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Internal combustion engine plays vital role in any automotive application and mechanical
systems. These engines are worldwide used as device transforming one form of energy into
another form and their cost is high so; maintenance of such engines is an essential thing. In most
petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually mixed after compression (although some modern
petrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrol injection). The pre-mixing was formerly done in a
carburetor, but now it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection, except in small engines
where the cost/complication of electronics does not justify the added engine efficiency. The
process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark
plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed (and therefore
heated), and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-
ignites. In this project the focus is on the fault detection and experimental analysis of a Single
cylinder four stroke petrol engine. The available literature was thoroughly reviewed and many
methods about fault detection were studied. After identifying the failure parts of the engine these
parts will be either repaired or replaced and Load test will be conducted on the engine to study its
Internal combustion (IC) engine is a power generating machines and used widely in automotive
industry. The study of internal combustion engines has become a very important part of a
mechanical engineer’s education Hence it is appropriate that we have worked on 4 -stroke single
cylinder petrol engine test rig’. The test rig consists of MK- GREAVES 25 engine which is a
used as a load test apparatus. The performance of engine is highly depends on components
efficient working; if these parts failed, the performance is partially or completely decreased. The
failure of a system depends on the time, with varying over the life cycle of the system conditions.
Engine failures result from a conditions, effects, and situations. To understand why engines fails
and remedies to those failures, one must understand how engine components are designed and
manufactured, how they interact with.




 Make : GREAVES MK 25
 Number of cylinders : 1
 Type 4 stroke, air cooled
 Piston displacement 250cc
 Bore size :70 mm
 Stroke : 66.7mm
 Compression ratio: 4.67:1
 Power(BHP) : 2.5kW




Causes of insufficient spark

Spark plug failure: Causes of spark plug failure are given below.
(a)Insufficient voltage: As the electrons flow from the coil, a voltage difference is developed
between the center electrode and side electrode. No current can flow because of the fuel and air
in the gap is an insulator, but as the voltage rises further, it begins to change the structure of the
gases between the electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the
gases become ionized. The ionized gas becomes a conductor and allows electrons to flow across
the gap. Spark plugs usually require voltage in excess of 20,000 volts to 'fire' properly. Because
the spark plug is inside the engine and is the only easily removable part it can be used as an
indicator to the Faults in Spark Plug. So voltage should be proper in order to eliminate spark plug

(b) Fuel deposition: Spark plug is inappropriate because of rough materials that accumulate on
the side electrode may melt to bridge the gap when the engine is suddenly put under a heavy
load. The voltage required to fire the plug is getting low so brown color flame is not getting. The
damage in spark plug mainly occurs due to fouling and the overheating of spark plugs Deposits
accumulated on the firing end may induce abnormal combustion (pre-ignition), causing problems
that include melting of the electrodes. If the edges of electrodes are worn and rounded,sparks will
not easily occur remedies for stopping of fuel deposition are replacement of worn or damaged
valve guides or valve guide seals, allow rich fuel mixture, replacement of d guide seals, allow
rich fuel mixture, replacement of damaged spark plug.

(c)Spark plug polarity: An important point relating to the misfire tendency which is not always
appreciated is the spark plug polarity. The center electrode must be of negative polarity because
it is hotter than the earth electrode and less voltage will be required to spark from the center
electrode to the ground electrode. Suppose the manufacturer connects the coils to give a negative
polarity to the central electrode but the mechanic, while installing a new coil reverses the
connection. This will result in failure of spark plug. Remedies are installation of spark plug
should be proper.



Ignition coil failure: Ignition coil failures are cause by worn out sparkplugs that fail to
transmit electronic signals in a functional and fluid manner. This creates a disruption in the
regular flow of power across the ignition coil and makes the engine lose power. It is less
common but still possible that the rotor the ignition coil rests on brakes on reduces the function
of the power circuit. Remedies are replacement of damaged ignition coil.

Distributor failure: Distributor fails when high resistance is occur because most of times only
voltage is getting checked &not the resistance. Also any wear of cam shaft causes misbehaving
of contact breaker points resulting distributor failure. Remedies are there should be no wear of
camshaft, working of contact breakers should be proper.

