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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The abundance of marine life makes Roxas City the

"Seafood Capital of the Philippines." It has received

Cleanest and Greenest Component City in Western Visayas Award

in the Gawad Pangulo sa Kapaligiran (GPK) Cleanliness and

Environmental contest. The Department of Health (DOH) awarded

the city with the Red Orchid Award for being "100 percent

tobacco-free". It has also gained the Department of Interior

and Local Government (DILG) Seal of Good Housekeeping and won

the Best Police Station in the region by the Philippine

National Police.

Like most people, you already know that smoking is bad

for your health. But do you really understand just how

dangerous smoking really is? Tobacco contains nicotine, a

highly addictive drug that makes it difficult for smokers to

kick the habit. Tobacco products also contain many poisonous

and harmful substances that cause disease and premature

death. Did you know that out of a group of 1000 smokers (age

30), that a full quarter of them (250!) will die of smoking-

related illnesses prior to completing middle age, an


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additional quarter will die prematurely from smoking-related

illnesses shortly after retirement age. For many people,

truly understanding the very real dangers associated with

smoking becomes the motivating factor that helps them to quit.

(Harry Mills, Ph.D. June 28, 2005)

Three of the main reasons that young people smoke are to

look mature, to be like their friends, and to experiment.

(http://healthliteracy.worlded.org)

Tobacco has been used by people for centuries, but

cigarette smoking and large scale cigarette manufacturing

appeared only in the 19th century. Cigarette smoking has since

spread worldwide and in 2000 about one in three adults, or

about 1.1 to 1.2 billion people worldwide, smoked. It is

estimated that smoking is responsible for four million deaths

in the world each year (WHO, 1999a).

The number of smokers is expected to increase to 1.6

billion people by 2025 as a result of growth in adult

population and increased tobacco consumption (World Bank,

1999).

We conducted this study to know the degree of

Implementation Anti-Smoking Ordinance among Universities in

Roxas City and give basis to the Supreme Student council to

improved their implementation strategies against smoking and

give proper awareness to the students.


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Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of this study was to determine the

implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance among Universities

in Roxas City.

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the

respondents?

2. What is the degree of implementation of Anti-Smoking

Ordinance among Universities in Roxas City?

Significance of the Study

This study would provide additional information

regarding the Implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance among

Universities in Roxas City, it would benefit the following:

Smokers. It would enlighten their mind that smoking can

cause early death and can cause many disease like cancer,

asthma, impotence, heart disease.

Community. The community would be safe or free from

second hand smoke and they will in still in their mind that

smoking is dangerous and it’s like killing yourself.

Supreme Student Council Officers. They would be aware

for the implementation of anti-smoking ordinance and provide

a disciplinary action for those student who caught smoking

near at the school.


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Philippine National Police (PNP). This would help them

to assist their present campaigns in supporting the

implementation of anti-smoking ordinance.

Local Government Unit (LGU). This study would help them

to give an additional feedback for a better and effective

implementing strategies.

Future Researcher. This study would give substantial

information to the future researcher that smoking have no

good effects and very dangerous to our health.

Scope and Limitation of Study

This study was limited to determine the degree of

implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance among Universities

in Roxas City.

Descriptive method was used in the study. The

respondents of the study were limited to the SSC Officers of

Universities in Roxas City. The instrument used in gathering

data was a survey questionnaire composed of two (2) parts.

Part I dealt on the Socio-demographic Profile of the

Respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status and highest

educational attainment. Part II pertained to the degree of

Implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance among the selected

Higher Education Institution’s (HEI’S) in Roxas City.


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Descriptive data were analyzed using frequency count,

percentage, and mean.

Definition of Terms

The following term were defined conceptually and

operationally in order to facilitate an appropriate and

proper understanding of study.

Anti. A prefix meaning against, opposite of,

antiparticle of, used in the formation of compound

(dictionary.com). In this study, it refers to being unfavored

on something.

Anti-Smoking. Opposed to or promoting the

discontinuance of the smoking of tobacco (dictionary.com). In

this study, it refers to the prohibiting of use of smoking

product.

Implementation. The process of putting a decision or

plan into effect; (dictionary.com). In this study, it refers

to the execution of the Philippine National Police (PNP)of

Roxas City in relation to anti-smoking ordinance.

