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tw

Contents

1

Python Part 1 061

2

Python Part 2 127

3

Python Part 3 197

006
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw

4

Python Part 4 259

5

Python Part 5 335
Python Part 6 353
Python Part 7 373
Python Part 8 383

007
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PPA===\$240 4 VA(0) = \$108 = \$5, 200 V (1) = \$4,687.50
V y (=t\$240
)
\$108
= + 7 − \$512.50t
x\$5,200 V ( t ) = \$5,200 − \$512.50t
((tt)=)==3\$5,200 VP(2) = \$4,175 V (3) = \$3,662.50
VVP \$240\$5,200−−\$512.50
\$512.50tt = \$240
V (0) = \$5, 200 V (1) = \$4,687.50
VA (0)
= =
\$108 \$5, 200 V (1) = \$4,687.50
VVV(0) ( t )===\$5,
(0) \$5, 200
\$5,200 (1)
(1)==\$4,687.50
200 −VV\$512.50 \$4,687.50
t V (4)
V \$3,150 − \$512.50
( t ) ==\$5,200 V (7) = \$1,612.50
t
VP (2)
= =
\$240 \$4,175 V (3) = \$3,662.50 V (2) = \$4,175 V (3) = \$3,662.50
VVV(2) V (8) = \$1,100 第　 堂課　數學基礎
(0)===\$4,175 \$5, 200 VVV (3)
(1)===\$3,662.50
1
V (0) = \$5, 200 V (1) = \$4,687.50 025
(2) \$4,175 (3) \$3,662.50
\$4,687.50 V (4) = \$3,150 V (7) = \$1,612.50
VVV (4)(4) \$3,150 −V\$512.50
( t )===\$3,150
\$5,200 (7)= =\$1,612.50
V(7) \$1,612.50
t C (2) (Q )==\$4,175 Q + 250 V (3) = \$3,662.50
V(4)(2)==\$3,150 \$4,175 VV(7) (3)==\$1,612.50
\$3,662.50 V
V (8)
(0) = \$1,100
\$5, 200 V (1) = \$4,687.50 V (8) = \$1,100
VVV(8) (4)===\$1,100
(8) \$1,100
\$3,150 V (7) = \$1,612.50 VR ((4) Q ) ==\$3,15010Q V (7) = \$1,612.50
C
V (
(2)Q ) == Q +
\$4,175 250 V (3) = \$3,662.50 C (Q ) = Q + 250
7. (1) CCV((QQ ))===QQ ++250 Vy (8) 2
= \$1,100
(8) \$1,100250 R (=Q−) = 10 x +Q3
R VR
( Q(
(4)Q) ) ==1010Q Q
\$3,150 V (7) = \$1,612.50 3 Q + 250
(2) RC(Q =
(Q) )==10 QQ+，抽水 250 C
Q 噸的總收益函數為 10Q，故抽一噸水索價美金 ( Q ) = 10
Vy (8) 22==2\$1,100 yy (= 12 x+3
R (= Q −) x
10 +Q 3 R =Q−) =x 10 + 2Q
yy ==−− 3xx++33

3 2 1 2
yy = 1 x+
− x+3
(3) 28R y噸
y =Q
(= 11−1) =x 10x +2Q3
+ y =
= 3x + 32
yy == 2xx3++22 32
221 2 112 x + 28
8. 是。 yyy = − x+3 9. 是。 yyy =
= 111 3xx ++ 32 = x+3
=
yy == 32xx++33 = 323 x − 3
31 12
y =312 xx ++ 328 yy = 1 xx +− 389
10. 是。 yy = = 2 22 x −88 11. 是。 y =
= 3 x+ 3
yy == 33xx−− 3 23 4
3312 338 2
11 x − 11 89
yy = 1
=1 3 xx + x +−9 39 y =
12. 是。y y= = 1 9 13. 是。 yy = = 3 xx +
22 + 346
y = 2 223xx++ 4 834
y =211 xx − 411
9 yy = 11 9
11
14. 否 y yy= = =1123x x+ + +11 3 15. 否 = 2 xx + +4
11
y = 2 12x + 6946 1
2 6
11
21 6
11
yy == 2 xx + +4 y= x+
2 6
2 6
1 11
y= x+
1.3 極限與連續 2 6

## 例如，當我們說 x → 2 時，這個極限的意義是 x 很逼近 2，但就是不等

lim (3

x →0
x →0
lim ff (( xx)) == L
lim L
x→a
x→a
lim ff (( xx)) == L
lim L， lim gg(( xx)) == M
， lim M
x→a x →a
x→a x →a
lim ff (( xx)) ±± lim
lim lim gg(( xx)) == lim(
lim( ff (( xx)) ±± gg(( xx))
)) == L
L ±± M
M
x→a x →a x→a
x→a x →a x→a
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw
((lim ff (( xx))(lim
))(lim gg(( xx))
)) == lim(
lim( ff (( xx))gg(( xx))
)) == LM
LM
((lim
x → a 或來電(02)2705-5066”
x →a x →a x→a
x →a x→a
lim ff (( xx))
lim  f ( x)  L
026 第 1 部　管理數學原理

f ( x ) = 3x + 2

x →0

x→a

## 論 x 從哪個方向逼近 a，f (x) 逼近唯一的

lim f ( x ) =L。
L ， lim g ( x ) = M
x→a x →a

## lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x ) = lim( f ( x ) ± g ( x )) = L ± M

x→a x →a x→a

((lim f ( x ))(lim g ( x )) = lim( f ( x ) g ( x )) = LM
x →a x →a x→a

ff (( xx )) = 3xx + 2  f ( x)  L
lim f ( x(3 )= =x 3 3+x2) +
+= 2
22 x →a
= lim  = ， M = lim g ( x ) ≠ 0
lim
x → 0 (3x + 2) = 2
lim (3 x + 2) = 2 lim g ( x ) x → a  g ( x )  M x →a
lim
x → 0 (3x + 2) = 2
x →0 x→a
lim

x → 0 f ( x ) = L
lim
x→a f ( x ) = L
lim
x → a ff (
lim ( xx )) = =L L

x → a f ( x ) = L ， lim g ( x ) = lim
x→a
M (3x 2 − 2 x + 3)
lim
x → a f ( x ) = L ， lim
lim f ( x ) L x → a g ( x ) = xM
lim ( )
= x →a g ( x ) = M
g x =
， →1
lim
x → a f ( x ) = L ， lim M
lim
x → a f ( x ) ± lim g x(→
x→a x →a
xa) = lim( f ( x ) x±2g+( xx))− 12 = L± M
lim
x → a f ( x ) ± lim
① lim x → a g ( x ) = lim( x → a f ( x ) ± g ( x )) = L ± M
lim (( xx()) ±
x → a ff (
lim ( xx )) ±± lim
x →a g
lim g (( xx )) = = lim(
x → a xff→
lim( ± gg (( xx ))
)) =L
= L) ± ±M M
((lim
x→a
x→a f ( x ))(lim x → a g ( x )) =
x →a
x →lim(
x→a
a f3 ( x ) gx( x−))3 = LM
((lim
② ((lim x → a f ( x ))(lim x → a g ( x )) = lim( x → a f ( x ) g ( x )) = LM
((lim x → a ff ( ( xx ))(lim
))(lim x →a g ( x )) = lim( x → a ff ( ( xx )) xg
g ((+xx1))
))−==1 LM
x → a g ( x )) = lim( LM
lim x → af ( x )
x →a
x → a
f ( x )  x → alim (
x→a
L )
limx →a f ( x )
f ( x) = ， M =x lim g ( x f) (≠x0) = 3x + 2
limx → a f ( x ) = lim   3fff x(( xx+)) 2 = L
x → 0
limx →a f ( x ) lim
x→a  g L
L M2 = x →a g ( x ) ≠ 0
lim
x →a g ( x ) =
lim  ( x )  = M ，
③ lim
limx → a g ( x ) lim
g ( x )
= lim
= lim
x →(3
x→a 
a x g+(2)
 g ( xx )) = = =
2M Mlim， ， (3M M x = = lim
− 2lim
x→
x→ (( xxlim
xaa+gg3) )) ≠
= 0012x−+22)⋅ 1=+ 23 = 4
≠3 ⋅(3
limx→a g ( x )
x → a x → x0→ a 
 g ( xf)(x ) =M3x + 2 x → 1 x → a x →0

x 2 + x − 12 ( x −lim 3) (f x( x+)4) =L
x→a
2 lim f ( x ) = L
lim (3x 22 −x →2 ax + 3) lim (3x + 2) = 2 = x→a
= x+4
lim
x →1 (3 x 2 − 2 x + 3)
lim (3 x − 2 x + 3) x →0 x − 3 lim x − f 3( x ) = L ， lim g ( x ) = M
lim
x →1 (3 x
x →1 lim
2 − 2 ax + 3)
f ( x ) = L ， lim g ( x ) = M
x →1 x + xx→−

lim ( xx 22 + 2
x − 12 )
f ( )x ) ± lim g ( x ) = lim( f ( x ) ± glim
x→a
( x ))f =( xL) ± ± lim g ( x ) = lim( f ( x ) ± g ( x )) = L ±
x →3 ( x + xx −
+x lim −a 12 M
x → 3
lim
lim x−→3
12
x →3 (

lim
x →3 ( x
xx −− 3
3
x →3
x +((lim−1 3− 1 f ( x ))(lim g ( x )) = lim( f ( x ) g((lim
x → a x → a
( x )) =f LM ( x ))(lim g ( x )) = lim( f ( x ) g ( x )) = LM
lim ( xx + + 11x− −→1 a)
1 limx →fa ( x ) ± limxg→x(a + x )1=−lim(
1 xf→(ax ) ± g ( xx)) →a= L ± M x →a
lim (( x +x1 − 1 ))
lim
x → 0 x → a lim x → ( a x →) lim
a
f ( x )

x →0 ( xlim f )( x )  f (x → x )0  gL(xx )) = lim(  f ( x)  L
(3x 222 −xxx2→xa + 3) ==((lim ⋅x1→222a −f 2( x⋅ 1))(lim
x → a f ( x ) g ( x )) =
lim
g ( x=) ≠ 0a  LM  = ， M = lim g ( x
x →0
lim
x →0
3lim +x3→==a 4 ， Mx →=alim
lim
x →1 (3 x 2 −lim
lim (3 x − 22 xx g+ + ( 3)
3)x ) =
= 33 x⋅⋅→ 112a −− g22 (⋅⋅ 11x )+
+ 33 =(M
= 44x + 1 − 1) lim(x →ga(xx+) 1 + 1)  g ( x )  M
x → x →a
lim
x →1 (3 x −x2

a + 3) = 3
lim ⋅ 1 f −( =
x 2 ) lim
⋅ 1 + ( 3 = 4
 f ( x )  L + 1)
x → a )
xx→1+ x − 12 ( x − 3)x →(ax + 4)x =
x→ 21
x→+a 4 x ( =x + 1，
→0
xx 222 ++ xx − − 12
12 = (( xx − − 3)
3) (( xx + + 4)
4) = lim M = lim g ( x ) ≠ 0

x +x − x− 3 12 = ( x −2 3) xlim −→(a3xg+( x4)) = xxx + 44 g ( xx)  lim M(3x 2 − 2 xx → a
xx − 3 lim =
= (3 x − x 2
x − x 3+ 3) =
= x +
+ 4 + 3)
= lim x− −(33x +x4) →1 = 7 xx − − 33 = lim ( x →1 )
x ( x + 1 + 1) x 2 + x − 12
= lim
= lim
x → 3 ( x + 4) = 72
( x + 4) = 7
x →0
x → 3 ( x + 4) = x7 + x − 12 2
lim

x →3 lim ( ) 1 1 )
x →3 x −x →31 = lim ( x →3
)= x−3
x +1 −1 x 2 +x →x0− 12( x + 1 + 1) 2x + 1 − 1
lim ( xx + + 1
1 −
− 1
1 ) + lim
x 1 − 1( )
lim
x → 0 (3)
lim ( xlim+ x 1 −
( 1 ) ) lim ( )
x →0 (
lim )) x →3 x2 − 3
x →0 ( xx0 x x
x→ x →0
x →0
( xx+ 1 −21) ( x + x1 + x +
+ 11)−21x − 12
⋅−1)3 −) 2 ⋅1 + 3 =lim 41 (3x − 2 x + 3) = 3 ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 4
2 2
= lim ( (( lim xx ++ 1
(3
1 x 1)

− 1) −lim 2(( x xx+( + +3)1
1 =+ + 31)
x1)

= lim
= lim (( ( x +x 1(− 1)
x → 0 x → 1 x +x(→10 +x 1) + 1 +x1) )) x →
= lim x →0 (
2 xxx+ x((( − 12 xx + 1 + 1) )
2 x + x − 12 ( x − 3) ( x + 4)
2
x →0
x + 1 +( 1)
1= +(31)x−x2 3)
x
2
+ (xx−+124)
x →0

