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SOUTH KOREA

International Relations Profile

[Nombre de Autores]
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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF SOUTH persona

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KOREA corregir

The Republic of Korea has established diplomatic


ABSTRACT (CORRECTED)
relations with 190 countries, with permanent embassies

The following work is an analysis of different aspects in 114 countries.

of South Korea; it is possible to be begging with the


political structure of the country and its various
CONCLUSION 3-4
branches of power. For a more international panorama,
The Korean War begins with the invasion of North
the diplomatic structure of this South Korea was
Korea to the territory of the South to implement
investigated and its relations with other countries.
communism throughout the territory. In 1945, the
Based on that and taking into account the various topics
president of the United States approved a counterattack
during the development of the class in international
toward North Korea and General MacArthur proposed
relations, various historical facts were taken into
the use of nuclear weapons against North. Korea.
analysis whit different points of view.
Soldiers, citizens and political groups (Trying to defend
Also, the different aspects by which a country may
the ideologies) that participated during the war
affect each other were taken into account, such as the
assumed the consequences, on the other hand, the
environment in which its inhabitants live, the country's
participation of the state on the part of the main
positions on terrorism and other aspects that may affect
involved in the war was decisive, since, of these, the
them.
troops. Those were sent for the attacks. Realism shows
the behavior of nations in international relations
CONCLUSION 1-2
explicitly; Liberalism looks for in some way to defend

Korea has a system of pluralist, presidential, and what countries do to defend US support for South

democratic government; the population over 20 years Korea.

chooses the president and this one has an unique


mandate that lasts five years.
CONCLUSION 5-6

An unicameral legislature constitutes the legislative North Korea decides to implement an open economy,
power. The constitutional court directs the judicial promoting foreign investment, strengthening its
power. The political structure of South Korea is exports and importing its necessary products, while
characterized by having a democratic system that is South Korea has kept a strong relationship with the
governed by the constitution, the constitutional court country, which allowed economic growth. Most of the
directs an unicameral and judicial legislative power. military and security treaties that South Korea has done
have been with the United States; South Korea has The political structure of the country
about 107 agreements on military and security issues.
"The System of government in Korea is a
The Republic of Korea has around 12 agreements that pluralistic, democratic, and presidential system, the
refer to cooperation in cultural and educational fields, popular vote elects the president every five years,
institutions, sports, and youth. South Korea is part of for one term only. The President Appoints the Prime
international organizations such as IMF, UNESCO, Minister” (QATAR EMBASSY IN, 2018).
APEC, among others. In this country, every five years, citizens over 20
years can elect the president in a vote that takes
CONCLUSION 7-8 place all over the nation. Once the president gets
elected, it will last five years without the possibility
Citizen participation shows how any citizen manifests
of re-release.
himself against the state or its rules. The voices of In the political structure. the president performs
ordinary people have intensified with globalization and
different functions such as the defense of the
the communications revolution. Terrorism is one of the
constitution, he is also the head of state, complying
most common attacks in the history of the country, with the government's ordinances, and representing
mainly because of the attacks perpetrated by North his country in front of the other nations of the
Korea, attacks such as assassinations, kidnappings, and
international arena. Likewise, the country's leader
sabotage against the government; South Korea has set
carries out his executive functions through the
up a defense mechanism against conventional Council of State, which is composed of 15 to 30
terrorism.
members; the prime minister designates them.
However, the president is the only one who can be
CONCLUSION 9
held responsible for the most important government
policies. “The Prime Minister is appointed by the
The development of industry and business are affecting
President and approved by the National Assembly.
the environment in South Korea; South Korean
The members of the State Council, or the Cabinet,
government has implemented environmental laws,
lead and supervise their administrative ministries,
which include restrictions on both green belts and
participate in the deliberation of major state affairs.”
emissions that have improved Seoul's air quality. South
(nations online, 2019)
Korea is the fifth largest user of nuclear energy in the
“A unicameral legislature composes the
world the shows how the industrialization of South
Legislative branch; the National Assembly of
Korea has been the beginning of high pollution.
South Korea has 299 representatives the majority
are elected via single-member constituencies
however 56 are voted by proportional
“MAKING OF MODERN WORLD” representation. Every member of the National
Assembly serves for four years. The Judicial representation of the State; of a unicameral
branch is led by the Constitutional Court which legislative power confirmed by the National
consists of 9 justices; 3 are recommended by the Assembly of Korea, which is composed by 299
president, three by the Chief Justice of the representatives. The third power, the
Supreme Court, and three by the National judicial one that is directed by the Constitutional
Assembly. The president appoints the President Court is composed by nine judges; which three are
of the Constitutional Court with the support of assigned by the president, three by the Assembly,
the National Assembly. Constitutional reviews and three by the president of the Constitutional
and deciding impeachment cases are the main Court (Cavanaugh, 2017).
responsibilities of the Constitution Court. The
Supreme Court oversees other judicial affairs,
which also serve as the final court of appeal for
all cases in South Korean law.” (Study Country,
s.f.).

