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Contamination Control

Contamination Control
Overview

• Contamination Control Overview


– The need for contamination control
– Contamination definition
– Effects of contamination
– Contamination prevention
• Cleanliness Targets
– Measuring contamination
– ISO Code limits for various fluid systems

Contamination Control
Why Contamination Control?

• Customers are demanding:


– More power
– Greater breakout forces
– Faster cycle times

Contamination Control
Why Contamination Control?

• Industry trends
– Electro-hydraulics
– Higher system pressures
– Tighter clearances

Contamination Control
Why Contamination Control?

• Result – Today’s fluid systems are more sensitive


to contamination
– Hydraulics
– Transmissions / Final drives
– Fuel systems
– Engines

Contamination Control
Why Contamination Control?

• Contaminated fluid systems:


System efficiency can
– Shorten component and fluid life drop up to 20
– Reduce productivity PERCENT before
the operator detects
– Can lead to catastrophic a problem. That is
failure and costly a LOSS OF ONE
downtime and repairs DAY PER WEEK.

Contamination Control
Why Contamination Control?

• Tests prove clean oil improves life


– Increased bearing life
– No contamination-related failures from 6,000 to 11,000
hours

Contamination Control
What Is Contamination?

• Anything in a fluid that does not belong.

• The #1 enemy of fluid systems

Contamination Control
Contamination Sources

• Built-in
• New fluids
• Introduced contamination
– Cylinder wiper seals
– Reservoir vent ports
– Poor maintenance
• Generated internally

Contamination Control
Two Types of Contamination

“Dirt You Can See” “Dirt You Can’t See”


• 40 Microns & Larger • Under 40 Microns
• Weld Splatter • Wear Metals
• Shot Blast • Silica
• Paint Chips • Rocks
• Machine Chips • Coal
• Dirt

Contamination Control
Small Particle Contamination

• Even Particles Too Small to See are Harmful!


Cat System Smallest Visible to Human Hair
Clearances the Eye

2
30
40
MICRONS (µm)
80
Contamination Control
What is a Micron?

1 Millionth of a Meter

• 100 microns (µm) - grain of table salt


• 80 microns (µm) - diameter of a human hair

Contamination Control
Contamination Control
Video

Fluid Contamination:
The Silent Thief

(10 minutes)

Contamination Control
Effects of Contamination

Hydraulic System experts attribute

75 to 85%
of all component failures to particle contamination in the
fluid and not a weakness in the system components

-- Hydraulics & Pneumatics, June 1998


-- Equipment Today, August 1997

Contamination Control
Pump Manufacturer

ISO
C
22/19
Component Life
o
n
21/17
---- 2,500
t 20/15 -----
a
m 19/16
i
n 10,000
a
t
18/15
------------
i
17/14
25,000
o 16/13
n Clean New Oil
15/12
14/11
13/10
12/09

Component Life Over Time

Contamination Control
EFFECTS of Contamination

• Erratic steering
• Cylinder drift
• Slower performance
• Unreliable operation
• Lower productivity
• Machine downtime
• Higher operating costs

Contamination Control
PREVENTION of Contamination

• Housekeeping
• Oil storage and transfer
• Change filters carefully
• Parts handling and storage
• Hose assembly and storage
• Care in maintenance and repair
• Adhere to proper maintenance intervals
• Particle counting

Contamination Control
Housekeeping

• Sweep floors daily


• Clean up spills immediately
• Keep work benches uncluttered and free of debris
• Limit use of floor storage

Contamination Control
Housekeeping
Floor Dry Hand Pump

Parts
Parts Cleaner Packaging/Storage

Contamination Control
Housekeeping

Contamination Control
Oil Storage and Transfer

• Use a transfer filter cart


• Change when warm and agitated
• Use barrel covers

Contamination Control
Kidney-loop Filtration System

Shown to increase oil and component life and reduce costs

Contamination Control
Change Filters Carefully

• Change on schedule
• Remove used filter carefully
• Do not pre-fill new filter
• Use high efficiency filters on serviced machines
• Examine used filters

