, and arts and sciences. Descriptive analysis

revealed that parents are frequent source of problems for first year college

students. Based on estimated correlation, personal problems and depression are

significantly related. Regression analysis was utilized to determine which of the

personal problems had the most effect on depression and results indicate that

problem situations involving parents were found to be the crucial factor. Of the

393 participants in the study, one hundred twelve (112) or almost thirty percent

(30%) of the first year college students who participated in the study are suffering

from “borderline” to “extreme” levels of depression. Moreover, it was found that

almost half (186 or 47%) of the respondents perceived that they cannot count on

adults (e.g., teachers, guidance counselors, school administrators) at their school

for emotional support. Results of the study highlight the importance of mental

health, psychological wellness, and counseling among adolescents.

4. The elderly population in the Philippines (adults aged 65 years and older)

numbered 2.12 million in 1990 (UN 1991). In absolute numbers, the elderly

Philippine population is close to that of Thailand and much more numerous than

in Singapore or Malaysia. Aging trends in the Philippines have been consistently

slower compared to other Southeast Asian countries. In 1970 the elderly

comprised 2.7 percent of the total Philippine population, increasing to 3.6 percent

in the 1990s. The elderly population (age 60 and above) has doubled in number

since the 1970s and could triple in this decade. It may reach the 10-percent mark

before 2020 which may eventually categorize it as an aging population. The

results of an international study conducted by the World Health Organization

showed that the prevalence rate of depression worldwide ranged from 2.6

percent to 29.5 percent. In a survey conducted by Perlas, Tronco et al in the

Philippines, about 5.3 percent of the subjects were suffering from depression. A

similar study we conducted in the province of Rizal using the Geriatric

Depression Scale (Short Form) showed a 6.6-percent rate of depression. This

prevalence rate among the elderly in the most populated province of the

Philippines shows that depression can be present in healthy Filipino

communities. However, it is considerable to note that a fourth (26.5 percent) of

the population has scores suggestive of depression.

5. As stated by Crisha A. Magtubo (2017) WHO estimates that suicide associated

with depression is the second leading cause of death among people aged 15-29.

In the Philippines, DOH’s National Center for Mental Health noted that the
suicide rate for men is 2.5 for every 100,000 population and 1.7 for women.

In the 2,500 suicide cases recorded in 2012, more than 2,000 were male, and

about 500 were female. There could be more cases underreported due to stigma,

or fear of people with suicidal ideation to be judged. Though there is a low

suicide rate as compared with other ASEAN countries, depression is still very

much persistent. A local survey by Perlas, Tronco et al noted that 5.3 percent of

those surveyed were suffering from depression. Another report indicated 4.5

million Filipinos could be afflicted with depression. Worldwide, the depression

prevalence rate ranges from 2.6 to 29.5 percent.

6. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is completed by the clinician as

opposed to the patient. It consists of 17 items with Likert scale of either 0 to 4 or

0 to 2. Scores can range from 0 to 54. The HAMD was developed in 1957 and

has been used extensively within the medical community but is not typically used

by psychologists. HAMD scores correlate well with BDI-II scores and can be

used in place of a self-report when a patient is unable to read. It can also be

used when there are concerns about the accuracy of the patient’s self-report.

HAMD scores are classified as normal (<9), mild depression (10 to 13), mild to

moderate depression (14 to 17), and moderate to severe depression (>17).


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