Ordinance. It is a authorative command or order

(dictionary.com). In this study, it refers to a rules or law

that will be executed by Philippine National Police(PNP).


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Smoking. Is the inhalation of the smoke OF burning

tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars (Medical

Dictionary). In this study, it refers to the using of lighted

cigarettes, tobacco and other inorganic plants.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Related literature will review to point out the

relevance of this study to existing knowledge on the problems.

Local Literature

More than one in four Filipino children aged 13-15 are

smokers. Among those in this age group who smoke, 17.5 percent

are girls and 28.3 percent are boys. This does not include

children of this age group who are exposed to secondhand smoke

either at home or in public places. It is estimated that 55

percent of Filipino youth are exposed to secondhand smoke at

home while 65 percent get it in public places. (Global Youth

Tobacco Survey, February 11,2015)

The Philippines have approximately 17.3 smokers.

Globally, smoking caused over 100 million deaths in the 20th

century. If no urgent action is taken to control the tobacco

epidemic, the annual death toll could reach 1 billion in the

21st century. (Department of Health, 2014)

Cigarette smoking is always harmful since it is one of

the primary reasons for human death, however, smoking can be

prevented. In the Philippines, there are dearth of studies

conducted that deal with cigarette smoking and anxiety among


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college students. Out of 1,866 freshman students surveyed in

Isabela State University Main Campus, Philippines, 286 were

current smokers. Findings indicated that most of the smokers

have a high level of anxiety (Philippine e-journals, 2012)

Twenty-eight percent or 17.3 million Filipino adults age

15 years and older are current tobacco smokers, according to

the results of the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Almost half (48 percent or 14.6 million) of adult males and

9 percent (2.8 million) of adult females are current smokers.

Moreover, 23 percent of Filipino adults are daily tobacco

smokers: 38 percent for males and 7 percent for females.

Filipinos mainly smoke cigarettes, which include manufactured

cigarettes and hand-rolled cigarettes. Cigarettes are smoked

by 47 percent of men and by 9 percent of women. On the average,

male daily smokers consume 11 cigarettes per day while female

daily smokers consume 7 cigarettes per day. Among adults who

smoked 12 months before the survey, 48 percent made a quit

attempt, while only 5 percent made a quit attempt and

successfully quit smoking. (Philippine Statistic Authority,

2009)

In the Philippines, the number of women who smoke is

constantly on the rise. It is a phenomenon that, in recent

years, seems to affect the youngest most of all: 30% of girls

between the ages of 13 and 15 smoke regularly. Nine girls out


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of ten know that smoking can cause lung cancer, infertility,

early menopause, osteoporosis, and hysterectomy. For this

reason, the country has begun an anti-smoking campaign

supported by the local Catholic Church: the first initiatives

include that of putting warning labels on packaging. ( Asia

News, December 5,2008 )

Foreign Literature

Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause

of death and disease in the United States. Cigarette smoking

kills more than 480,000 Americans each year, with more than

41,000 of these deaths from exposure to second hand smoke. In

addition, smoking-related illness in the United States costs

more than $300 billion a year, including nearly $170 billion

in direct medical care for adults and $156 billion in lost

productivity. In 2015, an estimated 15.1% (36.5 million) U.S.

adults were current* cigarette smokers. Of these, 75.7% (27.6

million) smoked every day, and 24.3% (8.9 million) smoked

some days.( Center for Disease Control and Prevention,2015 )

Among the students, 18.3% reported having ever tried or

experienced with cigarette smoking. The overall prevalence of

cigarette smoking was 9.8% with significant differences in

prevalence rates by gender, 17.6% among males and 4.2% among


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females. Starting and continuing smoking was significantly

correlated with the family cigarette consumption habits. The

most common reason to start smoking was friends (24.9%) and

the most important reason to continue smoking was personal

life distress (17.6%). The majority of participants (92.3%)

reported that they were aware of the hazards of smoking. A

significant difference regarding awareness of smoking hazards

was observed between smokers and non-smokers. The most

important preventive factor for cigarette smoking was

religious beliefs (69.1%). (Us National Library of Medicine,

National Institute of Health ,2014)

According to ( SOLAS ET.AL ),2011 they found out that

the populations at risk for new smoking behaviour are

children, in particular teenage girls. A lifetime expectancy

by 10 years.