= lim ( xx
x − 3 x → ) 1
x x − − 3 3 x − 3 x − 3
= lim
= lim (( x ( x +x 1 + 1) 2))
x → 0
= lim x →0 (
x → 0 x (= lim x + 1 ++1) x ) + x −x 212+ x −( 12 x − 3) ( x = + lim4) ( x + 4) = 7
x ( xx →1+3 1( x+
x →0 x ( x + 1
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw + 1) 1)4) =17 = x →3= x + 4
= lim ( 1
1 ) = x 1
1 − 3 x − 3 x − 3
=
= lim
= lim
x →0 (
x →0 (
( x +11 或來電(02)2705-5066”
+ 1) =)) lim = 12
=
lim
x → 0 ( ( x + 1 + 1) ) =
( x + 1 + 1) x →2 23 ( xx 2++4)x =− 12 7
x +1 −1
lim f ( x ) = L  
2)a =f 2( x ) ± lim g (xx→)a = lim( f ( x ) ± g ( x )) = L ± M ((lim f ( x ))(limx → a g ( x )) = lim( f ( x ) g ( x ))
x →0
lim (3x +xlim →
lim
x →0 f ( x ) = x→a L x →a x→a
x →a x →a
lim
x→a
f ( x ) = L ， lim g ( x ) =
x→a lim f ( x ) = L ， lim g ( x ) = M lim f ( x )
lim f ( x ) ((lim x = L f ( x ))(lim glim
→ a x → ( x )) = 2lim(
a
−a2 xf + ( x3)
) g ( x )) = LM x→a
 f ( x )  Lx → a
lim
x → a f ( x ) = xL a lim g (xx →)a = M (3 x x → = = g ( x， = li
) =Mlim(
x →a
→，
lim f ( xx)→±a lim g ( x ) = lim( f ( x ) ± g ( x )) = L ± M
x → 1 lim f ( x ) ± lim
x→a
lim f ( x ) x=lim → aL ， f ( lim
x ) gx →( ax ) = fM( x )x → 2a
lim第　 g (1x堂課　數學基礎
) xx→ →aa
 g ( x ) x → a 027
M x→a x
lim
x→a f ( x ) ± lima g x(→ xa)==lim lim(lim 
f ( x )x±=+g (xLx−))， 12= )L ±=M x → a
((lim f ( x ))(lim g ( x )) = lim
x→a ((lim
x→
x → a f ( x ))(lim x → ag (→x3))( =lim( f ( x )Mg ( x ))lim= LMg( x) ≠ 0
lim f ( x ) ±lim → ag g
xlim ( x( )x ) =xx→→ aa xg
lim(  f (( xx )
) ±
 x→ g
x (

aMx 3)) = L ± Mx → a x →a x →a x→a
((lim
x→a f ( x ))(lim
x→ x→ a a g ( x )) =
lim xf→(ax )
x →lim(
a f ( x ) g ( x )) = LM lim (3x − 2lim 2
x + 3) f ( x)  f ( x) 
x →a
((lim f ( xx))(lim g ( =x ))lim = lim(
x→a
f ( xf )(x x) g+(L1x ))− 1= LM = lim  =
x →1 x →a
lim
→a
x → af ( x ) 求得極限： lim
x →xa→L0  ( = ， M
) = lim g ( x ) ≠ 0 lim g ( x ) x→a  g ( x )  M
lim
x →a 2
g ( 
x ) f ( x x)→a
lim (3x − 2 x +=3) ， M = lim g ( x ) ≠ 0g ( x ) M
x x →a x 2
+ x − 12
f ( x ) xx=→→a1lim
x →a
lim x→a  g
 f ( x)  L lim ( x→a
)
lim
x →a g ( x )  x  M
lim
= limx + x − 12= x →1 ， M = lim g ( x ) ≠ 0
2 (3 x 2
− 2 x
x →a
+ 3) = 3 ⋅ 1 2
− 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 =x→4 3 x − 3
x→a
lim g ( x ) limx →( a 2 g ( x )  )M2 x →a
x + 1lim − 1 (3x − 2 x + 3)
2
x→a lim x → 3 (3 x x − −2 x3 + 3)x + x − 12 ( x − 3) ( x + 4) lim ( x →1 )
lim (3(2)
2 x →1
x − 2 x +23) = = x +x4→=0 0，導致這個極限 x

x x++x1−−12 1 x − 3 x → 3 時，函數的分母 x−3 x 2 + x − 12
lim (3x − 2xx→+3 3) = x3−⋅ 132 − 2)⋅ 1 + 3 = 4
lim (
x →1
lim (3x2 lim 2
−lim 2 x((+ 3) ))= lim ( x + 4) = 7 2
x →1 x +x逼近無限大而不存在。碰到這個問題，我們可以做如下因式分解，
x→3− 0 12 x −
x→ x3 x →1
lim ( 2 )2 x →3
x →3 x + x −x −
3 12
lim (3x) +−12−x1+ 3) = 3 ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 4

2 x 2 + x − 12 ( x − 3) x + (1x−+14)
lim ( lim x → 1 ( ) lim
= ( ) = x+4
x →3
x x+x →−1203− 1 x x + 1 − 1 x−3 x → 0 x− x3
lim ( x + x) − 12 ( x − 3) (( x + 4)
x →0 +x1 −(31x 2 − 2 x=+ 3) =lim
x lim x→ 3 0⋅ 1 − 2x
2
⋅ 1 =+ 3x)=+ 44 ，所以原式 = lim ( x + 4)lim = 7(3。 x 2 − 2 x + 3) = 3 ⋅ 12 −
lim ( x →1 x − 3 ) x−3 x →3 x → 1
lim
x →0
(3x 2 −=x22lim x +(3) x += 4)3 ⋅ 1=2 7− 2 ⋅ 1 + 3(= x4 + 1 − 1) ( x + 1 + 1) x 2 + x − 12 ( x − 3) ( x + 4
x →1
(3) 2 x x+
x x3 →− 12 0，函數的分母 ( 2x −= 3) lim ( (x + 4)= 0 時，導致這個極限逼近無限大而不存 ) =
lim (3 x −在 2 x
→ + 3) = 3
= ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 4 = x + 4 x + 1 −x1− 3
xx→21
+ x − 12 x −( x3 − 3) ( x + 4)x − 3
x →0
x ( x + 1 + 1) lim ( ) x−3
= = x + 4 x= lim ( x + 4) = 7
=在。但是這個極限又不像上面的題目，可以透過因式分解移除有問
3 12 ( x − 3) x+−1(=3x−7+ 4)
2
x +x − x− x → 0
lim
x→ =3 ( x +x4) 1= lim= (x + 4 x ) x →3
= lim 4)lim = (
x −(3x +題的項目。想要解這個問題，我們用第三個方法：將分子有理化。
7 x − 3 ) x →0
x ( x + 1 + 1) ( x + 1 − 1) ( x + 1 + 1)
x →3
x →0 x = lim ( )
= lim ( x + 4) = 7 1 1
x →0
x ( x + 1 + 1)
x →3 (x +x1+−11−=1)lim( ( x + 1 + 1) x +1 −1
=lim lim(( ) x →0 ( x + 1 +)1) ) = 2 lim (
x x
)
x1 0 0− 1
x →0
x +x → → x x ( x + 1 + 1) = lim ( )
lim ( ) x →0
x ( x + 1 + 1)( x + 1 − 1) ( x +
x →0 x +x1 − 1( x + 1x − 1) ( x + 1 + 1)
lim ( ==lim lim ( ( ) x 2
+ x
) − 12 ) = lim (
( xxxx→→ 1x →0 1
) = x ( x + 1 + 1)
x →0
+001 −x1)( (x +x(1++x11) +11)+ 1)
+ = lim (
= lim ( x − 3) ( x+ + 1 1) 2x
( x + 1 − 1) ( x + 1 + 1) x →0
= lim ( = limx (( x + 11x+ 1)x 2 + )x −)112
x →0

= xlim = lim ( )
x →0
x0x0 ((x (x +x1++11)+ 1) ) = 2 x →0
x ( x + 1 + 1)
= lim (
x→→
( x +
) 1 + 1) x−3 x + x − 12
2

= lim ( x =( lim
x →0 x +x 1 + 1) 1) x 2 + x −112 x − 3 = lim (
1 1
( ) = )=
x →0 x 2
+
x ( x →x10+ 1(+ 1) x − 12 ( x + 1 + 1) 2
x)+=1 1+ 1) x − 32
x → 0
= lim ( x 2 + x − 12
x1 − 3 1 2
= lim ( ( 2x2 + 1 + 1) ) = 2 x + x − 12
x →0
x−3
x →0
( xxx++ +x1x−+−12 12
1) 2 x−3 x 2 + x − 12
x + x − 12
2

## x + 例題 x − 121xx(2) 指出極限的一個重要觀念。最後算出來的極限值是 x 7，但

−3
2
−−33 lim f ( x ) x−3
2
x +x − x− 3 12 22
xx +這個函數無法到那裡，因此藉由
+xx−−12 12 x →a −
x + x − 12
2
x + 4。我們發現雖然 x 2 + x − 12
2 x−3
x + x − 12 xx−−33 lim f ( x ) x−3
x →a +
x − 3
x ) =f L( x ) x + x − 12
2
3 12
2

2
++xx−−12 12 lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim+ f ( x ) = lim− f (lim
2 x−3
x + x − 12 xx−−33
x→a x →a x →a
x →a − x−3

x + x − 12
3 12
2
x +x − x− xxlim2
+ xf (−x12 )
→a − x →a +
2 x−3
x + x − 12 x −f (3x ) lim f ( x ) = L ⇔x −lim 3 f ( x ) = lim f ( x )
lim的運算就會發生問題。
2
x +x − x− 3 12 lim
x →a +
f ( x )
x→a
lim− f ( xa +)
x → x →a −
x → a
−(3x )lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim+ f ( x ) = lim− f ( x ) = L
x →a −
lim−x f從一個現實的例子來想像這個問題。在地圖上，把臺北和日本迪士尼樂 lim f ( x )
x →a lim
x→a
f ( x) x →a x →a
lim− f ( x )x → a + x →a +
xlim
→a f ( x )

x →a + lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim+ f ( x ) = lim− f ( x ) = L lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim+ f ( x ) =
lim+ f ( x )x → a x →a x →a
x→a x →a
lim
x → a f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = L
+ −
x→a
lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ xlim →a
f ( x ) = xlim →a
f ( x) = L
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x→a x →a x →a + −

x →1 x +1 −1
lim ( )
lim
xx→2 0 (3 x 2 − 2 x + 3)
+ x − 12 x ( x − 3) ( x + 4)
x →1
= = x+4
limx(3 −2x32+−x2−x12
x + 3) =x3−⋅ 132 − 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 4
1 lim ( ( x + 4) = 7)
x →1
x= lim − 3 ( x − 3) ( x + 4)
028 第 部　管理數學原理 +3x −x12
x→23x →
= = x+4
x − x3+ 1 − 1 x−3
lim ( )
x= → lim
0 ( x +x +4)1=−71
lim
x →3 ( )
limx →(3 0 x − 2xx + 3) = 3 ⋅ 12 − 2 ⋅ 1 + 3 = 4
2

x →1

+ x (− (12 x +x 1+(−1x1−−1)

x=2 lim 3) (( xx++4)
1 + 1)
lim
x →0 ( =x ( ) x + 1 + 1) = x )+ 4
x→x 0− 3 x

= lim ( x (+ 4) = x 7
x + 1 − 1) ( ) x + 1 + 1)
= lim
→3 (

= xlim
x →0 ( )
x → 0 x ( x + 1 + 1)
x ( x + 1 + 1)

1 1
=lim
= lim((( x + 1 −x 1 ) ) )=
lim

x( ( xxx++11++1)1) 2
x →0
xx→ →00

( x +11 − 1) ( x1+ 1 + 1)
==xlim
2
+ x((− 12
lim )= )
xx→→00
( x +
x 1( + 1)
x + 1 +21)
x−3

=xxlim
2
2 + x − 12 x
+ x( − 12 )
x →0
x − x
3 ( x +

x−3
2 + x − 12 1 1
2
=xxlim + x( − 12

x−3
x →0
( x + 1 + 1) 2
x−3
x 2 + x − 12
2

## xx2 ++x x− x −−1212

x
x−3− 3

xxx→2 a++ xx −−1212
lim+x f−(3x )
x → ax −3
lim f ( x)
xlim2
x → a+ fx( −
− x )12= L ⇔ lim+ f (ax ) = lim− f ( x ) = L
x→a x →a x →a

x →a
x 2 + x − 12
lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim+ f ( x ) = lim− f ( x ) = L
x→a
x−3 x →a x →a

lim−− f ( x ) a
x →a

lim++ f ( x )

x →a

## lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ lim++ f ( x ) = lim−− f ( x ) = L

x→a x →a x →a

 3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2 f ( x) = 
f ( x) =  12, x = 2
 12, x = 2  3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2

lim f ( x ) 12, x = 2 x →2
x →2
lim f ( x )

x的極限。極限是近似但是不相等（x
→2
x →2
≠ 2），
x →2
lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 =
lim f ( x ) = lim(3x3x+ 4)

