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Control means measuring the value of the controlled variable

of the system and applying the control signal to the system to
correct or limit deviation of the measured value from a desired
Control systems are an integral part of modern society.

Numerous applications are all around us:

The rockets fire, and the space shuttle lifts off to earth orbit;

in splashing cooling water,

a metallic part is automatically machined;

a self-guided vehicle delivering material to workstations in an aerospace assembly

plant glides along the floor seeking its destination.

These are just a few examples of the automatically controlled systems that we can create.
These systems also exist in nature.

∗ Within our own bodies are numerous control systems, such as the
pancreas, which regulates our blood sugar.

∗ In time of ‘‘fight or flight,’’ our adrenaline increases along with our heart
rate, causing more oxygen to be delivered to our cells.

∗ Our eyes follow a moving object to keep it in view;

∗ Our hands grasp the object and place it precisely at a

predetermined location.
A control system consists of subsystems and processes (or
plants) assembled for the purpose of obtaining a desired output
with desired performance, given a specified input.

Input; stimulus Control System Output; response

Desired response Actual response
∗ For example, consider an elevator. When the fourth-floor
button is pressed on the first floor, the elevator rises to the
fourth floor with a speed and floor-leveling accuracy designed
for passenger comfort.
∗ Push of the button is input that represents our desired output
(a) visualizing the problem and (b) taking the next step to develop the transfer function
model and to complete the design.
Advantages of Control Systems

∗ With control systems we can move large ∗ We build control systems for four
equipment with precision that would primary reasons:
otherwise be impossible.
∗ 1. Power amplification
∗ We can point huge antennas toward the
∗ 2. Remote control
farthest reaches of the universe to pick up faint
radio signals; controlling these antennas by
hand would be impossible. ∗ 3. Convenience of input form

∗ 4. Compensation for disturbances

∗ Because of control systems, elevators carry us
quickly to our destination, automatically
For example, a radar antenna,
stopping at the right floor . positioned by the low-power rotation
of a knob at the input, requires a large
∗ We alone could not provide the power required amount of power for its output
for the load and the speed;
A control system can produce the
∗ motors provide the power, and control systems needed power amplification, or power
regulate the position and speed. gain.
In studying control engineering, we need to define additional
terms that are necessary to describe control systems.

∗ Plants. A plant may be a piece of equipment, perhaps just a set of

machine parts functioning together, the purpose of which is to perform
a particular operation. such as
(a mechanical device, a heating furnace, a chemical reactor, or a
spacecraft) a plant.

Processes. A process to be a natural, progressively continuing operation

or development marked by a series of gradual changes that succeed one
another in a relatively fixed way and lead toward a particular result

Examples are chemical, economic, and biological processes.

Systems. A system is a combination of components that act together and
perform a certain objective. A system need not be physical. The concept of the
system can be applied to abstract, dynamic phenomena such as those encountered
in economics.
The word system should, therefore, be interpreted to imply physical, biological,
economic, and the like, systems.

Disturbances. A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect the value

of the output of a system. If a disturbance is generated within the system, it is
called internal, while an external disturbance is generated outside the system and
is an input.

Feedback Control. Feedback control refers to an operation that, in the presence

of disturbances, tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and
some reference input and does so on the basis of this difference. Here only
unpredictable disturbances are so specified, since predictable or known disturbances
can always be compensated for within the system.
Analysis and Design Objectives

Analysis is the process by Design is the process by which a

which a system’s system’s performance is created
performance is determined. or changed.

For example, we evaluate its ∗ For example, if a system’s

transient response and steady-
transient response and state error are analyzed and
steady-state error to found not to meet the
determine if they meet the specifications, then we change
desired specifications. parameters or add additional
components to meet the

A control system is dynamic: It responds to an input by undergoing a transient

response before reaching a steady-state response that generally resembles the

∗ Speed Control System. ∗ Temperature Control System.

∗ The basic principle of a Temperature in the electric
Watt’s speed governor for furnace is measured by a
an engine thermometer, which is an
∗ amount of fuel admitted to analog device.
the engine is adjusted
according to the difference
between the desired and
the actual engine speeds.

