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Study Exam (4-28-07) • Chapter 7 o Vocab Nutrition – The process of taking in food and using it for energy, growth, and good health Nutrients – Substances found in food that your body needs in order to grow, have energy, and stay healthy Calorie – Unit of measurement used to express the potential energy of food Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – Recommended amount of a nutrient needed to meet the nutritional needs of almost every health person in a specific age group o Six Major Nutrients Carbohydrates – Starches and Sugars that provide energy • Simple Carbohydrates o Digested quickly. o Contain refined sugars and few essential vitamins and minerals o Fruits, fruit juice, milk, yoghurt, honey, molasses and sugar • Complex Carbohydrates o Take longer to digest o Packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals o Vegetables, breads, cereals, legumes and pasta • 4 calories/gram • Supplies fiber • 58% or higher of diet (48% complex) Proteins – Nutrients important for growth, maintenance, repair of tissue • Complete Proteins o Contains all of the essential amino acids to humans and most animals o Milk, cheese, and eggs • Incomplete Proteins o Does not contain all of the essential amino acids to humans and most animals o Corn, Rice, and wheat • Made up of amino acids • 10-12% of diet • 4 calories/gram
Fats – Nutrients that provide stored energy, keep the skin healthy, provide and carry the fat soluble vitamins, and promote normal growth • Saturated Fats(Bad) o Butter • Unsaturated Fats(Good) o Olive Oil • HDL(Good) • LDL(Bad) • 20-30% of diet • 9 calories/gram Minerals – Nutrients that strengthen bones and teeth • Important for building & regulating fluids • Help keep blood healthy, and keep the heart and other organs working properly • Very small amounts of diet (specific for each mineral) Vitamins – Substances that aid in absorbing and using the nutrients and help to regulate the body’s functions • Fat Soluble Vitamins o A, D, E and K o Dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the blood stream to carry out their functions • Water Soluble Vitamins o B and C o Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not stored ,and they are eliminated in urine • Amount of diet varies with specific vitamins Water • Drink 2-3 quarts daily • 70% of your total body weight • All body systems depend on it! • Drink water before, during, and after exercise o Problems A plate of “nacho tots” from the Vortex (one of Ms. Burnette’s favorite meals) contains 3000 calories with 68 grams from fat, 136 grams from carbohydrates, and 10 grams from protein…
• Chapter 8 and 9 o Good Diet Has a variety of food, physical activity, grains, vegetables, fruits, low in fats, low in cholesterol, moderate sugars, moderate salt, and moderate sugars o Vocab Cholesterol • Waxy, fatty-like material manufactured in the body and used by the body in many chemical processes • Also found in many foods of animal origin • When level of cholesterol in the blood is more than needed by the body, excess is deposited on the lining of the arteries (leading to cardiovascular problems – heart attack) • Total cholesterol for a teenager should be below 170 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) • The rate at which your body burns food and nutrients to perform normal, minimal bodily functions at rest o Males = approx 1,500 calories/day o Sedentary person = +200-300 calories/day o Average person = +1,000 calories/day o Extremely active person = +1,800-3,800 calories/day Overweight • Weighing more than most people your age, sex, and height Obese • Being very overweight • Determined by skin fold measurements o Obese Body Fat > 25% for males o Ideal Body Fat > 15% for males Lean body mass • Muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments, internal organs Body fat percentages • Fat weight Ectomorph • Thin, slender body build, lack of muscle contour Mesomorph • Athletic, muscular body build, bone and muscle development are prominent Endomorph • Heavy, rounded, some-what flabby body type, limited muscular development
o Snacking Eating several small meals instead of three big ones helps keep your metabolism high, and helps maintain a more stable level of blood sugar
o Fact A pound of fat = 3500 calories o Eating Disorders Bulimia • A person with bulimia eats a lot of food in a short amount of time (binges) and then tries to prevent weight gain by getting rid of the food, called purging(throwing up for example) Anorexia Nervosa • Control body weight by voluntary starvation, purging, vomiting, excessive exercise, or other weight control measures, such as diet pills or diuretic drugs. Overeating • Well. I think you understand.
