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Preprints (www.preprints.org) | NOT PEER-REVIEWED | Posted: 7 December 2017 doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.

v1

Peer-reviewed version available at Energies 2018, 11, 132; doi:10.3390/en11010132

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161 Figure 4: Pipeline foundation model and constraint model of the simple pipe established by CAESAR
162 II software

163 The imbalanced excited force of the elbow is calculated as follows:


164 (1) Calculation of pressure pulsation
165 The pump revolution speed is 170 r/min, it belongs to single cylinder single-action equipment,
166 and then the excited frequency is:
167 f = nNP / 60 = 170 ÷ 60 = 2.83Hz
168 Circular frequency is: ω =2π f = 2 × 3.14 × 2.83 = 17.77rad / s

Ewater 2.1×109
169 Sound velocity is: c= = ≈ 1449.14m / s
ρ 1000
170 The distance from the starting point to the elbow is 4.4 m, and the total length of the pipe is 5 m.
171 The pressure pulsation at different times of the elbow can be calculated based on Eq. (3):
172 Make x=4.4 m, t ∈[ 0, 200] , n=1, then Eq. (3) can be written as:
 −2 × 0.9 ×106 −2 × 0.56  4.4π
pΔ ( 4.4, t ) =  ( cos 5π l − 1) cos5.66π t + 2 (
cos 5π − 1) sin 5.66π t  sin
 π 7245.7π  5
173
174 The calculated pressure pulsation of the first 200 seconds can be seen in Fig. 5, it can be obtained
175 that the maximum value of the pressure pulsation is 1031.00 Pa, and the minimum value of the
176 pressure pulsation is -1030.71 Pa.
177 Then ΔP is:
ΔP = 0.5( Pmax − Pmin ) = 0.5 × (1031.00 + 1031.71) = 1031.36Pa
178

179
180 Figure 5: Pressure pulsation at the first 200 seconds of the elbow

181 According to Eq. (4), imbalanced excited forces of 45 degree elbow, 60 degree elbow and 90
182 degree elbow are calculated:
183 45 degree elbow:
2
 45  3.14 × 0.0285
F = 2 × ΔP × S × sin   =2 ×1031.95 × × 0.3827 ≈ 0.50N
184  2  4
185 60 degree elbow:
2
 60  3.14 × 0.0285
F = 2 × ΔP × S × sin   =2 ×1031.95 × × 0.5 ≈ 0.66N
186  2  4
Preprints (www.preprints.org) | NOT PEER-REVIEWED | Posted: 7 December 2017 doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.v1

Peer-reviewed version available at Energies 2018, 11, 132; doi:10.3390/en11010132

7 of 29

187 90 degree elbow:


2
 90  3.14 × 0.0285
F = 2 × ΔP × S × sin   =2 ×1031.95 × × 0.707 ≈ 0.93N
188  2  4
189 The calculated imbalanced excited force is loaded onto the pipe, and the horizontal and vertical
190 amplitudes are computed by CAESAR II software. The results are shown in Fig. 6.

191

192
193 (a) (b)
194 Figure 6: Horizontal and vertical amplitudes of pipelines with different elbow degrees (a) Horizontal
195 amplitude (b) Vertical amplitude

196 3.2 Experimental verification of numerical simulation method


197 In order to verify the correctness of the numerical simulation method, an indoor experimental
198 system is established according to the simple pipeline model used in numerical simulation. The
199 experimental system is mainly composed of four subsystems, such as power unit, loop circuit,
200 experimental platform and signal acquisition and analysis system. The main structure and
201 composition are shown in Fig. 7.
202 As shown in Fig. 7, the straight pipe is connected with the elbow, and the axis of the straight
203 pipe and the elbow are in the Z-Y plane. The piston pump provides pulsating flow at different flow
204 rates and pressures for the entire experimental system, the signal acquisition and analysis system
205 (including strain gauges, acceleration and displacement sensors) measures the different test points of
206 the test section under each operating condition.
207 There are three different elbow structures in the experiment: the elbow angles are 45 °, 60 °, and
208 90 °, respectively. The inlet end of straight pipe and outlet end of elbow are connected by flexible
209 hose with inner diameter 25 mm, and fastened through the clamp. The fixed straight pipe section is