Causes of improper A/F ratio

Intake manifold failure: Possible modes of valves failure are wear failure, valve face recession,
fatigue failure, thermal fatigue, erosion corrosion of valves, overheating of valves, carbon
deposits on valves etc. The valve is subjected to various loads at any point of time, such as
reverse loading at a high temperature, stress concentration at the keeper groove area and under
carbon deposits at exhaust valves. The valves generally fail by fatigue. Exhaust valves operate at
very high temperatures and subjected to cyclic loading, the failure of the conical surface of valve
is mainly caused by the elastic and plastic deformation, and fatigue. Exhaust valve stem
generally fail by overheating because the temperature of the exhaust valve is about 720 ºC

Carburetor failure: Engine backfiring and overheating are the common symptoms of a
potential problem with the carburetor. A carburetor uses intake vacuum to supply fuel to the
engine. As air is pulled down through the throat of the carburetor by intake vacuum, fuel is
siphoned from the carburetors fuel bowl and mixed with the incoming air to form a combustible
mixture. If any problem arise in the above operation will affect air fuel ratio. Remedies are
overcoming of above problems.
Air filter failure: Most of times filter is clogged with dust and grime so it affects fresh air &
results into pollutants. Leakage in pipes affects volumetric efficiency. Remedies are replacement
or cleaning of filter. All above discussed failures results in reduction of break thermal efficiency
& volumetric efficiency, Mechanical efficiency of these 4-stroke, 4-cylinder petrol engine test
rig. After analyzing fault tree diagram we have done changes accordingly in present test rig &
perform the same tests to check whether the efficiencies are improved or not.




Bore, stroke and displacement

According to the workshop manual of MK GREAVES 25 the rated bore was 4.7cm, stroke
4.15cm whereas the measured parameters were bore 4.6cm, stroke 4.14cm and displacement was
69cm3. The measured parameters are normally equal to given parameters. This little difference
was due to the re-boring of cylinder and replacing of sleeves.

Compression ratio
The compression ratio for gasoline engine is suggested at the range of 8.5: 1 to 10.5: 1. The
compression ratio of tested engine was calculated 10: 1, the calculated compression ratio falls in
the recommend range. So, the compression ratio of the tested engine is satisfactory.

Engine efficiencies

Mechanical efficiency: It is recommended that the mechanical efficiency of an internal

combustion engine may vary from 75 to 90 percent; the efficiency of tested engine was 83%. The
result comes in recommended range and the mechanical efficiency of the engine is satisfactory.

Thermal efficiency: The recommended thermal efficiency of an internal combustion engine

varies from 15 to 35 percent. The thermal efficiency of the tested engine was 20.5%which is in
the normal range and is satisfactory. Fuel consumption The fuel consumption was measured and
noted. One liter fuel consumed covered around 60 kilometer distance. The service manual of
Honda Motor bike recommended 70 km/liter. The fuel consumed was also very near to the
recommended consumption but the difference was due to the adjustments of parts like carburetor
and point.

Fuel mixture ratio

In case of gasoline engines the proper fuel mixture ratio is about 15: 1. The result of fuel mixture
was noted 14: 1 which is very near to the recommended ratio. This shows that air fuel ratio.
For proper burning/combustion of fuel(petrol) engine require oxygen, and this oxygen is supplied
to engine by atmospheric air. The ratio of mass of air sucked by engine to mass of fuel injected is
air-fuel ratio. If exactly enough air is provided to completely burn all of the fuel, the ratio is
known as the Stoichiometric mixture or Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio
for petrol(SI engine)is 14.5:1 . A/F ratio less than 14.5 means rich mixture and A/F ratio greater




Spark plug

The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur.
The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.


The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust.
Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion
chamber is sealed.

The ignition system of an internal combustion engines depends on the type of engine and the fuel
used. Petrol engines are typically ignited by a precisely timed spark, and diesel
engines by compression heating. Historically, outside flame and hot-tube systems were used,
see hot bulb engine.
Spark Ignition
In a spark ignition engine, a mixture is ignited by an electric spark from a spark plug —
the timing of which is very precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this
type. Diesel engines timing is precisely controlled by the pressure pump and injector. The normal
plug distance between the spark plug is 1mm apart, and the voltage is 3000v at normal
atmospheric conditions.
Compression Ignition
Ignition occurs as the temperature of the fuel/air mixture is taken over its auto ignition
temperature, due to heat generated by the compression of the air during the compression stroke.
The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the
air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel
injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity and light weight is more
important than fuel costs use easily ignited fuels (a mixture of kerosene, ether, and lubricant) and
adjustable compression to control ignition timing for starting and running.
Ignition timing
For reciprocating engines, the point in the cycle at which the fuel-oxidizer mixture is ignited has
a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the
idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes
place at a high temperature, resulting from compression — near top dead center. The speed of the
flame front is directly affected by the compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane
rating or cetane number of the fuel. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more
slowly requiring more advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a
thermal flame front, not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is
called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or Engine knocking.