= 12x →+2 4 = 16
+ 4。 x →2 x→2

= 16x
x →2 x→2

## x lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4lim

x →2 x→2 x →0 | x |
lim
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x →0 | x | x
lim

x x x →0 | x | lim− = lim− = −1
x →0 | x | x →0 − x
 3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2
f ( x) = 
12, x = 2

lim f ( x )
x →2
 3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 32x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2
lim f ( xf)( x ) =  f ( x) = 
12,2 x = 2 12, x = 2
x →2

## 故 lim f ( xlim ) = lim(3x + 4) = 12 + 4 = 16 。

fx →( x2 ) lim f ( x )
x →2
x →2 x →2
x
lim lim f ( x ) lim f ( x )

x →0 x | x →2 x →2

## x lim f ( x )x= lim(3 fx( x+) 4) = 12 +x 24+=4) 16= 12 + 4 = 16

2
x →2 x→
lim 2
= lim(3
lim− = lim− = −1
x →2 x→2
 3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2
x →0 | x | x→ x0 − x x f ( x) = 
lim lim

x x →0 | x | x x →0 | x |

lim+ = lim+ = 1
x →0 | x | x →x 0 x x x lim x →2
f ( x)
x

= 1 lim = −1
| x | = −xx→↔ 0 − | x |< 0x →x0→ − −
0− x| x |lim x→f 0(−x−) x
x →2
| x | = −x ↔ x > 0 x x
f ( x x) ==lim(3

0 | x |  +3 x + 4, ≠ +2 x1→ 2
3 x → x → x
f ( x ) = x→0 | x | x → 0 x
0 + x→

lim 2 xx < 0
x →5

x − 5≠ 右極限，故此極限不存在。 <| =0 x−= lim
xx →↔  3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2
0 | x |
|3x | =lim − x f↔ ( x|x)x>| =0 − x ↔ x > 0 f ( x ) = 
lim+ =∞
x →2
x x 12, x = 2
x →5 x − 5 lim 3 f ( x) lim
3x →0− = lim = − 1
lim x → 2

lim f ( xx)→5 x − 5 x →5 x − 5 2 x →2
x→a lim f ( x ) = lim(3x +x4) = 12 +x4 =lim

) = f ( a3) =lim
x → 2 lim = lim+ = x1→ 2
lim f ( xlim
x →2
∞ 3
x → 0 |=x ∞
+
| x →0 x
x − x5 x →5+ x − 5 lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 = 16
x→a +
x →5
lim
lim f ( x ) x →0 | x | | x | = − x ↔ x < 0 x →2 x→2
x →2 lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) x
x→a
lim f ( x ) ≠ f ( −1)x
x→a | xx | = − x ↔ x > 0 lim
x →−1 lim f lim ( x −) = flim ( alim
= ) f (−x ) = =f − (3a1) x →0 | x |
x → a x2→ 0 | x | x → ax → 0 − x
1 − fx ( x ) lim x x
f ( x ) =lim

1 + xlim+
x →2 x=→ 2lim =1 x → 0 |x| x → 0 −x
3
lim +1 xf )( x )| ≠x |fxlim

+
(1 − x ) (1x →−
x → 0 x → 0
) ≠ f ( −1) = ∞ x x
→−1
x −5 lim = lim+ = 1
1 + x | x |1=−−xx2 ↔ x <10− x 2
x → 5+

1 − x ≠ ff (( xx))| = x | 1=+−xxf ↔ ( x )x=>lim 0 f ( x)
1+ x
x→a
| x | = −x ↔ x < 0
g ( x ) = (11 −−xxlim ) (1 + 3)(1 − x ) (1
x lim f ( x ) = f ( a )

p( x ) = 3x 2 1−+2 x +x1− 5 1 + lim
x →5
x f ( x) 3
x = 1 1− p x ≠= f3(−x )231+−1x=≠2 xf→(2x )
(1) lim
， lim

x −5
lim p( xg)( x ) = 1 − x g−(5x ) = 1x →−
x → 5+
− 1x 3
x →1
p( x )lim

x=→ a3x −p2(x f ( x ) = + 1 x −5
lim p( x ) = p(1) x → 5+
x →1
x = 1lim ， pf (1) ( x x)===31f−， (2a + )p1(1)= =2 31−+ 2x+ 1 = 2lim f ( x )

x→a (1 − x ) (1 + x ) x→a
lim plim ( x ) f ( xlim )x →1 p( x ) 1 + x
x →1
x →2 lim f ( x ) = f (a )
x→a
lim plim ( x) = p
f ( xlim(1)
) ≠ pf((x−1)1) −=xp≠(1)f ( x )

x →1
x →−1 x →1 lim f ( x )
x →2
2 g( x) = 1 − x

f ( x) =
1 + x p ( x ) = 3x − 2 x + 1
2 x →−1

1 − x2
(1 − x ) (1 + x ) x = 1 ， p(1) = 3 − 2f +( x1)==2
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1+ x

1 − x ≠ f ( x ) lim p( x ) = p(1)
030 第 1 部　管理數學原理
 3x + 4, x ≠ 2 2

f ( x) = 
12, x = 2
lim f ( x )

x →2

lim f ( x )
x →2

## 點連續 lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 = 16

x →2 x→2

lim f ( x ) = 
 3xx2→+0 |4,x |x ≠ 2  3x + 4, x ≠ 2
2 2
 3x 2 + 4, x ≠ 2 12, x = 2
ff (( xx )) =

12, x = 2

12,
3xlim 2x x+ ==4,x22x = ≠ 2lim x = −1 12, x = 2 lim f ( x )
flim ( xf) (=x) x →0− | x |limx →f 0(− x−) x x →2
lim → 22
f ( x )
 12, x = 2 x → 2 lim f ( x ) lim f ( x)
xx → x →2
x lim f ( xx) x →2
lim ff ( xx ) lim = lim+ = 1

xx → → 22 x →0+ | x |
x →2
x →0 x x →2 lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 =
x →2 x→2
lim
lim ff (( xx )) = = |lim(3
lim(3
x | = xx−22xlim
+
+ ↔ 4)
4) f (=
x= <
) =+
x12
120 + lim(3
44→ 2=
= 16
16x 2 +lim4) f=(12 x ) += 4lim(3
= 16x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 = 16
xx → → 22 連續有兩種：「點連續」和「區間連續」。我們先介紹點連續。 → 22
xx →
x → 2 x
x →2 x→2 x
lim
lim fxx( x ) = |lim(3 x | = x−2xlim +↔ 4)xx=>120 + 4 = 16 x x →0 | x |
lim
lim x →2 x→2
x →0 | x | lim
xx →→ 0 || x
0 x || 3 x →0 | x | x x
x lim lim− = lim− = −1
lim定義：點連續 x x x
x → 0 | xx|
lim =
x
lim
→ 5
xx x = −lim 5−1 = lim = − 1 x x x →0 | x | x →0 − x
lim = lim (x)− −函數在 = −1 | x → 0− − x lim− =3lim = −1
→ 00 − || x xx ||若 fxx → → 00− − x x →0− |ax點連續，則滿足下面
xx 3 = ∞
x →0 | x |

x → 0− − x x x

xx →

## lim− x (1) = lim lim = − 1 lim+ = lim+ = 1

f (a) x有定義 −5 x x | x | x
x | = xlim x x=x 1lim = lim+ = 1 lim x = lim x = 1
+
x → 5 x → 0 x → 0
xlim →0 | x → 0− −
lim→ 00 + | x |
= lim
→ 00+ x
= 1 +
|x| x
| xx |(2) xxlim xf ( x ) 存在 0 0
x →0 | x | x →0 x | x | = −x ↔ x < 0
+ + x → x → + +
xx →
x→a x

lim = lim = 1
| x | = − x ↔ x < 0
||x →xx 0||+= =| x− −|(3) xx ↔ ↔ →x
x lim
x0+ <<xf 00( x ) = f ( a ) | x | = −x ↔ x < 0 | x | = −x ↔ x > 0
||| xxx ||| = = − xxx ↔ ↔ x→a
xxx <> 000 | x | = − x ↔ x > 0 | x | = −x ↔ x > 0 3
=− − 如果上述 ↔lim >
f ( x3) 個條件任何 1 個不滿足，則稱函數 f 在 a 點不連續。 lim
3
x | = −33x ↔ x > 0 lim 3 x −5
x → 2 x → 5
|lim
lim lim
− 55 x →−1 lim f ( x x)→≠ 5 f ( −1)
x − 5
xx3− x −5 3
xx →
→5 5 x → 5

lim 第一個條件是指函數的值域是有意義的；第二個條件是指左右極限相 2 3
lim+ =∞
3
3− 5 = ∞ 1lim −x = ∞ 3 x → 5 x −5
lim
lim
x →5
x f=( ∞ x ) = x → 5+ x − 5 lim = ∞
xx → → 55++

x→a
lim
lim lim f ( xx )) (1 − x ) (1x →+a x ) = ∞ lim f ( x ) lim f ( x)

xx→ → 5a+ f (x − 5 f 的運算規則下，求得極限。我們利用圖 lim f ( x ) = f (a )
x→a x→a

lim ff (( xx )) = = ff (( aa )) x → a1 + x
lim f ( x ) = f ( a )
x→a

## 1-6 lim lim f ( x ) = f ( a ) lim f ( x )

xx → → aa 的三個圖形來說明違反上述條件的三種不連續。 1− x ≠ f ( x) x→a
x →2
lim f在圖 (( x )) = 1-6(A) lim f ( x )
lim xx → → a22 gf ((xa)) = 1x →−中，當 2x x 逼近 1lim f ( x)
x →時，不存在；在圖
2 1-6(B)
lim f ( x中，極限 ) ≠ f ( −1)
x →−1
lim
lim f ( x
ff ((xx)) ≠ ) ≠

pf((x−)1)= 3x →− lim f ( x )
x 1 − 21-6(C)，則
2 ≠
x +1 f ( − 1) lim f ( x ) ≠ f ( −1) 。圖 1-6(C) 則是一個重
xxx→− → 211
→− x →−1 1 − x2
f ( x ) =
lim f ( x11) − −≠ xxf =( −11)
22
， p(1) = 31− 2x + 1 = 2 2
1 − x2 1+ x

f (( xx1 )) = = f ( x) = 在 x =f (-1 x ) =處，沒有辦法「直接帶入」，透過
11 + lim
x p ( x ) 1 + x 1+ x (1 − x ) (1 + x)
1 −+ xxx→ 2
1
f(1
(1 − ( x )
− xx )) (1 = (1 + + x )) (1 − x ) (1 + x ) 1+ x
1 +xlim x 消掉 p( x ) =1 p+(1)x 剩下的 1 (1 − x ) (1 + x )
- x，雖然在 x = -1 處可以帶入，但是
11 + x x →1 1 + x 1+ x 1 − x ≠ f ( x)
(1 − x )+(1x + x )
11 − − xx ≠ ≠ f ( x) 1 − x ≠ f ( x ) 1− x ≠ f ( x) g ( x ) = 1 − x 。雖
1 + fx( x ) ；在數學上，我們應該重新用一個符號，例如
g ( x ) = 1 − x
1gg−(( xxx)) ≠=

= 11f − −xxx)
f ((x) 和 g(x) 的值域 y 的值似乎重疊，但在
g( x) = 1 − x
x = -1 p ( x ) = 3x 2 − 2 x + 1

+ 11p( x ) = 3x − 2 x + 1 p( x ) = 3x − 2 x + 1
2
gpp(( xx )) = = 133− xx 22x− − 22 xx +
2
x = 1 ， p(1) = 3 − 2 + 1 = 2
xxp(= =x11) ， (1) 3+ − 122 +x =
+ 11 =1= 22 p (1) = 3 − 2 + 1 = 2
= 3ppx(1) =2 x3
， ， x = 1 ， p(1) = 3 − 2 + 1 = 2 lim p( x )
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−= −
x →1
lim (( xx ))p(1) = 3 − 2x →+11 = 2或來電(02)2705-5066”lim p ( x )
lim xx →=1 1pp，
x →1 x →1
lim p( x ) lim p( x ) = p(1)
x →1
 3x + 4, x ≠ 2
f ( x) = 
12, x = 2
 33xx 22 +
+ 4, ≠ 22
4, xx ≠
ff (( xx )) =
= lim f ( x )
12,
12, xx = = 22
x →2

