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# 2/18/2018 Loft Calculation

Loft Calculation

## Loft calculation equations and formulae

Club loft is defined as the angle between the club face and the vertical axis. Structural loft is
defined as the angle between the club face and the club vertical axis when the base of the club is
parallel to the ground. To know the loft at any point of time we need to know the club face
vector and the vertical z axis.

−−−−→
Let the club face normal vector at time t in the global coordinate space be C FNGt where F
stands for face, N for normal, G for global coordinate space and t for time instant.
Let the club face rotation matrix at time instant t be represented by Rt
−−−−→
Let the club face normal vector at time t in the local club sensor coordinates be C FNLt
The relationship between these are as below
−−−−→ −−−−→
C FNGt = Rt C FNLt

We first find the club face normal vector in local club sensor coordinates. We do so by measuring
the global club face normal vector and the club sensor rotation matrix. If we have a measure of
these two for any one orientation of the club we can compute the local club face normal vector
as below. After rearranging the above equation we get

−−−−→ −−−−→
−1
C FNLt = Rt C FNGt

−1
where Rt is the onverse of teh rotation matrix. Next paragraph discusses the club face
normal vector measurement. We take three points on the club face at calibration. Let the points

→ −
→ −

be R1 , R2 , R3
Let the difference vectors be defined as below

−→ −
→ −

D1 = R2 − R1

−→ −
→ −

D2 = R3 − R2

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2/18/2018 Loft Calculation

Taking the cross product of the above two differences gives us the club face normal vector

−−−−→ −→ −→
C FNG0 = D1 × D2

Normalising the club face normal vector using the below formula.

−−−−→
−−−−−−−−−→ C FNG0
C N ormFNG0 =
−−−−→
| C FNG0 |

We compute the club face normal in local club sensor coordinates using the earlier formula.
−−−−−−−−−→ −−−−−−−−−→
−1
C N ormFNL0 = R0 C N ormFNG0

## Club face normal at any instant of club swing is given by

−−−−−−−−−→ −−−−−−−−−→
C N ormFNGt = Rt C N ormFNL0

## The loft at any point of the swing is given by

−−−−−−−−−−−→
Lof tt = 90 − acos(− C N ormFNGt . Z

## Loft at calibration is as below

−−−−−−−−−−−→
Lof t0 = 90 − acos(− C N ormFNG0 . Z

Structural loft is the loft at the time of calibration. Its assumed the club base is closely parallel
to the ground plane. There is an expected structural loft Lof texp for different clubs. We
compute the offset

## Lof tOf f set = Lof t0 − Lof texp

All computations of loft are subtracted by the loft offset. Corrected loft at time t is given below.

## Lof tC orrectt = Lof tt − Lof tOf f set

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