So at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between a later

"retarded" spark — which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel — and an earlier
"advanced" spark that avoids detonation with the fuel used. For this reason, high-performance
diesel automobile proponents, such as Gale Banks, believe that
There’s only so far you can go with an air-throttled engine on 91-octane gasoline. In other words,
it is the fuel, gasoline, that has become the limiting factor. ... While turbo charging has been
applied to both gasoline and diesel engines, only limited boost can be added to a gasoline engine
before the fuel octane level again becomes a problem. With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially
unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before
breaking apart. Consequently, engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of
substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine.

Fuel systems
.Fuels burn faster and more efficiently when they present a large surface area to the oxygen in
air. Liquid fuels must be atomized to create a fuel-air mixture, traditionally this was done with
a carburetor in petrol engines and with fuel injection in diesel engines. Most modern petrol
engines now use fuel injection too — though the technology is quite different. While diesel must
be injected at an exact point in that engine cycle, no such precision is needed in a petrol engine.
However, the lack of lubricity in petrol means that the injectors themselves must be more
Simpler reciprocating engines continue to use a carburetor to supply fuel into the cylinder.
Although carburetor technology in automobiles reached a very high degree of sophistication and
precision, from the mid-1980s it lost out on cost and flexibility to fuel injection. Simple forms of
carburetor remain in widespread use in small engines such as lawn mowers and more
sophisticated forms are still used in small motorcycles.
Fuel injection
Larger gasoline engines used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems
(see Gasoline Direct Injection). Diesel engines have always used fuel injection system because
the timing of the injection initiates and controls the combustion.
Auto gas engines use either fuel injection systems or open- or closed-loop carburetors.




After disassembling the engine we found that the spark plug is the malfunctioning part.

Without a spark, there would be no way for fuel to ignite in the combustion chamber. Spark
plugs have been a critical component of the internal combustion engine for years. Spark plugs
are designed to transmit an electrical signal sent from the ignition coil at a predetermined time to
create a spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber. Each vehicle
requires a particular type of spark plug made from specific materials and with a designated spark
plug gap set by a mechanic during installation. Good spark plugs will burn fuel efficiently, while
bad or failing spark plugs can cause the motor not to start at all.

Spark plugs are similar to motor oil, fuel filters, and air filters in that they require routine service
and maintenance to keep your engine running strong. Most vehicles sold in the United States
require their spark plugs to be replaced every 30,000 to 50,000 miles. However, some newer
cars, trucks, and SUVs have advanced ignition systems that ostensibly make spark plug
replacement unnecessary. Regardless of any warranties or claims made by a vehicle
manufacturer, there remain situations where a spark plug wears out or shows signs of failing.

Listed below are 6 common symptoms of worn-out spark plugs or spark plugs that have fouled
and need to be replaced for the proper functioning

1. Slow acceleration

The most common cause of poor acceleration in most vehicles is a problem in the ignition
system. Today's modern engines have multiple sensors that tell the onboard computer and
ignition system when to send electric pulses to fire the spark plug, so the issue may be with a

faulty sensor. However, sometimes the issue is as simple as a worn-out spark plug. A spark plug
is composed of materials that work together to produce a spark hot enough to ignite the air -fuel
mixture. When those materials wear out, the effectiveness of the spark plug is reduced, which
can significantly reduce the acceleration of the vehicle.

If you notice that your car is running sluggishly or does not accelerate as quickly as it used to, it
may be attributed to a faulty spark plug that needs to be replaced. However, you should contact a
mechanic to inspect this issue as it could be caused by multiple other factors including bad fuel
filters, dirty or clogged fuel injector, or issues with oxygen sensors.

2. Poor Fuel Economy

A fully-functioning spark plug helps burn fuel efficiently in the combustion cycle. When this
occurs, your car can achieve better-than-average fuel economy. When the plug is not working
optimally, it is frequently because the gap between the spark plug electrodes is either too close or
too far apart. In fact, many mechanics will take out spark plugs, examine them, and adjust the
gap to factory settings as opposed to replacing the spark plug entirely. If your vehicle has an
increase in fuel consumption, it very well could be attributed to a worn out spark plug.

