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"Efficient PAPR Reduction Techniques in

OFDM Systems"
Recently, Image transmission in a real world has become challenging task,
because of its various applications in many fields. Here, in this proposal we will
convert the image as a input signal and will send it through the Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) system, which is a multicarrier
modulation method with orthogonality of individual subcarriers. As a result of
symbol time extension and the orthogonality, the OFDM signal is not
influenced by multipath propagation and higher spectral efficiency is obtained.
OFDM offers a considerable high spectral efficiency, multipath delay spread
tolerance, immunity to the frequency selective fading channels and power
efficiency. OFDM has the disadvantages like high PAPR (Peak to Average Power
Ratio), frequency and time synchronization errors. The major drawback of
OFDM is the high PAPR that increases the complexity of Analogue to Digital
(A/D) and Digital to Analogue (D/A) convertors and also reduces the efficiency
of RF High Power Amplifier (HPA). High PAPR values can also lead to serious
problems such as severe power penalty at the transmitter, which is not
affordable in portable wireless systems where terminals are powered by battery,
So many methods have been proposed to reduce high PAPR these are:

 Amplitude Clipping
 Clipping and Filtering
 Adaptive Active Constellation Extension
 Selective Mapping(SLM)
 Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS)
 Tone Reservation(TR)
 Tone Injection(TI)

Proposed method: The major drawback of above methods is performance

varies with the modulation schemes, higher complexity and reduced efficiency.
To overcome this drawback, it is required to propose a method independent of
any constrained modulation schemes in different environments.
 Linear and Non-Linear Companding Transformations
 Cos and Sine (CAS) pre-coding for PAPR reduction
 Hybrid CB-CAS technique for PAPR reduction
This research aims in study and research of efficient PAPR reduction
algorithms. After the study and analysis, if there are any drawbacks in the
particular algorithm, suggestions will be given for improving the system
performance by further reducing the PAPR.