You are on page 1of 16

Shawn Wilkinson

P.E. Study Exam (4-28-07)

• Chapter 7
o Vocab
 Nutrition – The process of taking in food and using it for energy,
growth, and good health
 Nutrients – Substances found in food that your body needs in order to
grow, have energy, and stay healthy
 Calorie – Unit of measurement used to express the potential energy of
 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) – Recommended amount of
a nutrient needed to meet the nutritional needs of almost every health
person in a specific age group
o Six Major Nutrients
 Carbohydrates – Starches and Sugars that provide energy
• Simple Carbohydrates
o Digested quickly.
o Contain refined sugars and few essential vitamins and
o Fruits, fruit juice, milk, yoghurt, honey, molasses and
• Complex Carbohydrates
o Take longer to digest
o Packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals
o Vegetables, breads, cereals, legumes and pasta
• 4 calories/gram
• Supplies fiber
• 58% or higher of diet (48% complex)
 Proteins – Nutrients important for growth, maintenance, repair of tissue
• Complete Proteins
o Contains all of the essential amino acids to humans and
most animals
o Milk, cheese, and eggs
• Incomplete Proteins
o Does not contain all of the essential amino acids to
humans and most animals
o Corn, Rice, and wheat
• Made up of amino acids
• 10-12% of diet
• 4 calories/gram
 Fats – Nutrients that provide stored energy, keep the skin healthy,
provide and carry the fat soluble vitamins, and promote normal growth
• Saturated Fats(Bad)
o Butter
• Unsaturated Fats(Good)
o Olive Oil
• HDL(Good)
• LDL(Bad)
• 20-30% of diet
• 9 calories/gram
 Minerals – Nutrients that strengthen bones and teeth
• Important for building & regulating fluids
• Help keep blood healthy, and keep the heart and other organs
working properly
• Very small amounts of diet (specific for each mineral)
 Vitamins – Substances that aid in absorbing and using the nutrients and
help to regulate the body’s functions
• Fat Soluble Vitamins
o A, D, E and K
o Dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the blood
stream to carry out their functions
• Water Soluble Vitamins
o B and C
o Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not
stored ,and they are eliminated in urine
• Amount of diet varies with specific vitamins
 Water
• Drink 2-3 quarts daily
• 70% of your total body weight
• All body systems depend on it!
• Drink water before, during, and after exercise
o Problems
 A plate of “nacho tots” from the Vortex (one of Ms. Burnette’s favorite
meals) contains 3000 calories with 68 grams from fat, 136 grams from
carbohydrates, and 10 grams from protein…
• Chapter 8 and 9
o Good Diet
 Has a variety of food, physical activity, grains, vegetables, fruits, low
in fats, low in cholesterol, moderate sugars, moderate salt, and
moderate sugars
o Vocab
 Cholesterol
• Waxy, fatty-like material manufactured in the body and used by
the body in many chemical processes
• Also found in many foods of animal origin
• When level of cholesterol in the blood is more than needed by the
body, excess is deposited on the lining of the arteries (leading to
cardiovascular problems – heart attack)
• Total cholesterol for a teenager should be below 170
 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
• The rate at which your body burns food and nutrients to
perform normal, minimal bodily functions at rest
o Males = approx 1,500 calories/day
o Sedentary person = +200-300 calories/day
o Average person = +1,000 calories/day
o Extremely active person = +1,800-3,800 calories/day
 Overweight
• Weighing more than most people your age, sex, and height
 Obese
• Being very overweight
• Determined by skin fold measurements
o Obese Body Fat > 25% for males
o Ideal Body Fat > 15% for males
 Lean body mass
• Muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments, internal organs
 Body fat percentages
• Fat weight
 Ectomorph
• Thin, slender body build, lack of muscle contour
 Mesomorph
• Athletic, muscular body build, bone and muscle development are
 Endomorph
• Heavy, rounded, some-what flabby body type, limited muscular
o Snacking
 Eating several small meals instead of three big ones helps keep your
metabolism high, and helps maintain a more stable level of blood sugar