3. Engine is Misfiring

If the engine misfires, it's typically due to an issue in the ignition system. In modern cars, it's
usually due to a sensor malfunction. However, it may also be caused by a spark plug wire or the
tip of the spark plug that connects to the wire being damaged. An engine misfire can be noticed
by intermittent stumbling or sputtering sounds from the engine. If the engine is allowed to keep
misfiring, exhaust emissions will increase, engine power will decrease, and fuel economy will

4. Engine Surging or Hesitating

You may notice the engine hesitating while accelerating. In this case, the engine is not
responding correctly to the driver. It may suddenly surge in power, then slow down. The engine
is sucking in more air than it should be in its combustion process, causing the delay in power
delivery. The combined hesitation and surging could indicate a spark plug problem.



5. Rough Idle

A bad spark plug may cause your engine to sound rough while idling. The vehicle-
encompassing, jittery sound will also cause your vehicle to vibrate. It can indicate a spark plug
problem in which a cylinder misfires only while idle.


In four stroke cycle engines the four events namely suction, compression, power and exhaust
take place inside the engine cylinder. The four events are completed in four strokes of the piston
(two revolutions of the crank shaft). This engine has got valves for controlling the inlet of charge
and outlet of exhaust gases. The opening and closing of the valve is controlled by cams, fitted on
camshaft. The camshaft is driven by crankshaft with the help of suitable gears or chains. The
camshaft runs at half the speed of the crankshaft. The events taking place in I.C. engine are as
1. Suction stroke 2. Compression stroke 3. Power stroke 4. Exhaust stroke

Suction stroke
During suction stroke inlet valve opens and the piston moves downward. Only air or a mixture
of air and fuel are drawn inside the cylinder. The exhaust valve remains in closed position during
this stroke. The pressure in the engine cylinder is less than atmospheric pressure during this

Compression stroke
During this stroke the piston moves upward. Both valves are in closed position. The charge
taken in the cylinder is compressed by the upward movement of piston. If only air is compressed,
as in case of diesel engine, diesel is injected at the end of the compression stroke and ignition of
fuel takes place due to high pressure and temperature of the compressed air. If a mixture of air
and fuel is compressed in the cylinder, as in case of petrol engine, the mixture is ignited by a
spark plug.
Power stroke
After ignition of fuel, tremendous amount of heat is generated, causing very high pressure in the
cylinder which pushes the piston downward (Fig.1b). The downward movement of the piston at
this instant is called power stroke. The connecting rod transmits the power from piston to the
crank shaft and crank shaft rotates. Mechanical work can be taped at the rotating crank shaft.
Both valves remain closed during power stroke.
Exhaust stroke
During this stroke piston moves upward. Exhaust valve opens and exhaust gases go out through
exhaust valves opening. All the burnt gases go out of the engine and the cylinder becomes ready



to receive the fresh charge. During this stroke inlet valve remains closed. Thus it is found that
out of four strokes, there is only one power stroke and three idle strokes in four stroke cycle
engine. The power stroke supplies necessary momentum for useful work .


The plug is connected to the high voltage generated by an ignition coil or magneto. As current
flows from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side electrodes. Initially no
current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, but as the voltage rises further
it begins to change the structure of the gases between the electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds
the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases become ionized. The ionized gas becomes a
conductor and allows current to flow across the gap. Spark plugs usually require voltage of
12,000–25,000 volts or more to "fire" properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts. They
supply higher current during the discharge process, resulting in a hotter and longer -duration
As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the spark channel to
60,000 K. The intense heat in the spark channel causes the ionized gas to expand very quickly,
like a small explosion. This is the "click" heard when observing a spark, similar
to lightning and thunder.
The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, and at the end of the spark event
there should be a small ball of fire in the spark gap as the gases burn on their own. The size of
this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the mixture between the electrodes
and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the time of the spark. A small kernel will
make the engine run as though the ignition timing was retarded, and a large one as though the
timing was advanced.



