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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1419-1430. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_143
Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed


Ahmad S. Awad
Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al Balqa` Applied
University, Amman-Jordan, (corresponding author, Email:

Wind energy is that clean, green, available and one of the most economical
renewable energy source. Wind driven water pumping systems – windmills- are some
of the older machines. Long time ago, windmills have been developed by many cultures
to lift water for livestock, land drainage, irrigation and domestic supplies. As found
from other wind projects and studies, the most economical and useful application that
can be installed in the Jordanian arid regions is the wind pumping system using
Windmill. The Windmill is a perfect choice for our region because it doesn’t need high
wind speed and the wind torque can be achieved by using large rotors. The windmill
converts kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy and then into hydraulic energy
into the pump. The 24 blade classic windmills are the most common type of windmills
which it is the one that been chosen for the present study. Achieving the goal of this
study could be done by the careful design of the rotor, transmission system and the
pump. A good pump design will raise the system efficiency. A design is made and all
calculations showed a very good pumping output. Then the model is manufactured in
the faculty of engineering workshop from local materials. It is designed to be used in a
wind speed of about 3.5 m/s at 8 m tower elevation. The goal is to pump 15 m3/day of
water to cover the student services building needs. The test after installation showed
that the pumping flow rate of 0.2 L/sec has been achieved; this result shows that the
designed and manufactured wind pumping system can pump more than the record which
allows storage of water.
Keyword head: wind energy, water pumping, windmills, pumping design
Cite this Article Ahmad S. Awad, Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water
Pumping Systems, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology,
10(3), 2019, pp. 1419-1430.

Today windmills are making a comeback thanks to rising conventional energy prices and the
threat of energy shortages. With the rise in oil prices in the early 1970s, interest in wind pumps
revived [1, 2]. However, the introduction of current multi conventional windmills in developing 1419

Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water Pumping Systems

countries has been hampered by the cost of importing (or importing the materials needed to
manufacture them) and maintenance requirements. But as new and more efficient wind turbines
development and production costs are reduced through the use of materials obtained locally,
the costs of pumping water with wind pumps can be decrease. A piece of equipment, which
requires only the wind to operate and properly installed and maintained, can give more than 40
years of reliable service is a very attractive investment indeed. For most developing countries,
renewable energy has been identified as an attractive alternative to solve their problems. Its
attractiveness to developing countries grew out of the illusion that entry into the period of
renewable energy technology could be achieved with great success without any real investment
in scientific and technological capabilities. Wind energy technologies continue to mature;
Performance is becoming better and more reliable, while at the same time costs continue to
decline [3- 6]. Environmental issues are becoming very important because of the increase in
energy consumption that has resulted in a significant impact on the health and safety of the
human population. The Natural Resources Authority (NRA) and the Water Authority (WA) in
Jordan agreed to implement a field project to pump water from deep wells using wind energy.
A system consisting of a multi-sheet windmill, storage tanks and pumps [7, 8 and 9] was
purchased, installed and tested. The Royal Scientific Society (RSS) has designed, built and
tested a number of different models of mechanical wind pumps (MWPs). The program aims to
strengthen the (RSS) experience and knowledge to be able to design and build different wind
energy conversion systems (WECS) for different applications that fit the local conditions of
Jordan [10, 11].
Bragg and Schmidt [10] presented a procedure that allows optimum selection of pumps and
windmills for a given water pumping station. They found that when wind information, pump
characteristics and windmill characteristics are available, one can select the best pump and
windmill for the application and can predict the design of the entire system.
In the year 2012, the Jordanian government issues the Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency law, which states that the government of Jordan should work on: Exploiting
renewable energy sources for increasing the percentage of their contribution to the total energy
mix and contributing to environmental protection and achieving sustainable development by
promoting the exploitation of renewable energy and improving its efficiency in various sectors
[15]. To meet with the goals set by the Jordanian national energy strategy, the objectives of the
present study are to design, manufacture and test the performance of locally made windmill for
water pumping to determine wind energy potential in our faculty and to direct research and
development of wind energy towards the beneficial applications in Jordan.


Jordan has no verified and usable oil or gas reserves. Jordan like other developing countries
depends entirely on imported oil for meeting its needs of commercial energy and its location in
an area with high political insecurity has had an inhibiting effect on its ability to import energy.
It has a heavy dependence on fossil fuels when Jordan currently imports around 96 percent of
its energy needs, accounting for over 20 percent of GDP for the energy bill [16]. The annual
growth rate of energy and electricity demand amount to 3%, and the maximum power demand
is expected to be doubled in the next decade. So that the wind energy can be one of the
renewable energy resources available for better utilizations in Jordan. Wind power can be
converted into different useful energy forms, such as mechanical energy or electricity. It is an
absolutely clean source of renewable energy with no emissions or direct influences on the
environment. Wind power technology has come forward but the conventional type of windmill
is still being built and used. It is widespread all over the world, mainly in developing countries 1420

