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DESIGN PHASES

Project
Identification

Preliminary
Design Design
Design Supplemental
Development
Engineering Design Stage
Stage
Stage

Execute

Control
Design Design
Revised
Data Plan Plan
Close-out
ENGINEERING SURVEYS DEFINED
Topographic Plan Survey Report

Right-of-Way/ Hydrographic
Parcellary Plan Survey Plan
Survey Data

Traffic Data Soil Report P – Political


E – Economical
S – Social
Design T – Technological
E – Environmental
Data L – Legal

External Factors
Hydrologic Data Surveying is a means of making (PESTEL)
relatively large-scale, accurate
measurements of the Earth’s surfaces.
ENGINEERING SURVEYS DEFINED

Rough Estimation
Feasibility Studies
and Alignment

Design and Detailed


Design Development
Quantity Estimation

Engineering
Surveys
Project Execution Design Data

Quality Control Quality of Design

Close-out/ Acceptance As-built


ENGINEERING SURVEYS DEFINED
DPWH – NCR DPWH – NCR
GPS NO.12 BM NO.15
APRIL 2016 APRIL 2016

Feasibility Studies N = 1073496.664 N = 1073596.632


E = 518890.250 E = 512890.280
EL = 30.826 EL = 30.925

Design Development

Engineering Project
Project Execution
Surveys Controls

Quality Control

Kinds of Project Controls


1. Primary GPS Control
Close-out/ Acceptance
2. Primary Project Control
3. Intermediate Control
4. Lot
Surveying is the single engineering activity that links all the phases of a project from
planning to design, land acquisition and construction.
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Old Survey Instruments

ALTIMETER SEXTANT ALIDADE WITH PLANE TABLE


measure the altitude of an object measure angles, primarily for drawing lines of sight on a distant
above a fixed level. altitude of celestial bodies. object and for measuring angles
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Old Survey Instruments

TELESCOPE SURVEYORS’ LEVEL SEMICIRCUMFERENTOR


observation of remote measure the height of measure and lay off
objects by collecting distant points in relation to angles, and establish line
electromagnetic radiation a bench mark. of sight
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Old Survey Instruments

THEODOLITE ENGINEERS’ TRANSIT


measures both measures both
the horizontal and the horizontal and
vertical angles vertical angles
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS TOTAL STATION
Common Survey Instruments Today Measures horizontal and
vertical angles and its
sloping distance
GNSS RECEIVER
Calculates a position from
a computed ranges of all
DIGITAL LEVEL
visible GNSS Satellites
Measures horizontal
distance and vertical
elevation
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Advance Survey Instruments Today
TERRESTRIAL 3D SURVEY GRADE MOBILE LASER
LASER SCANNER MAPPING DRONE SCANNER
Collects a 3 dimensional Collects digital Collects a 3D data of
data of a geometric photographs that can geometric samples
samples generate point cloud data while in motion
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Advance Survey Instruments Today

LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LiDAR) AIRBORNE CAMERA


Collects a 3D data of geometric samples Collects digital photographs that
while in motion can generate point cloud data
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Hybrid Survey Equipment
TOTAL STATION AND MULTISTATION (SCANNER AND
GNSS EQUIPMENT TOTAL STATION)
ENGINEERING SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Hydrographic Survey Equipment
ECHO-SOUNDER TOTAL STATION/GNSS
EQUIPMENT
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Control Surveys
• Control surveys are performed to establish horizontal and vertical
coordinates for a network of monuments.
• The project control provides the basis for all surveys from
preliminary collection to construction staking. Because of this,
accuracy is extremely critical when performing these surveys.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Photogrammetric Surveys
• Photogrammetric surveys use aerial photographs to locate
features on the surface of the earth.
• The position of each feature is assigned horizontal and vertical
coordinates and included in the project mapping.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Planimetric and Topographic Surveys
• The surveys provide measurements that define the position and
elevation of natural man-made features within the project
corridor.
• The collected data is plotted at a specific scale in the
development of computer generated planimetric maps and three-
dimensional (3-D) terrain models.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Land Surveys
• Land surveys, also known as cadastral surveys, are used to locate
original land boundary corners, verify their positions, and re-establish if
necessary.
• The first stage in land survey is to research relevant documentation.
These records include land titles or deeds, easement, survey
monuments, and any public or private records.
• Land surveys are required to be performed by or under the supervision
of a Professional Geodetic Engineer, under the RA 8560 also known as
Philippine Geodetic Act of the Philippines. The process of acquisition
should follow the requirements in the Infrastructure Right-of-Way
(IROW) program of the department.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Land Surveys
• Construction surveys is used to locate and then stake the positions of
various roadway elements. These items include alignments, bridges,
drainage structures, signs and other objects for subsequent
installation or construction. Construction surveys also provide the
means to measure or compute various pay items.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
Construction Surveys
• Construction surveys is used to locate and then stake the positions of
various roadway elements. These items include alignments, bridges,
drainage structures, signs and other objects for subsequent
installation or construction. Construction surveys also provide the
means to measure or compute various pay items.
TYPES OF SURVEYS
As-built Surveys
• As-built or as-constructed surveys are performed after the
construction project has been completed. The survey is used to verify
that the project was built to the plan specifications or to locate
modifications made during construction.
Differential Leveling
• The most accurate method for determining elevations is known as
differential leveling.
• This method uses a leveling instrument to measure the vertical
difference between two points.
• The instrument is set on a stable, horizontally leveled tripod and takes
backsight and foresight readings on a calibrated rod.
• A leveling run is a series of backsight and foresight measurements that
establish elevations relative to a local reference.
• A leveling loop is a series of measurements that begin and end at the
same reference point.
Differential Leveling
• A digital level is used to perform the differential level measurements
through project control monuments and photo control targets.
• A NAMRIA benchmark is typically used as the starting reference point.
Office research and field reconnaissance will help determine the
NAMRIA benchmarks are available for each level run.
Differential Leveling
• The maximum distance balance between the backsight and the
foresight measurements should be set to 5 m.
• The maximum sight distance should be set to 70 meters.
• Avoid low, ground skimming shots where refraction might become
pronounced.
• A minimum ground clearance should be setup to 0.30 m.
• Avoid sighting close to obstructions that interfere with the line of sight.
Tree branches, tall grass and shadows can prevent the digital level from
taking accurate rod readings.
Differential Leveling
• When leveling in a steep terrain, place turn points and instrument
setup so that they follow parallel paths and not on the same line.
• Communication between crew members keep the work progressing in
an orderly fashion.
• Everyone in the survey crew should know what their duties are all the
times. Remember, SAFETY FIRST when working near traffic, power
lines, or other hazards.
Preliminary Surveys
• Control Surveys
• Topographic Surveys
• Utility Surveys
• Geology Surveys
Preliminary Surveys
Survey Meetings
 The purpose of the survey meeting is to determine a schedule and assign
responsibilities for the preliminary activities. Typical survey meeting topics
include but not limited to the following items:
• Location and scope of the project
• Acquiring permission to survey
• Type of survey (aerial or ground survey)
• Photo control spacing layout (for aerial survey)
• Mapping and design plan scale
• Annotation of project and photo control
• Annotation of utilities, culverts, fencing, etc.
• Project control layout, utility locates, and setting of monuments
• Project and photo control naming conventions
• Collection of preliminary survey features
• Featured code list
• Survey data format
• Land survey requirements
Preliminary Surveys
Collecting Survey Data
• The collection of survey data is typically performed with optical total
stations, digital levels, and GPS equipment. Each survey equipment is
capable of specific horizontal and vertical accuracies. In additions, each
survey feature has defined horizontal and vertical tolerance
requirements. The survey data being collected will dictate the
methodology needed to achieve the accuracy requirements.
Preliminary Surveys
Editing Survey Data
• Editing survey data should be performed by the personnel involve with
the collection. Each survey should be plotted and carefully reviewed to
identify errors and/or incomplete collections. Common collection errors