Candidates for civil service positions face very


complicated and stressed exam. Although
traditionally the positions should be distributed on
the basis of seniority, the reformed ones carried out
since 1998 changed that system of choice “By 2017 Infographics: Heads of each country
more than 800,000 employees work in South Korea,
half of them employed by the central government,
while local governments employ only about
300,000” (New World Encyclopedia, 2017)
The political structure of South Korea is
characterized by having a democratic system that is
governed by the constitution and is composed by
three branches of power each of them with
distinctive against the obligations that each one has.
In this way, it distinguishes itself from other
neighboring countries that manage a non-
democratic political structure. Also, from the above, “DIPLOMACY”
it is possible to synthesize the political system of
South Korea is managed by a president, which "The diplomacy is a process between actors
functions as head of government in charge of the (diplomats, usually representing a state) who exist
within a system (international relations) and engage Permanent missions
in private and public dialogue (diplomacy) to pursue “A permanent diplomatic mission performs
their objectives peacefully." (McGlinchey, 2017).
the duties which are within the field of responsibility
Even when it can be like the term of foreign
of the Ministry and belong to the representative and
policy, the diplomacy could be considerate just as a
foreign-policy functions envisaged in international
part of this.
treaties and the diplomatic practice” (MINISTRY

Diplomatic structure of the country OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, 2012). South Korea has
permanent missions in the United Nations, in 1951
There exist different types of missions of a
South Korea took part as an observer in the United
country in other; one of these is the embassy,
Nations, but in 1991 they finally became a full-
“diplomatic mission located in the capital city of
fledged Mission in the United Nations.
another country which generally offers a full range
“Ambassador Cho Tae-Yul currently heads the
of services, including consular services.” (diplomat,
Korean Mission, Permanent Representative of the
2019). South Korea currently have many embassies
Republic of Korea” (overseas, 2019).
around the world; in Africa, the country has 20
Also, in Genova and to ASEAN (Association of
embassies, it means, most of the African countries
Southeast Asian Nations) (Howe, 2013). The
have one. In America, the country has 21 embassies,
"Ministry of Foreign Affairs directs international
counting Colombia. In the Asian continent, South
relations of South Korea.”
Korea has 36 embassies; in North Korea, there is not
Having a significant relation with China due to
a South Korean embassy because they do not
its stimulations in exchanges and generating the
recognize them as a state. In the European continent,
growth of its shops. Besides that, in the issue of
there are 29 embassies.
North and South Korea relations, "China has tried to
“South Korea strives to promote friendly
mediate between North Korea and the United States;
and cooperative relations with other countries. As
and between North Korea and Japan and has
of July 2018, the Republic of Korea has secure
initiated and participated in three-party summits in
diplomatic relations with 190 countries,
Seoul, Washington, and Pyongyang.”
operating permanent embassies in 114 countries,
(WIKIPEDIA, 2019).
in addition to 45 consular offices and five
representative offices. Furthermore, there are 41 Bilateral relations