1 堂課　數學基礎 031
lim f ( x )
lim
lim ff (( xx )) x →2
→ 22
xx →
lim f ( x ) = lim(3x 2 + 4) = 12 + 4 = 16
lim
lim ff (( xx )) x →2 x→2
→ 22
xx →
x →2
x
lim
lim ff (( xx )) == lim(3
lim(3 + 4)
xx 22 + 4) == 12lim+
12 + 44 = = 16
16
xx → → 22 → 22
xx → x →0 | x |

xx x x
lim lim− = lim− = −1
xx → →0 | x |
0
x →0 | x | x →0 − x

x x x x
lim−− = lim−− = −1 lim = lim+ = 1
xx → →0 | x |
0 x →0 − x
x → 0
x →0+ | x | x →0 x

xx xx | x | = −x ↔ x < 0
lim
lim =
= lim
lim = 11
=
→ 00 + | x |
+
→ 00+ x
+
xx → | x | xx → x | x | = −x ↔ x > 0
|| xx || = =− − xx ↔ ↔ xx < < 00 3
|| xx || = lim
=− − xx ↔ ↔ xx > > 00 x →5
x −5
3 3
lim lim+ =∞
xx → →5 5
x −5 x →5 x −5
lim 3 =∞ lim f ( x )
lim

xx → →5 5 +
x −5
lim f ( x ) = f ( a )
lim
lim ff (( xx )) x→a
xx → → aa

lim xx → a
f ( x ) = f (a ) x →2

lim f ( xy，和 ) ≠ f (g−1)

lim xx → 2
f ( x) x →−1
→2

lim f ( x ) ≠ f ( − 1) f ( x ) =
xx →− →−11

22
ff (( xx )) = 1 − x (1 − x ) (1 + x)

1+ x 1+ x

1+ x g( x) = 1 − x
1 − x ≠ f ( x )

g( x) = 1 − x x = 1 ， p(1) = 3 − 2 + 1 = 2

22
− 22 xx + + 11 lim p( x )
(1) xx = = 11 ， ， pp(1) (1) = = 33 − − 22 + + 11 =
= 22 ，故 p(1) 有定義。
x →1

lim p( x ) = p(1)
(2) lim
lim xx →
→1 1
pp(( xx )) 存在。 x →1
x →1

## (3) lim →11

xx →
p( x ) = pp(1) 得證。
x →1

x −1

x+2
{x | x ∈試證明在
(1) 討論此函數的連續問題　(2) R 且 x ≠ −x2} = 3 處連續
( − ∝ , − 2)  ( −2 , ∝)
2
f (3) =
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5

x −1
lim
032 第 1 部　管理數學原理
x −1 x −1 x −1

−1 x+2 x+2
f ( x) = fx(+x 2) =

{x | xx∈+ R 2 且 x ≠x −+2} 2 {x | x ∈ Rx且 { | x x∈ ≠R −且 2}x ≠ −2} ，
{x | 或寫成兩個開區間的聯集 {x | x ∈ R 且 x ≠ −2} ( − ∝ , −(2) −∝  ,( −22) )(。−2 , ∝ )
(x−∈∝R, 且 − 2)x ≠ (−−2} 2 , ∝) ,∝
( − ∝ , − 2)  ( −( −∝2,, −∝2) )  ( −2 , ∝ ) 2 2
2 f (3) = f (3) =
(2) f (3)2 = ，故有意義。
f (3) = 5f (3) = 2 5 5
5x − 1 5 x − 1lim x − 1
lim 存在（唯一不存在發生於 lim x → 3x x =+-2）。
x − 1 x − 1 x →3 x + 2 2
lim x →3 x + lim
x →3 2
x →3 x + 2 x →
x − 1 lim(
3 x + 2 1)
x− 2 x − 1limlim( x −x1−lim( 1) x2− 1) 2
lim x →3 x →3
= =
lim −1)1 lim( =x − 1)
xx → 3
xxx→ 33 1
lim( x→x− 3
x →23

lim( x 2) 5 5
→− x + 2 lim(
limx →3 x + 2) 5 = +
lim x→ 3
= x →3 x →3
x → 3 x + 2 lim( x x++2) x → x3 → 3 2 lim( 5 x + 2) 5 1 1
x →3
1x →3 lim lim =? =?
lim 111 x − 1lim = ? 1 x → 1 x −1 x →1 x − 1
lim

7.　 = ?x →1 = ?
x →1 x − 1
1 x −1 1 lim 1
lim = +∞ lim+ = +∞ = +∞
111++ x − lim 1 x →1 x − 1 x →1+ x − 1

= +∞+ = +∞ x −1
x →1 x − 1
1 x →1 x − 1 lim
1 limf (=x −∞ ) =1 = −∞
lim = −∞ 1 x+2
1− − lim x − 1 x →1 x − 1x →1 x − 1
− −

## lim− xx → →11− x = 1−∞− =x )−∞

f ( = f ( x{limx) =| xf∈( axR) 且 = fx(a≠)−2}
lim+ f ( xx →) 1= xf −( a1)
x →1 x − 1 x + 2 xlim
→a + x →a +
lim →f a( x ) = lim
xx → a +
f a(+af) ({xx) |=x ∈ a )且 x ≠ −2} ( − ∝ , − 2)  ( −2 , ∝)
f (R

x → a + lim f ( xx → ) = f ( b ) lim f ( xlim ) = f ( bx ) = f (b )
x →b− x →b− 2
f (b x ) = xlim f (b f) ((x−) ∝ = ,f −(b2)
)  ( −2 , ∝) f (3) =

lim → xx → b −

x + 1 x +1
f (x) = f (x) = 5
→b−
x →b− x +1 2
f ( x )

f ( x) = 5 lim
−1 <xx−<22 x−2 −1 < x <− x→ 213 <x x+ <2 2

−1 <− x ≤< x2 ≤ − 1 < x <
lim 2 −1 ≤ x ≤ 21 ≤x x−≤1 2lim( x − 1) 2

1 2 x →3 x + 2
lim 13 <x x+ <2 2lim( x + 2) = 5
x →3

−1 ≤− x <≤ x2 <−1 ≤ x ≤ 2 −
− 1 < x < 2
x − 1 lim( x − 1) 2 x→
1 2 x →3
−1 <− x ≤< x2 ≤−1 < x lim <2 x →3
− 1 ≤ x=≤−21 ≤ x ≤ 2
1 2 x → 3 x + 2 lim( x + 2) 5 1
−1 ≤ x ≤[ 2 (−1),≤ x( ≤)]2

x →3
w ∈ [ f (lim w
ax →),∈ [ f( b( a)]=), ?f ( b)]
1 xf − 1
wf (∈b在開區間 1
[ f ( a ), f (ab)]<= x? <cb∈連續，則對所有在此區間的點集合，
∈c[ ∈
1.w若函數 f ([aa),,f b(x) ] )] lim [ a , bc]∈ [ a1, b]
x →1 x − 1 lim = +∞
c ∈ [fa(,cb)]= cw∈ [ a , b] f ( c ) = xwf→(1+c )x =− 1w

f ( c ) = w f ( c ) = lim w = +∞f ( x ) = f (xx+) 11= x + 1
2. 如果函數 f ( x ) = fx(x) x →1+ x − 1 a ≤ x
+ 1在閉區間 lim
≤ b 連續，則在開區間 = −∞ a < x < b 內，
x →1− x − 1
f ( x ) = x +f 1( x ) = x + 11 x ∈ [3, x ∈ [3, 24]
24]
x ∈

x ∈ [3, 24] x ∈ [3, x24] →1 x − 1
f (3) = xf→4(3) a == 2 4 =2
f (3) = 4 = 2
f (3)f = f (3) = lim 4 =f (2x ) = f (af (24)
) 且 =lim f5(24) f (= x )5= f (b )
(24)4 ==52 x → a + x→ b−

## f (24) f (24) = 5 f ( x ) = f (w w ∈=[2,f (3) +=12,=f5] (24) = 5]

w ∈=[ 5f (3) = 2, xlim f (24) = 5] b )∈ [ f (3)
→b− f (x) =
fx (24)
w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = 5]
w ∈ [f f( c(3) ) ==w2, f (24) = 5] x + 1 f ( c ) = wf ( c ) = w

f ( c ) = w f ( c ) = fw( x ) = x − 2 f ( c ) = −f1c( c<+)1x=< =w
2c + 1 = w
f (c) = c + 1 = w
f ( c ) = c22 +f 1( c=) w
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw =−1c<+x1 <=2w c = w 2 −−c11=≤wx2 ≤− 12
c = w −1 2
c = 3w≤2 −w122 −c1=≤w24−⇔ ≤ x ≤ 222 3 ≤ w 2 −−311≤≤<w24
11或來電(02)2705-5066” x2 < 2
−⇔ 1 ≤424 ≤ w⇔ 2
≤4 25
≤ w 2 ≤ 25
4 ≤ w ≤ 25
1 x+2 lim − 1 xlim( →=1 +∞xx −−11) 2 x1→3 x + 2 x →1 x − 1
x →1+x x
x →3
lim+ = +∞ lim − 1x →3 lim− = −∞
x →1 x − 1 1 x= →1 x − 1
− 1 lim(lim+xf−(1) x ) = 2f (a )
x − 1 lim( x − 1)x →3 x2+ 12 lim( lim x + 2) = −∞ 5 lim
x xx→→3a
=
lim
1
x →3
=
lim x
=1 −∞
→ 3−
x − 1 lim+ fx →( x3 )x=+ f2(lim( ) x f+( 2)
alim
lim− x →3 x=+−∞ 2 lim( x + 2)x →1−51x − 1
x→
x →a x ) = 5f (b )
x →1 x − 1 x →3
lim =lim? f ( x ) = f ( a ) x→

1 堂課　數學基礎 033
1 x→lim
1 x+ − f 1( xx)→=a + f (a ) lim− f ( x ) =1 f (b ) x + 1
lim flim ( x ) = f (=a )? x → a
f ( x ) = f (blim
x → b = f? ( x ) =
x → a + x →1
x −1 lim 1f ( xx)lim
→= b− f (b )
x)→1 x − 1
x + 1 x−2
lim− f ( x ) =1f (b ) lim
x →b−
= +∞ f (x) = 1
x →1+ x − 1 x + 1 limx − 2 =−+∞ 1< x < 2
x →b
lim+ = +∞ xf (+x1) = x →1+ x − 1

x → 1 x
x +1 − 1 1
f ( x ) = = −∞ 在x −−21 < x < 2 及 −1 ≤ x ≤ 2 的連續
f (x) = lim x−2
1
lim−x − 2 = −∞
x →1− x − 1 −1 < x < 2
−1 ≤ lim x ≤ 2 1 =−−∞ 1< x < 2

lim+ f ( x ) −=1 f≤(ax )≤ 2 x →1− x − 1
−1 < xx →<1 2x − 1 − 1 < x < 2 −1 ≤ x ≤ 2
−1 ≤ x ≤ 2
x →a
lim+ f ( x ) = f (a )
−1 ≤ xxlim

f ( x ) = f (a )x lim = 1 f之外，處處連續。因此，這個函數在開區間
( x ) −= 1 <
f ( x
b )< 2 − 1 ≤ xx→ ≤
a 2 w ∈ [ f ( a ), f ( b)]
→a
x→ −b1− < x < 2
−1 < xlim <−2f (連續，但在閉區間
x ) = f (b ) −1 ≤ x ≤ 2w不連續，因為在右邊端點 ∈ [ lim
f ( a f ( x ) =)]∈
− ), f ( b c
f ([ba), b] x=1
− 1 ≤ x x≤ +21 x →b
x →b
−1 ≤ x ≤ 2 x + 1 f ( x ) = w ∈ [ f ( a ),c ∈ f ([ba)], b]

f ( x ) = f (x) =
w ∈ [ f ( a ), f (xb−)]2 −1 < x < 2c ∈ [ a , b] f ( c ) = w x −f2( x ) = x + 1
c ∈ [ a , b]
c ∈ [ a−, 1b<] x < 2

f (c) = w
f ( c ) −=1w≤ x ≤ 2 −1 < x < 2f ( x ) = xx+∈1[3, −124] ≤x≤2
f ( x) = x + 1 f (3) = 4 = 2
f ( x ) −=1 <xx+<1 2 −1 ≤ x ≤ 2x ∈ [3, 24] f (3) −=1 <4x=<22 f (24) = 5