Internal combustion engine valves are precision engine components. They open and close as and
when needed. The fresh charge (air - fuel mixture in Spark Ignition Engines and air alone in
Compression Ignition Engines) is induced through inlet valves and the products of combustion
get discharged to atmosphere through exhaust valves. They are also used to seal the working
space inside the cylinder against the manifolds . There are different types of valves used by the
manufactures; some common types of valves being poppet valves, slide valves, rotary valves and
sleeve valve.
Any type of valve failure affects the engine performance thus making it mandatory to give due
importance to failure analysis of internal combustion engine valves. Possible modes of valves
failure are wear failure, valve face recession, fatigue failure, thermal fatigue, erosion / corrosion
of valves, overheating of valves, carbon deposits on valves etc. Available research literature
about valve failures indicates that valve design is a complicated task because the valve is
subjected to various loads at any point of time, such as reverse loading at a high temperature,
stress concentration at the keeper groove area and under carbon deposits at exhaust valves. The
valves generally fail by fatigue . A closed valve is loaded by spring force and pressure inside the
cylinder, which varies periodically during engine operation and reaches a peak value of the order
of 15 MPa. Such high pressures inside the cylinder cause bending of the valve cone, which
results in a sliding motion and improper contact between valve face and seat insert thus
eventually leading to wear failure. The Otto and Diesel engines operate at temperatures of 550ºC
inside the intake valve; the corresponding values inside the exhaust valve being 700°C and
800°C, respectively. The exhaust valve temperature can shoot up to 900°C. Since the exhaust
valves operate at high temperatures, they are exposed to thermal load and chemical corrosion.
The intake valves, which are not subjected to such extreme thermal loading, are cooled by
incoming gases, thermal transmission at the seat, and by other means





The word fatigue is derived from the Latin fatigare which means “to tire”. In engineering
terminology fatigue is a progressive structural damage of materials under cyclic loads. Important
categories of fatigue include: Mechanical fatigue due to fluctuating stresses Creep fatigue due to
cyclic loads at high temperatures; Thermal fatigue due to cyclic changes in material’s
temperature; Thermo-mechanical fatigue due to a combination of mechanical and thermal
fatigue; corrosion fatigue due to cyclic loads applied on corroded materials, Fretting fatigue due
to cyclic stresses together with the oscillation motion and frictional sliding between surfaces,
etc.. Fatigue failure occurs at stresses that are well below the yield point of the material . I.C.
Engine valves are subjected to repeated cyclic loading due to valve train dynamics. Repeated
loading results in materials failing well below the yield strength. When the material is subjected
to fatigue, one or more tiny cracks usually start developing in the material, and these grow until
complete failure occurs. There are different types of fatigue mechanisms: thermal fatigue, high-
cycle fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, surface fatigue, bending fatigue, corrosion fatigue, torsional
fatigue, and fretting fatigue. In valves, some of the more common failures are due to thermal
fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and low and high-cycle fatigue. When it comes to fatigue, the S–N
curves are often used to represent fatigue behavior. Because fatigue testing is time and energy
consuming, predictive methods are often used. In many industries, the number of stress cycles
for lifetime services are above 107 cycles, The fatigue fracture is basically observed under low
cycle fatigue, normally less than 105 cycles. The fatigue life varies usually from 105 cycles to
107 cycles.

Failures due to high temperature

Exhaust valves operate at very high temperatures and subjected to cyclic loading, The failure of
the conical surface of valve is mainly caused by the elastic and plastic deformation, and fatigue.
Exhaust valve stem generally fail by overheating because the temperature of the exhaust valve is
about 720 ºC. The fracture surface of the valve stem is covered with a black oxide scale
formation; fracture surface in the fatigue area is smooth and is covered with thick oxide or
deposits that cannot be removed satisfactory. In the middle portion of the stem a longitudinal
fretting damage is occurred. Some small cracks are initiated and propagated across the section.
With high loading, multiple cracks are initiated if the valves are subjected to high temperatures
and, under such operating conditions, it would be logical to expect that failure would occur
within a few million cycles. The significant hardness is loused and the surface oxidation and
fretting/galling on the valve stem occur due to overheating. The fatigue properties of the alloy
suffer due to high temperature. This is the cause of multiple fatigue crack initiation.



Failure of valve due to erosion-corrosion

As discussed above, the exhaust valves operate at high temperature. The resulting scale
formation on the valves corrodes the surface of valve due to exhaust flue gases. Structural metals
have always had surface material removed in service as the result of erosion by small, solid,
impacting particles. In most elevated - temperature erosion environments, the eroding surface is
undergoing corrosion as well as erosion. In one test series, a nickel oxide scale was formed up to
100 μm thick at 1000ºC on commercially pure nickel [9]. The erosion-corrosion of exhaust
valves (valve guttering) is an important cause of failure of internal combustion engines valves.
Valve guttering generally occurs due to exhaust gas flowing across the valve face surface,
resulting in the formation of a radial channel or gutter. Typical causes of leakage include valve
distortion, face peening and degradation of face deposits. The accumulation of combustion -
derived deposits on valve surfaces interferes with proper seating of the valve and promotes
leakage. In studies of the effects of burning heavy fuels on the degradation of diesel exhaust
valve seats, the role of “scales” deposited on seating surfaces are reduced the heat flow through
the contact. Lubricants containing high sulfated ash levels (over 1.0 weight %) have been
identified as potential contributors to heavy deposit formation and valve guttering in these
engines .
Failure of valve due to wear
Wear Failure occurs generally at the seating face of valves and stem at which portion that slide
on valve stem guide. Wear mainly occurs due to two major factors, he first one is the impact
force between seating face of valve and seat insert, whereas the second one is due to sliding of
the valve on the seat insert during the action of combustion pressure. The rubbing action and
impacting action wear out the valve face. Typical mechanisms of wear include adhesive,
abrasive, fretting, erosion, cavitation, and contact rolling fatigue.