o Fact
 A pound of fat = 3500 calories
o Eating Disorders
 Bulimia
• A person with bulimia eats a lot of food in a short amount of time
(binges) and then tries to prevent weight gain by getting rid of the
food, called purging(throwing up for example)
 Anorexia Nervosa
• Control body weight by voluntary starvation, purging, vomiting,
excessive exercise, or other weight control measures, such as diet
pills or diuretic drugs.
 Overeating
• Well. I think you understand.
• Chapter 10
o Facts
 Body reacts in a similar manner whether the stress is good (positive)
or bad (negative).
o Vocab
 Stressors
• Things that cause stress
 Eustress
• Positive stress (Body reacts the same!!)
 Distress
• Negative stress (Body reacts the same!!)
 Endorphins
• Stress & pain-relieving substances produced naturally by the
o Stages
 Body recognizes the stressor & prepares for “fight or flight” (dealing
with or escaping the situation) by releasing hormones such as
 An increase in heart rate & respiration rate
 An increase in blood pressure
 An increase in blood sugar level to provide energy
 An increase in muscular tension
 An increase in perspiration
 Sharpening of senses
• Pupils of eyes dilate
 Digestion slows down
o Illnesses
 Heart disease
 Stroke
 High blood pressure
 Migraine headaches
 Stomach ulcers
 Kidney problems
 Neck or lower back pain
 Chronic fatigue
 Bowel problems
 General anxiety
o Coping and Preventing
 Be Assertive
 Establish challenging & attainable goals
 Exercise

• Chapter 11 and 12
o Vocab
 Cardio respiratory fitness
• The ability to perform moderate to high intensity exercise using
the large muscles of your body for a prolonged period of time
 Heart
• Fist-sized; circulates 2000 gallons of blood per day
• Consists of two pumps
 Pulmonary pump
• Right side
• Sends blood to the lungs and the left side of the heart
 Systemic pump
• Left side
• Sends blood throughout the body
 Atria
• Upper chambers
 Ventricles
• Lower chambers
 Septum
• Wall of muscle that separates the left & right chambers
 Aorta
• Largest artery in the body
 Coronary arteries
• Branches out from the aorta & supply the heart with its own
 Heart rate
• Lower is better
• Pumps more blood with each beat
 Arteries
• Carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart to the body
 Capillaries
• Where the oxygen & nutrients are exchanged for carbon dioxide
& waste products
 Veins
• Carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart by the vena cava
• Valves inside veins keep blood flowing forward
 Systolic
• Pressure on arteries as blood leaves the heart
• 100-140
 Diastolic
• As the ventricle refills, arterial pressure falls, and the low point is
the diastolic
• 70-90

 Hypertension- high blood pressure
• Greater than 140
 Red blood cells
• Lifespan of 120 days & replenished by the bone marrow; contains
 Hemoglobin
• Carries oxygen & gives them their red color
 White blood cells
• Fight infections. (high w/leukemia)
 Platelets
• Stop flow of blood when an injury occurs; forms a blood clot
• Plasma
• 55 % of blood
• Water base
• Helps to regulate body temp.
• Contains essential minerals, enzymes, fats, sugars, oxygen &
carbon dioxide.
 Hemophiliacs
• Free bleeders
 Anemia
• Low red blood cell count
 Diaphragm
• Muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal
• As it contracts, an area of lower pressure is created, allowing air
to come into the lungs (inhalation)
• As the muscle relaxes, air is forced out (exhalation)
 Training effects
• Increases the depth of breathing, decreases the breathing rate,
resulting in more efficient breathing
 Aerobic
• Means with oxygen
• Causes a steady & heart rate levels off
• Walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming, and rowing
 Anaerobic
• Means without oxygen
• Intensity is high & there is not enough oxygen to meet the energy
• Sudden intensive, explosive muscle contractions occur & oxygen
debt occurs
• Sprinting & weight lifting

