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Environmental Impact Assessment

By - Ms. Jini Rajendran


Contents of the Presentation

History of Environmental Impact Assessment

Regulations related to EIA in India

Procedure for Conducting EIA and Obtaining EC

Contents of EIA Report


History of
Environmental
Impact Assessment
What is EIA?

EIA is a procedure for assessing the impacts on the


environment likely to result from development
process.
Scientific technique existing within a legal framework.
A process for decision making.
Why do EIA?

Assessment outputs facilitate informed decision


making.
Anticipated environmental impacts can be weighed
against economic benefits and other social gains.
Early identification of environmental impacts;
predicted impacts can be mitigated before they occur.
Help to adopt sustainable environmental management
practices.
Evolution and History of EIA

Started in 1960s as part of increasing environmental


awareness.
Obtained formal status in USA with the implementation of
National Environment Policy Act (NEPA)1969.
In 1970s it was adopted in high income countries like
Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Some developing
countries like Columbia and Philippines.
In mid 1980s World Bank adopted EIA for major
development projects.
In 1990s India Adopted EIA formally and many other
developing nations also formulated the EIA legislation.
There are two types of EIA models:
Administrative model – Administration exercises its
discretion to find its necessity- Till 1992 India was
following administrative model
Statutory Model – Enacted law - Compulsory
Regulations Related
to EIA in India
EIA Notifications in India

EIA notifications are published by Central Government in


exercise of the powers conferred by clause(a), of sub-rule (3) of
Rule 5 of the Environment(Protection ) Act 1986. Some of the
key notification related to EIA are as follow:
EIA notification dated 27.1.1994 – First EIA regulation Making
Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory.
Major amendment - April 1997 making Public Hearing as
a part of assessment procedure to ensure participation of
local people and stakeholders in development activity.
EIA notification 14th Sep 2006 is the latest notification
mandating EIA studies. Several notification constituting the
formation of State Environmental Impact Assessment
Authority.
Major amendment to this notification is amendment dated
1st Dec 2009.
About EIA Notification 1994 and its amendments
Any person who desires to undertake any new project or expansion or
modernization of any existing project listed in schedule 1 to the notification
shall submit an application to Secretary, MoEF, New Delhi for seeking EC.
Schedule 1 is indicated below.
S. Projects S. Projects
No No
1 Nuclear Power and related projects 15 Integrated Paint Complex including manufacture of resins
and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of
paints
2 River Valley Projects (hydel power, major irrigation 16 Viscous staple fiber and filament yarn
and their combination including flood control)

3 Ports Harbours Airports 17 Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of


lead and lead antimony alloy

4 Petroleum Refinery including crude and product 18 All tourism projects between 200m – 500m of high tide
pipelines line or at elevation more than 1000m with investment of
more than Rs. 5 Crores.

5 Chemical Fertilizers (excluding single superphosphate) 19 Thermal Power Plant

6 Pesticides 20 Mining Project with leases more than 5 Ha

7 Petrochemical complex 21 Highway Project

8 Bulk Drug and Pharmaceuticals 22 Distilleries

9 Oil and Gas exploration, storage transport and 23 Raw Skins and hides
processing

10 Synthetic rubber 24 Pulp Paper and newsprint

11 Asbestos and Asbestos Products 25 Dyes

12 Hydrocyanic acids and its derivatives 26 Cement

13 Primary metallurgical industries and Electric Arc 27 Foundries


Furnace (Mini Steel Plant)

14 Chlor-alkali Industry 28 Electroplating


About EIA Notification 1994 and its amendments

EC will not be required for items falling under entry no.


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 25 and
27 of the schedule if the investment is less than Rs 50
Cr.
Any item reserved for small scale industrial sector with
investment less than Rs 1 Cr will not require EC..
EIA Notification 2006 and its amendment in 2009

All new projects or expansion or modernization of existing


project beyond the limit specified for the concerned sector listed
in Schedule 1 to the notification shall require prior EC from the
Concerned Authority.
Concerned Authority - MoEF
- State Environmental Impact Assessment
Authority (SEIAA) in case of States.
Projects are broadly categorised
- Category A and Category B
- based on the spatial extend of potential impacts and
potential impacts on human health and natural and man made
resources.
Project included under category A – EC from MOEF under the
recommendation of Expert Advisory Committee (EAC).
Project Included under category B - EC from SEIAA under the
recommendation of State Level Expert Advisory Committee
(SEAC).
EIA Notification 2006 and its amendment in 2009

