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Control Systems intro final

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of the system and applying the control signal to the system to

correct or limit deviation of the measured value from a desired

value.

INTRODUCTION

Control systems are an integral part of modern society.

The rockets fire, and the space shuttle lifts off to earth orbit;

plant glides along the floor seeking its destination.

These are just a few examples of the automatically controlled systems that we can create.

These systems also exist in nature.

∗ Within our own bodies are numerous control systems, such as the

pancreas, which regulates our blood sugar.

∗ In time of ‘‘fight or flight,’’ our adrenaline increases along with our heart

rate, causing more oxygen to be delivered to our cells.

predetermined location.

A control system consists of subsystems and processes (or

plants) assembled for the purpose of obtaining a desired output

with desired performance, given a specified input.

Desired response Actual response

∗ For example, consider an elevator. When the fourth-floor

button is pressed on the first floor, the elevator rises to the

fourth floor with a speed and floor-leveling accuracy designed

for passenger comfort.

∗ Push of the button is input that represents our desired output

(a) visualizing the problem and (b) taking the next step to develop the transfer function

model and to complete the design.

Advantages of Control Systems

∗ With control systems we can move large ∗ We build control systems for four

equipment with precision that would primary reasons:

otherwise be impossible.

∗ 1. Power amplification

∗ We can point huge antennas toward the

∗ 2. Remote control

farthest reaches of the universe to pick up faint

radio signals; controlling these antennas by

hand would be impossible. ∗ 3. Convenience of input form

∗ Because of control systems, elevators carry us

quickly to our destination, automatically

For example, a radar antenna,

stopping at the right floor . positioned by the low-power rotation

of a knob at the input, requires a large

∗ We alone could not provide the power required amount of power for its output

rotation.

for the load and the speed;

A control system can produce the

∗ motors provide the power, and control systems needed power amplification, or power

regulate the position and speed. gain.

In studying control engineering, we need to define additional

terms that are necessary to describe control systems.

machine parts functioning together, the purpose of which is to perform

a particular operation. such as

(a mechanical device, a heating furnace, a chemical reactor, or a

spacecraft) a plant.

or development marked by a series of gradual changes that succeed one

another in a relatively fixed way and lead toward a particular result

Systems. A system is a combination of components that act together and

perform a certain objective. A system need not be physical. The concept of the

system can be applied to abstract, dynamic phenomena such as those encountered

in economics.

The word system should, therefore, be interpreted to imply physical, biological,

economic, and the like, systems.

of the output of a system. If a disturbance is generated within the system, it is

called internal, while an external disturbance is generated outside the system and

is an input.

of disturbances, tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and

some reference input and does so on the basis of this difference. Here only

unpredictable disturbances are so specified, since predictable or known disturbances

can always be compensated for within the system.

Analysis and Design Objectives

which a system’s system’s performance is created

performance is determined. or changed.

transient response and steady-

transient response and state error are analyzed and

steady-state error to found not to meet the

determine if they meet the specifications, then we change

desired specifications. parameters or add additional

components to meet the

specifications.

response before reaching a steady-state response that generally resembles the

input.

EXAMPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

∗ The basic principle of a Temperature in the electric

Watt’s speed governor for furnace is measured by a

an engine thermometer, which is an

∗ amount of fuel admitted to analog device.

the engine is adjusted

according to the difference

between the desired and

the actual engine speeds.

Business Systems. A business system may consist of many groups. Each task assigned

to a group will represent a dynamic element of the system.

Transient Response

∗ In the case of an elevator, a slow

transient response makes

passengers impatient, whereas an

excessively rapid response makes

them uncomfortable.

contributes to the time required to

read from or write to the computer’s

disk storage

Steady-State Response

goal focuses on the steady- be an elevator stopped near

the fourth floor or the head of

state response. a disk drive finally stopped at

∗ This response resembles the the correct track.

input and is usually what ∗ We are concerned about the

remains after the transients accuracy of the steady-state

response. An elevator must be

∗ have decayed to zero. level enough with the floor for

the passengers to exit,

An antenna tracking a satellite must keep the satellite well within its beam

width in order not to lose track.

Stability

response and steady-state

error is moot if the system the natural response must (1)

does not have stability. eventually approach zero,

thus leaving only the forced

∗ fact that the total response response, or (2) oscillate.

of a system is the sum of the

natural response and the In some systems, however, the

forced response. natural response grows without

bound rather than diminish to zero

or oscillate.

Open loop system

An open loop system starts with a subsystem called an input transducer,

which converts the form of the input to that used by the controller.

The controller drives a process or a plant. The input is sometimes called the

reference, while the output can be called the controlled variable.

Other signals, such as disturbances, are shown added to the controller and process

outputs via summing junctions, which yield the algebraic sum of their input signals

using associated signs.

simply commanded by the input.

Examples of open-loop systems

∗ For example, toasters are open-loop systems, as anyone with burnt toast can

attest.