overseas Korean cultural centers and culture and The bilateral relations between South Korea and
information officers in 31 countries across the China, (insular nation of China), started in 1992;
globe as part of efforts to promote Korean these relations are essential to South Korea because
culture.” (Korea, 2019). Taiwan economy is also based on technological
aspects, allowing them to negotiate and generate
essential exchanges. The economic development of communism in the whole peninsula winning
Taiwan is not as significant as the Korean one; for territory. After this attack, the United States decided
that reason, an excellent bilateral relation could help to send armies to combat and to face the invasion.
both countries to keep developing its technological Finally, in 1953, after three years, United States
economy. threatened with using nuclear arms against North
Korea and China –which also sent armies to the
“ONE WORLD, MANY ACTORS” Korean war- if the war does not end and the
countries sign an agreement. In these terms, China
Introduction and North Korea surrender and the negotiations
In this chapter, it is necessary to take in mind the start. Despite these negotiations, a peace agreement
“Korean war” -the “first armed conflict of Cold has not still signed until the moment.
War"- to analyze it and find the relation,
Individual level
consequences, and role of the different actors. In the
In the first place, we can find the ‘individual
first part, there will be a summary about the event
level,’ in which the individual actions represents
and its history, and then, it will be analyzed the war
relation to the chosen event. In the Korean War,
from the different levels (individual, group, state,
Stalin, "Soviet leader who ruled the USSR since
and system).
1929" (Biografías y Vidas, 2012). Gave his
History agreement with the target of recovery Asian
‘Korean War' was an armed conflict that occurred territories, authorizing the attack, which meant the
between 1950 and 1953 in the Korean peninsula start of the armed conflict. Besides that, Kim II
which permanently divided the territory in North Sung, leader of North Korea, acted sending his
Korea and South Korea introduce the history, in troops to invade South Korea going through the 38°
1945, the peninsula was divided in tow and was parallel. These two individual actions can be
occupied by the "USSR in the North", and by "The denominated as the causes of the start of the Korean
United States in South". In 1948, in the Cold War War.
process, the North established a ‘Popular republic,' Also, other two critical individual actions that
it means, a communist dictatorship led by Kim II made part of the conflict were in the first place, the
Sung, meanwhile, in South Syngman Rhee role of Harry S. Truman, president of United States
established a pro-north American dictatorship; this (1945-1953), who approved the counterattack
precedent promoted the "Korean War" based on the towards North Korea, allowing the use of their Air
differences of ideologies. Force, establishing the development of the Korean
Korean War starts with the invasion of North War. In the second place, the general MacArthur,
Korea to the South territory to implement who proposed the use of nuclear arms against North
Korea; nevertheless, due to it proposes, the general Command and United States forces in the Korean
was replaced by the general Ridway in 1951 War. Other Conservative Party leaders opposed
(Historias del Siglo XX, 2015). Colombian involvement in this war. The party
was already experiencing growing factionalism
Group level
and Gomez's decision to send troops to Korea
In the second place, we can find the ‘group level,' further galvanized growing internal opposition to
which means the actions of groups of individuals. In his rule.” (WIKIPEDIA, 2019).
this level, we can identify the soldiers, citizens, and
System level
politic groups. The first ones, had an essential role
in the Korean War, because even when it was a Finally, the ‘system level' which shows the
power war, the soldiers were the one that had to fight affectations in the global environment and the
and suffer the consequences; also, the citizens had sweeping panorama. Korean War finally caused a
to endure the worst parts (death of 4 million people million deaths, including foreign people which were
in war) (Profe en Historia, 2018). (These groups had not directly involved. Besides that, "the peninsula
relative importance because even when war affected continued with a tension climate and established
them directly, they were not the causes of this border frictions which currently still exist" (Profe en
conflict. The second group is the political groups Historia, 2018). North Korea got the nationalization
(communists and capitalists), both trying to defend of its economy, also getting crisis due to the closed
its ideologies and the first ones trying to impose in economy, while South Korea got an open economy,
the whole territory. having the support of the United States and the
foreign investment of Japan (Profe en Historia,
State level
2018).
The third level is identified as ‘the state level,",
which are the states as actors. In this level, it is “INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
possible to identify what the central states involved
THEORY”
in the conflict made (North Korea and China, South
Korea and the United States), all sending armies to International relations aim to try to explain the
fight against the ideologies. The United States interactions within the state and the way of behaving
creating the ‘Special Operations Group Smith' towards other countries. In short, they seek to
which first fought against North Korea invasion. explain the behavior of international actors between
Besides that, at this level, it can also be identified as them (DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE,
the role of other involved states. s.f.).
“President Laureano Gómez ordered
Colombian troops to support the United Nations
Choice of theoretical debate Realism