• Chapter 10 o Facts Body reacts in a similar manner whether the stress is good (positive) or bad (negative). o Vocab Stressors • Things that cause stress Eustress • Positive stress (Body reacts the same!!) Distress • Negative stress (Body reacts the same!!) Endorphins • Stress & pain-relieving substances produced naturally by the body o Stages Body recognizes the stressor & prepares for “fight or flight” (dealing with or escaping the situation) by releasing hormones such as adrenaline. An increase in heart rate & respiration rate An increase in blood pressure An increase in blood sugar level to provide energy An increase in muscular tension An increase in perspiration Sharpening of senses • Pupils of eyes dilate Digestion slows down o Illnesses Heart disease Stroke High blood pressure Migraine headaches Stomach ulcers Kidney problems Neck or lower back pain Chronic fatigue Bowel problems
General anxiety o Coping and Preventing Be Assertive Establish challenging & attainable goals Exercise
• Chapter 11 and 12 o Vocab Cardio respiratory fitness • The ability to perform moderate to high intensity exercise using the large muscles of your body for a prolonged period of time Heart • Fist-sized; circulates 2000 gallons of blood per day • Consists of two pumps Pulmonary pump • Right side • Sends blood to the lungs and the left side of the heart Systemic pump • Left side • Sends blood throughout the body Atria • Upper chambers Ventricles • Lower chambers Septum • Wall of muscle that separates the left & right chambers Aorta • Largest artery in the body Coronary arteries • Branches out from the aorta & supply the heart with its own oxygen Heart rate • Lower is better • Pumps more blood with each beat Arteries • Carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart to the body Capillaries • Where the oxygen & nutrients are exchanged for carbon dioxide & waste products
Veins • Carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart by the vena cava • Valves inside veins keep blood flowing forward Systolic • Pressure on arteries as blood leaves the heart • 100-140 Diastolic • As the ventricle refills, arterial pressure falls, and the low point is the diastolic • 70-90 Hypertension- high blood pressure • Greater than 140 Red blood cells • Lifespan of 120 days & replenished by the bone marrow; contains hemoglobin Hemoglobin • Carries oxygen & gives them their red color White blood cells • Fight infections. (high w/leukemia) Platelets • Stop flow of blood when an injury occurs; forms a blood clot • Plasma • 55 % of blood • Water base • Helps to regulate body temp. • Contains essential minerals, enzymes, fats, sugars, oxygen & carbon dioxide. Hemophiliacs • Free bleeders Anemia • Low red blood cell count Diaphragm • Muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity • As it contracts, an area of lower pressure is created, allowing air to come into the lungs (inhalation) • As the muscle relaxes, air is forced out (exhalation) Training effects • Increases the depth of breathing, decreases the breathing rate, resulting in more efficient breathing
Aerobic • Means with oxygen • Causes a steady & heart rate levels off • Walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming, and rowing Anaerobic • Means without oxygen • Intensity is high & there is not enough oxygen to meet the energy demands • Sudden intensive, explosive muscle contractions occur & oxygen debt occurs • Sprinting & weight lifting
Coronary artery disease • Buildup of fatty deposits (plaque) inside the coronary arteries • Can lead to atherosclerosis o Narrowing of the arteries o This can lead to forming a clot that creates a blockage Strokes • Blood supply to part of the brain is blocked • Caused by deposits in the carotid artery or the brain or a blood clot (thrombus) • Also another type of blood clot (embolus) that travels to a spot in an artery & blocks it (an embolism) • A weak spot that bulges in an artery is called an aneurysm & it can rupture • Strokes can affect memory, speech, hearing, vision or muscular function • Warning signs-numbness or weakness on one side of the body; dizziness; falling for no reason; loss of speech or memory; temporary problem with vision in one eye Congestive heart failure • Occurs when the heart cannot pump all of the blood out of it • Fluids can accumulate in the heart, lungs, veins & kidneys High blood pressure- > 140/90 Triglycerides • Composed of 3 fatty acids & glycerol, & contribute to the formation of plaque on the arterial walls Overload • Frequency (4 x’s per week) • Intensity (60-85% of max HR)
