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ACI 355.

4 Modifications

1 Modify ACI 355.4-11 as follows in the underlined text:


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3 1.2.3 This standard does not address the following systems and use conditions:
4 1. Bulk adhesives mixed in open containers without automatically controlled metering and mixing of adhesive
5 components.
6 2. Adhesives to adhere structural elements to concrete surfaces outside of a drilled hole.
7 3. Adhesive anchors in aggressive environments not specifically considered in this standard.
8 4. Adhesive anchors to resist fatigue or shock loading.
9 5. Injection-type adhesive anchor systems for horizontal and upwardly inclined installations that do not employ a piston
10 plug or similar device to provide back pressure during the adhesive injection process.
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12 R1.2.3 Correct proportioning (metering) and mixing of adhesive components is critical to their performance. Bulk
13 mixing and delivery of adhesives (for example, those with paddle mixers in buckets), while appropriate for some applications,
14 may not provide anchor performance consistent with the assumptions of this standard. These systems are not considered to
15 provide controlled metering of adhesive components. Bulk dispensing equipment that provides automatic metering and
16 mixing of the adhesive components is included; however, ongoing monitoring is required to check that the equipment is
17 operating within tolerances in accordance with the Manufacturer’s Printed Installation Instructions (MPII), particularly
18 with respect to mixture ratios, leak tightness, and dwell time.
19 This standard is not appropriate for assessing the use of adhesives to adhere structural elements to the concrete surface.
20 Examples include bonded steel plates or external carbon fiber reinforcement. Other standards exist for these purposes. This
21 standard includes tests to assess the sensitivity of adhesive anchor systems to a limited range of aggressive environments,
22 including moisture, highly alkaline fluids, and sulfur dioxide. While it is believed that these exposure environments envelop
23 a range of possible exposures, specific environments (for example, radiation exposure and chemical production
24 environments) may require unique assessment.
25 Due to the variety of possible loading conditions associated with fatigue and shock loading, this standard does not
26 include tests for these loading variants. Fatigue and shock loading may result in reductions in bond strength, steel strength,
27 and concrete strength, and these effects are not addressed by this standard. Caution should be exercised in the determination
28 of whether cyclic loading should be explicitly considered. These conditions may be evaluated separately for specific systems
29 using generally accepted principles. Fatigue is generally less of a problem for the adhesive than for the anchor element;
30 provisions of preload in the anchor to reduce the level of stress fluctuation in the anchor element is only effective if sufficient
31 unbonded length is provided to ensure a reasonable degree of elastic stretch.
32 Void-free injection of adhesive is critical for the performance of adhesive anchors, particularly for cases involving
33 sustained tension load. This standard includes several criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the adhesive anchor injection
34 system. Nevertheless, the injection of adhesive into horizontal and upwardly inclined holes presents special challenges. The
35 collapse of a tunnel ceiling in Boston, Massachusetts in 2006 highlights this issue. NTSB (2006) documented improper
36 installation of the adhesive based on observation of failed anchors and anchors adjacent to the collapsed section. Subsequent
37 laboratory investigations confirmed these findings, see Ocel and Hartmann (2007). The piston plug was developed to
38 minimize injected air voids (see Fig. 2.2). Laboratory investigations (Silva 2016) indicate that injection of adhesive with
39 only an extension tube, i.e., without the use of a device such as a piston plug to provide back pressure during the injection
40 process, does not result in a sufficient degree of reliability in the installation process. The use of a piston plug during the
41 injection process consistently results in good installation. For small hole diameters (1/4-in. to 3/8-in.), the same effect is
42 accomplished when the extension tube diameter equals the hole diameter.
43 Consequently, the injection of adhesive in the horizontal or upwardly inclined direction without the use of a piston plug
44 or similar back-pressure device to avoid air voids is no longer included in the scope of this Standard. It is also important to
45 note that the use of the piston plug for proper injection is not limited to embedments of large diameter or depth.
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ACI 355.4 Modifications

1 2.2 – Definitions
2
3 Add the following
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5 piston plug – a device on the end of a flexible injection tube equaling the hole diameter, which facilitates
6 injection of liquid adhesive into a drilled hole. See Fig. 2.2.
7 piston plug – The function of the piston plug is to a) minimize introduction of air bubbles (voids) into the
8 injected adhesive mass and b) provide the operator of the injection equipment with haptic feedback based on
9 the sense of touch during injection regarding the progress of the injection process. The piston plug facilitates
10 backpressure in the installation process, to control the rate of tube or nozzle withdrawal.
11 Add a new Fig. 2.2 as follows

injected adhesive

piston plug
drilled hole
direction of movement

flexible extension tube

mixing nozzle

Fig. 2.2 – Use of piston plug for adhesive injection

12 Add the following to 7.18.1


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14 7.18.1 Purpose – These optional reliability tests are performed to evaluate the performance of adhesive anchors installed
15 horizontally and overhead, that is, vertically up. See Section 1.2.3 (5.) for restrictions on adhesive anchor systems to be
16 qualified for these installation conditions.
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18 Add the following to 10.12.3
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20 10.12.3 – Where testing and assessment to address sensitivity to installation direction in accordance with this standard is
21 not conducted, or where the requirement of Section 1.2.3 (5.) is not met, the product shall be limited to down-hole
22 installation only and the product labeling will include the notification shown in Fig. 7.2.
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ACI 355.4 Modifications

1 14.2 – Cited references


2
3 Add the following
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5 NTSB (2006) National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Accident Report NTSB/HAR 07/02 PB 2007 916203
6 Titled "Ceiling Collapse in the Interstate 90 Connector Tunnel Boston Massachusetts July 10, 2006, pp. 50-55.
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8 Ocel, J. and Hartmann, J. (2007) “I-90 Seaport Tunnel Partial Ceiling Collapse Investigation: Mechanical Behavior of
9 Powers Fasteners Power-Fast+ Adhesive Anchors” FHWA Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center Report, April 2007,
10 p. 77
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12 Silva, J. 2016, “Overhead Installation of Injection-Type Adhesive Anchors,” Concrete International, July, pp. 40-49.

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