The main criteria to define the "Korean War" as Origin


the historical event to consult, is given by the
“Set of related theories of international relations
significant differences presented by each of these;
that emphasizes the role of the state, national
since South Korea is a democratic country, under a
interest, and military power in world politics” (Bell,
very marked capitalist system, with a culture
2018). Realism seeks to show the behavior of states
strongly influenced by the West. On the other hand,
based on their character predetermined on their
North Korea is considered the entire hermetic state
interests. Also, they show that international relations
in the world, which is managed under a supreme
are managed under tension and wars.
leader, and with a socialist economic system.
The conflict changes the nature of how wars were Historical Context

fought, but it also helped change the definition of The "Korean War" (1950-53) was a powerful
victory. Beginning with an attack by the Democratic confrontation between communist-system North
People's Republic of Korea” (North) on the Korea and anti-Communist South Korea. This war
“Republic of Korea” (South) in June 1950, the war was quite controversial, as prolonged stagnation
lasted three years and cost the lives of millions of marked it, and death by combatants and civilians.
persons. Seen by many as the first clash of the Cold Furthermore, what was called the "38th parallel",
War, it was nevertheless a line drawn in the sand, marked an inflexible point in which the division
with the political and ideological positions of occurred; the peninsula is divided in two. Given the
nations placing them on one side or the other. The confirmation of this dividing line began to generate
Communist of North Korea formed a loose future conflicts. On the other hand, the Soviets
collaboration with Russia. The Western bloc, controlled and occupied the land located to the north
meanwhile, came forward actually to participate or while the United States controlled the south side.
symbolically in the conflict. (Edwards, 2017) “This set the stage for the birth of two new states;
the pro-communist state of North Korea and the
Theoretical Debates
anti-communist state of South Korea. Relations
The choice of the theoretical debate is based between the two rivals continued to spoil and in
mainly on how international relations occurred 1950, the 38th parallel marked the crossing of some
during the Korean War, and how they are lived 75,000 troops into southern territory; an event that
today. The theories of liberalism and realism are sparked the beginning of the Korean War.”
chosen to try to define how states behave. (Cavanaugh, 2017).
Realism is fundamental in the conflict between perspective of confrontation that even today has not
both nations since it explicitly shows the behavior of waned since the peace process has not yet been
nations in international relations; since both Koreas signed. It can be inferred that in some way the war
decided to opt for a way that is very close to continues. Also, from realism, it becomes evident
defending the national interest over others, that the tension, the formation of the military, the
influenced by other countries such as the Soviet border militarization, among others. Being a
Union and the United States. phenomenon of evident realism; since fear is one of
the main engines of relationships.
Parties involved

South Korea: Principal affected, who acted under Liberalism


the help of the United States in ideological defense Origin
of capitalism (or against communism).
“Liberalism based on the moral argument that
North Korea: Attack of the first and was
guaranteeing the right of an individual to life,
supported by the Soviet Union; between an internal
liberty, and property. Consequently, liberals
struggle to overcome ideologies.
emphasize the welfare of the individual as the
United States: Occupied the territory of the South
fundamental part of a fair political system. A
until 1948; after the dominance of Japanese during
political system characterized by unlimited
world security. This country sent about 90% of the
power, such as a monarchy or a dictatorship,
troops that arrived in South Korea to support them
cannot protect the life and liberty of its citizens.
in the Korean War. Influenced the capitalist system
Therefore, the main concern of liberalism is to
directly in this part, and his action that left more than
build institutions that protect individual freedom
37 thousand dead and hundreds of thousands of
by limiting and controlling political power.
wounded remained in the memory of the South
While these are domestic policy issues, the realm
Koreans.
of the RI is also important for liberals because the
Soviet Union: Main support of North Korea
activities of a state abroad can have a strong
during the battle; in the struggle to overcome during
influence on freedom in the country.” (MEISER,
a tense cold war against the United States
2018).
United Nations: This was the first war in which
the UN played a fundamental role since, at the Historical Context
request of South Korea, aid came from 16 countries In the framework of international relations, it is
that sent armed troops (CNN Library, 2018). sometimes difficult to determine the behavior and

Future perspective intention of each state.


A premise of liberalism is centered on the support
The Korean War marks a milestone in
of "liberal" countries, also called Democrats. For
international relations; and leaves a future
this reason, from a more analytic point of view and meetings between the representants of "North Korea
focused on the behavior of different states, it may be and the United States."
thought that there are liberal behaviors within a
Points of agreement
closer view of realism.
For example, if we analyze the historical context Origin
of the moment in which there was a stronger A point of agreement is found between the "way
division of capitalism and socialism (communism) it can be seen.", Before the international scope, both
it can be observed that liberal behavior is present in act under behavior from the realistic theory.
the relationship of the United States with Korea; However, both present liberalism factors, such as
since, although they supported the war, it did it to these are on the one hand that due to respect for life
defend the premise of democracy. Similarly, and and the dignity of those involved, there must be a
although contrary to the premise of "democracy," if military confrontation in order to be utilitarian, in
it can be said that there is cooperation between the the sense of saving the as many hostilities as
Soviet Union, China, and North Korea at that time. possible on each side.