 Coronary artery disease
• Buildup of fatty deposits (plaque) inside the coronary arteries
• Can lead to atherosclerosis
o Narrowing of the arteries
o This can lead to forming a clot that creates a blockage
 Strokes
• Blood supply to part of the brain is blocked
• Caused by deposits in the carotid artery or the brain or a blood clot
• Also another type of blood clot (embolus) that travels to a spot in
an artery & blocks it (an embolism)
• A weak spot that bulges in an artery is called an aneurysm & it can
• Strokes can affect memory, speech, hearing, vision or muscular
• Warning signs-numbness or weakness on one side of the body;
dizziness; falling for no reason; loss of speech or memory;
temporary problem with vision in one eye
 Congestive heart failure
• Occurs when the heart cannot pump all of the blood out of it
• Fluids can accumulate in the heart, lungs, veins & kidneys
 High blood pressure- > 140/90
 Triglycerides
• Composed of 3 fatty acids & glycerol, & contribute to the
formation of plaque on the arterial walls
 Overload
• Frequency (4 x’s per week)
• Intensity (60-85% of max HR)
• Time (30 min.),
• Type (aerobic)
 Progression
• Run a longer distance, run same distance in a faster time, increase
the intensity, increase the number of days
 Specificity
• Type of training determines which fitness component improves.
o Facts
 The Cardio respiratory System supplies the body with oxygen
 Oxygen poor blood is delivered by the veins into the right atrium,
which pumps blood into the right ventricle
o Risks of Cardiovascular Disease
 Person
• Heredity
o Individuals with relatives who contracted CV disease prior
to age 60 are at a greater risk
o Sometimes is caused by lifestyle
• Age
o Older people become more sedentary, gain weight, & eat
• Gender
o Males are at a higher risk than females
• Race
o Blacks have a higher incidence of high blood pressure
 Risk Factors
• Physical inactivity
o Lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness
• Cigarette smoking
o Damages arterial walls which allows the cholesterol to be
more easily deposited forming plaque
o Increases risk of formation of blood clots
o Carbon monoxide replaces some of the oxygen carried by
the red blood cells
o Increases heart rate
o Increases blood pressure
o Increases LDL (bad)
• Obesity
o Causes heart to work harder
o Increased risk of diabetes which increases risk
 Computing Heart Rate

• Chapter 13 and 14
o Vocab
 Muscular Strength
• Max amount that can be exerted in a single contraction.
 Muscular endurance
• Ability of a muscle group to continue to perform over a length of
 Muscle
• Band of fibers held together by connective tissue
• The number and type of muscle fibers are determined at birth
• Men get more muscle definition after puberty than women because
of the amount of testosterone their body produces
 Hypertrophy
• Enlargement of a muscle fiber due to work
 Atrophy
• A muscle fiber becomes smaller because of non-use
 Three types of muscle fibers
• Slow-twitch
o Slow to contract, continue performing for long periods of
o Rich blood supply with oxygen makes them important for
aerobic activities.
• Fast-twitch
o Not well supplied by blood vessels, reduced capacity for
using oxygen
o Used in sprinting, jumping and other speed and power
• Intermediate fast-twitch
o Characteristics common to both
o Better blood supply than fast
o High intensity and moderate duration activities
 Three types of Muscle Contractions
• Concentric
o Shortening of muscle fiber, one end remains stationary,
other end pulls bone at joint
• Eccentric
o Lengthening of muscle fiber while it is contracted
o A gradual release of the contraction as when you lower a
o Muscle returns to original state
• Static
o Muscle remains in partial or complete contraction without
changing its length

 Three types of strength gaining programs
• Isometric
o Contraction of muscle with no change in length
o Ex. pushing against wall or pushing palms together
o Disadvantage-Strength is not gained through the entire
range of motion
o Advantage-can be performed almost anywhere
• Isotonic
o Lifting a resistance through a full range of motion
o Ex. biceps curl
o Weakest joint position will determine how much weight
you can lift
o Everything in our weight room is isotonic
• Isokinetic
o Contractions where muscle contracts maximally at a
constant speed over a full range of motion with variable
o As the angle changes, the resistance changes
o Very expensive
o We do not have any; used in rehab centers
• Rep
o One single completion of the exercise
• Resistance
o Amount of weight lifted
• Set
o A certain number of reps performed without rest
o Effects of Strength Training on the Muscular System
 Size of muscle temporarily increases because of increased blood flow
 Body temperature rises
 Size of individual muscle fibers increase as a result of training
 The number of muscle fibers does not increase
 Muscles do not turn into fat when you stop training-they
atrophy(become smaller because of non-use)
 Variables concerned with strength training: train 3 to four non-
consecutive days or train upper body one day and lower body the next if
you train every day