Ahmad S. Awad

and remote areas. Jordan has important wind energy resources and constructions that could be
used for power generation [8-11].
In the year 1983, Renewable Energy Research Center of the (RSS) completed a major study
to measure the potential of renewable energy in Jordan. Parts of the study were listing the
available wind data as a first estimation of the wind energy potential as shown in Country's
Wind Atlas figure 1. The study concluded that most Jordan regions have moderate annual wind
theoretical power of up to 250 W/m2, which is appropriate for water pumping and power
generation at limited scales [17]. Some wind sites in Jordan show a favorable application
towards wind powered water pumping. They include Mafraq, Ras Muneef, and Aqaba [18].
Country's Wind Atlas showed the wind speeds in Jordan are as high as 7.5 m/s, especially
in the northern and western regions and are up to 11.5 m/s in the eastern areas of the country.
Two wind projects exist with a capacity of 1.5 MW running since early 1990. A new constructed
project is the Tafila wind farm with a total capacity of 117 MW. The Tafila Wind Farm is the
first commercial utility-scale wind power project in the Middle East. The 117 megawatt wind
farm has increased the country’s total power capacity by 3% [19].

Figure 1 RSS wind speed measurement sites (shaded areas are suggested wind farm sites)


In the past 20 years, there have been major innovations in wind energy utilization and
development. From 2008 to 2009 alone, wind powered electricity generation increased 20%
worldwide [20]. According to Global Wind Energy Council Report, the world’s wind power
capacity grew by 22.5% in 2010 [21]. The hydraulic wind power has been used for the past
centuries with insignificant modifications in windmill construction. Until the early 20th century
wind power was used to provide mechanical power for such tasks as grinding grain and
pumping water. [22]. Wind power generated has been increasing due to the increasing in oil
prices and the effects of fossil fuel products on the climate and environment. Jordan renewable
energy policy targets were promoting the renewable energy sources to contribute 7% in the 1421

Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water Pumping Systems

energy mix in 2015, and 10% in 2020. Wind energy in Jordan is used mainly for electricity
generation and water pumping. Wind energy is available over parts of Jordan at low to
moderate rate suitable for water pumping, where the use of wind turbines for pumping water is
acceptable to people in remote areas. [23].
A mechanical wind pumping system was developed locally by (RSS) in Jordan and installed
at some sites. There are many systems used for pumping water that use wind energy. The power
supplied to a pumping system can be obtained from a horizontal or vertical WEC. Almost all
horizontal WECS are lift type. This is inherent in the configuration of the horizontal axis
machine where the blades rotate in a plane perpendicular to the wind current. Of the two major
categories of WECS, the vertical axis will be excluded as they are not used in Jordan, and the
choice will be only between horizontal axis elevators. In this category, there are two types of
systems for pumping water using wind energy, mechanical wind pumps and electric wind
energy conversion systems [7]. Most windmill mechanical systems (tip speed ratio little better
than 1) are essentially friction devices (tip velocity index less than or equal to 1). Wind and
electricity systems (peak speed ratio usually around 5 to 7) are definitely lifting devices. For
greater demands on power, electric wind pumping systems (WEPS) can be applied,
incorporating a wind generator (available in larger diameter) that drives a combination of an
electric motor pump through an electric transmission. The flow rate of this MWPS will depend
on the rate of consumption and the on-site wind regime [7]


A mechanism is a device used to produce mechanical transformation in a machine. The
connecting rod and connecting rod mechanism is used to convert the angular (rotational) motion
into linear motion (piston) that has been used in this work to convert the rotational motion of
the rotor into reciprocating motion in the pump as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Project mechanism 1422

Ahmad S. Awad

4.1. Slider Crank Mechanism

In the present study, we have been using a four-link mechanism with output cranks. A sliding
crank can be used to convert the reciprocating motion into rotational motion or to convert the
rotational motion into reciprocating motion. The positions to which the cursor movement is
inverted are called dead centers. When the crank and connecting rod extend in a straight line
and the slider is at its maximum distance from the axis of the shaft, the position is the top dead
center (TDC); when the slider is at its minimum distance from the axis of the axis, the position
is the bottom dead center (BDC).


5.1. Windmill Power
A typical wind water pumping system will be required to generate a suitable amount of power
and to maintain the necessary flow rate. The mechanical power generated in the windmill used
to drive the reciprocating movement of the pump piston, the reciprocating speed changes with
the change of the wind speed, as a sequence the mechanical power and the water flow rate from
the pump are directly proportional to the wind speed, as shown in Figures 3 and equation 1,
where the wind power is proportional to the cube of wind speed.