• Time (30 min.), • Type (aerobic) Progression • Run a longer distance, run same distance in a faster time, increase the intensity, increase the number of days Specificity • Type of training determines which fitness component improves. o Facts The Cardio respiratory System supplies the body with oxygen Oxygen poor blood is delivered by the veins into the right atrium, which pumps blood into the right ventricle o Risks of Cardiovascular Disease Person • Heredity o Individuals with relatives who contracted CV disease prior to age 60 are at a greater risk o Sometimes is caused by lifestyle • Age o Older people become more sedentary, gain weight, & eat poorly • Gender o Males are at a higher risk than females • Race o Blacks have a higher incidence of high blood pressure Risk Factors • Physical inactivity o Lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness • Cigarette smoking o Damages arterial walls which allows the cholesterol to be more easily deposited forming plaque o Increases risk of formation of blood clots o Carbon monoxide replaces some of the oxygen carried by the red blood cells o Increases heart rate o Increases blood pressure o Increases LDL (bad) • Obesity o Causes heart to work harder o Increased risk of diabetes which increases risk Computing Heart Rate
• Chapter 13 and 14 o Vocab Muscular Strength • Max amount that can be exerted in a single contraction. Muscular endurance • Ability of a muscle group to continue to perform over a length of time. Muscle • Band of fibers held together by connective tissue • The number and type of muscle fibers are determined at birth • Men get more muscle definition after puberty than women because of the amount of testosterone their body produces Hypertrophy • Enlargement of a muscle fiber due to work Atrophy • A muscle fiber becomes smaller because of non-use Three types of muscle fibers • Slow-twitch o Slow to contract, continue performing for long periods of time
o Rich blood supply with oxygen makes them important for aerobic activities. • Fast-twitch o Not well supplied by blood vessels, reduced capacity for using oxygen o Used in sprinting, jumping and other speed and power activities. • Intermediate fast-twitch o Characteristics common to both o Better blood supply than fast o High intensity and moderate duration activities Three types of Muscle Contractions • Concentric o Shortening of muscle fiber, one end remains stationary, other end pulls bone at joint • Eccentric o Lengthening of muscle fiber while it is contracted o A gradual release of the contraction as when you lower a weight o Muscle returns to original state • Static o Muscle remains in partial or complete contraction without changing its length
Three types of strength gaining programs • Isometric o Contraction of muscle with no change in length o Ex. pushing against wall or pushing palms together o Disadvantage-Strength is not gained through the entire range of motion o Advantage-can be performed almost anywhere • Isotonic o Lifting a resistance through a full range of motion o Ex. biceps curl o Weakest joint position will determine how much weight you can lift o Everything in our weight room is isotonic • Isokinetic o Contractions where muscle contracts maximally at a constant speed over a full range of motion with variable resistance o As the angle changes, the resistance changes
o Very expensive o We do not have any; used in rehab centers • Rep o One single completion of the exercise • Resistance o Amount of weight lifted • Set o A certain number of reps performed without rest o Effects of Strength Training on the Muscular System Size of muscle temporarily increases because of increased blood flow Body temperature rises Size of individual muscle fibers increase as a result of training The number of muscle fibers does not increase Muscles do not turn into fat when you stop training-they atrophy(become smaller because of non-use) Variables concerned with strength training: train 3 to four nonconsecutive days or train upper body one day and lower body the next if you train every day