• Chapters 15, 16, 17, 18
o Chapter 15- Achieving Flexibility
 Ability to move body joints through a full range of motion.
 Specific to a joint or series of joints.
 Flexibility tends to decrease as people age.
 Lower back problems can be prevented with adequate flexibility in the
lower back and hamstrings.
o Benefits of Flexibility
 Wellness-keeps muscles & joints moving without pain.
 Prevention of low back pain
 Healthy joints
 njury prevention
o Factors Which Limit Flexibility
 Bone structure
 Muscles & tendons
 Ligaments
 Fat
 Gender
 Injuries
 Low back pain
 Correct lifting techniques
 Correct sitting techniques
o Bone Structure: Joints
 Hinge - knee & elbow
 Ball & socket – shoulder & hip
 Sliding/gliding – wrist & ankle
 Pivot - neck
 Fixed – skull
• Not acceptable for physical activity
 Image:

o Muscles, Tendons & Ligaments
 Muscles- bands of fibers which enable us to move.
 Ligaments- attach a bone to another bone.
 Tendons- attach muscle to bone.
 Extension- straightening movement of muscles at a joint.
 Flexion – bending movement around a joint.
 Fat- can limit range of motion of a joint, as can weight training which is
not accompanied by flexibility.
 Gender- females generally are more flexible than males of the same age.
 Injuries- to joints, muscles, connective tissue or skin can affect
flexibility; scar tissue.
 Low back pain – 80% sometime in life; due to tight low back, weak abs,
tight hamstrings, weak quads, tight hip flexors & weak glutes.
o Correct Lifting & Sitting Techniques:
 See page 325
o Principles of Training:
 Warm-up
 Overload – frequency ( daily); intensity (slight tension); time ( 30
seconds); type (static).
 Specificity – gained in joints which are worked. Focus on lower back &
 Progression – increase slowly
o Techniques
 Static – safe method; stretched to farthest point & held for 30 seconds or
 Ballistic – bouncing or bobbing; can cause pain & muscle soreness
and/or damage; can trigger the stretch reflex (painful muscle spasm
which is the body’s protective reaction against overstretching).
 Dynamic – used in warm-up for practice or competition by mimicking
sport-specific types of activities. (used after static)
o Safety precautions
 Perform stretching within your own limitations.
 Progression should be gradual.
 Avoid ballistic stretches
 Partner stretching can be dangerous if your partner forces your body to
stretch too far.
o Stretches
 Shoulders & Chest
 Neck
 Triceps
 Quadriceps
 Hamstrings
 Lower back & Glutes
 Adductors
 Gastrocnemius

o Dangerous Exercises
 Ballistic arm circles
 Neck circles
 Toe touch with locked knees
 Yoga plough
 Sitting quad stretch
 Hurdle stretch
 Deep knee bends, full squats, & duck walk
o Chapter 16- Designing Your Fitness Program
 Goals- personal; long-term; short-term
 Maintaining the program
o Chapter 17- Becoming a Wise Consumer
 Advertising
 Rip-offs
 FDA recomendations.
 Osteoporosis- thinning of the bones which contributes to bone fracture,
especially in older people; due to lack of calcium in diet.
 Diuretic – increase urine production & thus the loss of water by the
 Power bars, honey, sugar or sweets before competition or a workout
WILL NOT provide a burst of quick energy. Energy comes from food
that is already digested & stored in your muscles.
 Natural vitamins DO NOT have special benefits over synthetic vitamins.
They have the identical chemical structures.
 Supplements -DO NOT relieve stress. Stress tablets are a marketing
o Anabolic Steroids
 Synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone
 Dangers: cancer of the liver, increased blood pressure, decreased
testicular size, decreased sperm production, liver failure, increased body
hair, menstrual irregularities, acne, breast development (men),&
aggressive or violent behavior.
• Chapter 18
o Lifetime Personal Fitness
o What will you take from this course, that will help you lead a healthy lifestyle?

• References
o Coach Gibbons powerpoints
o Google