involve incorrect target heights and the improper use of feature codes
and/or control codes. Any necessary collection of the data should be
completed prior to submission of preliminary survey plan.
Preliminary Surveys
1. Control Surveys
a) Monuments
Setting control monuments through the project corridor is an important step in
all subsequent phases of surveying. This monument serves as a permanent
reference for preliminary, supplemental, cadastral and construction surveys.
The time elapsed from the collection of the preliminary survey to the final
construction survey could be several years. Because of this, appropriate care
should be exercised when constructing each project control monument.
b) Reconnaissance and Planning
The survey team will complete a reconnaissance of existing monuments with
published coordinates near or in the vicinity of the project. The monuments
include NAMRIA control points or previously established project controls. The
existing survey stations are used to establish positions and elevations for new
project control.
Preliminary Surveys
1. Control Surveys
c) Collection
The horizontal coordinates are established by the survey team using GPS
equipment or optical total station. The vertical coordinates are determined by
completing level runs with the digital level. The survey methods must be able to
meet the accuracy tolerances in the DPWH Design Guidelines, Criteria and
Standards 2015 Edition Volume 2B – Engineering Surveys.
d) Processing and Adjusting
When GPS data has been collected, the survey team will process and adjust the
raw data. The GPS observations are post-processed using the least square
method of adjustment in the appropriate plane zone coordinates. All subsequent
surveys and mapping are based on the surface coordinates.
Preliminary Surveys
1. Control Surveys
d) Processing and Adjusting
The raw digital level data is adjusted by distance to produce elevations for each
point in the level run. When the level data is processed, any parameters that
have been exceeded during the collections are identified. Level data that has
been collected with an excessive amount of parameters tolerances that have
been exceeded may need to be repeated.
e) Distribution
The survey team will create and distribute a spreadsheet with the position and
elevations of each monument. The positions consist of adjusted latitudes and
longitudes, coordinate system and surface coordinates. The elevations include
geoid separations, ellipsoid elevations and orthometric elevations.
The spreadsheet also contains project name and section, station limits and
horizontal and vertical datum.
Preliminary Surveys
2. Planimetric and Topographic Surveys
• Planimetric and topographic surveys collect measurements of natural and man-
made features. Every surveying observation can be used to determine horizontal
and vertical coordinates. However, when some of the features are mapped the
vertical component is not utilized. Additionally, not all features are graphically
represented in the project mapping files.
• When planimetric features are mapped, they are represented by a graphical
symbol, line or shape. However, these objects do not contribute to the vertical
component of the terrain model. The following descriptions are examples of
surveys that collect both planimetric and topographic surveying features.
a. Hydrology and Drainage Survey
b. Utility Surveys
c. Land Surveys
d. Railroad Surveys
Preliminary Surveys
a. Hydrology and Drainage Surveys
• Hydrology and drainage surveys collect topographic features of waterways such
as rivers, streams and channels. One a terrain has been collected, a 3-D
representation of the area will be created. This information will be used to
perform hydraulic analysis. The amount of water a channel can carry is
determined by the channel shape and will influence the structural design.
• Natural and man-made channels are typically defined by collecting breaklines. A
breakline is collected along the lowest part of the channel and at the top of the
channel on each side. Additional breaklines may be needed to properly define an
irregular shaped channel.
• The collection area is dependent upon the scope of the project and will be
determined during the survey meeting. The normal limits of these type of survey
is 150 meters upstream and downstream from the existing drainage structure. A
portion of the data for a hydrology or drainage survey is collected from the aerial
photogrammetry. However, these areas are usually covered with thick vegetation
and tree cover and supplemental data is usually required.
Preliminary Surveys
b. Utility Surveys
• Before the utility survey can be started, each utility must be located and flagged.
The Implementing Office must notify the utility companies in the area of the
project. The utility companies will then identify and mark the location of the
utilities. Other utility information can be obtained from the individual utility
companies and local city or municipal engineers. However, utility information not
identified from the actual utility locations may not be as-constructed information.
• Railroad surveys are typically collected up to 300 meters from the railway/railroad
facility. The vertical profile of the railroad track and vertical clearance of highway
structures over the track are critical. This information allows the designer to
determine of the vertical or horizontal realignment of the roadway is necessary.
Preliminary Surveys
c. Land Surveys
• As required by Republic Act 8560, Philippine Geodetic Act of 1998, as amended
by Republic Act 9200, land surveys are required to performed or under the
supervision of Professional Geodetic Engineer. During the survey meeting, the
land survey requirements are determined. Land surveys are collected with
specialized codes and should be collected separately from planimetric or
topographic surveys.
Preliminary Surveys
d. Railroad Surveys
• A railroad survey is necessary when highway projects create a conflict with an
existing railroad facility. Examples of these conflicts include but not limited to:
• At-grade roadway and railroad crossings
• Roadway structures over a railroad
• Adjacent roadway and railroad alignments
• Railroad surveys are typically collected up to 300 meters from the railway/railroad
facility. The vertical profile of the railroad track and vertical clearance of highway
structures over the track are critical. This information allows the designer to
determine of the vertical or horizontal realignment of the roadway is necessary.
Survey Standards
All instruments to be used in all DPWH project must comply with the instrumentation
accuracy standards below:

Instrument Horizontal Accuracy Vertical Accuracy


GNSS/GPS/RTK 0.010 m 0.020 m
Optical Total Station 0.003 m 0.002 m
Digital Level N/A 0.35 mm

The vertical component of GNSS measurement do not meet collection standards


established for features with critical elevations. The use of optical total station by itself
or in conjunction with GNSS equipment may be more effective in some surveying
applications. Differential leveling with a digital level is the most accurate method for
determining elevations.
Survey Standards
The two main components of feature code list below together with their accuracy
standards are DTM and non-DTM.
Survey Codes
Horizontal Accuracy Vertical Accuracy
Code Description
(m) (m)
Auxillary supplemental control
AUXC 0.015 0.005
point
BMP Permanent Benchmark N/A 0.005
TBM Temporary Benchmark N/A 0.005
EMKR Engineering Marker 0.015 0.005
PCPT Project Control Point 0.015 0.005
TCP Temporary Control Point 0.015 0.005
PAUX Photo control, pick point 0.030 0.030
PFLT Photo control, 4 leg target 0.030 0.030
PWPT Photo control, 3 leg target 0.030 0.030
Survey Standards
Code Description Horizontal Accuracy (m) Vertical Accuracy (m)
Bridge (End/Approach Slab)/ Retaining Walls
BAS Bridge Approach Slab 0.015 0.005
BRDG Bridge End 0.015 0.005
RWB Retaining, head and wing walls, bottom front 0.015 0.005

RWT Retaining, head and wing walls, top back 0.015 0.005

Roadway/Railroads/Parking Areas
CRS Center of roadway, surfaced 0.015 0.005
CRUS Center of roadway, unsurfaced 0.030 0.030
EP Edge of Pavement 0.015 0.005
EPS Edge of Paved Shoulder 0.015 0.005
ESD Edge of surfaced driveway 0.015 0.005
ESPL Edge of surface parking lot 0.015 0.005
ETW Edge of travelled way 0.015 0.005
EUR Edge of unsurfaced road 0.030 0.030
EUSD Edge of unsurfaced driveway 0.030 0.030
EUSPL Edge of unsurfaced parking lot 0.030 0.030
PAV Selected pavement point 0.015 0.005
RRBS Railroad bed shoulder 0.030 0.030
TRL Pack trail or two-track vehicle rail 0.030 0.030
Survey Standards
Buildings/Sidewalks/Curb & Gutter/Concrete Items
BLD Buildings 0.015 0.005
CON Selected concrete point 0.015 0.005
CSP Concrete slope protection 0.015 0.005
FLC Flow line of curb 0.015 0.005
SLAB Concrete slab 0.015 0.005
SWC Sidewalk edge, concrete 0.015 0.005
SWE Sidewalk edge, not concrete 0.030 0.030
TBC Top, back of curb 0.015 0.005
Storage Tanks
TANK Storage tank 0.030 0.030
Water/Drainages
CLBD Concrete line ditch, bottom 0.015 0.005
CLDT Concrete line ditch, top
DBI Drainage bottom, irrigation 0.030 0.030
DFL Drainage flow line, natural ground 0.030 0.030
Survey Standards
Code Description Horizontal Accuracy (m) Vertical Accuracy (m)
Bridges/Barriers/Guardrails
BREJ Bridge Expansion Joint 0.015 0.005
BRG Bridge 0.015 0.005
BRP Bridge Pier 0.015 0.005
COB Concrete Barrier 0.015 0.005
COPB Concrete post barrier 0.015 0.005
GR Bridge and roadway guardrails 0.015 0.005
SRCP Structure roadway clearing point 0.015 0.005