Business Systems. A business system may consist of many groups. Each task assigned
to a group will represent a dynamic element of the system.
Transient Response

Transient response is important.

∗ In the case of an elevator, a slow
transient response makes
passengers impatient, whereas an
excessively rapid response makes
them uncomfortable.

∗ In a computer, transient response

contributes to the time required to
read from or write to the computer’s
disk storage
Steady-State Response

∗ Another analysis and design ∗ For example, this response may

goal focuses on the steady- be an elevator stopped near
the fourth floor or the head of
state response. a disk drive finally stopped at
∗ This response resembles the the correct track.
input and is usually what ∗ We are concerned about the
remains after the transients accuracy of the steady-state
response. An elevator must be
∗ have decayed to zero. level enough with the floor for
the passengers to exit,

An antenna tracking a satellite must keep the satellite well within its beam
width in order not to lose track.

∗ Discussion of transient ∗ For a control system to be useful,

response and steady-state
error is moot if the system the natural response must (1)
does not have stability. eventually approach zero,
thus leaving only the forced
∗ fact that the total response response, or (2) oscillate.
of a system is the sum of the
natural response and the In some systems, however, the
forced response. natural response grows without
bound rather than diminish to zero
or oscillate.
Open loop system
An open loop system starts with a subsystem called an input transducer,
which converts the form of the input to that used by the controller.
The controller drives a process or a plant. The input is sometimes called the
reference, while the output can be called the controlled variable.
Other signals, such as disturbances, are shown added to the controller and process
outputs via summing junctions, which yield the algebraic sum of their input signals
using associated signs.

Open loop system

Open-loop systems, then, do not correct for disturbances and are

simply commanded by the input.
Examples of open-loop systems
∗ For example, toasters are open-loop systems, as anyone with burnt toast can
∗ The controlled variable (output) of a toaster is the color of the toast. The
device is designed with the assumption that the toast will be darker the
longer it is subjected to heat.

∗ The toaster does not measure the color of the toast; it does not correct for
the fact that the toast is rye, white, or sourdough, nor does it correct for the
fact that toast comes in different thicknesses.

Mechanical systems consisting of a mass, spring, and damper with a

constant force positioning the mass.

The greater the force, the greater the displacement.

Closed loop system
The input transducer converts the form of the input to the form used by the controller.

An output transducer, or sensor, measures the output response and converts it into the
form used by the controller.
The first summing junction algebraically adds the signal from the input to the signal from
the output, which arrives via the feedback path, the return path from the output to the
summing junction.

Closed loop system

Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems

∗ In studying control systems the reader must be able to model

dynamic systems in mathematical terms and analyze their
dynamic characteristics.

∗ A mathematical model of a dynamic system is defined as a set of

equations that represents the dynamics of the system
accurately, or at least fairly well.

A system may be represented in many different ways and, therefore, may have
many mathematical models, depending on one’s perspective.
∗ Transfer Function. The transfer function of a linear, time invariant,
differential equation system is defined as
the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the
Laplace transform of the input (driving function) under the assumption
that all initial conditions are zero.
Consider the linear time-invariant system defined by the following
differential equation:

where y is the output of the system and x is the input.

The transfer function of this system is the ratio of the Laplace transformed output to
the Laplace transformed input when all initial conditions are zero, or
By using the concept of transfer function, it is possible to represent system dynamics
by algebraic equations in s.

If the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to n, the
system is called an nth-order system.
Comments on Transfer Function
∗ 1. The transfer function of a system is a mathematical model in that it is an operational
method of expressing the differential equation that relates the output variable to the input

∗ 2. The transfer function is a property of a system itself, independent of the magnitude and
nature of the input or driving function.

∗ 3. The transfer function includes the units necessary to relate the input to the output;
however, it does not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the
system. (The transfer functions of many physically different systems can be identical.)

∗ 4. If the transfer function of a system is known, the output or response can be studied for
various forms of inputs with a view toward understanding the nature of the system.