In Japan, the rate of smoking is still high. Being 50%

among males. These smokers are likely to consume low yield

cigarettes and to decrease the number of cigarettes consumed

in order to reduce health risk of smoking. Low yield nicotine.

cigarettes, which have brand names that include “light” or

“mild” or similar words and which have nicotine yields on

their packages of 0.8 mg or less are widely consumed inside

and outside Japan, and their market share is increasing.( BMC

PUBLIC HEALTH, December 2004 )


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According to the World Health Organization (WHO),2002

Smoking Statistics Fact Sheet in 2002, smoking related

diseases kill one in 10 adults globally, or cause 4 million

deaths. It is estimated that by 2030, if current trends

continue, smoking will kill one in six people. Current

statistics show that every eight seconds, someone dies from

tobacco use and at least one fourth (1/4) of all deaths from

heart diseases and about three fourths (3/4) of world’s

chronic bronchitis are related to smoking. As the number of

deaths increase yearly to an estimated 9 million deaths

attributed to tobacco yearly by 2020. Among all these smokers,

the ill effects of smoking span across the social classes

with 80% of the world’s 1.1 billion smokers live in low income

countries. By 2030, it is estimated that seven out of every

10 deaths from smoking will occur in low income countries.

Specifically, smoking and tobacco use accounts for

significant number for cancer deaths. Tobacco use accounts

for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and 87% of lung cancer

deaths. (Source: Cancer Facts & Figures 2009). Besides lung

cancer, tobacco use also causes increased risk for cancers of

the mouth, lips, nasal cavity (nose) and sinuses, larynx

(voice box), pharynx (throat), esophagus (swallowing tube),

stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, uterine cervix, and acute

myeloid leukemia.
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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of detailed description of the

place and respondent of the study, data collection, research

instrument, validity and reliability of the instrument, data

gathering procedure, scoring of items and methods of

statistical analysis.

Research Design

Descriptive method of research will be used in this

study. Descriptive method is a type of research which

describes a situation or a given state of affairs in terms of

specified aspect or factors (David, 2002).

Locale of the Study

The place of the study will be at Capsu Main Campus,

Capsu Dayao and Filamer Christian University during the

Second Semester of Academic Year 2017-2018.

Respondents of the Study

The respondent of the study was fifty two (52) Supreme

Student Council Officers.


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Respondents Population Percentage


Filamer Christian 13 25
University

CapSU Main 20 38.5

Capsu Dayao 19 36.5

Total 52 100

Research Instrument

Standard survey questionnaire were used to gather

significant data composed of two (2) parts. Part I dealt on

the Socio demographic profile of the respondents in terms of

age, sex, civil status, estimated monthly family income, and

highest educational attainment. Part II pertained to the

degree of the implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinances among

Universities in Roxas City.

Data Gathering Procedure

In collecting the data, the researchers secured

permission from the College Director, through a written

request, to conduct the study. Another letter was prepared to

ask permission from Campus Administrator of Capsu Main,

University President of Filamer Christian University, and

from college Director of Capsu Dayao, Accomplished


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questionnaires were immediately and personally collect by the

researcher to ensure one hundred percent (100%) retrieval.

Data Analysis Procedure

Scoring of Items

To facilitate the analysis of the data each item was

scored using the following scoring guide as basis.

Score Response Category

5 Fully Implemented

4 Implemented

3 Moderately Implemented

2 Less Implemented

1 Least Implemented

For the interpretation of each item the following mean

interval and verbal interpretation with the used as guide.

Mean Interval Verbal Interpretation

4.2-5.0 Fully Implemented

3.4-4.1 Implemented

2.6-3.39 Moderately Implemented

1.8-2.59 Less Implemented

1.0-1.79 Least Implemented


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Statistical Tools

The following statistical tools were used in analyzing

the data of the research.

Percentage was used to determine the profile of the

respondents.

The percentage is defined by the formula (Pagoso,

2000):

P = (F*100) / N

Where:

P = Percentage

F = Frequency

N = Total number of respondents per group

Mean was used to determine the average age and problems

encountered.

The formula used for the mean was adapted from Downie

and Heath, (1984).

∑x

X =

Where:

∑x = Sum of Score

N = Number of Respondents

X = Mean
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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents and discusses the result on the

personal information of the respondents, and the

implementation of anti-smoking ordinance among Universities

in Roxas City.

Socio-demographic Profile of
the Respondents

Table 1 presents the socio-demographic profile of the

respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, educational

attainment, and estimated monthly family income.