−theorem）
x ∈ [3,−124] ≤x≤2 w ∈ [ f ( a ),f (3) f ( b=)] 4value 2 =5
f=(24) w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = 5]
(3)上連續，且如果
f b] = 4 =2 [ ( ), ( b)] ，則至少

f (3) = 4 = 2f
∈ 在一閉區間
[ f ( a ), f ( b )] [a,
c ∈ [ a , b ] f (24) = 5 w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, ff f(24)
w ∈ f a
( c ) ==w5]
f (24) = 5 c ∈ [ a , b]

f (24) = 5 ∈ [ a , b ] ，使得 f ( c ) = w 。
w ∈ [ f (3) =f (2,c ) f=(24) w = 5]
w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = f5]( c ) = w f ( c ) = c + 1 = w
f ( c ) = w
w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = f5]( x ) = xf + ( c1) = w f ( c ) = c + 1 = w 2
f (c) = w c = w −1
f ( c ) =f (w x ) = x + 1 x ∈ [3, 24] f2 ( x ) = x + 1

f ( c ) = c + 12= w c = wx ∈ [3, 24]
3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤ w 2 ≤ 25
∈ [3,
c ) x=公分，15
f (30 c + 24]
1 = w歲時 160 f (3)公分，則在她出生到
= 4c = w 2 − 1 3 ≤ w 2 − 115≤ 歲之間，必定有一個

2

c = w f (3)
2
−1 = 4 = 2 f (24) 2= 53 ≤ w − 1 ≤ f (3) = 4 = 2

4 ≤ w 2 4≤ ≤25w 2 ≤ 25  3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24
3 ≤ w − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤ w ≤ 25
3 ≤ w 2f − (24)
1 ≤ =245 ⇔ 4 ≤ ww2 ∈≤[25 f (3)2=≤2,w ≤ f (24)
5 4 ≤= w 5]2 25= 5 3 w
f (24)
1 1≤ f24( c ) = f ( w 2 − 1) =
2

w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24)
f ( c =
) =5] w w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = 5]
2≤w≤5 4 ≤ w ≤ 25 
2
3 ≤ w − 1 ≤ 24
2
2 2 − 1  f ( c ) = f ( w 2 − 1) =

2f ( c ) = w
4 ≤ w ≤ 25  3 ≤ w f−(1c )≤=24 cc +=1w=2 w2
− 1  f ( c2) = f ( w 2 − 1) = w2 − 1 + 1 = w
2 − 1  f (c) = f (w 1) 1w+ 1 = w
2 2
c = w f ( c −) = = c + w1 −
=
c = w 2f (−c1)  = fc( + c )1== fw(cw=2 −w1)−=1 w 2 − 1 + 1 = w
c = w2 − 1 3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤ w 2c≤=25 w −1
2

3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔24≤≤ww≤2 ≤5 25 3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤ w 2 ≤ 25
2≤w≤5 4 ≤ w 2 ≤ 25  3 ≤ w 2 −21≤≤w24≤ 5
4 ≤ w 2 ≤ 25  3c≤=ww2 2−−11≤ 24f ( c ) = f ( w42 ≤− 1)
w 2 ≤ 25 2  3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24
= w −1+1 = w
c = w − 1  f ( c ) = f ( w − 1) = w − 1 + 1 = w − 1  f ( c ) = f ( w − 1) = w − 1 + 1 =
2 2 2
2 2 2 c = w

x
a c b

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−1 ≤ x ≤ 2 −1 < x < 2 f (c) = w
w ∈f[ (fcw ()a∈ =),[wff((cba))] ),= w f ( b)]c ∈ [fa(,xb) ]= x + 1
−1 < x < 2 f ( x ) = x −+11≤ x ≤ 2 w ∈ [ f ( a ), f ( b)] c ∈ [ a , b]
c ∈ [fa(,xcb)∈ ]=[ af ,(xbx+)] 1= x + 1f ( cx)∈=[3, w 24] f ( x) = x + 1 f (c) = w
−1 ≤ x ≤ 2x ∈ [3, 24]w ∈ [ f ( a ), f ( b)]c ∈ [ a , b]
fw( c24]) = w 24] f ( x ) = x + 1 x ∈ [3, 24]
034 第 部　管理數學原理
f ( xf)(3)
1
f ( cx)∈=[3,
=f (=cx∈
w x∈∈[ [3,
)+ =41
f ( a ),f (3)
= x 2 + 1
f ( b=)] f4(3)
x ∈ [3,
c=∈2=[ a ,4b]= 2
24]
f (c) = w
f (3) = 4 = 2
f ( x) = x + 1
f [(3)a, = b] f 4(24) = 2= f5(24) f ( c )==5 w f ( x ) = x + 1 x ∈ [3, 24]
x ∈ f[3, (24)x24]∈=[3, 5 24] f (3) = 4 = 2 f (24) =5
f (fc(24)
) = w=w5∈ [ f (3) w∈ =f [2,
( fx(3))f=(24) = x2,+ = 1f5](24) x ∈=[3, 5] 24] f (3) = 4 = 2
w ∈ [
f (3)
f (3) = = 4
2, = f 2(24) f (24)
= 5] =
( cx)∈== 5 w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = 5]
f (3) = 4 (=x∈

，且 [3, w5]24]
，故 f (3) = 4 = 2 ， f (24) = 5。
f (24) f ( c=f) (24) 5x w
= =c )5= w w ∈f[ (fc(3) = 2, f (24) = 5]f ( c ) = w
∈f ([3, 24]f ( c ) = c +f )(3) 1== =wc +41 == 2w f (24) = 5 w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24) = 5]

w ∈f[ (fc(3) w ∈ [
) = =f c2, f (3) =
( c+=)f1=(24)=w 2, f (24)
=15]f ( c ) =
= 5]
w 2 ，則在定義域內可找到一數
− 1= 5 f ( c ) = c + 1 = fw( cc，使得
)==5]w
f (3) 4c c= +w 2 2 =−c1w=fw(24) w ∈ [ f (3) = 2, f (24)
f (2c ) = w 2 2
−1。
f ( cc)== ww 。也就是說 − 1= w − 1 f2 ( c3)≤=w 2c−+11≤=24
f c(24) = 53 ≤ w − 1 ≤w24 ∈ [⇔ f (3)
w⇔
4 ≤=w2,
，則
2 4f ≤
≤f (24)
25 (ccw)=2= =w w25
≤5] f (c) = c + 1 = w
f ( c3)≤=w f ( c−)3+1=≤
2
1 ≤ = c
24 2w + ⇔1 = 4 wc≤ = w w
2 2
≤ − 1
25
25 ≤4fw(=≤c≤5] 3 ≤ w 2
− 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤2 w 2 ≤ 25

。 ≤ 25
2
w ∈[ w ⇔
f (24) f ( c ) = c + 1 = wc = w − 1
222 ≤ w ≤ 5
w1 w
2
c =2w≤2 c−

−21 3 ≤ w 2 − 1 ≤ 24 ⇔ 4 ≤ w 2 ≤ 2
w ≤ 25 f ) = 3 w + x 12−=
−1 ≤
w
x − 1 =
3 ≤ 4w2≤2 3− w≤1 ≤
2 2
w4 24 ≤)−=
25 1⇔ 2≤
≤c424 3≤⇔ ≤w22w2≤4≤≤w
2
3=1w
−25 ≤≤≤5w
2
2≤
24 2 25 4 ≤22wx1 +≤125  2 3 ≤ w2 − 1 ≤ 24
2
w 1 25  2− 1 ≤ 24 3 1 24−≤1≤w ≤ =5≤ w
1 − 1 + 1 = w 。 225
24
c w −  f 2( c ) 2 = ≤ f (ww − − 1)
2≤ = w
⇔ w
+ 1

x − x − 1 =5 c = w − 1 2 + 1 = w c = w − 1 x
f ( c ) = f ( w −2 1) − x − 1 = w
2 ≤cw=≤2w5≤2 −w1≤ 4 f≤( w w 2 −≤1)25=2 2  231−≤ <1w x+21<2− 2 1 ≤ xw24+2 1− 1 
w 1 f (4c≤) =w f ≤( w25− 1)=3 ≤ww −−11+ ≤1
2
2 x2f1 + (1c ) =
− 1  f ( c1)32=2≤fw( w− 1− 1) w c
2=
≤4−−w =
w1xw≤+−151≤=
2 2

x 2
− x c−c=12=w =
w2 −1 ≤ =1 ⇔
24 wx ≤ 2
= 25
4 ≤1w<2 4x≤≤<25 2 x≤25
w −3x≤− w12=3−=≤1x w w2x24 −−112 x≤−24 1f (=1c )<=x f<(2w 2 2−21) = xw+2 − 1 1 =22 w
3 ≤ w 2 x−+11≤ 24c⇔ 2 +

4 12≤−≤w w ≤≤ 25 51 xf (+x1)4=≤xw − ≤x 25 − 1 − 1 31c+ ≤=ww −−11≤24f ( c ) = f ( w 2 − 1

1 − x − 1 = 在 1 < x < 2 有解。 x1 + 1
f <( xcx−)=1<= 2f( c( w
)= 2 f ( w − 1)2 =
2w≤x w
2
=1f−
2
(w )− 1x+ 1−2=2x w− 1 −
2 2
≤ x5)−< − 1)14<≤=xw<2w2≤x −+ 251f +x1==c3w=
2
c=w ≤ w3w −−11 ≤ 24 xf (+c12) = 1f ( w − 1) = w − 1 + 1 =
2 2
x 1+
1 <1 x < 2 1 f (1) = − f (2) =
f ( x ) 4= ≤x 3w− 2 2
f (x≤x−)25 1 −x 2 − x3 − ≤ 1w−2 )−=21 −≤x1224 f ( x1) = x2 − x −213− 2
， 2

x= +21 cf (=x w −
 x f−(1=c−)−=32f，
(1) ( w，− 1) = wx + −1 + 1 = w
f (1) = − ， f (2) x + 1 f
1 ≤ x
1
2≤ 2
x2 + 1 f (2) = 3
2
c = 3w − 1  3f ( c2) = f ( w 2− 1)
2 f3 ( x ) = x 22
− x − 1 − −1+1 = w 3 2

(1)f =(2) − = ，， f f(2) (1) == − 1， f (2) = 3 2
2 2 3 3 3 2 f (1) =2 − 3< 0,2 f (2) = >30
1f ≤(1)x =≤ −2 31<≤ 0, f (1)
2 = − ， f (2) = 1 ≤ 3 x2 ≤ 2 2 3

23 1< x < 2
f (1) = − < 0, f (2) 3 1=≤23x >≤02 23 3
f2(1) = 2− < 0, f (2) = > 0
2

(1) = = − 1>< <0 0,x < f (2)
f (a ) = 0 。 2 = > 0 3
2 3 3 32 2 3
1f <( ax)1-8 <= 20所示。 f (1) = − < 0, f f( a
(2) ) = = 0
1< x < 2 > 0 1

ff (( ax )) == 0x 2 − 1 f ( a ) = 0 x1 +1
1 −0 1 < x f<( a2) = 0 f ( x ) = x − nx − 1 − x n+−11
2
f (xa−) =
x 1+ 1 ) = 0 1 p( x ) = an x + 2an −1 + …1+ a1 x + a0
f ( x ) = x2 − fn (xx − ) 1 −x 2n −−1f x( a−
= 1
f −
( x ) = x 2
p
− (xx −) 1= f a( xx1)n =+ xa − xxn −

−1 1 −
+ … + a1 x + a0
p( x ) = an x + an −1 x x ++1 … + a1 x + a0 p( x ) = 0n n −1 x +1
x2 + 1 1 x +1
1f ( x ) = 1 x − x − p1 (−x ) = 0 an x + an −1 x n −1 + … + a1 x + a0
∀+xaaxx∈+p+x(1(acnx,−)1d=
n
p( x ) = 0an xp(+x )a=nx−1ax− xx −++1…
n 2 n −n
a=pn −(+ x+a)n11−=x1 ++
an…ax0n+ c
)…
n x1x 1 n −1 0 + + a1 x + a0
p(xxc )∈=( c0, dp)( x ) 1=<0 x <p2( x )p=( xa)n x=n0+ a∀nc−x1, xd∈ 1(pc( , )
c
∀ n −∈ R x
… d) =
+ + a1 x + a0 0
c∀,xdc ∈ (Rc, d∀)x c ∈ ( c, dp) ( x2 )∀=x c0∈ ( c, d1c),pd( c∈) ∀ ⋅Rpx(cd∈) (<c,0d )
f ( x ) = x − x − 1 − p( c ) ⋅ p( d ) < 0
cp,( dc )∈⋅ pR( d c) ,<d0∈ R ∀x c ∈ c, d ∈ R
c, (dc,∈dR) x + 1p( x ) = 1 (3x 3 − 5x )
pp(( cx)) ⋅=p(1d(3 )p< 3 2 p1( c4) ⋅ p3 ( d ) < 0
x( c30)−⋅ 5fpx(1)
()d )=c<,−d0 ∈
2
p， (R c )f ⋅(2) p( d= )p<( x0) = (3x − 5x )
3 p( x ) =40
14 1
= 0 (3px( x3 )−1=5≤x1)x(3≤px(23c−)p⋅5(pxx())d=) <1 0(3px1(3x−) 5=px0)( x ) = (3x − 5x )
3
pp(( xx )) =
4 4 1 43 2 (3x 3 − 5x ) =4 0
1p( x ) 3= 0 p( x ) =f (1) =p−( x3) <= 0, (3 x −=154x )> 30p( x ) = 0
f (2)
(3x − 5x ) = 0 0 2 p( x4) = 0 4 3
(3x − 5x ) = 0
14 151
(3x 3 − 5x1) (3 = x031 −< 5xx<)p2(=x0)1=(30x 3 − 5x ) ±= 15 0
(3x 3 − 5x ) = 0
±4
15 4 f (a ) = 1 0 43 ± 34
3 (3x − 5x ) = 0 3 15
±
15 15 4 2 15 1 ( −∞, ±− 15 )