∗ The controlled variable (output) of a toaster is the color of the toast. The

device is designed with the assumption that the toast will be darker the

longer it is subjected to heat.

∗ The toaster does not measure the color of the toast; it does not correct for

the fact that the toast is rye, white, or sourdough, nor does it correct for the

fact that toast comes in different thicknesses.

constant force positioning the mass.

Closed loop system

The input transducer converts the form of the input to the form used by the controller.

An output transducer, or sensor, measures the output response and converts it into the

form used by the controller.

The first summing junction algebraically adds the signal from the input to the signal from

the output, which arrives via the feedback path, the return path from the output to the

summing junction.

Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems

dynamic systems in mathematical terms and analyze their

dynamic characteristics.

equations that represents the dynamics of the system

accurately, or at least fairly well.

A system may be represented in many different ways and, therefore, may have

many mathematical models, depending on one’s perspective.

TRANSFER FUNCTION AND IMPULSE RESPONSE

FUNCTION

∗ Transfer Function. The transfer function of a linear, time invariant,

differential equation system is defined as

the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the

Laplace transform of the input (driving function) under the assumption

that all initial conditions are zero.

Consider the linear time-invariant system defined by the following

differential equation:

The transfer function of this system is the ratio of the Laplace transformed output to

the Laplace transformed input when all initial conditions are zero, or

By using the concept of transfer function, it is possible to represent system dynamics

by algebraic equations in s.

If the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to n, the

system is called an nth-order system.

Comments on Transfer Function

∗ 1. The transfer function of a system is a mathematical model in that it is an operational

method of expressing the differential equation that relates the output variable to the input

variable.

∗ 2. The transfer function is a property of a system itself, independent of the magnitude and

nature of the input or driving function.

∗ 3. The transfer function includes the units necessary to relate the input to the output;

however, it does not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the

system. (The transfer functions of many physically different systems can be identical.)

∗ 4. If the transfer function of a system is known, the output or response can be studied for

various forms of inputs with a view toward understanding the nature of the system.

introducing known inputs and studying the output of the system. Once established, a

transfer function gives a full description of the dynamic characteristics of the system, as

distinct from its physical description.

Convolution Integral.

∗ For a linear, time-invariant system the transfer function G(s) is

∗ where X(s) is the Laplace transform of the input to the system and Y(s) is the

Laplace transform of the output of the system, where we assume that all initial

conditions involved are zero.

∗ It follows that the output Y(s) can be written as the product of G(s) and X(s), or

Note that multiplication in the complex domain is equivalent to

convolution in the time domain , so the inverse Laplace transform of

Equation (2–1) is given by the following convolution integral:

Impulse-Response Function.

when the initial conditions are zero. Since the

∗ Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function is unity, the Laplace transform of the

output of the system is

The inverse Laplace transform of the output given by Equation (2–2) gives the impulse

response of the system.

The inverse Laplace transform of G(s), or

is called the impulse-response function. This function g(t) is also called the weighting

function of the system.

Block Diagram (BD)

∗ A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the

functions performed by each component and of the flow of

signals.

Such a diagram depicts the interrelationships that exist among

the various components.

Figure shows an element of the block diagram. The arrowhead pointing toward the

block indicates the input, and the arrowhead leading away from the block represents

the output. Such arrows are referred to as signals.

The transfer functions of the components are usually entered in the corresponding

blocks, which are connected by arrows to indicate the direction of the flow of signals.

Note that the signal can pass only in the direction of the arrows.

∗ Summing Point.

∗ Referring to Figure , a circle with a cross is the symbol that indicates a summing

operation.

The plus or minus sign at each arrowhead indicates whether that signal is to

be added or subtracted.

It is important that the quantities being added or subtracted have the same

dimensions and the same units.

∗ Branch Point. A branch point is a point from which the signal from a

block goes concurrently to other blocks or summing points.

Block Diagram of a Closed-Loop System.

∗ The output C(s) is fed back to the summing point, where it is compared with

the reference input R(s).

∗ The output of the block, C(s) in this case, is obtained by multiplying the

transfer function G(s) by the input to the block, E(s).

∗ Any linear control system may be represented by a block diagram consisting

of blocks, summing points, and branch points.

point, where it is compared with the

reference input R(s).

The closed-loop nature of the system is clearly

indicated by the figure.

The output of the block, C(s) in this case, is

obtained by multiplying the transfer function G(s)

by the input to the block, E(s)

Figure: (a) BD of a closed-loop system.

feedback element whose transfer function is H(s),

Open-Loop Transfer Function and Feed forward Transfer Function.

Referring to Figure (b) , the ratio of the feedback signal B(s) to the actuating error

signal E(s) is called the open-loop transfer function.

That is,

The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is called the feed forward

transfer function,

so that

If the feed back transfer function H(s) is unity, then the open-loop transfer function and

the feed forward transfer function are the same.