Age. When respondents were grouped according to age,

data showed that one (1.92%) were 33 to 35 years old; none

had age of 30 to 32 years old; one (1.92%) were 27 to 29 years

old; one (1.92%) were 24 to 26 years old; nine (17.31%) were

21 to 23 years old; thirty four (65.38%) were 18 to 20 years

old; and six (11.54%) were 15 to 17 years old.

Sex. When the respondents were grouped according to sex,

data showed that twenty seven (51.92%) were females and twenty

five (48.08%) were males. This implied that females were

dominant supreme student council officers.

Civil Status. When the respondents were grouped

according to civil status, data showed that fifty two (100%)


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was single; and none had married and legally separated and

widow/widower. This indicated that all of them are single.

Educational Attainment. When the respondents were

grouped according to educational attainment, data showed that

five (9.62%) were high school undergraduate; forty seven

(90.38%) were college undergraduate; and none had elementary

undergraduate and elementary graduate and high school

graduate and college graduate.

Estimated Monthly Family Income. When the respondents

were grouped according to their estimated monthly family

income, the result showed that 11 (21.15%) had an income of

below Php5,000; six (11.54%) had an income of Php5,000 to

Php9,999.99; eleven (21.15%) had an income of Php10,000 to

Php14,999.99; eight (15.38%) had an income of Php15,000 to

Php19,999.99;; five (9.62%) had an income of Php20,000 to

Php24,999.99; four (9.62%) had an income of Php25,000 to

Php29,999.99; two (3.85%) had an income of Php30,000 to

Php34,999.994 (7.69%) had an income of Php35,000 and above;.

The highest monthly family income of the respondents are below

Php 5,000 and Php 10,000 to Php 14,999.00.


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Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the respondents

Variables Category Frequency Percentage


Age 15-17 6 11.54
(in years) 18-20 34 65.38
21-23 9 17.31
24-26 1 1.92
27-29 1 1.92
33-35 1 1.92
Total 52 100

Sex Female 27 48.08


Male 25 51.92
Total 52 100

Civil Status Single 52 100


Total 52 100

Educational
Attainment High school under
graduate 5 9.62

College under graduate 47 90.38


Total 52 100

Estimated Below 5,000 11 21.15


monthly Php 5,000-Php 9,999.99 6 11.54
family Php10,000-Php14,999.99 11 21.15
income Php15,000-Php19,999.99 8 15.38
Php20,000-Php24,999.99 5 9.62
Php25,000-Php29,999.99 5 9.62
Php30,000-Php34,999.99 2 3.85
Php35,000 and above 4 7.69
Total 52 100
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Implementation of Anti-smoking
Ordinance among Universities
in Roxas City.

Table 2 presents the implementation of anti-smoking

ordinance among Universities in Roxas City.

Data showed that, one (1) out of thirteen (13) items

was fully implemented. These item were: Warning on

cigarette packages with a weighted score of 222 and a

mean of 4.27 .

Ten (10) items was implemented. These items were:

The Designated Smoking Area shall be located in an open space

with no permanent or temporary roof or walls in an outdoor

area with a weighted score of 196 and a mean of 3.77; Prohibit

smoking in public places with a weighted score of 194 and a

mean of 3.73; Apprehend violators in accordance of the

ordinance with a weighted score of 194 and a mean of 3.73;

Restriction in Selling of Tobacco Products Within School

Perimeters with a weighted score of 189 and a mean of 3.63;

Every Designated Smoking Area shall have highly visible and

prominently displayed Smoking area signages that shall

measure not more than 128 Square inches size shall contain

the information regarding the hazardous effects of smoking on

the smoker’s health and/or second hand smoke on others with

a weighted score of 188 and a mean of 3.61; The Designated


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Smoking Areas shall not be located within 10 meters of

entrances, exists or any place when people regularly pass or

congregate with a weighted score of 186 and a mean of 3.58;

Restriction of selling tobacco to minors with a weighted score

of 186 and a mean of 3.58; Enforcement of tobacco control

policies with a weighted score of 184 and a mean of 3.54;

Proof of age verification for buyer with a weighted score of

180 and a mean of 3.46; No food and drinks shall served in

the Designated Smoking Area with a weighted score of 177 and

a mean of 3.4.

The remaining two (2) were only moderately implemented.