Contamination Control
Parts Handling and Storage

• Keep components packaged until ready to install


• Return parts to storage in packaging
• Protect in-process components
• Wash components before assembly

Contamination Control
Hose Assembly and Storage

• Keep hoses plugged and capped


• Use Cat hose cleaner

Contamination Control
Care in Operation and Maintenance

• Perform daily inspections


• Keep hydraulic tank filled
• Maintain valves
• Use rod protectors
• Watch temperature
– gauges

Contamination Control
Particle Counting

• The way to measure your


contamination control efforts

Contamination Control
Measuring Contamination EQUIP. #
JOBSITE
WL701
* BIG SU
MAKE CAT
Henry Walker Contracting P/L MODEL 994
Att: Mr Alan Carson SERIAL No. 9YF0004
PO Box 294 COMPARTMENT PUMP D
Clov erdale OIL BRAND & TYPE BELRAY
WA 6105 OIL CHGD? Y
ORDER No. YANDI

• Spectrographic Analysis LABEL #


LAB.I.D. #
EVALUATION CODE
13-45
96X5269
B

– Identifies elements in oil Date


Taken
12/12/96 OIL TOTAL HOURS
IRON ELEVATED - POSSIBLY DUE TO DIRTY ENTRY.PARTICLE C
TO BE ADDED WHEN AVAILABLE.
ADDED HOURS ON OIL CHECK SEALS AND BREATHERS FOR DIRT ENTRY POINTS. CHE

– Only up to 10-15 microns in size REC'D


CURRENT PLUG FOR EXCESSIVE FERROUS METAL. OIL CHANGED AT THI

181296 N 19850 324


Date
Taken IRON ELEVATED - POSSIBLY DUE TO DIRTY ENTRY.PARTICLE C
15-11-96 CHECK SEALS AND BREATHER FOR DIRT ENTRY POINTS.
PREVIOUS POSSIBLE BEARING OR GEAR TRAIN WEAR. CHECK MAGNETIC
REC'D #1 EXCESSIVE FERROUS METAL. OIL CHANGED AT THIS SERVICE
096 90 9 201196 N 19526 244
Date
Taken IRON IS SLIGHTLY HIGH. ALL OTHER ELEMENTS TEST RESULTS
19-10-96
ELEMENT PREVIOUS POSSIBLE BEARING OR GEAR TRAIN WEAR. CHECK MAGNETIC
OIL CONDITION/CONTAMINANTS
REC'D #2 EXCESSIVE FERROUS METAL. OIL CHANGED AT THIS SERVICE
CONCENTRATIONS IN PPM % OF ALLOWABLE
251096 N 19282 261
Date
DATE CU FE CR PB AL SI MO NA MG SN ZN W F A ST OXI Taken
NIT SUL TBN PCT TAN PQ ON***
FOR HOURS OIL IS SLIGHTLY HIGH. ALL OTHER ELEMENTS T
6/10/96 APPEAR NORMAL
181296 8 389 1 2 32 51 - 13 - CUR 1 - N - - - - - - - -
PREVIOUS -CHECK MAGNETIC
- - PLUG FOR EXCESSIVE FERROUS METAL. O
REC'D #3 THIS SERVICE.
201196 15 301 2 5 32 75 - 42 - #1 2 - N - - - - -
141096 N- 19021 - 279 314 - - -
251096 4 304 1 1 8 18 - 10 - #2 1 - N - - - - - - ELEMENT - 2 - - - OIL CONDITION/CONTA

141096 8 211 1 1 7 13 - 11 - #3 1 - N - - - - -
DATE CU
-
FE
-
CONCENTRATIONS IN PPM 14
CR PB AL SI MO NA MG SN
- - -
ZN W F
% OF ALLOWA
A ST OXI NIT SUL TB
181296 8 389 1 2 32 51 - 13 - CUR 1 - N - - - - - - -
201196 15 301 2 5 32 75 - 42 - #1 2 - N - - - - - - -
251096 4 304 1 1 8 18 - 10 - #2 1 - N - - - - - - -
141096 8 211 1 1 7 13 - 11 - #3 1 - N - - - - - - -