Only land can be secured before obtaining EC, no construction


activity and site preparation work shall start before that.
Validity period of the clearance will be Maximum of 30 years for
mining project, 10 years for river valley project and 5 years in
case of any other project or activity.
Amendments as per Notification dated 1.12.2009

S. No Project / Category A Category B Conditions (if


Activity any)
1(a) Mining of • >= 50 Ha of mining • <50 Ha >= 5 Ha of General condition
Minerals lease area in respect of mining lease area in shall apply.
non-coal mine lease. respect of non-coal
• 150 Ha of mining area mine lease. Mineral
in respect of coal mine • <150 Ha >= 5 Ha of prospecting is
lease. mining lease area in exempted.
• Asbestos mining respect of coal mine
irrespective of mine lease.
lease area.
Slurry pipelines All projects
passing through
national parks
/sanctuaries/
coral reefs,
ecologically
sensitive area
1(d) Thermal Power • >= 500 MW (coal / • < 500 MW (coal / up to 15 MW
plants lignite / naphtha and lignite / naphtha and exempted if
gas based). gas based). auxiliary fuel
• >= 50 MW (petcoke, • <50MW >= 5 MW consumption is not
diesel and all other fuel (petcoke, diesel and all more than 15%.
including refinery other fuel including
residual oil waste refinery residual oil Power plant using
except biomass). waste except biomass). waste heat boiler
• >= 20 MW (based on • < 20 MW > 15 MW without any
biomass or non (based on biomass or auxiliary fuel are
hazardous municipal non hazardous exempted.
solid waste as fuel) municipal solid waste
as fuel)
Amendments as per Notification dated 1.12.2009

S. No Project / Category A Category B Conditions (if


Activity any)
3 (a) Metallurgical • All primary • Sponge iron General condition
industries metallurgical industries manufacturing < 200 shall apply
(ferrous and non- • Sponge iron TPD
ferrous) manufacturing >= 200 • Secondary In case of
TPD metallurgical secondary
• Secondary processing industry, metallurgical
metallurgical • All toxic and heavy processing
processing industry, metal processing industrial units,
• All toxic and heavy units < 20,000 TPA. those projects
metal processing • All non-toxic involving
units >= 20,000 TPA secondary operation of
metallurgical furnace such as
processing industries induction furnace,
> 5000 TPA electric arc
furnace, SAF and
cupola with
capacity more that
30,000 TPA would
require EC.
3(b) Cement Plant • >= 1 Million TPA • < 1 million TPA General condition
production capacity production capacity shall apply
• All standalone grinding
units
4(b) Coke Oven Plants • >= 2,50,000 TPA • <2,50,000 TPA >= General conditions
25,000 TPA shall apply
Amendments as per Notification dated 1.12.2009

S. No Project / Category A Category B Conditions (if


Activity any)
3 (a) Metallurgical • All primary • Sponge iron General condition
industries metallurgical industries manufacturing < 200 shall apply
(ferrous and non- • Sponge iron TPD
ferrous) manufacturing >= 200 • Secondary In case of
TPD metallurgical secondary
• Secondary processing industry, metallurgical
metallurgical • All toxic and heavy processing
processing industry, metal processing industrial units,
• All toxic and heavy units < 20,000 TPA. those projects
metal processing • All non-toxic involving
units >= 20,000 TPA secondary operation of
metallurgical furnace such as
processing industries induction furnace,
> 5000 TPA electric arc
furnace, SAF and
cupola with
capacity more that
30,000 TPA would
require EC.
3(b) Cement Plant • >= 1 Million TPA • < 1 million TPA General condition
production capacity production capacity shall apply
• All standalone grinding
units
4(b) Coke Oven Plants • >= 2,50,000 TPA • <2,50,000 TPA >= General conditions
25,000 TPA shall apply
Amendments as per Notification dated 1.12.2009