Parties involved Future perspective


South Korea, United States: In the points of agreement of both theories, it can
Mutual aid in defense of democracy. be stated that both used military confrontation as a
China, the Soviet Union, and North Korea: means of survival and protection of interests.
Defense of an idea; that act in a more accurate However, as times have changed, organizations
way according to the behavior described by realism, have strengthened; and international relations have
it is possible to find that there is cooperation, an sought a consensus. It can be said that relationships
adequate defense in some points, and a way of today, although they are based on fear, there is a
perceiving international relations different from the certain non-armaments’ respect. Since both parties
countries called "democrats." understand that a confrontation would leave more

Future perspective damage than good things.

From liberalism, the perspectives of the 21st Points of disagreement


century seek, in the midst of an increasingly
Historical context
connected and communicated society, to handle
international relations with caution. And at least it The main points of disagreement are two: The

seems to take away from this point of inflection at realism in this war shows how the way to solve

times. For example, the first meeting between problems and differences is through confrontation,

leaders of South Korea and North Korea, or the fear, and the search for domination. While
liberalism seeks in some way to defend what
countries do, in particular, defend US support for under a pro-American system. His way of acting
South Korea; since within the theory, it is peculiar was also based on realism.
that the liberal countries must protect each other. North Korea: The Soviet Union and China
influenced and supported this country. It decided to
Parties involved
incite communism in a violent way to the south side,
South Korea and the United States with a
seeking to dominate and subjugate this part of the
political and economic system very different from
territory.
that of North Korea; the systems show a clear point
United States: From the realistic point of view,
that the parties involved have different thoughts, and
through the war, to defend the territory of South
defend opposing ideas.
Korea with clear objectives, in addition to veto
Story of the event my perspective relations and commercially close North Korea.

Origin realism Future perspective realism-liberalism

Realism in international relations explains the It is possible to find both; the realism marked in

behavior of states, mostly authoritarian or the intimidation, the fear, or something similar to "a

dominating. In itself, realism is a behavior in which cold war" that has not yet ended, since the States

states are concerned only in themselves, seek in any continue to Armand, creating explosives and nuclear

way to achieve what they need, and use little bombs in case of "something." On the other hand, it

"worthy" means to achieve objectives. can be rescued that control organizations such as the
UN, NGOs, and the media that in some way seek to
Historical context realism
manage liberally by seeking consensus, meetings,
The event originates realistically, in search of the among other ways than the use of threats, sanctions,
domination of other states, and no respect for the and hostile acts.
lives of others. Also, to have a dictatorial state like
that of North Korea influenced by countries that at
that time operated the same system as the Soviet “INTERNATIONAL LAW”
Union and China are. On the other hand, the defense
of the authoritarian United States hegemony with International law is "the set of rules, agreements,

devastating aims clearly shows its way of carrying and treaties that are binding between countries.