1-8　 f ( x ) = x −
± x − 1 − 15
( −∞3, − )3 15 3 1 , − 33 )
x +( −∞
3 ± 3
15 p( x ) = a x n + a x n −1 + … +15 a1 x, +0)a0 15
( −∞, − ( −∞ ) , − 15 ) n3( −∞, n−−1 15 ()− 15( −∞ ,− )
15 3 p( x3) = 0 ( − 3 , 0) 3
(− , 0)
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw 15 3
3 ( −∞, − ) 3 15 15
15 ∀x c ∈ ( c, d ) 15

(− , 0)( − 15 , 0) (0, ( − ) , 0)
315 c, d ∈ R ( − , 0) 153 3
f (1) n= − ，n f−1(2) 2 = c, d ∈ Rp3( c2) ⋅ p( d ) < 0 3 1
3 p1(≤x )x=1≤∀ a22xn xc ∈∀ +(1xca2≤c,n −∈ ,2d+=)… 33a 1x < x0< 2 2 3 11 ≤≤pxx(2x≤≤ 1)222= 43 (3x 1− 5x )
3

d1x
x f(≤c(1)
) − + < 1 0,+ fa(2) = > 0
f ((1)x ) == −x −<x0,− 1f −(2)1=≤ x >≤ 02 p( c ) ⋅ p( d ) <f0(1) = − < f0,( pxf() x(2) =) x== −(3 x>x−01−−5x )
2 1 < x < (2x0) =31 (3x 3 2− 5x )
2
2 pf( (1) x )x==+c01− 33 R =3 2 > 0 f ( a1)p= 4)3−−=330<< 0, x +1 22
, d ∈<c,R0,d ∈ f1(2) x <3<2 0,p(2x (2) f ( a ) = 02 4 ff (1)p
(1) ( x
=
= 0,n −ff1 (2)
(2) == >>
1p<( xx) <= 2an x n + a∀n x−1cx∈ 2 + af 3(1) x +=<a(0− (3x>12 <0− 5x x<) 2 1p( px () x=)1a=n x0 +22an −1 x + … +33a1 n
< 0 = )f>=
3
,(…
n −1
(f cp+
(1) cd)=)⋅p−p((c1d)<)⋅ fp<0, 0 df)2(2) ( 0x4)p= (3xx) =−0x − 1第　 − 1 堂課　數學基礎 035
2< x <( a2) = 0 3f ( x ) = x 2 −f (xa−) 1=−0 1x +p(11x )11=<<403xx(3<<x22 − 5x ) = 0
3
pf (( ax )) == 00 1< x < 2
c, d ∈ R 1 1 1 3 p ( x ) = 01 (3x − 5x ) = 0
11 c ff ((a
f ( a )11=< p0(xx )<=p2( x )(3=fx(34x−(3 5=xx )x−2 5−xx)p−( 1x )−=(3a1xn x−n 5+xa)n=−12xx0n+−∀ +x4… + aa1))x==+00a
3
x ( ,2d ) ) − 1+−a( cx,1 d+15)a 0

c
∀ ∈
f ( x) = x − x −1− c p ( c ) ⋅ p ( d ) < 0 f 4 ( a ) = 0 1 p( x3 ) =4 a xfn (+x )a = xx n −−1 +x …
x +f (1a ) = 0 x ) = 0 1 (3xp( x−)5=xx)n0+=10 n −1 15 ±x1 + 1 022 11
c, d ∈ R n f ( xn)−1=p1(xx2 )−=p3x(0− 1− 2 4n 1 n −15 …
c, ±d ∈ ff ((Rnxx−)1) =3= xx −− xx −−11−−
p( x ) = an x + apn(−1xx) = + … (3x+ af−21(5xxx+)p)=(axx0x)+=1−axn1x− 1p+− ( ax ) =x0 + + a x + a0an −1 3x + … + a1 x + a0xx ++11
1
∀xxnc−+±1∈1( c3,pd( x) ) = a1n x +
n

## p( c ) ⋅ p( d ) < 0 f14( x ) =n31x(3 −3 x−−n5−1x1 −

x ) = 0 15 p( c ) ⋅ p( d ) < 0 nn15
p(進階問題 x) = 0 2　勘根定理 p( x ) = a(3 xx 4+− a5nx−)p1 x= ( x0) = +n… 0x + ±+1∀ a1cxx,cn+d∈ −1a(0c , dp)( x ) = 0 pp(((xx−∞ )) ==,15 aa−nnxx ++ a)ann−−11xxnn−−11 ++… …
1 p ( x ) = 40 n
p ( x ) = a x + a 3 x ∈ + …
R + a x
15 + a ( −∞ , 1− ) 3
p(xxc )∈=(令一多項式
n
( c, d+)c…
n − 1 1 0
xcp為 ( x )pp=((xx))(3 ==3x00 − 5x )
3
c4, (3 d )x −15px( x) )3 p=(0x )15
3 n −1
= an x n∀+xac n∈ −1 x ,pd(+c∈a)( 1−∞ x +,∀a−x0 ，如果
⋅R 0 ( c) , d )
c
∀ p (15 x ) = 0 15 p ( d ) <∈ 3 4 15
(3cx p−±(5xx) )=± =00 c, d ∈ R ( −∞ (0c− ∈(3(cc,, ,dd0)
3c ∈ ( c, d ) ， p(, c−) ⋅ p3( d115 )c) ,<d0∈。R ∀=xx15 ))
c
cp,(的解，則對
dx )∈=R0 4∀x ∈ ( c, 3d ) ∀且 p((x−)∀ ∈
, 0)
x p ( x ) = (3 x 3
− 5 x )
1p( c ) ⋅3 p( d ) < 0 c, 15 d ∈∀R x ∈ ( c, d )p( c15
c
) ⋅ p( d ) < 0 ( −1 4 p( c3, )0) ⋅ p( d ) < 0 cc,, 3dd ∈ ∈R R
(3x − 5x ) = 0± (−−∞c, 15 d, −∈ R ) p(15 x ) = (3 3 x − 5x ) 1 (3x 3 − (0, 5x ) 15 =0
1
4 勘根定理是中介定理的延伸，我們只需對定理的概念加以掌握，如下
(
p(3c ) ⋅c,pd( d∈) < −∞ , R03 ) 3 1 ( − 3p (xx
lim ,
→)c = 0
0)f 4 ( x ) = − 0.5 1 43 (0,pp((cc15 ))⋅⋅ pp3((dd ))) << 00
p( x ) = (3x − 5x ) 3 p( c )p⋅ (px()d=) < 0(3xp( −x )5= 3 x ) p15 ( x ) = (3x − 5x ) )
15 lim 4 f ( x ) = −0.5p( c115 ) ⋅15 p(3d )15 <0 4 115 lim (0,f0( x ) = )2−0.54 15 3 15 11 33
x → c 3g( x )3=
± ( p( x, )−=( − (3)(x−, −0)
−∞ 5xp)(, x0) 1) = 03 1 (3 lim x − 5 x ) = 0 ± pp((xx)) == , ∞ (3
(3xx −− 55xx))
43 3 1p( x3) 3= (3x (0, x →3) p)(=x23−)00.5 = 0 ，解集合為滿足 3 15( , ∞ 44 )
x→c
p( x3) = 0

x
c
− f 5( x 3
lim f ( x ) = −0.5p( x ) = (3x1 −45x )
2 3 lim g( 15 x ) = ( )
1 limx → c g( x ) =p ( x ) = 0 4p( x15 4 xx → →(cc f ( x1,) ∞3 )3 p3p((xx)) == 00
3 x → c15 15 (3 5 ) 0 lim 15f ( x ) (3 = 2− x 0.5 0 , −c ∈15 15
3
(3 x 5 x ) 0 3 15 ) = 0 x − x 15= → cc g3 − 5x ) (=−∞
( −∞, −lim − =
f ()x )(=−的點集合。故 2 − 0.5 , 0)
(0, 0 ) 34 (0, x =
) 0，或 ( ± ,15 x→
∞ )g( 。所以，在
( x
f (xx4))= ) 11 33315 ( −) 、 , 0)
f (xx))=1 (33x 3p(−x5)x=)3= limx
4 limx→c
3g( ± lim
3 x → c g ( x ) 15 3 c ∈ ((3 (3
− xx −− 55, xx0) 3)) == 00
lim 10 3 x → c 231
15
x→c
x→c g ( x ) 4
23 1 lim f ( x ) = (3 − x0.5 − 155 x ) = 0 3lim
lim c ∈
g(
f ((xx− )) = = 15 , 0) 154 4 3
15lim g( x) =
( x )(0,3 15 x →(3 c 15x −4515
3
x ) ±= 0 →15 ,cc −f ,(15 x±15 ) 3)32 0)(0, 15 )
(±− ∈ ((f−−∞ 1 c、d (為任兩個相近 − d,15
xx →
c f、
33 lim
x,→0)
1 15 4 ( ) 、 (, ∞3)2 , ∞ )3 四個連續區間內，若 clim ( lim
lim x ) = f −( x0)
0.5 3) = 3 3 ∈
15 15 3
3lim g( 3 x ) = 15 x →(c−∞x,→− 3c gf ( x ) ) 2215 ±± (0,
x → c
lim
lim
x → c fg f (((xx )) =
f =± −0.5 lim d∈ )
lim 15 2 3 15 ± 3 15 →15 d g∈ ( 3x
(0, ) = ) 15 15 3
3 3
x → c x → c
15 c g2( x ) 1 p ( c ) ⋅ p ( d) < 0
−∞, 15 15 lim f (15 x )3(=−∞ −0.5, ,−0) lim)g( = 23,3−
x → c x→
) f ( x )(= 21 ,±∞ ) =15 f ((,xx(0) )−∞ )(0,
x → c g ()x ) x c
((0, −lim c ∈ )3x15→ cc ∈ ( −
( − , 0) ((0,−lim x15
lim ) p ( c ) ⋅ )p( d ) < 0

d ∈ g ) =
；依定理： 3 15
15
x → c3g( lim[x →3 () x⋅ )p×( d312g )( x<)]0
pc −(,ffc30.5 ((3−∞
3 lim 23 15 lim (f−( xlim
x c
g ( x ) =( −∞ 32 , lim ) 3
x → c →
(0) −∞ p(,,x−−) = 0 ))
c

limxx → → cc
f ( x ) = 310.5 −
x→c g ( x )
lim
3 g(( −∞ x
15 ) ,= − 15 ) f (
x)→
x3 =)cc 3 x) =
2 p ( x c )c= 0 33
15 lim
15 xx → f ( x ) = 2− 15 15 p滿足
lim lim[x →
( c ) ⋅ xp→(pcd()x<)()−0= 0 ；在此題為
lim 15
g f( (x x ) ) =× 15
2
g ( x )] 15
0。據此，我們可以判斷
(( − , lim[ ,→)0)cc f ( x) × 2
gf ((xx))c=∈g((−x()]−∞ , −(c, d)15 ()−3 3 ), 0) x→c c 1 , 0) ( x = 0。
x → c (0, c , ∞)
x → c
lim ∞ dlim ∈f ,(0, d(∈
f0) 1=內有一根
x=(3)x(0, −)0.5 3 g (lim xx→15 )cc 3 2f ( x ) = 2− 33 15
15
3 3 lim x→c
2 3 15 lim 3 ( x )f )
3215 3 lim (0,
g( cx )lim = g )
( x ) = 2 x
3 ((−− 0 ,, 0)
= 0)
lim x → c g( gg((xx)) =( − 1 x →,xc→lim 0)c p( x ) lim[ x→
x →3
= xc0 f=1( x0) × 3g (1x )]
c

## 15lim[x→c f ( x ) × 3 g ( x3)] x15 → cpg ( −

(((cdx)))⋅(0, p ( ,
d 0)
)15 <
x→c
0 lim 3f ( x ) = −
2 15 33
lim 15 c f ( x) = − p
( −lim g(( c
15 ) ⋅ p, 0)2 3 2
< 0 ) lim f ( xx15x→)cc=