The purpose of the valve in the cylinder of the engine is to admit the air-fuel mixture and to
force out the exhaust gases. The inlet valve also known as intake valve admits the charge into the
cylinder and exhaust valves are used to send the exhaust gases out of the cylinder. In a 4-stroke
engine the inlet valve and exhaust valve operate once in two revolution of the crankshaft. Each
of the valves must operate once in one turn and this is done by a camshaft, which turns at half
speed of the crankshaft. The firing order of cylinder establishes the sequence in which the
valves opening and closing. The main components of the mechanism are valves, rocker arm,
valve spring, push rod, cam and camshaft .The fuel is admitted to the engine by the inlet valve
and the burnt gases are escaped through the exhaust valve. The cam moving on the rotating cam
shaft pushes the cam follower and push rod up wards, there by transmitting the cam action to
rocker arm. When one end of the rocker arm is pushed up by the push rod, the other end moves
downwards. This pushes down the valve stem causing the valve to move down, there by opening
the port. When the cam follower moves over the circular portion of the cam, the pushing action
of the rocker arm on the valve is released and the valve returns to its seat and closes it by the
action of valve spring. Because of the operating mode, the engine valves are subjected to
combined solicitations: thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear. Average temperatures for
operation of the valves are between 300- 400°C for intake valves and 500-900 °C for exhaust
valves, as shown in figure 2. Also from mechanical point of view, the valves are strongly
solicited because the operation at very high speeds, which can reach values of 600 m/s. The
corrosion requirements are the most important ones, because the high thermal working
conditions favor the acids formation, which act on the materials microstructure. At these
solicitations adds the abrasive wear phenomena caused by hard particles dragged along in the
working fluid and the adhesive wear caused by friction between stem and guide. Another request
is the one caused by the very high operating pressures, which along with the other solicitation
may cause deformation of the valve discs and thus removing them from use. For these reasons,
the valves are produced from special heat-resistant material with anticorrosive properties, such as
medium alloyed steels with chromium, martensitic and austenitic stainless steels, titanium alloys,
nickel-based super-alloys (Inconel, Nimonic, Nichrome, etc.). To increase the wear resistance of
the valve disc and/or the stem, in some cases are applied at their surface some hard materials
layers of alloys based on Co, W and Cr (stellite), of nichrome (an alloy based on Cr, Ni, Co, W
etc.) or other materials, through established processes: hard chrome plating, nitridation,
aluminizing or phosphating.


As part of our project we tried to conduct a load test on the engine but failed. We assessed that
the engine is not in a working condition. So it was necessary to replace the malfunctioning part.
Upon primary inspection it was found that the spark plug of the engine is the malfunctioning
part. Specification of the spark plug is 1445Z8IND. Using this specification it was replaced. But
the engine did not start. So it was necessary to conduct a detailed inspection of the engine. For
this purpose disassembling of the engine was done to check the condition of engine components.
After gathering advice from an external agency we understood that apart from spark plug, the
engine valves have been jammed and this was hindering the proper functioning of the engine.
Initially we removed cylinder head and cylinder bore to check their conditions. It was understood
that the cylinder head has to be threaded again for the installation of new spark plug with the
obtained specifications. For threading the cylinder head was taken to mechanical workshop for
lathe operations. After detailed inspection of Cylinder bore it was concluded that the valves are
to be replaced. But due to the unavailability of the valve specimen we were forced to conduct
lathe operations on Cylinder bore. Lathe operations was successfully carried out with only
limited external assistance. Apart from the issues with the valves a cup which was supposed to
be holding the cylinder bore also seemed vulnerable. We have to entirely manufacture the cup
using lathe operation due to the unavailability of the specimen. After rectifying the all the parts
we assembled the engine with the rectified parts. The engine started without any trouble. Speed
and the fuel supply of the engine was rechecked for comparing with the rated specifications.
Load test was conducted on the rectified engine and the results were observed.