Railroads
RCS Railroad crossing signal 0.030 0.030
RR Railroad; center of tracks, any other tracks 0.030 0.030

RRMRT Railroad; center of tracks, MRT 0.030 0.030


RRLRT Railroad; center of tracks, LRT 0.030 0.030
RRPNR Railroad; center of tracks, PNR 0.030 0.030
Fields/Foundations/Rocks
CULB Cultivated field boundary 0.030 0.030
FOND Foundation 0.030 0.030
ROCS Rock outcropping or boulder field 0.030 0.030
COORDINATE SYSTEM
Philippine Plane Coordinate System (PPCS) – PRS92
Ellipsoid Clarke’s Ellipsoid of 1866
Projection Transverse Mercator, in zones of two degrees
net width
Point of origin Intersection of the equator and the central
meridian of each zone, with a northing of 0m
and an easting of 500,000 m.
Scale factor at 0.99995
central meridian
Extents of zones
Zone Central Meridian Limits
I 117° E 116° 00’ to 118° 30’
II 119° E 117° 30’ to 120° 30’
III 121° E 119° 30’ to 122° 30’
IV 123° E 121° 30’ to 124° 30’
V 125° E 123° 30’ to 127° 00’
HORIZONTAL POSITIONING
Methodology
1. The nearest PRS92 stations can be researched
from the NAMRIA Website www.namria.gov.ph
2. Position determination by GNSS
a. Static Method
b. Real-Time Kinematics (RTK) Method
3. Traverse using Total Stations
ELEVATION MEASUREMENT
Methodology
1. Differential Leveling using Precise Level and/or
Digital Level
2. Trigonometric Leveling using Total Stations
3. Height from GNSS Survey Grade Receivers
SURVEY ACCURACIES
Horizontal Accuracy
SURVEY ACCURACIES
Traverse Accuracy
SURVEY ACCURACIES
Vertical Accuracy
QUALITY CONTROL IN SURVEYS
The project control must be connected to at least three (3)
existing PRS92 stations for horizontal accuracy and two (2)
NAMRIA Benchmark for vertical accuracy.
SURVEY MONUMENTS
1. Accessibility
2. Ground Stability
3. Security to disturbance or destruction
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS

Steps in Highway Surveying


Final
Route Preliminary Office
Reconnaissance Location
Selection Survey Planning
Survey
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
1. Reconnaissance
 A rapid and critical general examination of the
terrain through which the road is to pass for
the purpose of identifying all possible routes
worthy for further examination and eliminating
all but the best option.
 Can be aided by available maps, aerial
inspection and photographs and site
inspection.
 Alternative method includes Digital
Photogrammetry, LiDAR, IFSAR and UAV
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
2. Route Selection
 Narrow down the choice of route to one or two best locations
within the general route
 A cost-benefit ratio shall be established for each route
 The selection may be concluded until field verification is made.
 Basis for route selection:
a. ROW Cost
b. Land Use
c. Length
d. Alignment and Grade
e. Waterway Crossings
f. Construction Cost
g. Benefit to Users
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
2. Route Selection
 The selection process maybe concluded on project site through
“Flagging”.
 Flagging is the process of selecting the location of preliminary
transit line by marking the route by blazing trees and tying
strips of cloth called “flags” to branches or to poles set on the
ground.
 If reconnaissance is made my maps or aerial photographs,
probable routes shall be investigated by ground surveys.
 Ground Surveys can be made by travelling and examining the
route with simple instruments such as handheld GPS.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
2. Route Selection
 Route which are independent of the grade
1. No great difference in elevation and in areas where there is no
deep ravines and gorges.
2. Avoid passing through populated areas
3. Avoid meandering river
4. On flat terrain, long tangents are usually appropriate
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
2. Route Selection
 Route which are controlled by the grade
1. In a saddle or a gap from a flat valley floor, run the flag line
from the saddle down to the valley to with a grade of 1% less
than the maximum permissible grade.
2. In a ridge route, pass the flag line diagonally across saddles
from one side of the ridge to the other side.
3. In crossing deep river valleys or canyons, flag up to the canyon
on both sides after the point of crossing has been determined.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
3. Preliminary Survey
 Aerial Surveying and Mapping
a. Photograph the route to a large scale
b. Provide sufficient number of ground
control points
c. Construct photomosaic from aerial
photos and ground control