(2(x−(0, 2 15
xx →limc= 0 lim )( xc),g=f∞ )=× g (1x )]) c ∈ ( −
x))0.5
c
(0,c ∈ ( − lim[ lim
x→
x→ )c f,f(0) (xx))d=×∈−g0.5
1 (0,
(12x15)] x →g3cc( x)p)(x=x) c=) 3= 10 3 limx →f (c( 15 xflim[ , 0)

limxx → 3 cc ff (( x ) =
lim
p ( 3 x ) = 0 3 15 ( lim 3→,c ∞
xx →
f () x ) = 33
2− (0,
(0, 3 15 15
))
lim →
f ( x ) =(0, 2− x → c )lim f ( x ) = x → c g(3 xlim x)→ c gf( 2xx))=− g (12x )]
15 lim lim xx → → cc g g((xx)) p =(2c )12⋅ lim[ 3
p ( d )
x→
f 15
<
( cf (0,
x (c)x×) g ( x215
0 )]
) limlim gg( (limlim[ xx→
x ) )cc==f ((215 x ) =15 3
− 33
15
x → c15 0gxc()xf=)( x0()3=2−0.5
g(f (xx)) == 2− 3 (0, xlim =lim , ∞ )x →x →c cc ∈x →( − 1 33( , 0) 2g,(2x∞)]) d ∈ (0,
c x →
(d ∈ (0,, lim

3 lim x→ → c3ff ((xx))p
2115
3 c2
x→ xc → cx →
3 3 lim f ( xlim lim[ ) =c gf15 f((3xx))=− 3 15
153
lim[ g =(−( x
g ( )x =
)]
, ∞0 lim
) g ( x 15) = 1 lim[
x→c c ∈ x→ f f ( x x

( x)0c)2
c × g ( ,x )]
0) 23 (( , , ∞
∞ ))
x→c f ( x ) 32g30.5 ( x )(g( 1, 3∞ 2 ) 15x → 3( x 15
( xlim 15flim = x−) = 33( d ) < 0
x→c c
p1.( c若 ) ⋅ plim[
lim
lim 15
( d )
gf f(<
((xxx0)))==×c − )] 且lim f ( x ) = ，求 lim lim 2gf。 )= 15 p ( c ) ⋅ p
f ((xxx)))x− 2g=(0x()] x →lim[ 3)c2×2∈g3((−x )] lim,x → lim[ f ( x ) 3 − − g x(, x
x )]≠ 1
c ∈ ( − lim c , (0)
→ cc fg cx,→∞ c f )( x g0) (cdfxg(∈ )xxxxf(→ →x0c) c1∈ ()3− , 0)
x → c
lim[ xxx →→
0c g ( x ) = 3 3x →lim =()(0,cx=3) −=153 
p( x c ) =lim
xx →
3

0 2 1 315 x→c
2 c
d ∈ lim[

(0, f ( x )1,
3)− x g =(, 1
x 3)]≠ 1 p( x c ) = 0 15 15
lim[
lim x→c
g(ff (((xxxx))))=3=c−−∈ 31gx((,x−xlim
− )]≠ 1glim (,x0) )c=f∈( x( − )2 15 x → c
lim f)=(=x1) 2 − x x cc ∈ ∈((−− ,, 0)0)
c 若 lim
2. lim f
f ( x ) = 3 2且x →lim c3 g (15 x()x3=) = −，求 lim[ 1 , 0) lim f xf(→ x
15x →fcp( (xc) )×⋅ gp2((xd2)]) 。( )
cx 3 <x 0= 1 15 x c = 0 33
→(0cc15
x → 0
x = 0 xxxf→
lim[
x→
→ cx )f = ( x  ) × g ( x )] lim x → cf g ( x )
d ∈
3 3 (0, ) lim (3 x2 1, 5)
d ∈ (0,lim x → c f ()x x2= 1c ∈ (x− , 0)
3lim pg( c( x)x→ ⋅)c20p=f( d( xd))<3∈−0(0,
+
x, x ≠31 )
x → c x → c
))1, f ( x3) − g ( x )]2
→c
x → 03gf ((xx 3= −22 x, xlim[ ≠lim[115 f ( x ) × g ( x
1 )] x → c p (xx
f

( )(3
x )=31=x202+2 5) 15
15
lim (ccxg(3 )
) (=xx2) +=d5) ∈1(0, x → clim) f ( x )p=(2c ) ⋅ p(lim
x → c 15 lim lim
fp((0gxxx)(lim cx =2)=−(=− dd ∈ ∈(0, (0, ))
lim
lim xf→ ( ) 3 lim d ( ∈ ) (0, )d )
lim[ < f ( x ) ) 0 g 2 (px

 x1,
(3 c
)]+x
− ) 1)
⋅=
x ,
p 1
x( d≠ )1 < 0 33
p3.( c若 ) ⋅ pxxx(→ x
→d

c)< 0
f
g x 
 1,
3= −x −
3 =
x ,1x 且
lim ≠ 1 f3 x(→ x g
c) 15 x = 2，求 x → c x xf=
x → cx → c c →
→− ( 0
x −
3) 2 = 3 。
f→(cx )f =( x)2− g (2xdx)]→∈0 x(0,
2 →c ) 31 3 2
lim[ p+5) (1g1)
c=()x1⋅)]plim ( d ) f<( x03) =p−( x2c ) = 0lim lim[
x ccf = lim
flim( lim
(0)x3)2(3 (−×−2x2gx2px(2(1,
+x−x+xc61)
)]
5) )=x=1+01) pp((cc))⋅⋅ pp((dd )) << 00
p( x c ) =lim lim[
lim →0c (3
xlim ff −((x2xx2x))1,
( +=× x2 lim[ p
f ( c
x ) ⋅
− pg ( (dx )
)] < lim0 g ( x ( ) x =
lim
x x→− → 2c g ( x ) =
c 3
x → lim
c  3
g (− x x
) ,= x2 ≠ 1 x →
x →
0
x
x
x→
→−
→ 22
c 求 lim

f (xx2)2+ 2x )pf=((cx0))x⋅=→pc( d ) <
x → c
0 3 0 5. 求 lim( lim 3(3 22
−−22x2x+x1+ 2 −5) pp((xxcc )) == 00
x4. 2 p5) 3(61)
c
cx2 =
x → c x → c
，若
x61) 0−x 3)+ 1)
c
= 0 limlim(
xlim
x → c (3
→ 0 (−−2 2 x x −+ x1 + 1) lim fp1, ( (x x ) = ) 1= 0 lim f xxlim
lim( (→

x 223(x
) −
= x
− , x 4=+≠ 1
lim
x
→ 2 f ( x ))=
→ 2 2− lim c lim[g0 ( xf) (=x ) × g ( x )]lim[ f ( xx)→−2 g ( x )]2
x →
→− 3
lim[
lim x → c 3gf((xx) 23=− x−cgx=(2,xx0p)]≠( xx1→x → c)
x →= 0 3 x →fcx(→xc) =lim  ( −222x22 + 1) xxcc == 00
x →−
6. 求 lim( xxlim
→ cc ( −22x2 +31) lim (3x x+ 5)
→ 2c c
= 0 7. 求 lim(
lim(  1, −xxx2=x++143−xx6− + x 3)
2+ 1)
xf→− ( x3 )−x = 2x+ 4−x26−x 3) +x 1)c lim[ x )−3g−(xx,)] 1x ≠lim 1 f ( x xx)lim x →− 3
2
0( xf )(f= → 22

=×xg=( x1x)] x=→fclim
2
gf((xx)))1,

lim
x → 2 f ( x
lim
lim[ lim(( x ) = − x → 0lim gx(→− 2x )1 = 2 22
2
1, x = 12 lim x → c(3lim( x + −x5) x223x+
x+ 43−+xx61− 2+ 1)
+x 3)
8. 求 lim( → 0c −22
3x5)6− 1) ( − 2cx 2 +1)
2 x −3
+x 3)
2+xlim
xx → x→
lim(
lim
x → 2 (3 x x+ 2 4
+ lim f ( x ) 9.
x →2

→32−1 x,2x 2≠ 1
lim
→ 22 1 f 2( x)23−−gx(
→− 3
1,xx)]≠x1→lim lim[
xx →) c(=−flim
f (lim (xx2)+ x−x g+x(−4x+4x)]1− 3)
lim[ 2 x + 5)2
x →− 2
x→
x2→
lim(
1,23x x=21)
0 2
xxf→−
limx →(cx f)x(=
lim( 2x+ x) 4=+x−1− 3)
23 x + 2 lim(x−→ 22x(3
lim g−( x36)−
x=+ 1) x →−3  12+ 3x + 2
→ 2c (x + x→
xlim −22 x + 1)2 1, = 1  x ,
3 x ≠ 1 lim
xlim
10. 求 lim →−3f ( x2x )−2 + 41
x → 2
f lim
x → c
( x2 ) (=−2x 2 + 1) 11. lim flim (→−
xlimx2 )1 xx29x+−−23x+ 42
x1+ 2
031 x 2x + 3 x2 + 2 lim( x + 4 x1, −x3)
= 1 limlim(
x→ 求
(3 0− x 22xxlim
x→
+335) − 6x + 1)
xx →−
lim
lim
x →
→ (3
g ( xx ) 2+= 5) lim[ f( x ) − g ( x )] x → 2 → −
lim
lim( −22x 23−−26xx, +x 1) 2
x →− 3 x →2
x →−13 x 2
42≠1 1
−9xx−2−, x+
2
2lim
x →
x→
lim → 22c 1
x x−−2 x+4 31 ≠lim 1lim(
x → c
lim
2 
xx →−
lim
→ 9 2(3− x 2 2
2 x +
xlim+ f3(xx+) 2 −
5) 6 x + 1) lim(
lim f ((− x
x2) lim
xx= + 4
− x − 3)
+
3 1)4 x + 9
f→→(33x− ()− = + 1) x →x → x → 3
f x2(22x+x−)1,

xxlim
lim[ −4xg−=( 3) )] 2x →2 0 2
x1lim x →32 x → 2 1,xx2 =
lim −142
lim(
x →−3 x
lim 4 x →−
2xlim

+3−3x49+x+−21) 2+x 9
2
xxx → xx22x++21+43x1)−− x3), x lim( −2x(3 xlim 2→
→ 2c
lim 9x2−22 +x 29 x →−lim lim(
1
(−
lim − −4  ≠ 12lim x−2322 6+x5)
→3
lim( 22xxx − 6 x + 1) x →lim lim
x→
“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw
lim →32 (3 f ( ) + 5) x →32
f ( x ) = 2
−223xx2 + 2lim x →12 xlim x3−2+xx19++−228x
x →−
02 x 9 + x −242 1, x = 1 x →−
xx → 2 3
xx → →−
lim
→2
− x + 2 lim( 或來電(02)2705-5066”
− 2x x + 
−36xx + +21) lim( x 2 lim
+ lim
x→ 4 x − 4 x
3) + 9
lim
lim(
x→ →−3 1 4 xx 2+
(x−2+x 34++
2
x911)
− −x,3)
x → 3
x ≠x1→xlim 2lim (xx−
2
2−2x24xx+32 1) + 6 x − 27
xlim
x2→−

xx →−→ 22 23 3

2
→−1 x2 2 + 1
x→ limx →−3 lim lim 4 x+2 8+ 9
lim(
lim xxx ++−434xx − 2
+ 3) lim− x9 −− x4
lim
xlim xlim
→3
→ 23
x →− 1 x 2
+ 1 x →−1 x2 + 1
2 2
lim− xx92+−−3x4x2 + 2 lim
lim− x92 −−+x429
4 x
lim
lim lim→32
xx →
xx → 3
x2 + 1 x →3

1
→ 31
→−
x +22
036 第 部　管理數學原理
lim 2 lim
lim 439x− +x 29
lim 4x92x−−+x429
lim
x → 2−
lim
→ 2−2 x + 8
x →−
x →3 x →3
x +22 2 lim
lim xx42x++226+x9− 27
lim lim 4 9
3 x − x
+ 9 lim
→29 x + 8
3
→ 32−2 x + 8
x →− 2
xx →− xx →− x+9
x42x++226+x9− 27
x xxx2 +++246 x−−227
lim
12 求 lim 3 13. 求 lim
xxx →−→2
→−2 9 x +x8+ 9
lim
xx →− 3
→−29 x +x8+ 9
x2 + 2
x →0 x
lim xx3 ++ 46 x−−227 xx2 + 46 x−2 −227
xlim
14. 求 lim →−2 x + 8 15. 求 lim lim 1 − 2x − 1
→09 x+9 lim →09
xx →− x+9
2 x
xx →−
x + 6 x − 27 x →1 x −1
lim x +24x−2 −2 1 ( x + 1)( x − 3) +24x−2( −
1|f−xx( x− x2 + 1)( x − 3)
x →−91 − x
lim +ff ((9xx )) = ((( xxx + + 1)( 1)( xx − − 3)
3) lim
lim )2=| 1
16. 求 lim = + 1)( x − 3)
(2x + 1)( x − 3) 17. 求 lim x x−2
xx−ff1(( xx )) =
x → 0
x →0
= 1)( x 2− 1
+)f(=(xx(x+)xxxxx−1)(
x →1
x →1
x + 4f−2( x(f2x)( x= =+−