∗ 5. If the transfer function of a system is unknown, it may be established experimentally by

introducing known inputs and studying the output of the system. Once established, a
transfer function gives a full description of the dynamic characteristics of the system, as
distinct from its physical description.
Convolution Integral.
∗ For a linear, time-invariant system the transfer function G(s) is

∗ where X(s) is the Laplace transform of the input to the system and Y(s) is the
Laplace transform of the output of the system, where we assume that all initial
conditions involved are zero.
∗ It follows that the output Y(s) can be written as the product of G(s) and X(s), or
Note that multiplication in the complex domain is equivalent to
convolution in the time domain , so the inverse Laplace transform of
Equation (2–1) is given by the following convolution integral:
Impulse-Response Function.

∗ Consider the output (response) of a linear timeinvariant system to a unit-impulse input

when the initial conditions are zero. Since the
∗ Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function is unity, the Laplace transform of the
output of the system is

The inverse Laplace transform of the output given by Equation (2–2) gives the impulse
response of the system.
The inverse Laplace transform of G(s), or

is called the impulse-response function. This function g(t) is also called the weighting
function of the system.
Block Diagram (BD)
∗ A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the
functions performed by each component and of the flow of
Such a diagram depicts the interrelationships that exist among
the various components.
Figure shows an element of the block diagram. The arrowhead pointing toward the
block indicates the input, and the arrowhead leading away from the block represents
the output. Such arrows are referred to as signals.

The transfer functions of the components are usually entered in the corresponding
blocks, which are connected by arrows to indicate the direction of the flow of signals.

Note that the signal can pass only in the direction of the arrows.
∗ Summing Point.
∗ Referring to Figure , a circle with a cross is the symbol that indicates a summing
The plus or minus sign at each arrowhead indicates whether that signal is to
be added or subtracted.
It is important that the quantities being added or subtracted have the same
dimensions and the same units.

∗ Branch Point. A branch point is a point from which the signal from a
block goes concurrently to other blocks or summing points.

Figure: Summing point.

Block Diagram of a Closed-Loop System.
∗ The output C(s) is fed back to the summing point, where it is compared with
the reference input R(s).
∗ The output of the block, C(s) in this case, is obtained by multiplying the
transfer function G(s) by the input to the block, E(s).
∗ Any linear control system may be represented by a block diagram consisting
of blocks, summing points, and branch points.

The output C(s) is fed back to the summing

point, where it is compared with the
reference input R(s).
The closed-loop nature of the system is clearly
indicated by the figure.
The output of the block, C(s) in this case, is
obtained by multiplying the transfer function G(s)
by the input to the block, E(s)
Figure: (a) BD of a closed-loop system.
feedback element whose transfer function is H(s),

Figure: (b) BD of a closed-loop system.

Open-Loop Transfer Function and Feed forward Transfer Function.
Referring to Figure (b) , the ratio of the feedback signal B(s) to the actuating error
signal E(s) is called the open-loop transfer function.
That is,

The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is called the feed forward
transfer function,
so that

If the feed back transfer function H(s) is unity, then the open-loop transfer function and
the feed forward transfer function are the same.
Closed-Loop Transfer Function. For the system shown in
Figure (b) , the output C(s) and input R(s) are related as
follows: since

eliminating E(s) from these equations gives

The transfer function relating C(s) to R(s) is called the closed-loop transfer function. It
relates the closed-loop system dynamics to the dynamics of the feedforward elements
and feedback elements.
From Equation (2–3), C(s) is given by
Classifications of Industrial Controllers

∗ Most industrial controllers may be classified according to their control actions as:

∗ 1. Two-position or on–off controllers

∗ 2. Proportional controllers
∗ 3. Integral controllers
∗ 4. Proportional-plus-integral controllers (PI)
∗ 5. Proportional-plus-derivative controllers (PD)
∗ 6. Proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers (PID)

∗ Most industrial controllers use electricity or pressurized fluid such as oil or air as power
sources. Consequently, controllers may also be classified according to the kind of power
employed in the operation, such
∗ as pneumatic controllers,
∗ hydraulic controllers, or
∗ electronic controllers.