out the relations between both countries. When sovereign states enter into agreements that are
binding and enforceable, it is called international
Parties involved
law” (legal career path, 2014).
South Korea: Defend the capitalist system after
being liberated from Japan by the United States and
Economical treaties Association (Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and
Liechtenstein) Turkey and Vietnam”. In 2016 takes
Since time ago, South Korea has developed a
effect the FTA with Colombia, adding then to the
close relationship with the United States, which has
earlier list.
supported in many ways after the World War II in
Also, South Korea
the Separation of the Korean Peninsula; on March
“is a member of the World Trade
15th, 2012, The Republic of Korea and the United
Organization (WTO) and has signed subsidiary
States of America signed a "Free Trade Agreement."
agreements including TRIPs (Trade-Related
This is the largest FTA signed by the US since
Aspects of Intellectual Property) and the
NAFTA (Export.gov).
Government Procurement Agreement. Korea has
This agreement removes 95% of the customs fees
been a member of the Organization for Economic
until its duration (5 years) (Wikipedia, 2019).
Cooperation and Development (OECD) since
To the difference of North Korea, the Republic
December 1996.” (Department of Commerce,
of Korea decides to implement an open economy,
United States of America., 2019).
promoting foreign investment, getting strong its
Belong to these organizations also help the country
exportations and also importing their needed
in order to get financial resources, support in a crisis,
products. That ideology to keep international
and to keep their economy at a high level.
relations helped the economy to achieve its
development. Besides that, the sign of Free Trade Military and security treaties
Agreement means a vital door to establish its
The majority of military and security treaties that
products around the world, becoming in a developed
South Korea has were made with the United States.
economy of the world. Due to the United States
South Korea also has about 107 agreements among
supporting the World War II, South Korea has kept
different countries in the topic of military and
a strong relationship with the country, which
security. Military and security have always been an Commented [OD3]: Parrafo presentado como una sola idea, y
una idea no puede ser taaaan larga, un parrafo esta conformado por 3
allowed growth in the economy, (because the United o mas ideas.
essential factor for South Korea due to historical
States is one of the biggest hegemonies)
development and geographical position.
South Korea is also integrant of the Asia-Pacific
After World War II and the Korean War, the
Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum since 1989.
situation in international environmental turned
For the 2020 year, the forum has the objective of the
complicated, creating conflicts. For that reason,
establishment of a "Free Trade Area" among its
countries kept increasing the budget of military and
members. Besides that, the Republic of "Korea has
security. The complicated situation among North
free trade agreements with ASEA” (Association of
Korea and their partners (Russia, China), almost that
Southeast Asian Nations), with “Australia, Canada,
obligates to South Korea to invest in security and
Chile, China, India, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore”,
defense.
“The European Union, and the European Free Trade
Education and culture treaties “International organizations are increasingly
important in helping us govern our world”
The Republic of Korea has about 12 education
(McGlinchey, 2017). The role of international
and cultural treaties: with Serbia and Montenegro,
organizations has been relevant since their
Taiwan, Nigeria, China, Egypt, Czech Republic,
appearance in order to achieve determined interests.
Lebanon, Bulgaria, Latvia, Armenia, and Spain; the
Besides, countries have also non-governmental
agreements are about cooperation in cultural ambits
organizations, multinational corporations, and
and education, institutions, sports, and young
hybrid organizations which are a mix of all the
people.
different categories" (McGlinchey, 2017).
Even when hegemonies surround and affect
directly South Korea with other conflicts, the IGO’S analysis
country can generate strategies in order to expand
An international governmental organization
influences. Nevertheless, South Korea has a big
(IGO), also referred to as an intergovernmental
problem; the intern policies do not help to
organization, is an organization with a membership
accomplish and influence their foreign policy.
of only states. The organization is usually founded
South Korean education is based on math and
upon a treaty, or a multilateral agreement, and
science and the development in technological
consists of more than two states. Member states
abilities, which impulse the knowledge for
determine how the organization is run, vote within
increasing innovation and economic development.
the organization, and provide its funding.
"The fundamentals of South Korea's foreign
(McGlinchey, 2017)
policy are sound, but the country must handle
South Korea is member of different international
practical limitations, including the National
organizations, such as UNESCO (The United
Assembly, bureaucratic interests, public opinion,
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
and the country's constitution, to present an effective
Organization), IMF (International Monetary Fund),
and united foreign policy" (Council of Foreign
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation), IAEA
Relations, 2018).
(International Atomic Energy Agency), ILO
Besides that, in 2016 was unleashed "the bribery
(International Labor Organization, WHO (World
and influence peddling scandal, generating the
Health Organization), UN (United Nations) in 1991,
destitution of the president Park Geun-Hye and a
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation
lack of power and showing the weakness of intern
and Development) in 1996, and member of IOC
policies (Council of Foreign Relations, 2018).
(International Olympic Committee) since 1947.
(Korea.net, s.f.)
“INTERNATIONAL
South Korea has had three mandates to the World
ORGANIZATIONS” Heritage Committee, the first one in 1997 until
2003, the second one in 2005 until 2009, and the public administration, agriculture, industrial energy,
third one in 203 until 2017. South Korea inscribed forestry, and fisheries (Korea.net, s.f.).
12 cultural properties and one natural property. South Korea is also contributing to world peace
In the sector of International Cooperation, South and security through taking part in a wide variety of
Korea occupies an important role; taking “part in UN peacekeeping acts and through the support to the
programs designed to provide support for UN peacekeeping budget. Currently, South Korea
impoverished countries through the World Bank, the troops are stationed in eight states including
IMF, and the OECD. Recently, the country has also Lebanon, South Sudan, India, Pakistan, and West
joined worldwide efforts for peacekeeping, global Sahara, where they are tasked with the maintenance
economic stabilization, environmental of order, rehabilitation, medical services, and other
conservation” (Korea.or, s.f.). activities. (Korea.net, s.f.)
Also, South Korea “chaired the G2O Summit
held in Seoul in 2010” (korea.net), through the “VOICES OF PEOPLE”
observers, it got a good leader vision. Besides that,
In this part, the main actor is people, the voice of
the country participated in The Nuclear Security
people refers to those "citizens who want more say
Summit Seoul 2012. It is looking for world peace
in what their rulers do and are not content with
and organization to international cooperation.
current political arrangements –even in the context
“South Korea is enhancing its status in the
of an existing democracy” (McGlinchey). These
international community by achieving important
disagreements generate protests, a big issue in an
results in the Green Growth sector. The country has
international context.
hosted the UN Green Climate Fund (GCF), and the
Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) is also Historical event
headquartered in Seoul. It is expected that the GGGI
A critical event in South Korea related with the
will be able to contribute greatly to the development
voice of people at the end of the 2016 year and the
of the international community as an example of
beginning of 2017, where the people were protesting
international cooperation” (Korea.net, s.f.).
the president Park Geun-Hye due to the political
South Korea has also created organizations in
scandal, asking for the renounce of the president.
order to implement foreign aid programs, such as the
International Cooperation Agency (KOICA); Origin
established in 1991, was developed to provide
The protests were originated by the close
support for developing countries and to share the
relationship between the president and Choi Soon-
country’s experience. This organism provides
sil, a woman who did not have an official position
US$400-500 million annually to advance countries
or security clearance, nevertheless, she had access to
in Asia and Africa, investing in education, health,
confidential information of the presidency.
The protests have the name of Park Geun-Hye ideas and disapprovals. Finally, about a third part of
Resignment Nationwide Movement or Candlelight the country's populations protested.
Revolution. The first protests were in October 2016
Consequence
with a small group of 20.000 participants; on
November, the number raised until 100.000 South Korea’s Candlelight Revolution was the
protestant counting with the adhesion of South culmination of twenty successive Saturday night