Note: Aerial surveys may be done only when


the ground surface is not obscured by leaves
of trees or heavily wooded.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
3. Preliminary Survey
 Ground Surveys
a. Establish the beginning and end points of
a project
b. Establish Project Controls
c. Take elevation of ground at every 20
meter station and extend up to 100
meters on both sides normally for the
cross sections.
d. Take record of the structures, trees,
known landmarks, rivers and other
factors that may affect the project
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
4. Office Planning
 Principles to be considered in plotting a
tentative alignment
1. Make the alignment close as good as
possible as the terrain will permit within
the standards
2. In rolling terrain, use a smooth flowing
alignment of flat curves rather than long
tangents.
3. In flat costal areas, use the long
tangents if they will fit the local
conditions except to avoid property
damage or ROW expense.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
4. Office Planning
 Principles to be considered in plotting a
tentative alignment
4. Avoid sudden changes in alignment
5. If possible, provide tangent alignment
and nearly right angle crossings for
bridges
6. Avoid reverse horizontal curves
alignment
7. Avoid short tangents between curves in
the same direction
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
4. Office Planning
 Principles to be considered in plotting a
tentative alignment
1. Use curves of even degree or even
multiples of 10 minutes as to simplify the
computation and staking on the field.
2. Compensate all grades of curves
according to standards.
• Do not exceed 6% grade on curves of
more than 1 degree
• 7% grade maybe used on curves of
less than 1 degree but not
continuously for length more than 1km
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
3. Final Location Survey
 After the final investigation and approval of
centerline, a final location survey shall be
undertaken for the purpose of staking the
centerline on the ground exactly as it has
been established on the map, taking the
topography along the staked centerline and
collecting all information needed in completing
the highway design, preparing construction
drawings and specifications, estimate of
quantities and right-of-way acquisition.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
1. Centerline Stakeout
• Stakes shall be set at every 20 m
• Reference the centerline at points of
intersection and points on tangents so
that it can be recovered later during
construction
• All information necessary such as
bridges, culverts, railroad, traffic
interchanges shall be noted
• If any part of the building will lie within
the ROW, exact dimension shall be taken
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
2. Profiles and Cross-sections
• Cross-sections shall be taken at right
angles to the centerline
• Cross-sections shall be extended far
enough from both sides of the centerline
to cover probable width of construction
and anticipated ROW limits
• For vertical control of the profile, use
benchmark established during the
preliminary survey
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
2. Profiles and Cross-sections
• The centerline profile for each
intersecting grade shall be obtained to
establish its existing grade and to show
the effect of any change in the grade
intersection
• Inlet and outlet elevations at all existing
culverts shall be measured
• All other structures that may have
significant effect shall be taken
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
3. Surface Drainage Survey
• At every water course, provisions shall
be made for the passage of running
water through or across the roadway.
• This can be aided using military maps,
UAV/UAS, LiDAR or IFSAR
• Run-off computation software like HEC-
HMS and HEC-RAS.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• This shall be undertaken after the final
design alignment had been approved to
ensure that no further alignment
changes will be encountered, segregate
the designed road right-of-way from the
lots affected, and register these in favor
of the government or proponent.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• The segregation of right-of-way involves subdivision
survey in case of decreed lots and amendment survey
in the case of untitled lots.
• The requirement of parcellary survey:
a. Anyone possessing or claiming interest on lands
adjoining, or included in, the proposed project to be
surveyed shall in every case possible be duly