∗ What kind of controller to use must be decided based on the nature of the plant and the
operating conditions, including such considerations as safety, cost, availability, reliability,
accuracy, weight, and size.
Proportional Control Action. For a controller with proportional
control action, the relationship between the output of the controller u(t)
and the actuating error signal

Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating
power, the proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain.
Integral Control Action. In a controller with integral control action, the value
of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating
error signal e(t).That is,
Proportional-Plus-Integral Control Action. The control action of
a proportional plus- integral controller is defined by
Proportional-Plus-Derivative Control Action. The control
action of a proportional plus- derivative controller is defined
Proportional-Plus-Integral-Plus-Derivative Control Action. The combination of
proportional control action, integral control action, and derivative control action is
termed proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative control action. It has the advantages
of each of the three individual control actions. The equation of a controller with this
combined action is given by

Figure : Block diagram of a proportional plus integral- Plus derivative controller.

Closed-Loop System Subjected to a Disturbance.

Figure: Closed-loop system subjected

to a disturbance.

When two inputs (the reference input and disturbance) are present in a linear time-
invariant system, each input can be treated independently of the other; and the
outputs corresponding to each input alone can be added to give the complete output

Consider the system shown in above Figure. In examining the effect of the disturbance
D(s), we may assume that the reference input is zero; we may then calculate the
response CD(s) to the disturbance only. This response can be found from
On the other hand, in considering the response to the reference input R(s), we may
assume that the disturbance is zero. Then the response CR(s) to the reference input R(s)
can be obtained from

The response to the simultaneous application of the reference input and disturbance
can be obtained by adding the two individual responses. In other words, the response
C(s) due to the simultaneous application of the reference input R(s) and disturbance
D(s) is given by

Consider now the case where |G1(s)H(s)| >> 1 and |G1(s)G2(s)H(s)| >> 1. In this case, the
closed-loop transfer function CD(s)/D(s) becomes almost zero, and the effect of the
disturbance is suppressed.

This is an advantage of the closed-loop system.

∗ On the other hand, the closed-loop transfer function CR(s)/R(s)
approaches 1/H(s) as the gain of G1(s)G2(s)H(s) increases.

This means that if |G1(s)G2(s)H(s)| >> 1, then the closed-loop

transfer function CR(s)/R(s) becomes independent of G1(s) and
G2(s) and inversely proportional to H(s), so that the variations of
G1(s) and G2(s) do not affect the closed-loop transfer function

This is another advantage of the closed-loop system.

It can easily be seen that any closed-loop system with unity
feedback, H(s)=1, tends to equalize the input and output.
Procedures for Drawing a Block Diagram.
∗ To draw a block diagram for a system, first write the equations that describe
the dynamic behavior of each component.

∗ Then take the Laplace transforms of these equations, assuming zero initial
conditions, and represent each Laplace-transformed equation individually in
block form.

∗ Finally, assemble the elements into a complete block diagram.

Figure 2-12
(a) RC circuit;
(b) block diagram
Equation (2–6);
(c) block diagram
Equation (2–7);
(d) block diagram
of the RC circuit.
Block Diagram Reduction
∗ It is important to note that blocks can be connected in series
only if the output of one block is not affected by the next
following block.

∗ If there are any loading effects between the components, it is

necessary to combine these components into a single block.

Any number of cascaded blocks representing non

loading components can be replaced by a single block,
the transfer function of which is simply the product of
the individual transfer functions.
EXAMPLE 2–1 Consider the system shown in Figure 2–13(a). Simplify
this diagram.

By moving the summing point of the negative

feedback loop containing H2 outside the positive
feedback loop containing H1, we obtain Figure 2–
Eliminating the positive feedback loop, we have
Figure 2–13(c).

The elimination of the loop containing H2/G1

gives Figure 2–13(d).

Finally, eliminating the feedback loop results in

Figure 2–13(e).

Figure 2–13 –
(a) Multiple-loop system;
(b)–(e) successive reductions of the block
diagram shown in (a).
Cascade form
∗ In cascade form each signal is expressed as the product of
input and transfer function

Ge(s) = G3(s)G2(s)G1(s)

Cascaded subsystem

Equivalent transfer function

By writing the output of each subsystem, we can find the equivalent transfer function.
Parallel form
Parallel subsystems have a common input and an output formed by the algebraic sum of
the outputs from all of the subsystems.
The equivalent transfer function, Ge(s), is the output transform divided by the input

Parallel sub-systems

Equivalent transfer function

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