Korean high students taking the college entrance. rallies that brought out over 16 million people from
“On 3 December, 2.3 million people hit the streets a population of 51 million. By this spring, Park’s

in a nationwide anti-president" (Wikipedia, 2019). support had fallen to 4 percent, and even that
on December 24th there were 550.000 people number might have been a statistical aberration. On

holding the Christmas Santa Rally while asking for March 11, 2017, hundreds of thousands of Koreans
the destitution. rejoiced in downtown Seoul after the country's
parliament and the constitutional court confirmed
Development
the impeachment of President Park on bribery and
On February 11th, protestant “took the streets corruption charges. (Dudden, 2017)
with a Conflicting grille between pro and anti- To conclude, “in various parts of the world,
impeachment groups” (Wikipedia, 2019). The vice- the voices of ordinary people – intensified and
chairman of Samsung, Lee Jae-Yong, was arrested encouraged by globalization and the attendant
on charges of bribery in connection with the scandal. communications revolution” (McGLINCHEY,
Finally, in March, the Constitutional Court 2017). – Challenged the status quo. In some cases,
restituted the president, after protests of around 1.2 this resulted in significant regime change; in others,
million people in Seoul. rulers were able to hang on to power
Although this kind of protests does not directly (McGLINCHEY, 2017).
affect the other states, it indirectly sets
consequences. In the first place, the demands against “TRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM”
corruption by a president are significant and prove a
Globalization has brought a lot of good things for
low intern power; also, the destitution of Park Geun-
international relations. Nevertheless, it has also
hye swerve the attention of international and
brought negative things, which are rarely named;
national vital issues.
"one theme that is not explored in detail is how
Nevertheless, the protests did not generate
terrorism has evolved in the era of globalization.”
offensive conflicts using arms or force, which also
South Korea security is stable, which means that
was a factor for the no intervention of other states
terrorism has not marked this country as a
and international organizations. These protests
significant number of countries in Asia.
make part of individual human rights to express their
Nevertheless, years ago, the Japanese empire made that cannot be justified under any circumstances.”
a terrorist attack to South Korea. For that reason, this (Prensa Latina, 2019).
part will develop the terrorism suffered by South
Korean in the XX century. “THE ENVIRONMENT”