S. No Project / Activity Category A Category B Conditions (if


any)
5(e) Petrochemical based Located outside the Located in a notified Specific
processing (processes notified industrial area / industrial area/estate condition shall
other than cracking and estate apply
not covered under the
complexes)
5 (f) Synthetic Organic Located outside the Located in a notified
Chemical Industry (dyes notified industrial area / industrial area/estate
and dye intermediates; estate
bulk drug and
intermediates excluding
drug formulation;
synthetic rubbers; basic
organic chemical, other
synthetic organic chemical
and chemical
intermediates)
7(c) Industrial estate/ • If at least one industry • Industrial area If the area is
parks/complexes/ areas, in the industrial area housing at least less than 500
export processing zone, falls under Category one Category B Ha, but
SEZ, biotech park leather A, the entire industrial industry and area< contains
complex area shall be 500 Ha. buildings and
considered as • Industrial estate of construction >
Category A. area> 500 Ha and 50,000 Sq m
• Industrial estate with not housing any and or
area greater than 500 industry belonging development
Ha and housing at to Category A or B area more
least one Category B than 100 Ha,
industry than it shall be
treated as 8(a)
and 8(b)
Procedure for
conducting EIA and
obtaining EC
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

STAGE – 1 Screening
Required only for Category B projects.
In case the project falls under B1 category, then EIA study is
required. For B 2 Category EIA study is not required.

STAGE – 2 Scoping
Detailed and Comprehensive terms of reference(TOR) shall be
suggested by EAC of MoEF or SEAC of SEIAA based on form I
submitted by the applicant for preparation of EIA report
Sub group of EAC or SEAC will visit the site if necessary
All projects of construction, township, commercial complexes
shall not require scoping and would be apprised on the basis of
Form I and the conceptual plan.
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

TOR shall be conveyed to applicant within 60 days of


receipt of Form I.
If the TOR Is not Finalized within 60 Days from Concerned
authorities, the TOR Suggested in the Form I by Applicant
is Deemed as Approved for EIA Study.
The approve TOR shall be Displayed on the website of the
MoEF or SEIAA
Any rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance shall be
conveyed to the applicant within 60 days.
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

STAGE – 3 Public Hearing


All Category A and B1 Projects shall Undertake Public
Consultation, except the following:
Modernization of river valley project.
All projects or activities located within industrial estate or
park.
Expansion of road or highway which do not involve any
further acquisition of land.
All building/construction/Area Development/Township
projects
All category B2 Project.
All projects or activates concerning national defense and
security or involving other strategic consideration as
determined by the central government.
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

STAGE – 3 Public Hearing


Public hearing shall be conducted by SPCB and the proceedings
shall be forwarded to the regularity authority within 45 days of
the request from the applicant.
If the public hearing can not be conducted by SPCB with in 45 days
the regulatory authority shall engage another Public agency to
complete the same with in further 45 days.
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

STAGE – 3 Public Hearing


Wide publicity - appropriate media
Draft EIA report shall be placed at the notified place during normal
office hours.
All the responses received from public shall be forwarded to the
applicant through the quickest possible means.
After compilation of public consultation the applicant shall make
appropriate changes in the draft EIA/EMP or supplementary
EIA/EMP report may be Submitted
The final EIA report shall be submitted to the regulatory
authority. .
Procedure as per EIA Notification 2006

STAGE – 4 Appraisal
The project would be scrutinized by – EAC/SEAC based on final
EIA report, outcome of the Public Consultation including public
hearing proceedings and application of project proponent.
The applicant shall be invited to furnish necessary clarification in
person by appraisal committee.
On Completion of the proceedings the expert appraisal committee
shall make categorical recommendations for grant of prior
environmental clearance/rejection with reasons.
EC is transferable.
Process Flow Diagram
Submission of application to
MoEF (Form – 1, Form 1 A, re-
feasibility report)

Verification of documents and


meeting for draft TOR

Draft TOR is complete No TOR specified by


and OK MoEF

Draft EIA report


Preparation

No
Conduct Public Public Hearing
Hearing Exemption ?

Yes

Proceeding and Submission of EIA and


recommendation other information to
inclusion in EIA report MoEF No

Project is OK Yes Information


with min. furnished is
Project Appraisal complete
in EAC Meeting impact
Yes
No

Project EC Granted
Rejected
Time Schedule EC Process

Form 1 submission to MoEF along with


TOR and Pre-feasibility report

90 – 120 days
Screening for Categorization Within 60 Days

Additional TOR after scoping if


necessary
120 – 150 days

Preparation of EIA/EMP
75 – 90 days Within 45 Days

Public Hearing conducted by SPCB


30 – 60 days

Review by expert appraisal committee

105 days
150 – 300 days
Final Decision of Competent Authority

Environmental Clearance granted

Total 465 – 720 days in actual Total 210 days as per


practice Notification
Contents of an EIA
Report
Contents of an EIA Report

Introduction –brief description of nature, size and location of the project and its
importance to the country and region, scope of study as per TOR.