Closed-Loop Transfer Function. For the system shown in

Figure (b) , the output C(s) and input R(s) are related as

follows: since

The transfer function relating C(s) to R(s) is called the closed-loop transfer function. It

relates the closed-loop system dynamics to the dynamics of the feedforward elements

and feedback elements.

From Equation (2–3), C(s) is given by

Classifications of Industrial Controllers

∗ Most industrial controllers may be classified according to their control actions as:

∗ 2. Proportional controllers

∗ 3. Integral controllers

∗ 4. Proportional-plus-integral controllers (PI)

∗ 5. Proportional-plus-derivative controllers (PD)

∗ 6. Proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers (PID)

∗ Most industrial controllers use electricity or pressurized fluid such as oil or air as power

sources. Consequently, controllers may also be classified according to the kind of power

employed in the operation, such

∗ as pneumatic controllers,

∗ hydraulic controllers, or

∗ electronic controllers.

∗ What kind of controller to use must be decided based on the nature of the plant and the

operating conditions, including such considerations as safety, cost, availability, reliability,

accuracy, weight, and size.

Proportional Control Action. For a controller with proportional

control action, the relationship between the output of the controller u(t)

and the actuating error signal

Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating

power, the proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with an adjustable gain.

Integral Control Action. In a controller with integral control action, the value

of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating

error signal e(t).That is,

Proportional-Plus-Integral Control Action. The control action of

a proportional plus- integral controller is defined by

Proportional-Plus-Derivative Control Action. The control

action of a proportional plus- derivative controller is defined

by

Proportional-Plus-Integral-Plus-Derivative Control Action. The combination of

proportional control action, integral control action, and derivative control action is

termed proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative control action. It has the advantages

of each of the three individual control actions. The equation of a controller with this

combined action is given by

Closed-Loop System Subjected to a Disturbance.

to a disturbance.

When two inputs (the reference input and disturbance) are present in a linear time-

invariant system, each input can be treated independently of the other; and the

outputs corresponding to each input alone can be added to give the complete output

Consider the system shown in above Figure. In examining the effect of the disturbance

D(s), we may assume that the reference input is zero; we may then calculate the

response CD(s) to the disturbance only. This response can be found from

On the other hand, in considering the response to the reference input R(s), we may

assume that the disturbance is zero. Then the response CR(s) to the reference input R(s)

can be obtained from

The response to the simultaneous application of the reference input and disturbance

can be obtained by adding the two individual responses. In other words, the response

C(s) due to the simultaneous application of the reference input R(s) and disturbance

D(s) is given by

Consider now the case where |G1(s)H(s)| >> 1 and |G1(s)G2(s)H(s)| >> 1. In this case, the

closed-loop transfer function CD(s)/D(s) becomes almost zero, and the effect of the

disturbance is suppressed.

∗ On the other hand, the closed-loop transfer function CR(s)/R(s)

approaches 1/H(s) as the gain of G1(s)G2(s)H(s) increases.

transfer function CR(s)/R(s) becomes independent of G1(s) and

G2(s) and inversely proportional to H(s), so that the variations of

G1(s) and G2(s) do not affect the closed-loop transfer function

CR(s)/R(s).

It can easily be seen that any closed-loop system with unity

feedback, H(s)=1, tends to equalize the input and output.

Procedures for Drawing a Block Diagram.

∗ To draw a block diagram for a system, first write the equations that describe

the dynamic behavior of each component.

∗ Then take the Laplace transforms of these equations, assuming zero initial

conditions, and represent each Laplace-transformed equation individually in

block form.

Figure 2-12

(a) RC circuit;

(b) block diagram

representing

Equation (2–6);

(c) block diagram

representing

Equation (2–7);

(d) block diagram

of the RC circuit.

Block Diagram Reduction

∗ It is important to note that blocks can be connected in series

only if the output of one block is not affected by the next

following block.

necessary to combine these components into a single block.

loading components can be replaced by a single block,

the transfer function of which is simply the product of

the individual transfer functions.

EXAMPLE 2–1 Consider the system shown in Figure 2–13(a). Simplify

this diagram.

feedback loop containing H2 outside the positive

feedback loop containing H1, we obtain Figure 2–

13(b).

Eliminating the positive feedback loop, we have

Figure 2–13(c).

gives Figure 2–13(d).

Figure 2–13(e).

Figure 2–13 –

(a) Multiple-loop system;

(b)–(e) successive reductions of the block

diagram shown in (a).

Cascade form

∗ In cascade form each signal is expressed as the product of

input and transfer function

Ge(s) = G3(s)G2(s)G1(s)

Cascaded subsystem

By writing the output of each subsystem, we can find the equivalent transfer function.

Parallel form

Parallel subsystems have a common input and an output formed by the algebraic sum of

the outputs from all of the subsystems.

The equivalent transfer function, Ge(s), is the output transform divided by the input

transform

Parallel sub-systems

Thank You

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