History “Today, our planet carries over seven billion

In 1932, “during the Japanese Emperor's birthday people. Yet its capacity to provide for each one of
celebrations at Hongkou Park (now Lu Xun Park) in these individuals is that was pressured by the

Shanghai, China, a Korean independence activist, population increase, the climate change,
Yun Bond-girl threw a bottle containing an deforestation, collapse of fisheries, desertification,

Improvised Explosive Device (IED) in the direction air pollution and scarcity of fresh water”
of a group of government official and military (McGlinchey, 2017). This issues do not only affect

officers” (Lee, 2016). The explosion caused the one specific country or territory; these problems
death of 2 people. Also, after the World War II and affect the whole world, not only decreasing life

the independence of South Korea in 1949, a part of quality but also provoking deaths of animal species
the country was divided in rightists and leftists, and ecosystems.

which used the terrorism to plant the fears, such as Industries and companies affect the environment
it happened in 1948, when “a group of leftist officers in South Korea; in these decades, the environment

of the Korean army led an uprising in the Sooncheon was not a priority such the economic development
province” (Lee, 2016). Provoking the death of of the country, so the country did not worry about it.

innocent people, because the government also sent One of the most affected territories was Seoul.
troops to suppress terrorism. One of the elements often forgotten is the

After the Korean War, the conflicts did not end complicated relationship between human beings and
because South Korea kept receiving terrorist attacks nature. “In the early years of the conversation

from North Korea, average of the "assassination, around environmental protection, some argued that

kidnapping, as well as sabotage against both the planet’s resources” (McGlinchey, 2017).

government personnel and civilian targets on more "The South Korean government has passed

than 470 occasions, which has led to at least 3,738 numerous environmental laws, which include

causalities” (Lee, 2016). restrictions on both green belts and emission that
have dramatically improved Seoul's air quality"
Status
(Smith, 2015). Despite these actions, South Korea is
The South Korean government stance is “that still one of the most contaminated countries in the
terrorism must be eradicated as an inhuman crime quality of the air. Nevertheless, another issue is that
the country does not know if the it produces the
contamination or the neighbor countries bring it. Korea is the $18 billion Four Rivers Project. By
“South Korea is the world's fifth largest user of connecting four of South Korea most polluted and
nuclear power, and this reliance has created a need largest rivers of which include the Han, Nakdong,
for safe places to dispose of nuclear waste materials” Geum, and Yeongsan, as well as hundreds of miles
(Smith, 2015). Approximately 70% of South of tributary streams, this project has several aims”
Korea’s nuclear waste, which amounts to nearly (Smith, 2015).
9,000 tones, according to a report from Reuters Due to the technological development of South
(Smith, 2015). Korea, it has also implemented it.
Nevertheless, the country also presents a problem “In 2010, Seoul invested $8.2 billion into a
of storage of nuclear waste. 2,500 MW wind farm. In 2011, the government
To analyze the previous information, is essential introduced a plan to produce 1.5 million jobs
to highlight that even when South Korea can be from clean energy and grab 18% of the global
considered as a developed economy, it also suffered clean energy market by 2030. For 2030, South
the consequences of the ban use of resources, and no Korea pretends to meet 20% of its total electricity
care about the environment. It is important to say consumption with renewable resources.” (Smith,
that it does not work if an economy is advanced 2015).
when there is affectation to the environment. Every The efforts of the implementation of policies and
development brings consequences too, in this case, laws in order to decrease air contamination have
the industrialization of South Korea was also the helped the environment. Nevertheless, the efforts
start of significant contamination. have not been enough to avoid more contamination.
This problem relates to the situation in China, where
Environmental policies:
air contamination is the biggest in the world. If
In order to get better the quality of air, South South Korea does not implement more effective
Korea has implemented different policies and plans, policies, the country could have the same issues.
such as "1st Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Control
Master Plan (2005-2014)" in 2005" (Smith, 2015).
This project and others implemented had the
objective to “reduce exhaust gas production from
vehicles, as well as the administration of emission
facilities and controls that were placed around
multiple energy utilities and cities around the
country” (Smith, 2015).
“One of the most prominent and controversial
water-focused environmental projects of South