Project description – type and need of project, location details with maps, technology,
process description.

Description of the environment –establishment of baseline data, base map of all


environmental components.

Anticipated environmental impacts and mitigation measures and mitigation


measures.

Analysis of alternatives(Technology and site).

Environmental monitoring program .

Additional studies like Risk assessment, Social impact assessment, R&R plan.

Project benefits.

Environment Management Plan.

Summary and conclusion.

Disclosure of the consultants engaged.


Contents of an EIA Report
Air Environment

Determination of impact zone (through a screening model) and developing a


monitoring network.

Monitoring the existing status of ambient air quality within the impacted region (7-
10 km from the periphery) of the proposed project site.

Monitoring site specific meteorological data, wind speed direction, humidity,


ambient temperature and environment lapse rate.

Estimation of quantities of air emission including fugitive emission from the


proposed project.

Identification, quantification and evaluation of other potential emissions (including


those of vehicular traffic) within the impact zone and estimation of cumulative of
all the emissions/impacts.

Prediction of changes in the ambient air quality due to point, line and areas source
emissions through appropriate air quality models.

Evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed pollution control devices to meet


gaseous emission and ambient air quality standards.

Delineation of mitigation measures at source, path ways and receptor.


Contents of an EIA Report

Noise Environment

Monitoring the present status of noise levels within the impact zone, and
prediction of future noise levels resulting from the proposed project and related
activities including increase in vehicular movement.

Identification of impacts due to any anticipated rise in noise levels on the


surrounding environment.

Recommendations on mitigation measures for noise pollution.


Contents of an EIA Report

Water Environment

Study of existing ground and surface water resources with respect to quantity and
quality within the impact zone of the proposed project .

Prediction of impacts on water resources due to the proposed water use/pumping


on account of the project.

Quantification and characterisation of waste water including toxic organic, from the
proposed activity.

Evaluation of the proposed pollution prevention and wastewater treatment system


and suggestions on modification, if required.

Prediction of impacts of effluent discharge on the quality of the receiving water


body using appropriate mathematical/simulation models
Contents of an EIA Report

Biological Environment

Survey of flora and fauna clearly delineating season and duration.

Assessment of flora and fauna present within the impact zone of the project.

Assessment of potential damage to terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna due to
discharge of effluents and gaseous emissions from the project.

Assessment of damage to terrestrial flora and fauna due to air pollution, and land
use and landscape changes.

Assessment of damage to aquatic and marine flora and fauna (including


commercial fishing) due to physical disturbances and alterations.

Prediction of biological stresses within the impact zone of the proposed project.

Delineation of mitigation measures to prevent and / or reduce the damage.


Contents of an EIA Report

Land Environment

Studies on soil characteristics, existing land use and topography, landscape and
drainage patterns within the impact zone.

Estimation of impacts of project on land use, landscape, topography, drainage and


hydrology.

Identification of potential utility of treated effluent in land application and


subsequent impacts.

Estimation and Characterisation of solid wastes and delineation of management


options for minimisation of waste and environmentally compatible disposal.
Contents of an EIA Report

Socio-economic and Health Environment

Collection of demographic and related socio-economic data.

Projection of anticipated changes in the socio-economic and health due to the


project and related activities including traffic congestion and delineation of
measures to minimise adverse impacts.

Assessment of impact on significant historical, cultural and archaeological


sites/places in the area.

Assessment of economic benefits arising out of the project.

Assessment of rehabilitation requirements with special emphasis on scheduled


areas, if any.
Contents of an EIA Report

Risk Assessment

Hazard identification taking recourse to hazard indices, inventory analysis etc.

Maximum Credible Accident (MCA) analysis to identify potential hazardous


scenarios.

Consequence analysis of failures and accidents resulting in fire, explosion,


hazardous releases and dam breaks etc.

Hazard & Operability (HAZOP) studies.

Assessment of risk on the basis of the above evaluations.

Preparation of an onsite and off site (project affected area) Disaster Management
Plan.