Figure 3 Power in the wind with wind speed variation

The output power produced by a wind turbine is given by equation (1) where the wind
power is proportional to the density of air, swept area of the rotor and the cube of the wind
speed. Therefore, any slight change in wind speed can lead to large changes in wind power and
production capacity [24].
PW = 2 ρAVw 3 (1)
Where ρ is the air density, A is the area swept by blades and Vw is the wind speed. The
mechanical power delivered by the wind turbine is given by:
Pm = 2 ρACp Vw 3 (2)
Where Cp is the power coefficient of the wind turbine, which is the ratio between the
captured power and the available power in the wind. In this paper a wind turbine can only
extract part of the power not more than the Betz Limit (maximum 59% from the wind), as given
in [25]. Therefore, the maximum mechanical power delivered by the wind turbine is: 1423

Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water Pumping Systems

1 2.072
Pm = × 1.22 × π × × 5.153 × 0. 59 = 165.44W
2 4

Figure 4 Theoretical flow rate wind speed

5.2. Water Volume Flow Rate

Water volume flow rate depends on the wind speed as shown in Figure 5, and the pump volume.
In the present study the pump stroke is 90 mm and its inner diameter 125 mm, so the swept
volume of the pump will be:
VS = SA = 9 × π × = 1104.47cm3 = 1. 10447L (3)
So the swept volume of the pump is 1.10447 L, the flow rate of the pump is
Q= (4)
60Vλ 60 × 5.01 × 1.1
N= = = 52. 27RPM = 0.87RPS
2πR 2 × π × 1.035

λ is the tip speed ratio (TSR) is defined as the ratio between the blade tip speed and the wind
λ= (5)
Where ω denotes the rotor speed, and R is the radius of the wind turbine blade, as λ=1.1
0.1252 m3 33.21m3
Q = 0.09 × π × × 0.87 × 0.4 = 0.00038435 =
4 s Day 1424

Ahmad S. Awad

Figure 5 Daily water volume flow rate with wind speed variation
It is extremely important for the wind machines designer to determine the wind power and the
variation of wind speeds in the testing locations for estimating the needed power output. Also
turbine designers need the detailed information to optimize the cost-effective performance to
minimize the generating costs [26]. Table 1 illustrates the statistical wind speeds, which is the
most important variable and it’s responsible for the movement of the blades. If the rotor of the
windmill captured high kinetic energy from the wind pumping flow rate will increase
dramatically. When the solidity of the rotor increases the wind quantity captured will increase,
so that the increase of solidity can be done by increasing the area of the rotor

Table 1: Flow rate vs. wind speed variation

Date 30th May 31th May

Hour 11-12 12-13 13-14 09-10 11-12 13-14
V(m/s) 4.55 3.12 2.65 3.56 2.78 2.15
t(s) 60 78 110 72 120 209
Qact(m3/s) 0.00033 0.00026 0.0001 0.00028 0.00017 0.00010
P(W) 114.83 37.02 22.69 55 26.19 12.12
PH(W) 8.18 6.29 4.46 6.81 4.09 2.35
PM(W) 20.44 15.72 11.15 17,03 10.22 5.87
Η(W) 17.8 42.46 49.14 30.97 39.02 48.43
ω (rad/s) 4.4 3.01 2.56 3.44 2.69 2.08
N (RPS) 0.7 0.48 0.41 0.55 0.43 0.33
Qthe (m3/s) 0.0008 0.0005 0.0004 0.0006 0.0005 0.0004
Ηvolu (%) 44.09 49.46 41.29 46.96 36.08 26.79
The experimental tests of the designed and manufactured wind driven pump were conducted
during May 2012, and the results taken are formulated in Tables 2 and 3. Table 2 represents the
hourly and the average amount of water that the given pumping unit can provide for 13th to
20th of May. Table 3 represents the wind power and the amount of water that the given pumping
unit can provide at different wind speeds 1425

Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water Pumping Systems

Table 2: Experimental data measured

08.00-09:00 12:00-13:00 15:00-16:00 Average flow Daily flow
(m3/h) (m3/h) (m3/h) rate (m3/h) rate (m3/h)
13th MAY ….. …… 1.2 1.2 28.8
15th MAY 0.6 0.4 1.3 0.77 18.48
16th MAY 0.3 1.44 2.88 1.54 36.96
17th MAY 0.7 0.5 0.85 0.68 16.4
18th MAY 0.7 0.2 0.6 0.5 12
19th MAY 1.2 0.3 1.5 1 24
20th MAY 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.8 19.2
Average 0.6 0.45 1.2 1.07 22.26

Table 3: Experimental results

N(RPS) V(m/s) P(w) Q(m3/s) Q(m3/day)