These items were: The Designated Smoking Area shall not have

an area of larger 10 square meters with a weighted score of

173 and a mean of 3.33; Placing, posting, or distributing any

type of tobacco advertisements with a weighted score of 171

and a mean of 3.29.

The grand mean of the implementation of Anti-smoking

ordinance among Universities in Roxas City implied that is

was implemented. This further implied that smoking ordinance

was implemented.
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Table 2. Implementation of Anti-smoking Ordinance among


the selected Higher Education Institution’s (HEI’s)in Roxas City.

Anti-Smoking Ordinance Weighted Mean verbal


Score Interpretation
 Warning on cigarette
packages 222 4.27 Fully
Implemented
 The Designated Smoking
Area shall be located
in an open space with
no permanent or
temporary roof or walls 196 3.77 Implemented
in an outdoor area

 Prohibit smoking in
public places 194 3.73 Implemented

 Apprehend violators in
accordance of the
ordinance 194 3.73 Implemented

 Restriction in Selling
of Tobacco Products
Within School
Perimeters 189 3.63 Implemented

 Every Designated Smoking


Area shall have highly
visible and prominently
displayed Smoking area
signage that shall measure
not more than 128 Square
inches size shall contain
the information regarding
the hazardous effects of
smoking on the smoker’s 188 3.61 Implemented
smoke on others
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Table 2. continued

Items Weighted Mean Verbal


score Interpretation
 The Designated Smoking
Areas shall not be
located within 10
meters of entrances,
exists or any place
when people regularly
pass or congregate 186 3.58 Implemented

 Restriction of selling
tobacco to minors 186 3.58 Implemented

 Enforcement of tobacco
control policies 184 3.54 Implemented

 Proof of age
verification for buyer 180 3.46 Implemented

 No food and drinks shall


served in the Designated
Smoking Area 177 3.4 Implemented

 The Designated Smoking


Area shall not have an
area of larger 10 square Moderately
173 3.33 Implemented
meters

 Placing, posting, or
distributing any type of
tobacco advertisements 171 3.29 Moderately
Implemented

Grand Mean
3.61 Implemented
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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSILONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study,

significant findings, conclusion and the recommendations

based on findings.

Summary of finding

The study aimed to determine the socio-demographic

profile of the respondents and the degree of implementation

of Anti-smoking ordinance among Universities in Roxas City as

perceived by the supreme student council officers.

The respondents of the study were the supreme student

council officers from the Universities in Roxas City.

Survey questionnaire was used to gather significant data

and composed of two parts. Part I dealt with the personal

information of respondents such as age, sex, civil status,

educational attainment and estimated monthly family income.

Part II sought to find out the degree of implementation of

Anti-smoking ordinances among Universities in Roxas City as

perceived by the supreme student council officers.

The descriptive research design was used in this study.

Descriptive data were analyzed using frequency count, mean

and percentage.
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Findings revealed that the majority of the respondents

were on the age bracket of 18-20, females, and single. Most

of the respondents were college under graduates and had an

estimated monthly family income of below Php5,000 and

Php10,000-Php14,999.99.

The implementation of anti-smoking ordinance among

Universities in Roxas City were Implemented.

Conclusions

Based on the summary of the study, the researchers

concluded the following:

Most of the supreme student council officers of

Universities in Roxas City were females, single, college

under graduates and had an estimated monthly family income of

below Php5,000 and Php10,000-Php14,999.99.

The implementation of anti-smoking ordinance among

Universities in Roxas City were implemented.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study and the conclusion,

the researches wanted to give the following recommendations.


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They may create or open a small business like grocery or

anything that can give them extra money to raised their

monthly family income.

The Government may provide further inspection and

implied or make some programs in order to improved or to make

Anti-Smoking Ordinance become fully implemented.

The store that selling tobacco products shall provide a

large space or area for the smokers but not more than 10

square meters.

The Government may provide poster that tobacco can cause

many disease and not good to our health.


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REFERENCES

a. Books
SOLAS ET.AL, 2011. The population at risk for new smoking
behavior are children, in particular teenage girls.
DAVID, 2002. Descriptive type of research.
DOWNIE and HEATH, 1984. Basic Statistical Methods.
CYNTHIA DELA CRUZ. Survey Questionnaires

b. Internet Sources
GOOGLE
WIKIPEDIA
DICTIONARY
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APPENDICES
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