Contamination Control
Measuring Contamination

• Particle Count
Particle Count
• Quantifies particle by size Size Category
>4 Microns
>6 Microns
>10 Microns
>14 Microns
>21 Microns
>25 Microns
>38 Microns
>70 Microns

Contamination Control
Understanding Particle Counting

• ISO codes
• 28 code ranges

Contamination Control
ISO Cleanliness Code

• Explained in ISO Standard 4406


• Expressed Amount of Contamination
in one mL of Fluid
• 4μm / 6μm / 14μm

Contamination Control
ISO Codes

• Expressed in X/Y form


• X = number of particles larger than 6 microns (>6)
• Y = number of particles larger than 14 microns (>14)
• Example: 16/13

Contamination Control
ISO Code Chart
24 ISO Codes Number of Particles / mL
24 80,000 - 160,000
23 40,000 - 80,000
22 Dirty 20,000 - 40,000
21 10,000 - 20,000
20 5000 - 10,000
19 2500 - 5000
18 1300 - 2500
17 640 - 1300
16 Clean 320 - 640
15 160 - 320
14 80 - 160
13 40 - 80
12 20 - 40 NOTE:
11 Cleaner 10 - 20
10 5 - 10 Particle count
9 2-5 doubles at
8 1-2 each level
Contamination Control
Compare the Difference
Very Hydraulic/
Dirty Minimum Steering Fill
Oil Target Targets Oils

24 21 18 16
5 Microns
& Greater 160,000 20,000 2,500 640

19 17 15 13
15 Microns
& Greater
5,000 1,300 320 80

Contamination Control
Compare the Difference

18/15 (clean) 16/13 (very clean)

Contamination Control
Pamas S-40 Particle Counter

Contamination Control
Particle Counter Printout
Pamas
ID: Hydraulic Oil

Date: 2/7/2005 19/18/16

Size Counts cum


4 92355
6 43425
10 24525
14 14943
21 3485
25 1067
38 393
70 130

Contamination Control
Recommended Cleanliness Targets

• Fill Oil …………………………………………….… ISO16/13


• Hydraulic Systems (Implement & Steering) ……..ISO18/15
• Transmission Systems:
-Electronic……………………………………………ISO18/15
-Mechanical Transmissions..………………………ISO21/17
• Component Rebuild:
-Engines (Roll-off)
-Pending……………………………………………. ISO18/15
• Transmission, Pumps, Governors, Etc……..…… ISO16/13
• Fuel………………………………??..………………ISO18/16/13
• Injector Testing Equipment Calibration:
-Fluid……..…………………………………………..ISO15/13

Contamination Control
Visualizing Contamination

• How much “dirt” can be present in a 55-gallon


(208 liter) drum of oil and still meet ISO 16/13?

Contamination Control
Visualizing Contamination

• Half a teaspoon

Contamination Control
Contamination Control Example

• How much difference will cleaning oil from ISO


19/16 to 16/13 really make?

Example: 32 GPM (121LPM) pump working


8 hours/day for 200 days

Contamination Control
Contamination Control Example
Amount of “Dirt” Flowing
Amount of “Dirt” in Oil Through Pump in One Year

ISO 19/16 157.7 lb/yr


ISO 18/15 78.9 lb/yr
ISO 16/13 19.7 lb/yr

Contamination Control
Contamination Control
Support Available

Tools
Equipment
Methods
Procedures
}
Available for All Products (95%)

Contamination Control
https://nacd.cat.com/infocast/frames/prodsupp/cc/

https://cosa.cat.com/infocast/frames/prod_supp
/service/contamination/
Contamination Control
Contamination Control Tooling
Portable
S-40 Contamination Kit Hose Cleaning Kit

Transfer Cart And Rear Axle Small System


Fluid Recovery System Filter Buggy Filtration Cart

Contamination Control
Cleanliness Responsibility

An important Caterpillar responsibility is to ship clean


machines, engines, and components. Keeping them
clean once they leave the factory is the shared
responsibility of dealers and customers.

Contamination Control

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