0 0 0 0 0
0.084618 0.5 0.151322 3.7364E-05 3.228261
0.169236 1 1.210576 7.47283E-05 6.456522
0.253854 1.5 4.085695 0.000112092 9.684783
0.338472 2 9.684611 0.000149457 12.91304
0.42309 2.5 18.91526 0.000186821 16.1413
0.507708 3 32.68556 0.000224185 19.36957
0.592326 3.5 51.90346 0.000261549 22.59783
0.676944 4 77.47689 0.000298913 25.82609
0.761562 4.5 110.3138 0.000336277 29.05435
0.84618 5 151.322 0.000373641 32.28261
0.930798 5.5 201.4096 0.000411005 35.51087
1.015416 6 261.4845 0.00044837 38.73913
As can be seen from Table 3 and Figure 6, the maximum daily flow rate was 36.96 m3/day,
when the windmill worked 24 hours, while the minimum flow rate was found to be 12 m3/day.
The results show that the system is capable of pumping at an average of 22.6 m3 /day.

Figure 6 Daily water volume flow rate 1426

Ahmad S. Awad

Table 4 shows the calculated results for two days. The measured wind speed, wind power
and water volume flow rate during three hours are shown in Figures 7 and 8. After analyzing
the data, the highest actual flow rate is found to be 0.33 L/s and by calculating the power from
the wind speed and the mechanical power applied to the pump, the maximum efficiency of the
windmill is about 49.14 % and the lowest efficiency is about 17.8 %. Figure 8 shows the wind
power is a proportional function of wind speed.

Table 4: Input data of the KIJITO mechanical wind pumping system

Item Cost (JD) Lifetime (Yrs) Annuity(JD)
Investment costs:
Vertical pipes 180 4 54.35
Horizontal pipes 180 20 18.33
Water tank 3100 30 275.37
Water counter 40 5 10.02
Installation 300 20 30.56
Buildings 250 30 22.21
Operation cost 1400
1. Regular maintenance 200
2. Station keeper 1200

Figure 7 Flow rate at different wind speed

Figure 8 Wind power at different wind speed 1427

Practical Design and Testing of Wind Driven Water Pumping Systems


6.1. Cost Comparison Method
Mechanical wind power stations for water pumping are sustainable energy supplies with
minimum pollution effects. It might be found in desert, farms and remote areas to give
necessary water supply for domestic needs and irrigation use, especially in regions where fuel
and electrical driven pumps are not available. Despite the overall design goals of these types of
projects focused on affordability and simplicity of design rather than efficiency, the cost-
effective evaluation is presented. The aim of the cost comparison method is to identify the cost
the locally manufactured MWPS system with the imported MWPS for a definite quantity of
water pumped from a certain depth. Since the renewable energy pumping systems are relatively
not so widely used in Jordan, long term maintenance and repair needed, and the consequent
costs are roughly estimated. The economic analysis is based on cubic meter of pumped water,
not considering the depth of the well. Table 4 shows the input data of the imported MWPS such
as KIJITO which used for conducting the economical analysis comparisons. The present
economical study aimed at determining the cost of locally manufactured MWPS found that the
cost of a single production of the MWPS similar in specification to the KIJITO will be around
3787 JD at the current rates of labour and materials. The mass production of this system will
cost 2680 JD which it is much cheaper than importing the system from abroad. Water pumping
systems are usually installed in remote locations where the reliability of the system is one of
the most important factors in choosing a system. As the photovoltaic water pumping systems
can be more cost effective than diesel engines to energize pumping systems in Jordan Badia
[27], the wind energy pumping systems is more reliable than diesel ones. Also, even if the price
of the photovoltaic modules increases; the prices of the windmills technology decreased yearly.
Wind power technology has expanded very fast all over the world and its investment cost falls
very quickly. New technology developments and optimizations of wind turbines have shown
major improvement in generated power output and efficiency [28]. They do not require frequent
maintenance. They have safety features that allow them to stop without causing damage in case
of failure. Moreover, the use of diesel systems does not only consume imported fuel, but also
pollutes the atmosphere. In addition, its use entails the problems of transporting fuel to the site

The results showed the maximum flow rate that obtained from the present locally made
windmill is 36 m3/day, which shows how efficient the MWP system. From the present design
and manufacturing of the MWPS the following conclusions can be obtained;
 The manufactured windmill has been tested on the site and it was found that the cut
in wind speed of the rotor when its free (without load) is 1.5 m/s, and with load is
4.53 m/s.
 The Windmill is an efficient MWP unit which can be used in remote areas where
fuel transportation and maintenance are costly.
 A backup system (diesel driven water pump) can be existed in the locations where
continuous water consumption is needed all over the year.
 The cost of the Windmill (construction, maintenance and operation) is less than the
cost of conventional diesel operated water pump.
 The cost of the present MWPS built is 3787 JD which equal one third of the cost of
the imported MWPS. 1428

Ahmad S. Awad

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