−3)1)( x22 −x3) − 3) x → 2+ x −
lim 1|−xf (−x22)x|= − 1 −−x244− 2 2 x − 2 1 | x
− − 2
2 x| 2
− 1 xx−+41)( x − 3)
(
limxlim (xx ff+((1)( (xx)) x+ =−x1)( 3)
− x 2 −xxx − −
3) 44 x − 4 lim+ f ( x )f =( x ) =
lim
→0
→(21x+ ) f=( ) f=( x ) = ( x − 2)((x x = x − x ++1) 1)( x − 3) ( x − 2)( xx +−1)2
xxf→

→21
x − −
2 4 )x2)( =−x4xx−+
2)( + 41)
1)
xx→
1|−xf (−x22)x|= − f ( x )
f (1x ) = = ( x − 2)( ( xx + − 1)
x 2)(
− x
2 + 1) | x − 2 | 1 x − 4
lim
18. 求取令函數xlim
fx → →(1x + ) f=( x
( x−f+1(x1)( x(−x) x4= =−−x2)( (( −xx1
3) 1(−
1
1
+
+4xx1)( 2)(
+−1)2)(
1)( xxx − −+x3)1)+ 1)
3)
x − 為連續的區間。
4
lim+ f ( x )f =( x ) =
( x − 2)( x + 1)
f
x −x 2) f=( x ) = ( x ) −xx1 − 22 1 x − 2 x −1
fxxx(1) )1xx+=−
x →2
2 = 1− 1
| xf (−(xx2) f−|=(x2)( (xf−x)(1x2− x+
= 2)( x
) =2 x −(x4x−−12)( x + 1) −
− 1
1 1)
g ( x ) = x − 51 2
lim+ 1gg ((xxx−)) = =41xxxx222 −− −x1x5 5− − 1 42 f ( x) =
19. 求取令函數
xf→(2x ) fx=(−x 2)ggff=(( xxx))1−= = gx((2xx− −−)2 5 52)(
= x x 1 −
+ 5
1) 為連續的區間。 f ( g ( x )) x − 1
g ( (xx)−gffff− gxxggx2)(((−x=
=1((((2)( x−x1)))
x ))
5
))+xf(=(x1)x−−)52)( − 5x + 1)
=
g ( x ))f (1g ( x ))x − 1 g( x) = 5 x −5
2

## g ( x ) g=f ((xg2)1(− =ffx (())5x gxf2)( − x=))

g (5 x ))1555 f ( x ) =
20. 令 f ( x ) = fff ((( xxx且 )) = 2
= gx(5−x )1= x 5− 5 ，求取令合成函數 f ( gx( x+))1 為連續的區間。
f ( g ( xf )) ( gx (−xff 1)) ( x ))5= = fxx(5+ −x 1)5=
+
f ( x 2)g = ( ( xxf ))( = x=)xxfxx=4242(+ +g−11(5x ))x + 1 g ( x ) = x4 5
g ( x ) = x 5gg−((5xxx))5+= g ( x ) = x x 4 +− x 1 5 + 1 f ( x) =
g ( x ) =
= 1 x
x 4
g (4 x )4 = x 5，求取令合成函數 f ( g ( x )) 為連續的區間。 4
x +1
21. 令 f ( x ) f=( x )gf=(( xg且 ( xx)))
f ( g ( gx )) ( x )+ffff=1(((xggggx4)((((+= xx1))
x
))xf=( x ) =
))
)) x + 1 g ( x ) = x 4
f (5g2 ( x ))  x + 3, x < 1
2
g ( x ) g=f ((xg4)(5= ffx (())xgxf4)( gx=)) (x xx)) 522 + + 3, x < 1
22. 求取令函數 f ( x ) = fff ((( xxx ))) = = gx(xx+x22)1+ +=3, 3,x4xxxx 2<
3, <+111 3,
< 為連續的區間。
x <1
f ( x )f =( g( x ))
f ( g ( xf )) ( gx (+xff 1)) (( xx )) 2= = 
fx4(22x+xxx1)x++=2 1, 3, x ≥ < 1  2 x + 1, x ≥ 1
4 g f ( xf )(x= x )+xf=4(3, 2
2 gxxx(+ + x<1, ))+
1,
1, 1xxx3,≥ ≥

x11< 1
1 2 
2
g ( x ) =f (xxx)g2=(+x3, ) 2= x 222 x + 1,x2 ≥ x + 1, x ≥ 1 x − 9x + 3, x < 1
  x2 x)) x <
++3, x 1
2 − 2 9 x + 1, x 1 ≥ 1 f ( x ) = 
23. 求取令函數 (x ) fff=(((ggxxx )))(( xx=
ff (( gx )( xf=)) =))xxx(22 −
1, − x< 9≥ 1x為連續的區間。
9 x2 2−+93, x < 1 f ( x) =
−)2 9 x +32 x + 1, x ≥ 1
 2 xf (+xx1, 2)2 x= =x−+≥ ffxxx1,
9 x( x+1 x +
+2x)3

x 3
39
≥ = 1 
=−92 x + 1, x ≥ 1
f (xx2) 2ff=((+xxf3,))2( x= = x)< =xxx13+
x 3 +
2 +
xxx+3+3,
x
3 3,xx +< < 311 f ( x )
f =
( x )
3x x 2 − 9
=
x − 9  3 3
24. 求取令函數 ff (( xx )) f= =  fff ((( xxxx))) +=
(x2) xf=(+x1,) = =− 39 2223xx + 1,為連續的區間。
= xxx23≥ x−119 x 2 + 1x + 3
x + 3 x3+x 3x + x ≥ f 
 x
x ( 2 223xx
1 x+
+ ) 3 + 1
1 =x 1, ≥
f ( x2) f=( xf )(2 x=)xx=x22 222+ +211 xx2 ++31  x 2 + 31,xx ≥ 3
x 3fx−(9xx)3= x+ 1xxx 2x− − +199+1,
+ 1,1xx ≥ ≥ 33 f ( x f
) (
= x ) = x 2 + 1
f ( x ) f=( x )2 fff=((( xxx )))2 2=  x 2 + + 1, 1,xxx3≥ ≥2x+33 1, x ≥ 3
25. 求取令函數 xx ++31x x ++1fx1, =
= 
f   x(4 x
(44x+xxx)x+x + x ) + 3 21,
= 2, x x ≥ < 33 為不連續的所有 x 值。  4 x + 2, x < 3
f ( x ) =  4 x +
+
3≥=2, 2,
2, 3x1,
+ xx2 +
x
x≥
<
<
<
33 3
1
3 2
2
f ( x )
f ( x 3) 2x=  2  4332xxx + 2, 4x x<+32, x < 3   = +x3, x+ 1, x≥3
 x ff ((+xx1,x4)) xx= + ≥ 
  1, 3  x 4 ≥ x 3 + 2, x < 3 f ( x 
 ) x=  ≥0
f ( x ) f=(x )2 f=( x ) = xxx2 2++ = +   x
2,
x  2 x +
+ < 3,
3, 3 x
x 2≥
≥ 0
0 f ( x ) =
3,xxxx 2≥ ≥+ 1, x ≥ 3   4 x + 2, x < 3
2
+12 3, +00 3, x ≥ 0
2
f (x )) = = f< 3xx22xx+x))x++1=
26. 求取令函數 x4 xff+((+1xx42, )xx2=x+ +fx((3, 222,
x x =
≥< 5,
3,
5, + 
0 3 xx
43, x<

<x +0
0≥2,0

x < 3 x 值。  2 x + 5, x < 0
2f (  x ) = 
  2
2 x x
x + 5,
1,
5, 
 x x
x ≥ <
< 30
0  x2 2 + 3, x ≥ 0
f (xx) 2f=(+xf1,)( 2xx=)≥=2x3x ++221, 2
x2x ≥x<+ 305, x < 0 ( ) | 9

f ( x ) =  x fff (((+xxx3, x2))) x= =x++|||≥
9993, 0− xxx2+ 5,
xxx≥x<222, 0+|||0 x5,2<x+3<23,0x ≥ 0
f x f =
( x ) −
= x |
f ( x ) f=(x4) xf=(+x2, ) =
= x | f <9(445,3x− −
− x ) + x = 2, || 9x−<x3 |  2 x + 5, x < 0
27. 求取令函數  2 xf (+x5, ) = x | 
f<=92x5,0|x−|9xx−= 2
| 2為不連續的所有 x 值。 | x |

f ( x ) 2ff=((|xx9)) −= 
 f 2 ( x )+ | x | < x0 | f ( x ) =
 f ( x )) = =x x≥ || xxx|2|| + 3,| x2 |x≥ +0 5, x < 0
2
f ( x )x= | 9 − x 2 |
f (( xx )) f=
f =(|x9x)−fff=(((+x||xxx923, x |)−|=
)
=
x f| 2xx(x0|x| x)+=| 3, x ≥ 02
28. 請判斷令函數 f (x2) x=+f 5, ( x=x)f<=x(220xxxx)+ =5,|為不連續的點是可移除或不可移除。
9x −< x0 | x| + x |3
| x |ff (( |xxx)) |= = x2 xxx +
++ +5,333 x < 0 f ( x )f =( x ) 2=
f ( x) = + 3 |+ x |3x + 3 x + 4x x + 3
f ( x ) f=(|x9x)−fff=(((xxxx2x)))| =
2
|xx99(222x− +x)xx4 4=2xxxx3||++
+ 33
=x)|f+
= xx= 3−+ +
+ 4
4 x +
+ 23 3
29. 令函數 f ( x ) = f ( x x x + 4 x + 3  x − 2, x ≤ + 53
||xxxxxx3||x+ −+2 2,
− x3+5555 3
43+xxxx4為不連續之點有哪些？請判定它們是可移除或不可
+≤
2
| x |fx( +xx)23=+ x + 4 x −

2,
2,
2, x

≤ x + 3
f ( x )f =( x) = 2
f ( x ) f=( x )2 fff=((( xxx )))2 = = fx(cx xx≤≥−552, x ≤ 5  cx −x 3,+x4≥x 5+ 3

cx
cx
−)x−≤2,

− 5xx2,
3,
3=−3,
3,
3,
xx2 x≥
x ≥

≤55 5
5
f ( x ) =x + f ( x  =  cx +− 4 x
3, +
x 3
≥ 5  x − 2, x ≤ 5
 x ff−((2,  3x ≤5cxxxcx
x xcx ) =− − 2, 3, x  x ≤−≥ +53,−533x3,≥x5≥ 5
+ f ( x) = 
30. 令函數 f ( x ) f=(x )2 =  x ) = 2  ，求取令 x − 2, x ≤ 5 f (x) 為連續函數的 c 值。  cx − 3, x ≥ 5
xcx+−43, x x+−≥f3xx3,
cx (25xx+ +) ≥4 4=xx5+ + 33
x − 2, x ≤ 5 cx − 3, x ≥ 5
 x − 2, x ≤5x − 2, x ≤ 5
f ( x ) =  ff (( xx )) = =  cx − 3, x ≥ 5
 cx − 3, x ≥ cx
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Python Part 1 061

Step-by-Step

Python Part 1

App 和網站。在此我們先有一個好的開始，先學習如何成功裝置軟體。

## Step 1. 進入 Python 官方網站 https://www.python.org/，如圖 Py 1.1-1，把滑

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062 第 1 部　管理數學原理

Step 2. 下載軟體

python-3.7.0.exe。

## 如果需要安裝 64 位元的版本，就依圖點選，進入圖 Py1-3。其安裝檔

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Python Part 1 063

## Step 3. 下載完成後，啟動安裝檔。3.7 版的選項，可以在裝置時就設定好環

1
Step 4. 裝置完畢後，以 Windows 7 為例，以 IDLE 啟動 Python 。IDLE 是
Python GUI（Graphical User Interface），如圖 Py 1.1-5

## 1 開啟 Python 的方法還可以透過「命令提示字元」或 Power Shell。為了不讓初學者感到負擔

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064 第 1 部　管理數學原理

## 啟動 Python 之後，直接進入 Python Shell 或主控台（Console），如圖

Py 1.1-6。圖 Py 1.1-6 的 Python Shell 是所謂的命令列模式（Command Line
Mode），現在請使用者在游標處鍵入 1+1，即：

>>> 1+1

>>> 2

## 圖 Py 1.1-6　Python Shell 主介面

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面；　公分

## ISBN 978-957-763-389-7 (平裝)

1.管理數學 2.Python(電腦程式語言)

319 108005413

1FWC

※版“本試閱檔為五南圖書所有。如欲購買此書，請至五南網站www.wunan.com.tw