notified.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• The requirement of parcellary survey:
a. All traverses shall start and close from primary or
secondary station.
b. To locate property boundaries, use the best evidence
that can be found on the ground such as
monuments of Land Management Bureau, private
survey monuments or stakes, fences, rows of trees,
paddy dikes, streams or ridges. However, this shall
be supplemented with survey descriptions.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• The requirement of parcellary survey:
c. In describing improvements, use explicit language
such as “two-storey dwelling of four rooms framed
by squared apitong timbers, flank floors, sawali walls
and nipa roofs” or “orchard contains two avocado
trees, 10 years old, 120 mm in diameter”.
d. If project requires borrow, ROW information shall be
gathered for borrow pit site.
e. For government properties, check any claims of
settlers.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• The requirement of parcellary survey:
f. In describing improvements, use explicit language
such as “two-storey dwelling of four rooms framed
by squared apitong timbers, flank floors, sawali walls
and nipa roofs” or “orchard contains two avocado
trees, 10 years old, 120 mm in diameter”.
g. If project requires borrow, ROW information shall be
gathered for borrow pit site.
h. For government properties, check any claims of
settlers.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• In research work for cadastral maps and technical
descriptions of affected lots, the names of the affected
landowners, if any, within the ROW must be taken from
the corresponding Municipal, City or Provincial
Assessor's Office.
• From the Assessor’s Office:
o Tax Declaration of Real Property
o Tax Map to determine Real Property
o Land Classification
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• From the affected land owner:
o Tax Declaration of Real Property
o Copy of Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT)/ Original
Certificate of Title (OCT)
o Tax Clearance
• From the Registry of Deeds:
o Certified Copy of Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT)/
Original Certificate of Title (OCT)
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• From the Land Management Services/ Land
Management Bureau:
o Cadastral Map
o Lot Data Computation/ Technical Description
o Lot Plan in Standard LMB Format
• From the Land Registration Authority
o Lot Plan
o Lot Data Computation/ Technical Description
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• From the Department of Agrarian Reform:
o Areas subject to land reform, lots with certificate of
land ownership awards (CLOA) or vast state holdings
with offers of voluntary sale from the owners
• From the National Commission for Indigenous People:
o Areas covered by Certificates of Ancestral Domain
Title (CADT) or Certificate of Ancestral Land Title
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Procedures
5. Final Location Survey
 This includes the following:
4. Parcellary Survey
• From the Department of National Defense:
o Maps showing military reservations
• From the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources:
o Protected areas from the Protected Areas and
Wildlife Bureau (PAWB)
• Lots with no available data shall be clearly mentioned in
the survey report for further research during the
acquisition stage.
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Survey Output
1. Field Notes in a hardcopy signed by Geodetic Engineer.
2. DEM data x, y, z coordinates in file formats such as LAS or
ASCII text file format
3. Images, if any, in file formats such as GeoTIFF
4. Hardcopy and digital files of the survey plans, drawings and
reports
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Survey Output - PLANS
1. Preliminary Survey Plans
2. Final Survey Plans
3. Parcellary/Right-of-Way Plans
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Survey Output - REPORT
1. Identification and History of Survey
2. Traffic
3. Topography, Existing Land Use and Utilities
4. Proposed Alignments and Grades
5. Drainage
6. Construction Materials
7. Right-of-Way
8. Special Considerations
9. Computations and Supporting Documents
SURVEY FOR HIGHWAY PROJECTS
Survey Monuments
1. GPS Control are spaced at every 3 km interval GPS-2
Sta 3+000
2. Benchmarks (BM) are spaced at every 500 m
3. Intermediate Benchmarks (IBM) are spaced at every 250 m

GPS-1 Sta 0+000 BM-4


IBM-6
BM-5
BM-3
BM-2
IBM-5
BM-1 IBM-4

IBM-3

IBM-2

IBM-1
END OF SURVEY.