• Chapters 15, 16, 17, 18 o Chapter 15- Achieving Flexibility Ability to move body joints through a full range of motion. Specific to a joint or series of joints. Flexibility tends to decrease as people age. Lower back problems can be prevented with adequate flexibility in the lower back and hamstrings. o Benefits of Flexibility Wellness-keeps muscles & joints moving without pain. Prevention of low back pain Healthy joints njury prevention o Factors Which Limit Flexibility Bone structure Muscles & tendons Ligaments
Fat Gender Injuries Low back pain Correct lifting techniques Correct sitting techniques o Bone Structure: Joints Hinge - knee & elbow Ball & socket – shoulder & hip Sliding/gliding – wrist & ankle Pivot - neck Fixed – skull • Not acceptable for physical activity Image:
o Muscles, Tendons & Ligaments Muscles- bands of fibers which enable us to move. Ligaments- attach a bone to another bone. Tendons- attach muscle to bone. Extension- straightening movement of muscles at a joint. Flexion – bending movement around a joint. Fat- can limit range of motion of a joint, as can weight training which is not accompanied by flexibility. Gender- females generally are more flexible than males of the same age. Injuries- to joints, muscles, connective tissue or skin can affect flexibility; scar tissue. Low back pain – 80% sometime in life; due to tight low back, weak abs, tight hamstrings, weak quads, tight hip flexors & weak glutes.
o Correct Lifting & Sitting Techniques: See page 325 o Principles of Training: Warm-up Overload – frequency ( daily); intensity (slight tension); time ( 30 seconds); type (static). Specificity – gained in joints which are worked. Focus on lower back & hamstrings. Progression – increase slowly o Techniques Static – safe method; stretched to farthest point & held for 30 seconds or more Ballistic – bouncing or bobbing; can cause pain & muscle soreness and/or damage; can trigger the stretch reflex (painful muscle spasm which is the body’s protective reaction against overstretching). Dynamic – used in warm-up for practice or competition by mimicking sport-specific types of activities. (used after static) o Safety precautions Perform stretching within your own limitations. Progression should be gradual. Avoid ballistic stretches Partner stretching can be dangerous if your partner forces your body to stretch too far. o Stretches Shoulders & Chest Neck Triceps Quadriceps Hamstrings Lower back & Glutes Adductors Gastrocnemius o Dangerous Exercises Ballistic arm circles Neck circles Toe touch with locked knees Yoga plough Sitting quad stretch Hurdle stretch Deep knee bends, full squats, & duck walk **NECK, LOWER BACK, & KNEES! o Chapter 16- Designing Your Fitness Program Goals- personal; long-term; short-term
Maintaining the program o Chapter 17- Becoming a Wise Consumer Advertising Rip-offs FDA recomendations. Osteoporosis- thinning of the bones which contributes to bone fracture, especially in older people; due to lack of calcium in diet. Diuretic – increase urine production & thus the loss of water by the body. Power bars, honey, sugar or sweets before competition or a workout WILL NOT provide a burst of quick energy. Energy comes from food that is already digested & stored in your muscles. Natural vitamins DO NOT have special benefits over synthetic vitamins. They have the identical chemical structures. Supplements -DO NOT relieve stress. Stress tablets are a marketing scheme. o Anabolic Steroids Synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone Dangers: cancer of the liver, increased blood pressure, decreased testicular size, decreased sperm production, liver failure, increased body hair, menstrual irregularities, acne, breast development (men),& aggressive or violent behavior. • Chapter 18 o Lifetime Personal Fitness o What will you take from this course, that will help you lead a healthy lifestyle?
• References o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_protein o Coach Gibbons powerpoints o http://www.ivillage.co.uk/dietandfitness/nutrition/carbs/qas/0,9582,267_156580 ,00.html o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_density_lipoprotein o Google o http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/foodnut/09312.html o http://www.4woman.gov/faq/Easyread/bulnervosa-etr.htm
o http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa o