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Environmental

Science

CAPE® PAST PAPERS


Macmillan Education
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www.macmillan-caribbean.com

ISBN 978-0-230-48197-8 AER

© Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC ®) 2016


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The author has asserted their right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the
Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.

First published 2014


This revised version published August 2016

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers.
Designed by Macmillan Publishers Limited
Cover design by Macmillan Publishers Limited and Red Giraffe
Cover photograph © Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC ®)
Cover image by Mrs Alberta Henry
With thanks to: Gervelle Lafeuillee
CAPE® Environmental Science Past Papers

LIST OF CONTENTS

UNIT 1 Paper 01 May/June 2005 4


UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2005 15
UNIT 1 Paper 03B May 2005 21
UNIT 2 Paper 01 May/June 2005 24
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2005 36
UNIT 2 Paper 03B May 2005 41
UNIT 1 Paper 01 May 2006 44
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2006 57
UNIT 1 Paper 03B May 2006 62
UNIT 2 Paper 01 May 2005 65
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2006 77
UNIT 2 Paper 03B May 2006 83
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2008 86
UNIT 1 Paper 03B May 2008 93
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2008 96
UNIT 2 Paper 02 July 2008 103
UNIT 2 Paper 03B May 2008 113
UNIT 2 Paper 03/2 July 2008 117
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2009 121
UNIT 1 Paper 03/2 May 2009 132
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2009 136
UNIT 2 Paper 03/2 May 2009 150
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2010 157
UNIT 1 Paper 03/2 May 2010 172
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2010 176
UNIT 2 Paper 03/2 May 2010 189
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2011 195
UNIT 1 Paper 03/2 May 2011 204
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2011 211
UNIT 2 Paper 03/2 May 2011 221
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2012 228
UNIT 1 Paper 032 May 2012 237
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2012 243
UNIT 2 Paper 032 May 2012 253
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2013 260
UNIT 1 Paper 032 May 2013 270
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2013 275
UNIT 2 Paper 032 May 2013 283
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May 2014 287
UNIT 1 Paper 032 May 2014 297
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May 2014 303
UNIT 2 Paper 032 May 2014 313
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May/June 2015 318
UNIT 1 Paper 032 May/June 2015 328
UNIT 2 Paper 02 (12 May 2015) 333
UNIT 2 Paper 02 (16 June 2015) 342
UNIT 2 Paper 032 May/June 2015 349
UNIT 1 Paper 02 May/June 2016 354
UNIT 1 Paper 032 May/June 2016 376
UNIT 2 Paper 02 May/June 2016 389
UNIT 2 Paper 032 May/June 2016 409
TEST CODE 02120010
FORM TP 2005197 MAY/JUNE 2005

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPEROl
I hour 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examinatio n paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of TWELVE questions.

3. Answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the spaces or on the lines provided in this answer
booklet.

Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council.


All rights reserved.
02120010/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE 1

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) Define and give an example of

(i) the hydrosphere

[2 marks)

(ii) the lithosphere.

[2 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term 'ecotone'.

[ 1 mark]

(ii) State THREE characteristics of ecotones.

[ 3 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

2. (a) Identify the TWO types of competition that occur in ecosystems.

[2 marks]

(b) Which of the TWO types of competition identified in (a) is more intense? Explai n your
answer.

[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. Figure 1 represents the sequence of ecological succession at a terrestrial site.

Exposed Lichens Grasses Cedar


Rock Herbs Green heart
Mosses Shrubs Wallaba

Figure 1. Ecological succession at a terrestrial site

(a) State the type of ecological succession that is represented in Figure 1.

[1 mark]

(b) From Figure 1, identify

(i) the pioneer community

[1 mark]

(ii) the climax communi ty.

[1 mark]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2005
- 4 -

(c) Describe the role of the pioneer community in ecological succession.

[4 marks]

Total 7 marks

4. (a) State the meaning of the term 'environmental resistance ' .

[ 2 marks]

(b) (i) State TWO environmental resistance factors.

[ 2 marks]

(ii) Outline how environmental resistance may result in a decrease in the rate of growth
of a population.

[ 5 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2005
- 5 -

MODULE2

Answer ALL questions.

5. The size of the populatio n of a country in 1990 was 2 500 000. Table 1 shows the changes in
selected population parameters for this country from 199 1 to 1992.

TABLE 1: CHANGES IN SELECTED POPULATION PARAMETERS, 1991 to 1992

Change in Parameter
Population Parameter (Number per Thousand)
Birth 29
Death 4
Immigration 2
Em igration 5

(a) Calculate
(i) the percentage growth rate of the population

[4 marks]

(ii) the doubling time of the popul ation .

[2 m arks]

(b) fn what year would the population size be approx imately 5 000 000?

[2 mm·ks]
Total 8 marks
GO ON TO T HE NEXT PAGE
02 1200 l 0/CA PE 2005
- 6 -

6. (a) State TWO abiotic factors that affect the location of human populations.

[ 2 marks]

(b) For the TWO abiotic factors stated in (a) above, outline TWO ways in which EACH affect the
location of populations.

[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. The annual per capita waste production in 1998 was 876 kg for North America and 292 kg for the
Caribbean.

(a) What is meant by the phrase 'per capita waste production'?

[2 marks]

(b) Suggest THREE reasons for the difference in the per capita waste production for North America
and the Caribbean.

[6 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2005
- 7 -

8. (a) Some selected population parameters for a highly developed country, X, and a developing
country, Y, are presented in random order below.

Doubling time Infant mortality rate Per capita Gross Domestic


Product (GDP) in US $

114 years 120 per 1000 25 850


23 years 8 per 1000 130

Using the data above, complete Table 2 to show the correct relationships between the popula-
tion parameters and the type of country.

TABLE 2: POPULATION PARAMETERS OF COUNTRIES X ANDY

Population Parameter Developed Country, X Developing Country, Y


Doubling time
Infant mortality rate

Per capita GDP (US $)

[3 marks]

(b) Outline the relationship between the three population parameters for Country Y which you
identified in Table 2.

[5 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 1200 10/CAPE 2005
- 8 -

MODULE3

Answer ALL questions.

9. The diagram in Figure 2 depicts the relative positions of THREE types of coastal ecosystems, A,
B and C, found in Caribbean islands.

Landward
end A

~ ..., j
' ' r l
'-. I r l ' ( ' ( ( ( r( .
) I
0 1

' '

Seaward
end
Figure 2. Relative positions of coastal ecosystems

(a) Identify the THREE types of coastal ecosystems shown in Figure 2.

Ecosystem A

Ecosystem B

Ecosystem C [3 marks]

(b) Describe ONE relationship between these three ecosystems.

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 12001 0/CAPE 2005
- 9 -

10. Outline the importance of a NAMED natural resource in providing

(a) employment

[3 marks]

(b) foreign exchange.

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0212001 0/CAPE 2005
- 10 -

11. The graph in Figure 3 shows the trend in annual use oflocally produced timber in a Caribbean country
over a ten-year period.

1990 2003
Year

Figure 3. Annual demand in timber or wood use

(a) State the trend in timber use over the period shown in Figure 3.

[1 mark]

(b) Outline TWO ways in which the trend stated in (a) will impact on the environment.

[ 4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 12001 0/CAPE 2005
. .
- 11 -

(c) State FOUR steps that could be taken to mitigate the environmental impacts that you outlined
in (b) on page 10.

[4 marks]

Total 9 marks

12. (a) Define the term ' protected area' .

[3 marks]

(b) Identify TWO categories of protected areas, under the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Classification System, that are of relevance to your country.

[2 marks]

(c) State TWO reasons why EACH category that you have chosen in (b) above should be
protected.

[4 marks]

Total 9 marks

END OF TEST

02120010/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2005198 MAY/JUNE 2005

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 27 MAY 2005 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council.


All rights reserved.
02120020/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE!

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) In the carbon cycle, there are carbon sinks and carbon sources. Using an example of
EACH , distinguish between 'carbon sinks' and 'carbon sources'. [ 4 marks]

(b) With the use of an annotated diagram, outline

(i) the movement of carbon between the atmosphere and the biotic components of
the terrestrial ecosystem [ 5 marks]

(ii) the phosphorous cycle. [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) Identify the MAJOR differe nce between the carbon cycle and the phosphorous
cycle. [ 1 mark ]

(ii) Outline the M AJOR consequence of the difference between both cycles indicated
in (c) (i). [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. Figure 1 below shows a food we b for a marine ecosystem.

Shark ./.Barracuda

\ O c t o p us

/"tle /
JellyfiSh Sea U c c h / " ' ' o t f ish

~A!ae
Figure 1. A food web for a marine ecosystem

(a) Group the organisms shown in the food web in their respective trophic levels.
[ 5 marks]

(b) Explain how energy becomes incorporated in this ecosystem. [ 5 marks]

(c) Only a small percentage of e nergy incorporated into the ecosystem is available to the
barracuda. Suggest TWO reasons for this. [ 4 marks]

(d) Explain how this community might be altered if the population of sea urchins died out.
[ 6 marks]
Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

3. (a) Using specific examples, describe TWO impacts of humans on ecosystems.


[ 8 marks]

(b) Outline FOUR reasons why it is important for human beings to maintain the integrity of
ecosystems. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. The age structure diagram in Figure 2 is that of Country X with a total population of sixteen million.

Male Female

70+ 1
65-69 I
60-64 I
55-59 I I
so- 54 I I
45-49 j l
40-44 I I
35-39 I l
30-34 I I
25-29 I l
20-24 I I
15- 19 I l
10- 14 I I
5-9 I I
0-4 I I
1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Number of people (millions)

Figure 2. Age structure diagram for Country X

(a) Calculate the percentage of the population in the age group ranging from 0 to 19 years.
[ 5 marks]

(b) Describe how the growth rate of the population will be determined by the age group ranging
from 0 to 19 years. [ 6 marks]

(c) Outline the impact on the environment that this population could have if it grows at the rate
discussed in (b) above. [ 7 marks]

(d) State TWO characteristics of the population that can be inferred from the age structure diagram.
[ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2005
- 4 -

5. Table 1 shows some selected demographic statistics for Ethiopia.

TABLE 1: SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS FOR ETHIOPIA

Country Total Fertility Rate Life Expectancy at Birth Women Using


Contraceptives (%)

Ethiopia 7.0 42 3

(a) Define the terms

(i) total fertility rate [ 2 marks]

(ii) life expectancy. [ 2 marks]

(b) With reference to Table 1, outline the relationship between the total fertility rate and the
life expectancy for the Ethiopian population. [ 6 marks]

(c) Suggest TWO reasons for the low percentage of Ethiopian women using contraceptives.
[ 6 marks]

(d) Suggest an approach aimed at decreasing the ferti lity rate of Ethiopian women.
[ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) List SIX general characteristics of persons living in poverty. [ 3 marks]

(b) State and define TWO international indices used to rank the development status of countries.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Population growth in a country will lead to an increase in poverty levels. Do you agree
with this statement? Justify your answer. [ 6 marks]

(d) Discuss how increasing levels of poverty can hinder the ability of a country to achieve
sustainable development. [ 7 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 120020/CAPE 2005
- 5 -

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. In many Caribbean countries, fishing is an important economic and subsistence activity. There
are claims that many of the fishing grounds and habitats have been damaged or polluted and there
are fears that the fi shing industry will collapse in the near future. The governments, fi shermen
and fishing industry officials have been discussing issues related to the industry and are seeking to
implement appropriate actions to prevent its collapse.

The graphs in Figures 3 and 4 show the variation in the quantity offish caught and the number of
boats e ngaged in fishing over the last ten years.

,.-._

"'<:.1c 8 80
c:
0
~ 7 70
..... ~
.c ~
6
..c 60
i:)J) 0
=
~ .....
"'
.c
5 0
s.. so
<:.1
~"' 4
.....
..c
5 40
z=
0

-
....:...... 3

0
c
~
= 2
30
20
1 10
0 0
1990 92 94 96 98 2000 1990 92 94 96 98 2000
Figure 3. Quantity of fish caught Figure 4. Number of boats engaged

(a) Describe the trends indicated in Figures 3 and 4. [ 3 marks]

(b) Could the problems experienced by the fish ing industry have been prevented? Justify
your response. [ 5 marks]

(c) Outline THREE approaches to deal with the current problems being experienced in the
fishing industry. [ 6 marks]

(d) Assess the effectiveness of TWO of the approaches outlined in (c) above in a Caribbean
context. [ 6 ma rks]

Tota l 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 120020/CAPE 2005
- 6 -

8. (a) Describe TWO functions of mangroves in Caribbean ecosystems. [ 8 marks]

(b) Discuss TWO main impacts on mangroves in Caribbean ecosystems which result from
developmental activities . [ 8 marks]

(c) Outline TWO appropriate methods of conserving mangroves in a Caribbean country.


[ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. A major deposit of gold has been discovered in a largely forested and hilly location in a Caribbean
country. The Government of this country is encouraging local and fore ign investment to establish
gold mining operations for extracting the gold. Adjacent to the deposit is a river which supplies a
nearby community with water for domestic and agricultural needs.

Discuss FOUR factors that should be considered in determining the feasibility of mining this
resource. Total 20 marks

ENDOFTEST

02120020/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2005199 MAY/JUNE 2005

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPER03B
2 hours

(31 MAY2005 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided .

5. The use of a non-programmable calcul ator is allowed.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council.


A ll ri ghts reserved.
02120032/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

Answer ALL questions.

In 1990, a rare species of parakeets was discovered in a remote forest location where development activi ty
or human interference was not evident. T his popul ati on of parakeets was observed and monitored from
199 1 to 2000. The estimated number of parakeets in the population between 1991 and 2000 is indicated
in Table 1.

TABLE 1: ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PARAKEETS

Year Estimated Number

1991 550
1992 630
1993 730
1994 820
1995 950
1996 970
1997 960
1998 930
1999 820
2000 780

In 1996, a developer was granted a concession for the construction of lodges. These lodges were to
provide accommodation for the increasing number of tourists and birdwatchers who w ished to visi t the
forest location and obse rve the parakeets. A part of the area was cleared to construct lodges, viewi ng
galleries and other infrastructure.

To increase the attractio n of the area for bird watching, the developer proposed to introduce two new
species of birds.

1. (a) Use the information in Table 1 to plot an appropriate graph showing the variation in the
size of the population of parakeets from 199 1 to 2000. [12 marks]

(b) With reference to your graph:

(i) Describe the variation of the parakeet population betwee n 1991 and 2000.
[ 6 marks]

(ii) Suggest plausible explanations for the variation in the parakeet population identified
in (b) (i). [10 marks]

(c) From your graph, estimate the carryi ng capacity of the ecosystem for parakeets.
[ 2 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120032/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

2. Evaluare the possible impact of EACH of the following actions of the developer on the parakeet
populati on:

(a) The introduction of the new species [10 marks]

(b) Clearing an area of the forest [10 marks]

(c) Presence of the visitors [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. Design a monitoring pl an to determine the impact of the development on the parakeet population.

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02 120032/CA PE 2005
T EST CODE 02220010
FORM TP 2005200 M AYIJU E 2005

CA RIBB EAN EXAM I NATIONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
, PAPER 01
1 hour 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

l. DO NOT open this examination paper until in structed to do so.

2. This paper consists of TWELVE question s.

3. A nswer ALL questions.

4. W ri te your answers in the spaces or on the lines provi ded in this answer
booklet.

Copyri ght © 2003 Caribbean Exami nations Counci l.


A ll ri ghts re erved.
022200 I 0/CA PE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE 1

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) List THREE distinct types of agricultural systems in the Caribbean.

[3 marks]

(b) For ANY TWO of the agricultural systems identified in (a) above, state TWO characteristics
of EACH.

[4 marks]

Total 7 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

2. Two agricultural practices are stated in Table 1.

Complete the table by outlining TWO positive and TWO negative socio-environmental consequences
of EACH practice.

TABLE 1: SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF TWO AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

Agricultural Positive E nviron m ental Negative E nvironmental


Practice Consequences C onsequences
(i) (ii)

(a) Deforestation

[1 ma rk I [ 1 m ark I

[1 m ark I [1 mark I

(b) Use of artificial


fertilisers containing
nitrogen compounds

[1 m ark I [1 mark I

[1 mark] [1 mark I

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220010/CAPE 2005
- 4 -

3. (a) Explain what is meant by 'hydroponics'.

[ 3 marks)

(b) Outline TWO reasons why hydroponics is considered a sustainable agricultural practice.

( 4 marks)

Total 7 marks

4. Describe TWO ways in which agriculture impacts on the lifestyle of Caribbean people.

[ 8 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 5 -

MODULE2

Answer All questions.

5. (a) Define the term 'energy' .

[ 1 mark]

(b) Outline ONE social dependence and ONE economic dependence of Caribbean societies on a
NAMED form of energy.

(i) Social dependence

[ 3 mar ks]

(ii) Economic dependence

[ 3 marks]
Total 7 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220010/CAPE 2005
- 6 -

6. (a) What is meant by the term ' renewable energy source'?

[ 2 marks]

(b) (i) State which renewable source of energy is MOST suitable for use in your country.

[ 1 mark]
(ii) Give ONE reason for your answer to (b) (i) above.

[ 1 m ark]

(c) Suggest TWO reasons why the source identified in 6 (b) above is not being used more effec-
tively in your country.

[ 4 marks]

Total 8 m arks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 7 -

7. It is suggested that the cost to a society of using foss il fuels is more than the money paid to
purchase the fuel and generate energy. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer.

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 8 -

8. THREE features , A, B and C, of a photovoltaic cell are shown in Figure 1.


A A

~ ~

c
Figure 1. Photovoltaic cell in operation
(Source: www.aurora solar car.com)
(a) Write an appropriate annotated label for EACH of the features A, B and C.

A: -------------- -------------- -------------- -------------- ----

B:

C:

[ 3 marks]

(b) State THREE advantages and THREE di sadvantages of a photovoltaic cell as a source of
energy.

[ 6 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 9 -

MODULE3

Answer ALL questions.

9. (a) Define the term 'pol lution'.

[ 2 marks]

(b) Outline how EACH of the following may increase environmental pollution.

(i) Population growth

[ 3 marks]

(ii) Economic development

[ 3 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220010/CAPE 2005
- 10 -

10. (a) How can sound become a pollutant?

[ 2 marks]

(b) Li st FOUR impacts of sound pollution on human beings.

[ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 11 -

11. Figure 2 depicts a sampling exercise that was conducted to determine the water quality of a river.
The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) reading of 5 mg/1 was obtained.

Figure 2. Sampling exercise to determine water quality

Source: Adapted from http :Ilwww. iowadnr. comlwate r/tmdlwqalwqal

(a) State TWO other types of readings or parameters that could have been obtained to determine
the water quality of the river.

[ 2 marks]

(b) Explain the significance of the BOD value of 5 mg/1 given above.

[ 4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2005
- 12 -

(c) State T WO sources of water pollutants that cause high BOD.

[ 2 marks]

(d) State ONE environmental impact of high BOD values in water.

[ 1 mark]

Total 9 marks

12. (a) What is the 'Montreal Protocol'?

[ 3 marks]

(b) Despite the Montreal Protocol, no immediate change is expected in the problem the Protocol
addressed. State TWO reasons for this.

[ 4 marks]

Total 7 marks

END OF TEST

0222001 0/CAPE 2005


TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2005201 MAY/JUNE 2005

CA RIBB EAN EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIE NCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMEN TAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE , ENERGY AND ENVIRONMEN TAL POLLUTION
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 09 MAY 2005 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAR EFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. Thi s paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Modul e.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the a nswer booklet provided.

Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Counci l.


All rig hts reserved.
02220020/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE I

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) Outline ONE environmental problem resulting from agricultural prac tices in a NAMED
Caribbean country. [ 5 marks]

(b) Based on your response to (a) above, expla in the importance of agricul tural susta inability
in Carihhean soc ieties. [ 5 marks]

(c) Describe TWO env ironmenta lly sustainable agricultural practices. M ake clear in your
description why EACH is conside red sustain able . [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. (a) Describe THREE techno logical applications in agricultura l systems in the Cari bbean.
[12 marks]

(b) Di scuss TWO positive and TWO negative impacts resulting from the use of technological
applications in agricultura l systems. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Distinguish between 'chemical pest control' and ' biological pest control'. [ 4 marks]

(b) D isc uss ONE advan tage and ONE d isadvantage of chemical pest control. [ 8 marks]

(c) Explain the concept oflntegrated Pest Management and why you would recommend its adoption
by your country. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. Figure 1 shows the relationship between energy demand and energy generated over the last ten years in
a certain Caribbean country. The energy is generated exclusively from steam powered turbines using
fossil fuels.

,-..
.:: 70
~
6
--
;:.., 60
e.o
;..
.-
Q.j /
::::: 50
~

40

30
- - - - Energy generated
20 --- ---Energy demand

10

o· ., . ,
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Year

Figure 1. Energy demand and energy generated

(a) State THREE inferences that can be drawn from the graph. [ 3 marks]

(b) Discuss TWO constraints faced by non-oil producing Caribbean countries in satisfying
the energy demands of their population. [ 8 marks]

(c) Cogeneration is suggested as one approach to address the changing energy demand
depicted in Figure 1.

(i) Explain the process of cogeneration. [ 4 marks]


(ii) Do you agree with the suggestion in (c) above? Justify your answer.
[ 5 marks]
Total 20 marks
s. (a) Distinguish between ' nuclear fission' and ' nuclear fusion'. [ 2 marks]

(b) Write the equation for the nuclear fission process used in nuclear reactors. [ 4 marks]

(c) Explain how electrical energy is generated in a nuclear reactor. ( 5 marks]

(d) Discuss THREE issues that could be of concern to a Caribbean country that is considering
the use of nuclear fission for generating electricity. ( 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2005
- 4 -

6. (a) Distinguish between 'energy conservation' and 'energy efficiency.' [ 4 marks]

(b) Explain the concept of energy-efficient buildings. [ 4 ma rks]

(c) For EACH of the following, state FOUR ways in which the concept of energy-efficient
buildings can be applied in the Caribbean.

(i) Lighting [ 4 marks]

(ii) Maintaining comfortable indoor temperature [ 4 marks]

(d) Explain how any ONE of your normal activities can be modified to conserve energy.
[ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. Figure 2 shows emissions from a number of factories when in operation.

Figure 2. Emissions from a factory

(a) Suggest TWO pollutants other than volatile organic compounds that may be emi tted from
the stack. [ 2 marks]

(b) State FOUR environmental receptors of ANY pollutant indicated in (a) above.
[ 4 marks]
(c) Outline the impact of ANY ONE of the pollutants identified in (a) on ONE of the
environmental receptors identified in (b) above. [ 5 marks]

(d) Describe how scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators can decrease the quantity of
emissions from the factory. [ 9 marks]
Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2005
- 5 -

8. (a) Expl ain what is meant by the term ' haza rdous waste ' . In your explanatio n, identify ONE
examp le and the source of this type o f waste in the Caribbean. [ 4 ma rks]

(b) Define THREE categories o f hazardous waste in terms of the impact of EA CH o n human
be ings. [ 6 marks]

(c) O utl ine FOUR cons iderations whe n pl anning for the disposal of hazardous was te .
[ 4 marks]

(d) Descri be an appropriate method for the d isposal of hazardous waste in a Cari bbean country.
[ 6 m a rks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) W hat are ' pathogens'? Inc lude ONE example of a pathogen in your response.
[ 3 ma rks]

(b) Identi fy an agricu ltural so urce of pathogens a nd o utline its enviro nme ntal pathway from
th is so urce to wate r bod ies. [ 3 marks]

(c) O utline a wastewate r treatme nt process that re moves pathogens and nutrients.
[11 ma rks]

(d) ( i) Wha t are 'effl ue nt disc harge regul atio ns'? [ 2 marks]

(ii) State how they protect water qu ali ty. [ 1 ma rk]

Total 20 ma rks

END OF T EST

02220020/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2005202 MAY/JUNE 2005

CAR IBBE AN EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIE NCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMEN TAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE , ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER03B
2 hours

(12 MAY 2005 (a.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. Thi s paper consists of THREE q uestions.

2. Answer ALL questi ons.

3. Write your answers in the answer bookle t provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a non-programmable ca lculator is allowed.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Counci l.


All ri ghts reserved.
02220032/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

Answer ALL questions.

The Rio Cobre river flows through a number of communities and receives discharges from several sources
along its course. It flows by a farm, a residential area, a school a nd a raw sewage outfall. T he river is also
a major transportation route. Residents use the water from this river to meet many of their domestic
needs.

Recent reports indicate an increase in the size of the population of a certain species of algae. T his species
is sensitive to water quality changes and its presence is used as an indicator of pollution.

In a previous monitoring exercise, an analysis of samples of water from the river provided the results
indicated in Table 1 with regard to Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).

TABLE 1: BOD FROM A PREVIOUS SAMPLE

Sampling BOD -
site mg/1 Oxygen
A 1
B 11

c 9

D 20
E 17

F 12
G 12

1. (a) Use the information in Table 1 to plot an appropriate graph showing the variation in
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) along the river. [12 marks]

(b) (i) With reference to your graph, describe the trend in the variation of BOD with
sampling site. [ 6 marks]

(ii) Suggest THREE possible reasons for the variations decribed. [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) With reference to your graph, identify which sample point, A to G, was most
likely receiving discharge from

a) the farm

b) the sewage outfall. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Suggest a reason to support EACH of your answers in (c) (i) above. [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

2. (a) (i) State THREE preliminary activities that MUST be considered before embarking on a
water quality monitoring programme for the ri ver. [ 3 marks]

(ii) Give TWO reasons for EACH preliminary activity stated in (a) (i) above.
[ 6 marks]

(b) Outline the procedure to conduct the test for BOD. [12 marks]

(c) Identify THREE other water quality parameters for which you would test. [ 3 marks]

(d) Explain the importance of EACH of the parameters stated in (c) above. [ 6 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. (a) Design a water quality monitoring programme for the Rio Cobre. [14 marks]

(b) Comment on the value of the species of algae mentioned in the passage, as an indicator
species. [ 4 marks]

(c) Outline THREE advantages and THREE disadvantages of biological monitoring of pollution.
[12 marks]

Total 30 marks

ENDOFTEST

02220032/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02120010
FORM TP 2006205 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPEROl

1 hour 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of TWELVE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your a nswers in this answer bookle t in the spaces provided.

4. The use of a non-programmable calcul ator is allowed .

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All ri ghts reserved.
02120010/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE!

Answer ALL questions.

1. Figure 1 illustrates the water cycle. Each of the le tte rs A and C represents a process occurring in
the cycle.

Figure 1. The water cycle

(a) With reference to F ig ure 1, identify

(i) Process A

(ii) Process C.

[2 marks]

(b) State the source of energy that dr ives the water cycle.

[1 mark]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

(c) Outline EACH of the processes identified in (a) above. In your response, indicate how the
source identified in (b) above drives EACH process.

Process A--- - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -- -

Process C- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -

[6 marks]

Total 9 marks

2. (a) Define the terms:

(i) Biotic potential

[2 marks]

(ii) Environmental resistance

[2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0212001 0/CAPE 2006
- 4 -

(b) Outline, citing ONE example, how biotic potential and environmental resistance interact to
maintain populations within the carrying capacity of an ecosystem.

[3 marks]

Total 7 marks

3. (a) Explain, us ing an appropriate example, the interaction that occurs in the fo llowing feeding
re lationships.

(i) Commensalism

[3 marks]

(ii) Mutualism

[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02L20010/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

(b) Distinguish between ' predation' and ' parasitism '.

[2 marks]

Total 8 marks

4. Outline the impact of humans on EACH of the following components of a natural ecosystem.

(a) Abiotic

[3 marks]

(b) Biotic

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2006
- 6 -
MODULE2

Answer ALL questions.

5. Figure 2 shows the population profile of two countries.

65+
rm male
years [] female

15-64
years

0-14
years
r-~~~~~~,--.~.--.

400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400


Country A million
I i.
'

100 0 100
Country B

Figure 2. Population profile

(a) State TWO differences between the population profile of Country A and Country B.

[2 marks]

(b) (i) Predict which country will have the faster growing population in the future.

[1 mark]
(ii) Explain your answer in (b) (i) above.

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2006
- 7 -

6. The urban population in developing countries increased from 22% in 1960 to 41 % in 2000.

(a) State THREE reasons for the growth in urban population in developing countries.

[3 marks]

(b) Outline TWO ways in which urban populations impact on biogeochem ical cycles.

[6 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAG E


02120010/CAPE 2006
- 8 -

7. Figure 3 depicts a model representing the relationship between poverty level and population growth
in a poor country.

Rapid population
· Poverty
growth
level

Figure 3. Poverty level - population growth model for a poor country

Do you agree with the relationship suggested by Figure 3? Justify your answer.

Total 7 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 12001 0/CAPE 2006
- 9 -

8. At the beginning of the year 2000, the population of Country A was 2,400,000. The demographic
statistics for the population at the end of the year are presented in Tabl e 1.
TABLE 1: DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS OF COUNTRY A

Population Parameter Demographic Statistics


Birth rate 24 per thousand
Death rate 4 per thousand
Number of immigrants 100
Number of emigrants 1100

(a) Calculate the percentage increase of the population during the year 2000.

[6 marks]

(b) At the present rate of growth, in what year will the population size double?

[2 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0212001 0/CAPE 2006
- 10 -

MODULE3

Answer ALL questions.

9. (a) Name TWO natural ecosystems found in the Caribbean.

[2 marks]

(b) Outline the benefits to society of the TWO ecosystems named in (a) above.

[6 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120010/CAPE 2006
- 11 -

10. (a) List THREE demographic characteristics of a population that influence its rate of
exploitation of natural resources.

[3 marks]

(b) For any TWO of the characteristics listed in (a) above, outline how EACH affects natural
resource use.

[6 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0212001 0/CAPE 2006
- 12 -

11. (a) Distinguish between 'species depletion' and 'species extinction'.

[3 marks]

(b) State FOUR causes of species depletion or species extinction.

[4 marks]

Total 7 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0212001 0/CAPE 2006
- 13 -

12. (a) Describe the method of cultivation practi sed by the majority of indigenous peoples.

[3 marks]

(b) Explain why the method described in (a) above is considered to be sustainable.

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

0212001 0/CAPE 2006


TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2006206 MAY/JUNE 2006
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 09 MAY 2006 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions.

2. Answer SIX questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. The use of a non-programmable calculator is allowed.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02120020/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE 1

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) Explain the meaning of

(i) range of tolerance [ 4 marks]

(ii) limiting factors. [ 4 ma rks]

(b) State THREE limiting factors for an aquatic ecosystem. [ 3 marks]

(c) Outline how EACH of the factors in (b) above impacts on the population of organisms
in an aquatic ecosystem. [ 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. Figure 1 represents a pyramid of energy for a mango tree.

Figure 1. Pyramid of energy

(a) Identify the categories of organisms at EACH level. [ 3 marks]

(b) Account for the shape of the diagram. [ 5 marks]

(c) Draw a diagram showing the pyramid of numbers for the mango tree.
[ 3 marks]

(d) Account for any difference between the shape of the pyramid of energy shown in
Figure 1 and the pyramid of numbers drawn in (c) above. [ 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. "Natural ecosystems are vital to the existence of human beings."

Justify the statement above. Include FIVE reasons in your answer.

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE/2006
- 3 -

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. Figure 2 shows the size of the population of a Caribbean country during the period 1840 to
2000.
3000

2500

-;;;-
"0
c
2000
"''":::>0
-5
2, 1500

~
=
0
Cll
:; 1000
c.
0
~

0
1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year

Figure 2. Population of a Caribbean country

(a) Describe, in terms of the birth and the death rate, how the rate of growth of the popula-
tion depicted in Figure 2 changed between 1840 and 2000. [ 4 marks]

(b) By considering at least THREE social parameters, suggest how changes in social
conditions within the population during the period 1840 to 1880 could account for the
changes in growth rate described in (a) above. [12 marks]

(c) Outline ONE possible environmental impact of rapid c hanges in the population growth
rate of a named Caribbean country. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 120020/CAPE/2006
- 4 -
5. Figure 3 represents a map of the world which is divided into regions (D to®.

Tropic of Cancer

Tropic of Capricorn

0 3000 6000 km

Figure 3. The distribution of the world's population

(a) Place EACH of the regions, (D to@ , into ONE of the following categories:
(i) High per capita consumption
(ii) Low per capita consumption patterns [ 3 marks]

(b) Evaluate the statement below.

"High consumpti on patterns in developed countries have Jed to environmental


problems in developing countries." [10 marks]

(c) Developing countries have low per capita consumption in comparison to developed
countries. Does this mean that developing countries do not contribute significantly to
the world 's environmental problems? Justify your response. [ 7 marks]
Total 20 marks

6. (a) Outline the relationship between the population growth of a country and its ability to
achieve sustainable development. [ 8 marks]

(b) Explain how EACH of the following social indicators relating to women will impact on
the sustainable development of your country.
(i) Level of education
(ii) Economic status
(iii) Access to family planning services [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE/2006
- 5 -

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. Describe EACH of the following environmental impacts associated with the explo itation of
minerals in the Caribbean:

(a) Physical conversion of land 5 marks]

(b) Dust pollution 5 marks]

(c) Discharge of process chemicals 5 marks]

(d) Siltation [ 5 marks]

Total 20 marks

8. (a) Suggest FOUR types of reasons for natural resource conservation. [ 4 marks]

(b) Discuss the role of EACH of the following in natural resource conservation:

(i) Rehabilitation 4 marks]

(i i) Restoration [ 4 marks]

(iii) Preservation [ 4 marks]

(iv) In-situ and ex-situ conservation [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Describe FOUR environmental impacts associated with the exploitation of forest
resources in the Caribbean. [16 marks]

(b) Suggest ONE recommendation for addressing EACH impact identified in (a) above.
[ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

ENDOFTEST

02120020/CAPE/2006
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2006207 MAY /JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER03/B

2 hours

( 11 MAY 2006 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a non-programmable calculator is allowed .

Copyright© 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02120032/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

Answer ALL questions.

Table I presents population data for a Caribbean country for the period 1996 to 2000. At the beginning of
1996, the population size of the country was 2,500,000. The data in Table 1 represents changes in the
population at the end of each year. Use the data in Table 1 to answer Questions 1 and 2.

TABLE 1: POPULATION DATA FOR A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY, 1996 - 2000

Population Year
parameters 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Number of 60,200 59,720 59,220 59,160 58,640
births
Number of 10,000 8,500 7,000 5,900 4,500
deaths
Number 300 400 300 200 500
immigrated
Number 500 620 500 400 700
emigrated

1. (a) Calculate, showing each step,

(i) the change in the size of the population at the end of each year 5 marks]

(ii) the population size at the end of each year 5 marks]

(iii) the average natural rate of increase of the populati on [ 7 marks]

(iv) the birth rate and the death rate of the popul ation at the start of the period
[ 4 marks]

(v) the birth rate and the death rate of the population at the end of the period.
[ 4 marks]
(b) Predict the size of the population in 2050. [ 5 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Use a bar chart to represent the population of the country over the five-year period.
[12 marks]
(b) Suggest reasons for the rate of growth of the population during the period.
[ 8 marks]
(c) Discuss an appropriate programme that could be implemented to control the growth rate
of the population . [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 120032/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

3. Outline the MOST appropriate sampl ing technique for EACH of the following:

(a) To investigate the transition from one community to another [ 8 marks]

(b) To estimate popul ation de nsity and percentage cover [10 marks]

(c) To estimate population size of mobile (moving) organisms 7 marks]

(d) To investigate stationary organisms [ 5 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02120032/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02220010
FORM TP 2006208 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPEROl

1 hour 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of TWELVE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in this answer booklet in the spaces provided.

4. The use of a non-programmable calculator is allowed.

Copyright© 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE I

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) State THREE characteristics of subsistence agricultural systems.

[3 marks]

(b) Outline TWO applications of technology that can be used to improve agricultural
productivity.

[4 marks]

(c) For ANY TWO technological applications used to improve agricultural productivity,
state ONE disadvantage of EACH.

[2 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

2. D escribe TWO w ays in w hich agriculture is important to the economies o f Caribbean countri es .

[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. The application of genetic engineering to agriculture has some i mpacts on the environment. Outli ne

(a) TWO positive impacts

[4 marks]

(b) ONE negati ve impact.

[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO O t T O THE NEXT PAGE


022200 I 0/CA PE 2006
- 4 -

4. Descri be THREE features of susta inable agriculture.

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO T HE NEX T PAGE
022200 I 0/CA PE 2006
- 5 -

MODULE2

Answer ALL questions.

s. (a) Distinguish between

(i) 'energy ' and 'power '

[2 marks]

(ii) ' renewable source of energy' and ' non-renewable source of energy'.

[2 marks]

(b) Explain why energy conversion processes have low efficie nc ies.

[3 marks]

Total 7 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 6 -

6. (a) Figure 1 is a schematic diagram for the generation of electricity.

...
I

boiler
(ii)
~,

r- \,.
generator
fossil turbine . I'
fuel
J (i)
,, (iii)

y ~
... ~

condenser

Figure 1. A schematic diagr am for the generation of electricity

Refer to Figure 1 and outline the process or processes occuring at EACH of the stages
labelled (i), (i i) and (iii).

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 7 -

(b) Describe ONE way in which an electricity generating company may handle the demand
for electricity, when the demand exceeds its generating capacity.

[4 marks]

Total 7 marks

7. Certain environmental costs are associated with the use of fossi l fuels to generate electricity.
Outline

(a) TWO ecological costs

[6 marks]

(b) ONE social cost.

[3 marks]

Total 9 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 8 -

8. (a) Outline the relations hip between e nergy use a nd g loba l wa rm ing.

[4 marks]

(b) Identify ONE environ mental impact of g lobal warming that is of particular concern to ALL
Caribbean countries.

[1 mark]

(c) State the MOST feas ible so lutio n for addressing the concern identified in (b) above.

[2 ma rks]

Tota l 7 marks

GO O N TO THE NEXT PAGE


022200 10/CA PE 2006
- 9 -

MODULE3

Answer ALL questions.

9. Explain how EACH of the following characteristics of a pollutant influences its env ironmental impact:

(a) Persistence

[3 marks]

(b) Mobi lity

[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO TH E EXT PAGE
02220010/CA PE 2006
- 10 -

10. Figure 2 shows an incomplete intended pathway of a pesticide when it is sprayed aerially.

8
Figure 2. Pathway of pesticide when sprayed aerially

Complete Figure 2 by inserting arrows to indicate TWO possible pathways by which the pesticide may
enter EACH of the entities below. Identify the processes occurring along EACH pathway that you
indicated.

(a) Oceans [4 marks]

(b) Humans [4 marks]

Total 8 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0222001 0/CAPE 2006
- 11 -

11. (a) Define the term ' secondary air pollution'.

[2 marks]

(b) Outline the formation of ONE secondary air pollutant.

[4 marks]

(c) Describe the environmental impact of the air pollutant identified in (b) above.

[3 marks]

Total 9 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220010/CAPE 2006
- 12 -

12. Explain the role of EACH of the following in controlling pollution:


(a) Legislation

[4 ma rks]
(b) Incentive

[3 marks]
Total 7 marks

END OF TEST

02220010/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2006209 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 26 MAY 2006 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions.

2. Answer SIX questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. The use of a non-programmable calculator is allowed.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02220020/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE!

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) Identify TWO forms of soil degradation associated with excessive irrigation.
[ 2 marks]

(b) Explain how EACH form of soil degradation identified in (a) occurs.
[16 marks]

(c) Recommend ONE sustainable practice in agriculture to address EACH form of degradation
identified in (a) above. [ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. (a) What is meant by ' mechanization of agriculture'? [ 2 marks]

(b) Describe FIVE factors that limit the mechanization of agriculture in the Caribbean.
[10 marks]

(c) Justify the following statement.

"Agroecosystems are different from natural unmanaged ecosystems."


[ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Distinguish between 'mariculture' and 'aquaculture' . [ 2 marks]

(b) Describe THREE management techniques that are used for increasing the yield of aquaculture.
[12 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO environmental issues resulting from the practice of aquaculture in the Caribbean.
[ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO O N TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. Figures 1 and 2 are provided as an insert.

Figure 1 shows the projected annual demands for electricity in the Caribbean, and Figure 2 shows the
projected annual world production of oil.

(a) Considering predictions based on Figures 1 and 2, suggest the impact on Caribbean countries
if the projected change in annual demand for electricity and oil production is realized.
[ 6 marks]

(b) Discuss TWO alternative energy sources that Caribbean countries can exploit to address the
impact identified in (a) above. (Include in your response the advantages and disadvantages of
exploiting both energy sources .) [14 marks]

Total 20 marks

5. (a) Explain the function of EACH of the following in a nuclear energy plant:

(i) Control rods [ 5 marks]

(ii) Primary water circuit ( 4 marks]

(b) Evaluate the recommendation below.

"Caribbean countries should satisfy the ir growing demand for electricity though the use
of nuclear energy rather than building new conventional fossi l fuel power plants."

(Include in your response the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of producing
e lectricity.) [11 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) Using a suitable example in each case, distinguish between 'energy conservation' and 'energy
efficiency'. [ 4 marks]

(b) Evaluate the statement below.

"The implementation of measures to conserve and use energy more efficiently is the best and
cheapest means of making more energy available." [ 6 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO ways in which the transportation sector in your country could conserve energy.
[10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2006
- 4 -
MODULE3
Answer ANY TWO questions.
7. Figure 3 shows the variation in coral cover between 1970 and 2000 for a Caribbean island, Z. Tests on
coastal waters indicate high levels of turbidity and faecal coliform.

: ::: : :; ; ; , l l , ! :: l l l l l l I l l l l I I :: : : l! l
: :r::r:r:r: :::r::r:+::r: .::r:rr:~::: ::r:r.::r:r:: :rr:rr: : :r::r:r:r: :::t:~~:t::r:: ::t::z:::r::t: :::r:::rr:r:
····r·+++·+ · · ++·+··r·
· t···!···r···
---~-·-·t
· ·+··t··++·· ,..r··-r·+·+·· ···!~-t···r··+.. -··t·..t-l...t... ···t·+··i···t···.....···1!..··+--t--+-
..·t·..t.. ··t···t··t...i......t ...t .1...t......i···t·t··-r··
···:···:-~!···:··· ···;·~~---:---~ ·r--·r..
- -t-·++·+·
..t··
-! ... ···r---r··-~·

. --~..·+···f···!·" ···+··+···!···!"' ··+··!···+-~t·· ···i···t--+--!--- --~---~-+-+·· ··-1·-·i···f··+·· · +·+·-!··+·· ·+++··t··-···i···t··+·+·· ··t··-r-+·+··


·:: ::ti:l::E : :r:rt:J::::r:r::E:E: ::r:E:E:F::EE:i::I::
: : : : : : :: 1; : : . : : . . ...

...;.................. .. .............;...
~ ..
··-+··· ~··+ ··+·

' :::
...j...J...t ... t .. " ! 1 10 :....t:...:r··1·:..t: · ...: :... :.. : .. ' ...........' ' ' ...t·t
~ -~· ~···~ ~ ·~·· ···~···~·-1···~
' '..·t·' ..'l··· ...r--·t-·t·
~ ~···~···~-
' ' ' ..t·' .. ' ' ' .. ' ' ' ' ' ' . ...·t-·
' ·-!-t·;
-~--~--~ -~..
....~--~"t"i'" ·-t-·~-~

::r:r:r::r::: ::r::r::r::r: J::r::r:r: : r:r:r:::r:: : :r:rr:r: :::r:::t::r :r: ::1:::r:r::r :::r:::r::1:::1:: :::r::1::r::r: :r:LLT:: ::r=r:r:r::: :r:t=~ .....~. .i ...i,..~...

il-if:~ijH!~=n iilt ~=1fi ;i~ii ~~if: if riii i~i ;:_: _ ~~li0~0ii! :mt:
Figure 3. Variation in coral cover

(a) Outline the trend shown in Figure 3. [ 3 marks]

(b) Identify the TWO major types of water pollutant existing in the coastal waters of Island Z.
[ 2 marks]
(c) For EACH of the pollutants identified in (b) above, state
(i) its nature [ 2 marks]
(ii) its source. [ 2 marks]
(d) Explain how the loss of coral cover could be caused by ONE of the pollutants identified.
[ 4 marks]

(e) Outline a water treatment process that would address the high levels of faecal coliform in
coastal waters. [ 7 marks]

Total 20 marks
GO ON TO THE NE XT PAGE
02220020/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

8. (a) What is a 'refuse derived fuel' incinerator? [ 2 marks]

(b) Discuss the use of incinerators as a MAJOR method of solid waste disposal in Caribbean
countries . (In your response, consider at least TWO advantages and THREE disadvantages.)
[18 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Top Hill game reserve is open for bird hunting for three months each year beginning in May.
Soil samples taken from different areas of the reserve in April were tested and found to have
small amounts of the hazardous chemical pesticide DDT.

(i) Would you recommend that humans eat the game birds that are caught? Justify your
answer. [ 8 marks]

(ii) Describe ONE technological process that can be used to clean up soil contaminated
with hazardous waste. [ 4 marks]

(b) (i) What is the 'B asel Convention ' ? (Include at least TWO of its features in your
response.) [ 3 marks]

(ii) Explain why the Basel Convention was developed. [ 5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02220020/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2006209 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2 -PAPER 02

Insert for Question 4

02220020/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2006210 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPER03/B

2 hours

( 30 MAY 2006 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. Thi s paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the a nswer book le t provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a non-programmable calculator is all owed.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All ri ghts reserved.
02220032/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

Answer ALL questions.

Figure 1 shows a sketch-map of a coastal region of an unnamed territory. Site B is indicated on the map.

X X X X X X X X X X X X
Housing Area
X X X X X X X X X X X X
N
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X
r
Housing Key
Area /). · Housing
Area
X - Farmland
oo
ogo Mangroves
- Sea

F F - Forest area
A A - Proposed
hotel site
Housing -'1 - Sea grass
Area U-----------------------------------------------~

Figure 1. Sketch-map of a coastal region

A developer proposes to clear some of the coastal vegetation to construct a hotel. The developer also
plans to clear a portion of the seagrass beds to make an area available for swimming. When the hotel
commences operation, it will discharge its sewage via an outfall into the sea, not far from the seagrass
beds.

1. (a) Outline the role of coastal vegetation, seagrass beds and coral reefs in THREE activities
that help to maintain the beach. [18 marks]

(b) Describe the potential impact of the disposal of sewage, and the removal of coastal
vegetation and seagrass beds on

(i) the coral reef

(ii) the beach

(iii) the coastal waters. [12 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

2. Residents from the region described in the introductory passage on page 2 have expressed concern
about the activities proposed by the developer: the clearance of the vegetation, the clearance of
the seagrass beds and the di sposal of sewage into the sea.

(a) (i) Identify THREE water-quality parameters that should be monitored at Site B,
indicated on Figure 1, as a result of the activities that have taken place.
[ 3 marks]

(ii) Explain the significance of the THREE water-quality parameters monitored in


(a) (i). [ 9 marks]

(b) Design a monitoring plan to keep track of the potential impacts. [18 marks]

Total30 marks

3. (a) Outline THREE recommendations that you would make to the developer to correct the
situation that would be experienced at Site B in 2 (a) above. [ 6 marks]

(b) Justify EACH of your recommendations made at 3 (a) above. 9 marks]

(c) Outline FIVE ways in which an Environmental Impact Assessment could have helped to
mitigate the impacts a nd address the concerns of the residents. [15 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02220032/CAPE 2006
~ TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2008189 ~ MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER02

2 hours 30 minutes

( 06 MAY 2008 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator i~ permitted.

..

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2008
- 2-

MODULE 1

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. Non-native species are often introduced into stable communities. Through evolution, species
develop characteristics that allow them to adapt to conditions in particular environments.

(a) Name ONE non-native species that was introduced in the Caribbean. [1 mark]

(b) Explain why non-native species may be successful in new environments. Include TWO
reasons in your response. [6 marks]

(c) Outline THREE impacts on the ecosystem that may result from the introduction of a non-
native species. [9 marks]

(d) Explain the role of natural selection in the adaptation of species to their natural
environment. (Include TWO points in your response.) [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. Table 1 presents the stability indices for three ecosystems based on the species diversity of each
ecosystem.

TABLE 1: ECOSYSTEM STABILITY INDEX

Ecosystem Ecosystem Stability Index

A 7

B 4

c 10

(a) Define EACH of the following:

(i) Ecosystem [3 marks]

(ii) Ecosystem stability [3 marks]

(iii) Species diversity [3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CA PE 2008
-3-

(b) (i) Which ecosystem in Table 1 has the GREATEST species diversity? [1 mark]

(ii) Give ONE reason to support your answer. [2 marks)

(c) Explain how species diversity can influence ecosystem stability. (Include TWO ways in
your response.) [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Figure 1 illustrates the cycling of matter through an ecosystem.

Primary Primary Secondary


producers consumers

Detritus and decomposer


food chains

Figure 1. Cycling of matter through an ecosystem

(i) Name TWO decomposers and state ONE source of energy for EACH.
[4 marks]

(ii) Explain the importance of the decomposer food chain in the cycling of matter
illustrated in Figure 1. [4 marks]

(b) (i) State TWO benefits ofnaturai ecosystems to humans. Give an example ofEACH.
[4 marks]

(ii) Describe TWO ways in which human activities can disrupt the integrity of natural
ecosystems. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CAPE 2008
- 4-

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) What is meant by 'sustainable development'? [3 marks]

(b) Explain how high fertility rates impact on a country's ability to achieve sustainable
development. Include an appropriate example in your response. [6 marks]

(c) (i) Based on your response to 4 (b), suggest an appropriate fertility rate that Caribbean
countries should aim at achieving. [1 mark]

(ii) Justify your choice of fertility rate. [4 marks]

(d) (i) Describe ONE method or measure of population control that will be effective in
assisting your country to achieve the target fertility rate you suggested.
[4 marks]

(ii) Outline the reason why the method you described in 4 (d) (i) will be effective.
[2 marks]

Total 20 marks

5. Table 2 presents data on world population numbers in 1990 and the estimated numbers in 2020.

TABLE 2: WORLD POPULATION SIZE

More Developed Countries Less Developed Countries


(millions) (millions)

Population in 1990 1247 4486

Estimated Population in 2020 1375 6548

(a) Calculate the estimated percentage growth in world population attributable to Less
Developed Countries between 1990 and 2020. (5 marks]

(b) Explain why this estimated growth in the population of Less Developed Countries should
be a cause for concern. [5 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CAPE 2008
- 5-

(c) Describe ONE environmental impact associated with the trend in world population growth
calculated in 5 (a). [4 marks]

(d) Suggest an approach to mitigate the environmental impact described in 5 (c).


[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) Explain how EACH of the following impacts on the rate of growth of a population:

(i) Culture [4 marks]

(ii) Religion [4 marks]

(b) Table 3 shows the Human Development Index (HDI) of tWo countries for 2007.

TABLE 3: HUMAN DEVELOPM ENT INDEX

Country HDI

A 0.89

B 0.38

What THREE deductions can be made regarding the relative achievement of BOTH
countries based on their HDI presented in Table 3? [6 marks]

(c) Evaluate the statement below. (Include at least SIX points in your response.)

The education of women is critical to lowering the population growth rate of


Less Developed Countries. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CA PE 2008
-6-

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. (a) Describe TWO functions of coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean. [6 marks]

(b) Explain how ANY TWO human activities impact on coral reef ecosystems in the
Caribbean. [8 marks]

(c) Describe TWO methods for conserving coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

8. Figure 2 shows how the quantities of two natural resources, A and B, change over a ten-year
period.
20

18
- - Resource A
bJ) 16 ......,. Resource B
~
....c
.... 14
M
B
~
<J
I.
::I
12
0
"' 10
~

....0
I.

£
=8
~
::I
Cl 6

2 A

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time/Years

Figure 2. The quantities of two natural resources, A and B, over a ten-year period

(a) (i) From the data illustrated in Figure 2, identify the resource which is non-renewable.
[1 mark]

(ii) Justify your response to 8 (a) (i). [7 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CA PE 2008
- 7-

(b) Using suitable examples, distinguish between 'consumptive' and 'non-consumptive' use
of natural resources. [6 marks]

(c) Explain why bioprospecting is considered a non-consumptive use of natural resources.


(Include THREE reasons in your response.) [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Identify TWO categories of protected areas as classified by the International Union for
the Conservation ofNature (IUCN). [2 marks]

(b) For EACH category of protected area identified in (a), state

(i) the purpose [2 marks]

(ii) the main feature. [2 marks]

(c) Explain how protected areas promote natural resource conservation. Include THREE
roles in your response. [6 marks]

(d) Assess the effectiveness ofprotected areas in conserving natural resources in the Caribbean.
Include THREE issues associated with the implementation and operation of protected
areas. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

ENDOFTEST

021 20020/CAPE 2008


~ TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2008190 ~ MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER03B

2 hours

(os MAY2008 (a.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02 120032/CAJPE 2008
-2 -

Answer ALL questions.

Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that follow.

A forest concession was granted to a timber company to harvest timber for a period of thirty years. The
concession was granted on condition that the species of a tree lizard endemic to the area was protected.
The university in the country was asked by the company to monitor the lizard population for the duration
of the operation of the concession. The university was also required to make recommendations for the
conservation and protection of the lizard population.

Table 1 presents the results of monitoring the lizard population for the last ten years of the concession.

TABLE 1: LIZARD POPULATION OVER TEN-YEAR PERIOD

Year Lizard Population

1996 170

1997 130

1998 120

1999 115

2000 110

2001 130

2002 147

2003 169

2004 180

2005 200

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120032/CAPE 2008
-3-

1. (a) Based on the information in Table 1, plot an appropriate graph to show the variation in
the lizard population from 1996 to 2005. [12 marks]

(b) Describe how the lizard population varied over the ten-year period. [18 marks]

Total30 marks

2. The mark-release-recapture method was used to collect the data presented in Table 1.

(a) Why is this method suitable for the lizard population? [4 marks]

(b) Outline the mark-release-recapture method for collecting the data presented in Table 1.
[10 marks]

(c) State TWO assumptions that must be made when using the mark-release-recapture method
to estimate population size. [4 marks]

(d) Describe FOUR steps of a monitoring plan to track the lizard population. State ONE
objective for EACH step of the plan. [12 marks]

Total30 marks

3. (a) Discuss THREE conservation strategies that could be implemented to ensure the viability
of the lizard population. In your discussion, you should indicate why the strategies you
choose are appropriate. [18 marks]

(b) Outline TWO environmental impacts caused by the operation of the forest concession
that would need to be addressed in a rehabilitation programme. [12 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02120032/CAPE 2008
a\ TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2008192 \3) MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIE NCY EXAMINA TION
ENVIRONMEN TAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURA L, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMEN TAL POLLUTION

PAPER02

2 hours 30 minutes

( 23 MAY 2008 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so ,

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ® .


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2008
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) List THREE features of sustainable agriculture. [3 marks]

(b) Discuss EACH of the THREE features listed in 1 (a) to illustrate the importance of
agricultural sustainability in Caribbean societies. (Include FOUR points for EACH feature
in your response.) [12 marks]

(c) Justify the need for the practice of sustainable agriculture in a named Caribbean country.
(Include FOUR points in your response.) [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

2. Natural vegetation and forest cover are continually being destroyed to meet the growing need for
land to practise monoculture cropping. This has resulted in a number of environmental concerns
in the Caribbean.

(a) Identify FIVE environmental concerns associated with the practice of monoculture
cropping in the Caribbean. [5 marks]

(b) (i) For ANY THREE concerns identified in 2 (a), recommend an alternativ e
sustainable agricultural practice to address EACH. [9 marks]

(ii) Justify EACH recommendation made in 2 (b) (i). [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220020/CAPE 2008
-3-

3. Although aquaculture makes a significant contribution to the world 's commercial fish harvest,
there are a number of concerns that arise. Figure 1 shows the harvest of fish from two sources,
aquaculture farms and traditional fishery areas, over a ten-year period.

16

---Harvest from aquaculture


14 -A.-Harvest from traditional fisher

~12
..,
-
0

~ 10
~
...
c
0
~
c 8
0
.:::
(j
:I
"0
0
6
I.
p..

0+---~--~--~--~--~--~--~---r--~--~
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Year

Figure 1. Harvest of fish from aquaculture and traditional fishery areas

(a) Describe the trends in fish harvesting illustrated in Figure 1. (Include FOUR points in
your response.) [4 marks]

(b) Explain how TWO features of aquaculture may have contributed to the trend illustrated
in Figure 1. [6 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO environmental concerns associated with the practice of aquaculture.
[10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220020/CAPE 2008
-4-

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. Figure 2 is a block diagram representation of the conventional process of electricity generation.


The electrical energy output is labelled Q2, and Q 1 and Q3 are other forms of energy.

QJ----1~~ ~---~~•Q2

~~------·~Q3
Figure 2. Conventional process of electricity generation

(a) (i) Identify the type of energy represented by Q3. [1 mark]

(ii) State the relationship among the magnitudes of Q 1, Q2 and Q3. [1 mark]

(b) Describe the essential features of this conventional process of generating electricity.
[4 marks]

(c) Explain how the efficiency of the energy conversion process can be increased by utilising
Q3. [6 marks]

(d) A Caribbean country is planning to provide electricity by the conventional process to the
remaining twenty per cent of its population who all reside in communities located in
rural areas of the country.

Assess the feasibility of the country to further invest in this method of generating electricity.
In your response include FOUR reasons for and FOUR reasons against investing further
in this method. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220020/CAPE 2008
-5-

5. (a) Distinguish between 'renewable energy sources' and ' non-renewable energy sources'.
[3 marks]

(b) Explain which energy source in 5 (a) above, is considered sustainable. [3 marks]

(c) Identify TWO sustainable energy sources available to Caribbean countries. [2 marks]

(d) Assess the feasibility of ONE of these energy sources in 5 (c) to satisfy the energy
requirements of Caribbean countries based on the following criteria:

(i) Technological limitations [4 marks]

(ii) Geographical restrictions [4 marks]

(iii) Environmental impacts [4 marks]

Total 20 marks
6. Figure 3 shows four light bulbs.

Bulb A Bulb B Bulb C BulbD

60W

Figure 3. Four bulbs

(a) Interpret the quantity '60 W' with reference to Bulb A as illustrated in Figure 3.
[3 marks]

(b) In Figure 3 which of the bulbs, B, C or D, provides similar lighting to Bulb A?


[1 mark]

(c) (i) Use the information given in Figure 3 for Bulbs A and B to explain what is meant
by 'energy efficiency' . [5 marks]

(ii) Distinguish between ' energy efficiency' and 'energy conservation'. [3 marks]

(d) Explain TWO ways in which large-scale use of the ' more energy efficient bulbs ' may
impact positively on the environment. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220020/CAJPE 2008
-6-

MODULE 3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. Figure 4 shows the environmental pathway of air pollutants P and Q after emission into the
atmosphere.

Figure 4. Environmental pathway of P and Q

(a) Identify the pollutants P and Q as illustrated in Figure 4. [2 marks]

(b) State the chemical formulae for pollutants P, Q and acid rain. [6 marks]

(c) Describe TWO environmental impacts of acid rain. [8 marks]

(d) Explain how ONE activity in a country could result in acid rain. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

8. (a) Distinguish between the terms 'water pollution' and 'water pollutant'. [3 marks]

(b) Explain how EACH of the following ch aracteristics of a pollutant impacts on its
concentration in a river system:

(i) Volume of emission [3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220020/CAPE 2008
-7-

(ii) Rate of degradation [3 marks]

(iii) Residence time [3 marks]

(c) Analyse the effectiveness of ONE 'international convention or agreement' for controlling
pollution in your country. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. Figure 5 shows the path of solar radiation through the atmosphere to the earth's surface.

Solar energy

EARTH

Figure 5. Path of solar radiation

(a) (i) Identify the layers labelled A and B. [2 marks]

(ii) State the name of TWO pollutants found in layer B . [2 marks]

(b) Describe the chemical processes occurring during ozone destruction that takes place in
layer B . [8 marks]

(c) Discuss ONE effect of the destruction of the ozone layer on the health of humans.
[4 marks]

(d) Assess the risk that the populations of Caribbean countries face as a result of the destruction
of the ozone layer. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02220020/CAPE 2008
1EST CODE 22220020
FORM TP 2008192 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 02JULY2008 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®.


All rights reserved.
22220020/CAPE 2008
-2-

MODULE!

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. Figure 1 shows the agricultural yield from a farm when using inorganic fertilizers and organic
fertilizers.

8 r-------------~=~~~~~~
I Inorganic fertilizers
...... - ...... - Organic fertilizers
7

6
,-...
c5
0
~
"0
4
;;::~
3

2
.. -- --- ......
0 ~------~------~------~------~------~------~
1 2 3 4 5 6
Quantity of fertilizer (kg/ha)

Figure 1. Yield and type of fertilizer used

(a) With reference to Figure 1, state FOUR deductions that can be m ade about the
agricultural yield from the farm. [ 4 marks]

(b) Distinguish between 'organic' and ' inorganic' fertilizers. [ 4 marks]

(c) Discuss why, in spite of the trend shown in Figure 1, farmers are still being encouraged
to increase their use of organic fertilizers over inorganic fertilizers.

Include SIX points in your response. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
- 3-

2. Figure 2 shows the contributions made by subsistence and commercial agriculture to the
gross domestic product (GDP), employment and foreign exchange earnings in Country A.

9 90
c Commercial
8 •Subsistence 80
,..-._
"'c
"0
~ 7 70
"'0= ,..-._
.c
.._,-~
6 60
so
"'
c
~
<U
..::.::
1-o
5 e
.._,
0
~ 4 "'1-o
40 ..::!
-.; 0
:=
;
.i:
-1-o

C.l
3
2
30
20
~

b.f)
<
1 10
0 0
Employment Foreign Exchange GDP
Contribution

Figure 2. Contribution of agriculture in Country A

(a) With reference to Figure 2, comment on the contributions of subsistence and commercial
agriculture to employment, foreign exchange earnings and GDP in Country A .
[ 4 marks]

(b) How does mechanization account for the differences in the contributions shown in
Figure 2? [12 marks]

(c) Describe ONE feature of sustainable agriculture. [ 4marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
-4-

3. Hillside farming has been a common occurrence for years in Toco Village. Recently residents
of the village have observed increased cases of soil erosion and degradation of the water quality.
Farmers have been planting the same crops for years and have complained of decreased yields
and increased pest infestation.

(a) Residents in Toco Village were told by the agricultural extension officer that their
farming practices were responsible for the increased cases of soil erosion and water
quality degradation. Explain, using SIX points, why the officer would have said this
to residents. [ 6 marks]

(b) Farmers in Toco Village were advised to practise crop rotation in an effort to improve
yields and reduce the problems caused by pest infestation. Justify, using SIX points,
the advice given. [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) Name ONE soil conservation method that is appropriate for the farmers in
Toco Village. [ 1 mark ]

(ii) BRIEFLY describe the NAMED method in (c) (i) above AND the role it plays
in soil conservation. [ 3 marks]

(d) Outline

(i) TWO features of no-tillage farming 2 marks]

(ii) why no-tillage farming is effective in reducing soil erosion. [ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
-5-

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) (i) List the types of fossil fuels. [ 1 mark]

(ii) Outline the formation of fossil fuels. [ 3 marks]

(b) Figure 3 shows the annual consumption of fossil fuels by developing countries in
1990, 2000 and 2003.

-
~
c
C<S
3.5

.~ 3.0
=
0'
Q.l

·;:;
....0 2.5
"'c0
--
<:>-
0
;.<
2.0
c

-=
.9
c.
8
1.5

"'0=
<J 1.0
Q)
.;:
·;;;
0.5
~
"'0

0.0
1990 2000 2003
Year

Figure 3. Annual consumption of fossil fuels by developing countries

(b) (i) Compare the annual consumption of fossil fuel in 1990 with consumption in
2000 AND consumption in 2000 with that in 2003. [ 4 m arks]

(ii) Describe ONE environmental and ONE social impact on developing countries
as a result of the consumption pattern indicated in Figure 3. [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) Using an appropriate example, outline the meaning of 'demand management' in
relation to energy use. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Explain how 'demand management' can help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuel
consumption. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
-6-

5. Study Figure 4 which illustrates a hydroelectric power plant and answer the questions that
follow.

Reservoir

Figure 4. Hydroelectric power plant

(a) Describe the energy conversion process occurring in the hydroelectric power plant,
making clear in your description the meaning of the terms 'potential energy' and
'kinetic energy'. [ 4 marks]

(b) State TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of hydroelectric power generation.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Assess the suitability of (i) hydroelectricity AND (ii) solar energy to meet adequately
the energy needs of developing countries.

Include SIX points in EACH response. [12marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
- 7-

6. ( a) An incandescent bulb has a power rating of 60 Wand an efficiency of 5%.


What is meant by

(i) power rating of 60 W? [ 2marks]

(ii) efficiency of 5%? [ 2marks]

(b) Outline TWO advantages of energy conservation. [ 4marks]

(c) Cogeneration may be utilised to reduce energy wastage.

(i) What is meant by 'cogeneration'? [ 1 mark]

(ii) Outline how cogeneration is achieved. [ 2marks]

(iii) Comment on the appropriateness of this system for use in Caribbean countries.
[ 3 marks]

(d) Explain how improving energy efficiency mitigates (reduces) environmental impacts
resulting from energy use. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
-8-

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. Table 1 presents results from a monitoring programme to determine levels of the pesticide
dieldrin present in an aquatic ecosystem. The pesticide concentration was measured in each
organism that formed a part of a complete food chain.

TABLE 1: CONCENTRATION OF DIELDRIN IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

Dieldrin
Category of Organism Organism
Concentration (ppm)
Producers Algae, aquatic plant 0.05
Primary consumers Small fish 0.3 - 1.2
Secondary consumers Large fish 1.4- 2.6
Tertiary consumers Large bird 4.0 - 6.0

Concentration of dieldrin in water= 0.0002 ppm

(a) State FOUR inferences that may be drawn from the data presented in Table 1.
[ 4 marks]

(b) Outline TWO environmental pathways of the pesticide. [ 4marks]

(c) Account for the difference in dieldrin concentration in the organisms presented in
Table 1. Include THREE points in your response. [ 6 marks]

(d) Describe TWO characteristics of pesticides that account for their environmental
impact. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
- 9-

8. Figure 5 shows the solid waste composition for a Caribbean country in 1998 and 2007.

Solid waste composition 1998 Solid waste composition 2007


Yard waste Yard waste
13% 15%
Wood Wood
5% Food

Paper
38%

Figure 5. Solid waste composition for a Caribbean country, 1998 and 2007

(a) State

(i) TWO major changes in the composition of solid waste between 1998 and 2007
[ 2 marks]

(ii) the environmental significance of ONE of these changes in (i) above.


[ 2 marks]

(b) Suggest TWO reasons for the change in the composition of solid waste between 1998
and 2007. [ 4 marks]

(c) Explain why it is necessary to minimise the amount of solid waste produced in
Caribbean countries. [ 4 marks]

(d) Caribbean countries are proposing recycling programmes for minimising the volume of
solid waste which they produce.

(i) What is meant by 'recycling'? [ 2 marks]

(ii) Assess the effectiveness of their proposed programmes.

Include TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages in your response.


[ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220020/CAPE/2008
- 10-

9. Figure 6 shows the variation in biological oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved oxygen (DO)
concentration with distance from a reference point established to monitor the water quality of a
river.

25
,......,
e2... 20
0
l:)lj
e
.._,
c 15
0
:.:::
-"'
1..
c
~
u
c
10 ....-DO

0
u 5
' , ._ - ... - - .- BOD

0 10 20 30 40 so 60 70 80 90 100 110
Distance downstream (km)

Figure 6. Variation in BOD and DO concentration

(a) What information is provided by the BOD of a water sample? [ 3 marks]

(b) Outline the laboratory process for determining BOD. [ 5 marks]

(c) Identify the type of water pollution source impacting on the river. Justify your
response. [ 3 marks]

(d) Account for the changes in DO concentration along the river. [ 5 marks]

(e) At what distance from the reference point is it LIKELY that dead fish will be found
floating in the river? Justify your answer. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

ENDOFTEST

22220020/CAPE/2008
~ TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2008193 ~ MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL


ADVANCE D PROFICIE NCY EXAMINA TION
ENVIRONMEN TAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURA L, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMEN TAL POLLUTION

PAPER03B

2 hours

(21 MAY 2008 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ® .


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2008
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that follow.

Phillip's Farm has been in operation since 1970 producing bananas for the export market. Phillip's Farm
is located in the same region as the rural community of Maka Bush. Residents of this corrununity depend
on water from the Rio Minho River for domestic use. In 1995, Phillip's Farm increased its production of
bananas for the export market. Residents of Maka Bush claim that since 1995, the quality of the water in
the Rio Minho has deteriorated.

Table 1 presents production data from Phillip's Farm for the years 1993 to 2007 and Figure 1 shows
average annual nitrate concentration in the Rio Minho River from 1992 to 2007.

TABLE 1: ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF BANANA

Year Annual Banana Production


(1000/kg)

1993 1400
1994 1450
1995 1500

1996 2200

1997 2500
1998 2800
1999 3000
2000 3200
2001 3100

2002 3600

2003 3700
2004 3900
2005 4100
2006 4200
2007 4000

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220032/CAPE 2008
-3-

16

__...
14
~
a
'-'
12
Cl
0
:a
~
b 10
Cl
Q,l
(,J
Cl
0
(,J
8
....
Q,l

~
b 6
·a
Q,l
c.c
~
4

<'"' 2
Q,l

0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 19981999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Year

Figure 1. Nitrate concentration in the Rio Minho River

1. (a) Use the information in Table 1 to plot an appropriate graph showing the annual production
ofbanana by Phillip's Farm from 1993 to 2007. [12 marks]

(b) Describe the trend in the

(i) banana production between 1995 and 2007 [6 marks]

(ii) nitrate concentration from 1992 to 2007. [6 marks]

(c) What evidence is there from the graph in Figure 1 that supports the claim that the water
quality of the Rio Minho has deteriorated? [6 marks)

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02220032/CAPE 2008
-4-

2. (a) What evidence is there from the graph that operations at Phillip's Farm are responsible
for any deterioration in the water quality of the Rio Minho? [6 marks]

(b) Provide an explanation for the relationship between banana production and nitrate
concentration in the river. [6 marks]

(c) (i) Outline ONE possible environmental pathway of nitrates from the farm to the
river. [4 marks]

(ii) Identify TWO other chemicals likely to travel the same pathway as nitrates.
[2 marks]

(d) (i) Outline THREE changes you would expect in the river ecosystem due to the
changes in the concentration of nitrates illustrated in Figure 1. [6 marks]

(ii) Explain how the concentration of nitrates is responsible for these changes.
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. (a) Outline FIVE reasons why it is necessary to monitor the water quality of water bodies.
[10 marks]

(b) (i) Identify FOUR parameters, excluding nitrates, that should be measured in a
progamme to monitor the water quality of the Rio Minho River. [4 marks]

(ii) Define ANY THREE of the parameters you identified in 3 (b) (i) above.
[6 marks]

(c) Outline the procedure to test for ONE of these water quality parameters. [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

ENDOFTEST

02220032/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 22220032
FORM TP 2008193 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER03/2
2 hours

( 03 JULY 2008 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02220032/CAPE 2008
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

Carlings Town is a farming community of about 2000 residents situated 200 km from the capital of the
parish of St. George. The Mango River, which runs through the community, is utilized by the residents
for recreational activities such as swimming and boating. Fish caught from this river is a major source
of protein for many of the residents as well as a source of income for a few others. The river is also the
source of water for the treatment plant located close to the community. This treatment plant provides
potable water for residents of Carlings Town as well as the nearby community of Hastings Castle.

Green Thumb Farms have been operating in the community of Carlings Town since 1994. They
specialize in the production of cabbage for the local and export market. The farm is located about 4 km
north of the river from which it draws water for irrigation.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been receiving written complaints from the residents
of Carlings Town about the poor water quality of the Mango River. You have been assigned the task of
investigating the complaints of the residents. As part of your task, you are required to determine the
source of pollutants impacting on the river and propose measures to mitigate the environmental
effects. To assist with the investigations, you have been provided with the information in Tables 1
and 2. Table 1 presents data on nitrate concentration of the Mango River from a monitoring station
located upriver of the Carlings Town community. Table 2 presents data on annual cabbage yield of
Green Thumb Farms as well as the annual inorganic fertilizer input.

TABLE 1: AVERAGE ANNUAL NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN MANGO RIVER

Average Nitrate Concentration


Year
(N03-N in mg/L)

1990 2

1991 3
1992 2

1993 4
1994 3
1995 5
1996 5

1997 8
1998 11
1999 14
2000 20
2001 30
2002 38
2003 41
2004 45

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220032/CAPE 2008
- 3-

TABLE 2: ANNUAL CABBAGE YIELD AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER INPUT OF


GREEN THUMB FARMS

Annual Input of
Annual Yield
Year Inorganic Fertilizer
(Thousand kg)
(kg)
1994 6 100
1995 10 200
1996 16 300
1997 20 400
1998 23 500
1999 26 600
2000 27 700
2001 26 800
2002 25 900
2003 24 1100
2004 24 1200

1. (a) Draw a graph to illustrate the relationship between annual cabbage yield and the quan-
tity of fertilizer applied annually. [15 marks]

(b) Outline the relationship between annual cabbage yield and annual fertilizer input.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Calculate the mean annual nitrate concentration of the Mango River for the years 1995
to 2004. [ 4 marks]

(d) What inference can you make regarding the impact of the activities of Green Thumb
Farms on the Mango River? [ 7 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22220032/CAPE 2008
-4-

2. (a) Explain why it is important for the investigation that nitrate concentration data for
the river before 1994 be examined. [ 4 marks]

(b) Explain how the changing nitrate concentration impacts on the

(i) river ecosystem [ 6 marks]

(ii) community of Car lings Town. [ 9 marks]

(c) (i) How would you expect the clarity of the Mango River water to change between
1990 and 2004? Justify your answer. [ 5 marks]

(ii) a) Identify the parameter that is used to measure the clarity of water.
[ 1 mark]

b) Explain how the parameter identified in (ii) a) affects the clarity of


water. [ 4 marks]

(iii) State a unit used to measure the clarity of water. [ 1 mark]

Total 30 marks

3. The management of Green Thumb Farms insist that, based on its location, the activities at the
farm are unlikely to cause pollution of the Mango River.

(a) Do you agree or disagree with the position of the farm's management? Use FIVE points
to support your answer. [11 marks]

(b) (i) How has the fertility of the farm lands changed from 1994 to 2004?
[ 4 marks]

(ii) Suggest a reason for the change in the fertility of the farm lands from 1994 to
2004. [ 4 marks]

(c) Recommend to the management of Green Thumb Farms ONE method of improving
the fertility of the farm lands while decreasing the impact of farming activities on the
river.

In your response, describe the method recommended and outline the advantages and
disadvantages of using this method. [11 marks]

Total 30 marks

ENDOFTEST

22220032/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2009180 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

c 05 MAY 2009 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright© 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02120020/CAPE 2009
·.
- 2-

MODULEl

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. The size of a population of organisms is usually affected by a variety of environmental factors,


one of which acts as a limiting factor. Figure 1 shows the population size of an aquatic algal
species in an ecosystem that experiences variation in nutrient concentration.

3.5

,..._
3
"'
'0
IV
:....
'0
c
::s 2.5
.c
'-'
<U
.!::l 2
"'
c
.~
.....
~ 1.5
::s
c.
0
Q..
1

0.5

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nutrient concentration (mgll)

Figure 1. Population size of algal species

(a) What is meant by the term 'limiting factor ' ? In your response include THREE ways in
which limiting factors operate. [ 4 marks]

(b) With reference to Figure 1, describe how the population size of the algal species
changes with the variation in nutrients. [ 4 marks]

(c) For the relationship between the population size of algae and nutrient concentration
represented in Figure 1, explain

(i) using EIGHT points, how the nutrient variation impacts on the population of
algae [ 8 m arks]

(ii) using FOUR points, how the variation in the algae population impacts on the
population of other species in the ecosystem. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
•,

-3-

2. (a) Distinguish between ' primary ecological succession' and 'secondary ecological
succession'. [ 3 marks]

(b) Table 1 shows the current forest area as a percentage of the original forest cover in six
different countries.

TABLE 1: FOREST COVER FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES IN 1996

Country Current Forest Area


(%Original Forest Cover)
Belize (Bz) 95.7

Jamaica (Ja) 35.6

Trinidad and Tobago (TT) 35.2

Martinique (Mq) 92.4

Haiti (Ht) 0.8


St Lucia (SL) 51.5

(i) An insert is provided for this question.


On Lhe axes provided, illustrale Lhe dala shown in Table 1 as a bar chart.
[ 5 marks]

(ii) Use the information presented in Table 1 to answer the following questions :

a) Identify the country where secondary ecological succession is

MOST likely to occur 1 mark]

LEAST likely to occur. [ 1 mark]

b) Provide FIVE reasons to support your answer in EACH case in (ii) a)


above. [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
·.
-4-

3. Snail kites are birds that feed on freshwater snails. Figure 2 shows the variation in population
numbers of both snails and snail kites in an ecosystem for the first eight-month period, January
to August, of the year.

400.-----------------------------------------------~

350
\
Snail ~ '
300 \
\

s..
~ 250
E
::I
= •
=200
.9
.....
!:
::I
§"150
~

100
\
\
'..- --
-. ,.

50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Month

Figure 2. Variation in population size

(a) With reference to Figure 2, describe the variation in the population size of BOTH
organisms over the eight-month period. [ 4 marks]

(b) Outline how predation may be of benefit to the prey population represented in Figure 2.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Explain how ONE density independent factor may impact the size of the snail population.
[ 4 marks]

(d) Assess TWO possible impacts on the ecosystem if the population of snails is signifi-
cantly reduced by draining the waterway. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
-5-

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) Describe the relationship between per capita GDP and the level of poverty existing in
countries. [ 4 marks]

(b) The graph in Figure 3 shows the relationship between total fertility rate and per capita
gross domestic product (GDP) for some countries.

....<1> 6
...
~

.....
==....
:;:: 5
~
'; 4
....
~
3

0
$0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000
Gross domestic product per capita

Figure 3. Total fertility rate versus per capita GDP

(b) ( i) Outline the relationship between total fertility rate and per capita GDP based
on the graph in Figure 3. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Explain how the level of poverty in countries accounts for the relationship
outlined in (b) (i) above. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
-6-

5. Figure 4 shows the death rate (DR) and birth rate (BR) of a developing country from the year
1900 to 2000.

50

45

40
£:::
-~ 35
E
:::s
g. 30
c. BR
0
25
-...
0
0

~ 20
c.
~

~ 15
~

10
- -- DR
5

0
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Time (years)

Figure 4. Death rate and birth rate of a developing country

(a) Describe how the growth rate of the population changed between 1908 and 2000.
[ 4 marks]

(b) Calculate the doubling time of the population if its rate of growth remains constant
beyond 2000. [ 6 marks]

(c) Outline TWO factors that may be responsible for the changes in the growth rate of the
population since 1928. [ 4 marks]

(d) Assess the role of government policies in controlling population growth rate. Include
SIX points in your response. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
-7-

6. Table 2 presents data for water consumption per capita for developing and developed countries.

TABLE 2: WATER CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA

Group of Countries Water Consumption per Capita (m 3)

Developing 545

Developed 948

(a) Calculate the percentage difference in the per capita water consumption between
developing and developed countries. [ 4 marks]

(b) Describe an environmental impact associated with high per capita water consumption.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Account for the difference in per capita water consumption between developing and
developed countries. [ 4 marks]

(d) A student wrote the following statement based on the information presented in Table 2.

"The high consumption patterns of developed countries are responsible for the world's
environmental degradation. "

Assess the statement in light of current world population distribution. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
- 8-

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. The Government of a developing Caribbean country has announced that after many years
of exploration, major deposits of gold and gravel were discovered in a largely remote and
forested area of the country. Figure 5 presents the results of research conducted by the
Government on the environmental impacts of mining these two natural resources.

90

80

70

....
<.)
60
"'c.
.§ 50 D Gold
......
0
.... • Gravel
....=
~
~
40
r"'l
30

20

10

0
Habitat loss Noise pollution Water pollution Siltation
Type of impact

Figure 5. Environmental impact of mining

(a) Based on the results depicted in Figure 5, compare the environmental impact of extract-
ing these two resources. Include FOUR points in your response. [ 4 marks]

(b) Account for the difference in the level of noise pollution when these two resources are
extracted. Include FOUR points in your response. [ 4 marks]

(c) Discuss THREE factors (excluding environmental) that the Government should
consider before permitting the extraction of these two resources. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
-9-

8. Table 3 presents information regarding the impact on mangrove ecosystems of a restricted


freshwater flow and the discharge of sewage at three locations, A, B and C.

TABLE 3: IMPACT ON MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM

Freshwater Flow Sewage Discharge


Location Death of Mangroves through Mangrove in Mangrove
(Percentage) Ecosystem Ecosystem

A 0 Yes Yes
B 0 Yes No

c 70 No Yes

(a) Describe ONE function of mangrove ecosystems. [ 4 marks]

(b) (i) What can you deduce from the information presented in Table 3? [ 2 marks]

(ii) Justify your response in (b) (i) above. [ 2 marks]

(c) Describe the effect that EACH of the following could have on mangrove ecosystems.
Include SIX points in EACH response.

(i) Reduced freshwater flow through mangrove ecosystems [ 6 marks]

(ii) Discharge of sewage in mangrove ecosystems [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2009
- 10-

9. Figure 6 shows the percentage of countries marketing both specific ecotourism destinations
and traditional tourism destinations between 1985 and 2005.

Key

specific
D ecotourism
traditional
II tourism

1985 1995 2005

Figure 6. Changing trend in tourism travel market

(a) With reference to Figure 6, comment on the trend in the tourism travel market from
1985 to 2005. [ 4 marks]

(b) State FOUR possible reasons for the trend shown in Figure 6. [ 4 marks]

(c) Discuss THREE ways in which ecotourism can be used as a tool for the conservation
of natural resources. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

ENDOFTEST

02120020/CAPE 2009
•. . ..
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2009180 MAY/JUNE 2009
CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTERS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1 - PAPER 02
Insert for Question 2 (b) (i) Centre Number
Candidate's Number

+
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=m··· =r± =-- =-- ==Rt-r-= ~: ... · : =-- ·i±1~·:: -· -·


i t·t··

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET

021 20020/CAPE 2009


•' ..

TEST CODE 02120032


FORM TP 2009181 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
PAPER03/2
2 hours

( 07 MAY 2009 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright© 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02120032/CAPE 2009
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of a Caribbean territory received an application


from a developer for an environmental permit to use an unlogged forested area, Site A, to
develop a resort focusing on ecotourism. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was
done as required but after reviewing the report, the EPA did not give their approval for the
site proposed by the developer but recommended a second site, Site B, to the developer. The
developer was not satisfied with this recommendation because Site B was a regenerating
forest site that was logged about thirty years ago. The developer requested an EIA for Site B.
The results of the studies showing the numbers of different species at each site are presented
in Table 1.

TABLE 1: POPULATION SIZE OF SPECIES AT EACH SITE

Species Number at Site A Number at Site B

Agouti paca 15 10

Dasyprocta agouti 5 19
Iguana iguana 23 23
Geochelone carbonaria 10 8
Geochelone denticulata 2 4

Carduelis cucullatus 5 13

(a) An insert is provided for this question.

On the insert provided and using the same axes, present the data for EACH site in
Table 1 on a bar chart. [13 marks]

(b) (i) Calculate the species diversity for EACH site.

D _ N(N- 1) ]
[ L:n(n- 1) [12 marks]

(ii) Which of the two sites has the GREATER species diversity? [ 1 mark]

(c) Differentiate between 'species abundance' and 'species diversity'. [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120032/CAPE 2009
- 3-

2. (a) Explain how the size of EACH of the following populations can be estimated:

(i) Moving organisms [12 marks]

(ii) Non-moving organisms [12 marks]

(b) Outline the limitations of EACH technique used in (a) above. [ 6 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. The Red Siskin (Carduelis cucullatus) is a rare and threatened species of bird with a limited
range and little choice of habitat.

(a) Describe TWO measures that can be implemented to protect and conserve this species.
In your response indicate why the measures you choose are appropriate. [ 8 marks]

(b ) Design a plan to monitor the population of the Red Siskin. [14 marks]

(c) Explain why Site B may have been recommended by the EPA as the preferred site
for developing the resort. [ 8 marks]

Total 30 marks

ENDOFTEST

02120032/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2009181 MAY/JUNE 2009
CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTE RS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMEN TAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1 - PAPER 03/2
Insert for Question 1 (a) Centre Number
Candidate's Number

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TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET


02120032/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02220020

FORM TP 2009183 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER02
2 hours 30 minutes

( 22 MAY 2009 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council®.


All rights reserved.
02220020/CAPE 2009
- 2-

MODULE!

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) State TWO characteristics of:

(i) Intensive aquaculture [ 2 marks]

(ii) Extensive aquaculture [ 2 marks]

(b) Study Figure 1 which shows the annual production of fish protein from traditional
marine fishing and from the non-traditional practice of aquaculture.

12

10
,....,
c:
"'c: 8
<I)

0 c:
-u-
·-0
=-o - Extensive Aquaculture
'0 <I) 6
0
._-o ... -Intensive Aquaculture
~ c:
= 4
-*-Marine Fishery
..c:
'-'

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Year

Figure 1. Production of fish protein from traditional and non-traditional fisheries

(i) Describe the trend in fish protein production illustrated in Figure 1. Include
specific values in your response. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Which of the two aquaculture methods shown in Figure 1 would you expect to
have a GREATER impact on the environment? Suggest TWO reasons to
justify your response. [ 6 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO environmental concerns associated with the practice of aquaculture.
[ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
..

-3-

2. (a) Table 1 shows the results of using two alternative pest control strategies during the
cultivation of rice in two similar 10-hectare fields.

TABLE 1: PEST CONTROL RESULTS

Parameter Use of Chemical Pest Use of Integrated Pest


Control Method Control Method

Number of times pesticide used 9 1

Cost (per hectare per application) $3000 $8000

Rice yield (bags per hectare) 50 60

Diversity of species in rice field


after application of method 1.5 4.5

Ease of application Easy Difficult

(i) Which of the two methods of pest control shown in Table 1 would you
recommend to rice farmers? Justify your response. [ 6 marks]

(ii) Describe another environmentally sustainable pest control method that is


available to rice farmers . [ 4 marks]

(b) Mr. Farmer lamented to his wife that whenever it rains the water runs downhill very
quickly and the more quickly it runs, the more soil it carries off his hillside farm.

(i) Recommend TWO environmentally sustainable practices in agricultural


systems that Mr. Farmer can use to reduce water runoff and erosion on his
hillside farm. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Justify EACH of the environmentally sustainable practice recommended in


(b) (i) above. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
..
-4-

3. (a) Study Figure 2 which shows an agricultural system practised by Farmer Smith and
answer the questions below.

Figure 2. An agricultural system practised by Farmer Smith

(i) Identify the agricultural practice shown in Figure 2. [ 1 mark]

(ii) Outline FOUR features of this agricultural practice. [ 4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
•'

-5-

(b) An insert is provided for this question.

Table 2 presents a record of the yield of tomatoes harvested by Farmer Smith for the
period 2000 - 2008. Plot an appropriate graph on the insert provided, to illustrate the
results shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2: RESULTS FOR ANNUAL YIELD

Year Annual Yield (thousand kg)

2000 6
2001 6
2002 7

2003 9
2004 12

2005 15

2006 18
2007 22

2008 26
[ 5 marks]

(c) Suggest FOUR reasons for the trend observed in the graph plotted in Part (b) above.
[ 4 marks]

(d) Farmer Smith believes his method of cultivation is sustainable. Suggest THREE
reasons why this may be so. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
-6-

MODULE2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) Study Figure 3 which shows the distribution of fossil fuel use, in million metric tonnes
of oil equivalents, for two Caribbean countries, A and B, and answer the questions
below.

Country A Country B
1

• Domestic
0.25 fEj Electricity generation
~~h;}:§fU?f8{1i13.5 f1l Other
D Transportation

Figure 3. Distribution of fossil fuel use in two countries

(i) Determine the quantity of fossil fuel used for domestic and transportation
purposes in EACH country. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Determine which country uses the larger percentage of its fossil fuel for
electricity generation. [ 3 marks]

(iii) State THREE uses that could be included in the "Other" category shown in
Figure 3. [ 3 marks]

(b) The government of a Caribbean country is planning to set up a new industrial estate
in a remote area. Discuss FOUR factors that would affect the supply of energy to
the new industrial estate. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
-7-

s. (a) Study Figure 4 which shows the cost of electricity from different sources of energy
and answer the questions below.

D Environmental Costs
20
Ea Generating Costs

-~
,.c:l

15
~
=
Qj
u
00
e,
....
"'u0 10
.c
....·<::
l::
u
Qj

fil 5

Coal Solar Cells Geothermal Natural Gas

Electricity source

Figure 4. Cost of electricity from different sources of energy

(i) From Figure 4, determine the environmental cost of using natural gas as a
source for electricity production. [ 2 marks]

(ii) A country is considering switching from using coal to either geothermal


energy or solar cells as a source for electricity production. Based SOLELY on
the data in Figure 4 , which form of renewable energy would you recommend?
Justify your choice with TWO reasons, using specific values. [ 6 marks]

(b) List THREE other factors, EXCEPT cost, that must be considered for successfully
implementing the switch from coal to the form of renewable e nergy that you
recommended in Part (a) ( ii). [ 3 marks]

(c) For a NAMED Caribbean country, indicate whe ther the re new able e nergy
recommendation you made in Part (a) (ii) would be a suitable replacement for coal.
Provide THREE reasons to justify your recommendation. [ 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
- 8-

6. (a) Study Figure 5 which illustrates the changing requirements for nuclear power plants in
the United States of America between 1964 and 1995.

225 - - Plants on order


- - Plants in operation
200

175

150

125

100
/
I
I \
-----
75
__ / I
/

50
I
I --- --
25 __________ .,.
-- _I

1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Time (years)

Figure 5. Illustration of the changing requirements for nuclear power plants in the
United States between 1964 and 1995

(i) In what year was the number of plants on order equal to the number of plants in
operation? [ 1 mark ]

(ii) In which year was the HIGHEST number of nuclear power plants on order?
[ 1 mark]

(iii) How many nuclear power plants were on order in 1995? [ 1 mark ]

(iv) What was the average rate of decline in the number of nuclear power plants on
order over the period shown in Figure 5? [ 2 m arks]

(b) Discuss the impact of the use of nuclear power on the environment. Your answer
should include TWO positive and THREE negative impacts. [15 marks]

Total 20 m ar ks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAJPE/2009
-9-

MODULE3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. (a) Study Table 3 which shows the amounts and distribution of solid waste disposed at a
landfill daily in Trinidad and answer the questions below.

TABLE 3: SOLID WASTE DISPOSED DAILY AT A LANDFILL IN TRINIDAD

Waste Type Mass (tonnes/day)


Metal 0.20
Other/Glass 0.28
Paper products 0.60
Plastic 0.48
Textile 0.16
Wood 0.08
Yard and food waste 2.20

(i) Determine the percentage of the waste type with the SMALLEST daily mass
in the landfill. [ 1 mark ]

(ii) Rank the different waste types in order of INCREASING daily mass in the
landfill. [ 1 mark ]

(iii) How long will it take for 28 tonnes of waste of the same composition as in
Table 3 to be disposed of in the landfill? [ 2 marks]

(iv) Suggest ONE reason why the amount of metal disposed of in the landfill is low.
[ 2 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ' leachate' . [ 2 marks]

(ii) Identify FOUR pollutants, EXCEPT leachate, that can be released by a landfill.
[ 4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
- 10-

(c) Figure 6 illustrates an area around a landfill. Water extracted from both wells was
tested and only one of the drinking water wells in the area was found to be contaminated
by a landfill pollutant.

Study Figure 6 and answer the questions below.

LANDFILL
WELL
A
I
WATER
TABLE
RIVER

·-

DIRECTION OF GROUNDWATER
FLOW

Figure 6. Diagram of an area containing a landfill

( i) Which well would be contaminated? [ 2 marks]

(ii) Explain how a pollutant from the landfill could contaminate the drinking water
well. [ 4 marks]

(iii) Why is the other well NOT contaminated? [ 2marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CPJPE/2009
- 11 -

8. (a) Define the term 'noise pollution'. [ 2 marks]

(b) Explain why noise is considered as a pollutant. Provide THREE reasons in your
answer. [ 6 marks]

(c) Study Figure 7 which illustrates the results of a noise monitoring exercise at a carnival
fete and answer the questions below.

160

140

120

100
,-.._
-<
.I:J
"CC
'-'
~
;>
80
~
Q)
.!!l
0
z 60

40

20

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Distance from fete (km)

Figure 7. Results of a noise monitoring exercise at a carnival fete

(i) At what distance is it likely that a homeowner would NOT be disturbed by the
noise from the fete? [ 2 marks]

(ii) A party-goer had to park his car 0.5 km away from the fete. How far would he
have to walk before he began to experience a harmful noise level of 84 dbA?
[ 2 marks]
(d) Explain how any TWO measures reduce noise pollution. In your response, state ONE
example of how EACH measure is used. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE/2009
- 12-

9. (a) Figure 8 is provided as an insert.

Study Figure 8 which is a diagram showing ozone concentration in the earth's atmosphere
and answer the questions below.

(i) Label any TWO layers of the atmosphere. [ 2marks]

(ii) On Figure 8, indicate the position of the ozone layer. 1 mark]

(iii) At what altitude is the ozone concentration LOWEST? [ 1 mark]

(iv) Describe the relationship between 'ozone concentration' and 'altitude'.


[ 3 marks]

(b) Discuss the following statement:

"It is vital to the good health of our environment that the ozone layer is preserved."

Include FOUR points in your discussion. [ 8 marks]

(c) Explain how a NAMED international treaty functions to protect the ozone layer and
reduce ozone depletion. [ 5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02220020/CAPE/2009
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2009183 MAY/JUNE 2009
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTERS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
Insert for Question 3 (b) Centre Number

Candidate's Number

I ! I
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2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Year

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET

02220020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2009183 MAY/JUNE2009
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTERS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2 - PAPER 02
Insert for Question 9 (a) Centre Number - - - - - - - - - -

Candidate's Number - - - - - - - - -

110 ....----------;== ====="9


- - Ozone level

100

90

80*--------------~

70

,.-._
a
..:.:: 60
'-'
Q)
"0
:I
.'.:::::
:::: 50
<

40

30

20

10

Sea Level
0

Ozone concentration (arbitrary units)

Figure 8. Diagram of the earth's atmosphere

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET

02220020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2009184 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVffiONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER03/2
2 hours

( 26 MAY 2009 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright© 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02220032/CAPE 2009
- 2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. After running Guy's Gas Station for 20 years, Guy decided that it is time to retire. He arranged
the sale of his gas station to a real estate developer, who would like to turn it into a small
shopping centre and restaurant complex. However, because of the nature of a gas station, the
new buyer is concerned about environmental contamination. Before the buyer will write that
very large cheque, he wants to see the result of an environmental assessment of the site.

(a) State the name of the group of chemical pollutants Guy could expect to find on his
property. [ 1 mark]

(b) Describe TWO environmental impacts that this group of chemical pollutants can
cause. [ 4 marks]

(c) Guy hires an environmental consulting firm to conduct the environmental assessment.
The consultants take samples over the site as shown in Figure 1 which shows site
dimensions and sampling points. Each sample point in Figure 1 corresponds to ONE
sample taken at the surface of the soil with a shovel. The samples are taken to a laboratory
and analysed. The results are presented in Table 1 on page 3.

N
~l<------------40m------------~>l

2
X
A
1----.- t
1
X KEY
20m
~ -Old Underground Fuel Tank

3 4 [II] - Re-fuelling Pump Island


X X
~ - Oil Change Bays

5 6 X - Surface Soil Sample Point


X X
• - Deep Soil Sample Point

Figure 1. Diagram of Guy's Gas Station

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2009
- 3-

TABLE 1: RESULTS OF THE ANALYSES OF SOIL FROM GUY'S GAS STATION

Sample Point Concentration (mglkg)

1 30
2 6
3 8
4 200
5 10
6 5

(i) From the data provided in Table 1, would you conclude that the contamination
at Guy's Gas Station is high, moderate or low? [ 1 mark]

(ii) Explain how you came to the conclusion you made in (c) (i). [ 3 marks]

(d) Discuss whether the sampling scheme in Figure 1 will provide appropriate data for you
to come to a conclusion about the environmental quality of the site. Include THREE
points in your response. [ 7 marks]

(e) An insert is provided for this question.

Design an alternative sampling scheme to determine the environmental quality of the


soil at Guy's Gas Station. Use the copy of Figure 1 provided to illustrate your sampling
scheme. [10 marks]

(f) Explain how this new scheme is better than the previous sampling scheme.
[ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2009
-4-

2. After you spoke to Guy about your concerns regarding his environmental assessment, he
decided to use a new consulting firm. The new firm included some samples taken deep under
the surface of the ground as well. The results of the depth analysis at Sample Point 4 on
Figure 1 is provided in Table 2 below.

TABLE 2: RESULTS OF THE DEPTH ANALYSIS AT SAMPLE POINT 4

Depth (m) Concentration (mglkg) Depth (m) Concentration (mglkg)

0.0 200 0.9 30


0.1 220 1.0 20
0.2 260 1.1 10
0. 3 300 1.2 5
0.4 300 1.4 5
0.5 270 1.6 0
0.6 200 1.8 0
0.7 110 2.0 0
0.8 50

An insert is provided for this question.

(a) (i) Plot a suitable graph on the insert provided to display the results in Table 2.
[12 marks]

(ii) What is the maximum concentration observed at Sample Point 4?


[ 2 marks]

(iii) At what depth does the contaminant concentration first drop to 0?


[ 1 mark]

(b) Describe the trend shown in the graph. [ 6 marks]

(c) Explain the trend you observed in the data. [ 6 marks]

(d) State THREE possible receptors for the contamination observed at Sample Point 4.
[ 3 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2009
- 5-

3. (a) The results of the depth analyses of two other points on the site have been graphed, and
are shown in Figure 2.
350
- - Sample Point A
300 --------· Sample Point B
..-..
I:)J)
250
~
E
.._,
c 200 ....
.9

-
~

0
....
c
~
(.J

=
ISO

100
..
u
50 ~ .. ~

'

0
0 0.2 0.4 . 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Depth (m)

Figure 2. Graphical results of the depth analyses of Sample Points A and Bon Figure 1

(i) How do the MAXIMUM concentration levels vary among Sample Points 4, A
and B? [ 4 marks]

(ii) How do the depths at which the MAXIMUM concentration levels occur vary
among all THREE sample points? [ 4 marks]

(b) Having received this information, Guy's new environmental consulting firm determines
that the site is not ready for sale, and must be remediated first. They decided on an
excavation and soil replacement strategy for remediation, and plan to remove all soil
contaminated at an average concentration greater than 20 mglkg.

(i) Using the data provided by all three depth analyses, determine the average depth
of the excavation. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Estimate the volume of earth to be excavated in the remediation project.


[ 2 marks]

(c) After the contaminated soil has been removed, it must be treated as hazardous waste.
Suggest a strategy for disposal of the material excavated from Guy's Gas Station.
[ 6 marks]

(d) (i) Suggest an alternative remediation strategy that could be used to clean up Guy's
Gas Station. [ 1 mark ]

(ii) Compare excavation and soil replacement with the alternative remediation
strategy that you proposed in Part (d)(i). Provide THREE points in your
discussion. [ 9 marks]

Total 30 marks
ENDOFTEST

02220032/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2009184 MAY/JUNE 2009
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTERS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2 - PAPER 03/2
Insert for Question 1 (e) Centre Number _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Candidate's Number _ _ _ _ _ _ __

N
~l<-------------40m------------->~l

t
20m KEY

- Old Underground Fuel Tank

- Re-fuelling Pump Island

- Oil Change Bays

[10 marks]

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET


02220032/CAPE 2009
..
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2009184 MAY/JUNE 2009
CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
HEADQUARTERS
ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2 - PAPER 03/2
Insert for Question 2 (a) Centre Number
Candidate's Number

H -t l I H-++-l+H- I 1-1-J ! I '+-+l! I I I'+ I ! t+ H-H+ ! I ! I +-t-H- _j 1 1 1 +H-' +f---Ll- ! 1 !! 1 !!1


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TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET


02220032/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2010173 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 02

2 hours 30 minutes

04 MAY 2010 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2010
-2-

NOTHING HAS BEEN OMITTED

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

02120020/CAPE 2010
-3-

MODULE 1

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) Distinguish between ‘primary ecological succession’ and ‘secondary ecological


succession’. [3 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows the population of alligators in the Black River over a twelve-year period.
Study Figure 1 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 1. Population of alligators in the Black River

(i) Describe the trend in variation of the alligator population shown in Figure 1. Use
specific values in your answer. [3 marks]

(ii) Using the information presented in Figure 1, determine the carrying capacity of
the Black River. [1 mark ]

(iii) In which year was the carrying capacity of the Black River MOST likely achieved?
[1 mark ]

(c) A teacher was overheard saying to her class that “… all living organisms need a source
of phosphorous. … However there is one major difference between the phosphorous
cycle and the carbon cycle that can have a profound effect on the amount of available
phosphorous and the productivity of an ecosystem. We need to be careful in what we do
because humans can have a major impact on the phosphorous cycle”.

Suggest FOUR reasons to support the statement made by the teacher. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-4-

2. (a) The results of a sampling procedure to determine the species of mangroves in three
ecosystems, A, B and C, are presented in Table 1.

TABLE 1: RESULTS OF POPULATION SAMPLING

Number of Mangrove Trees in Ecosystem


Species of Mangroves
A B C

Red mangrove 50 40 12

Black mangrove 38 6 8

White mangrove 12 18 22

Buttonwood mangrove 60 70 40

Species diversity 3.379 3.005

(i) The species diversity for EACH of Ecosystems A and C is indicated in Table 1.
Calculate the species diversity for Ecosystem B using the equation below.

N(N – 1)
D = —————–
n(n – 1)
[5 marks]

(ii) Rank the three ecosystems in DECREASING order of species diversity.


[1 mark ]

(iii) Which of three ecosystems is the MOST stable? [1 mark ]

(iv) Suggest FOUR reasons to support your answer to (iii) above. [4 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-5-

(b) Table 2 shows the results of an ecological study where three amphibians were observed
in a grassland ecosystem. Study the information in Table 2 and answer the question that
follows.

TABLE 2: RESULTS OF ECOLOGICAL STUDY

Parameter Being
Amphibian A Amphibian B Amphibian C
Observed

Food type Ants and flies Termites Ants and flies

Habitat Moist grassy areas Moist grassy areas Moist grassy areas

Feeding behaviour Daytime feeder Night-time feeder Daytime feeder

Suggest THREE inferences that can be made about the competition taking place among
the amphibians in the grassland ecosystem. [9 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-6-

3. (a) Define the term ‘ecological niche’. [3 marks]

(b) Figure 2 illustrates a predator-prey relationship in a research plot in a savannah. Study


Figure 2 and answer the questions below.

Figure 2. Predator-prey relationship in a research plot in a savannah

(i) Describe the trend shown in Figure 2. Include specific values in your answer.
[3 marks]

(ii) In which month was size of the predator population equal to 200? [1 mark ]

(iii) What was the size of the prey population in Month 11? [1 mark ]

(iv) Suggest TWO reasons why the predator population is successfully regulating the
population of the prey. [6 marks]

(c) “Every living organism has limits to the environmental conditions it can endure.”

Provide THREE reasons to support the statement above. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-7-

MODULE 2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) Define the term ‘poverty’. [2 marks]

(b) Study Figure 3 which shows the percentage of the world’s population that is affected
by lack of access to selected social facilities. Given that the world’s total population is
6.7 billion, answer the questions that follow.

Figure 3. Percentage of the world’s population


that is affected by lack of access to selected social facilities

(i) What percentage of the world’s population lacks access to adequate sanitation
facilities? [1 mark ]

(ii) Calculate the number of people who lack access to adequate housing and electricity.
[2 marks]

(iii) How many more people lack access to clean drinking water than to enough food
for good health? [3 marks]

(c) At an environmental seminar, you overhear two statements in a conversation.

Statement 1: “Caring about the environment is often a challenge for poor people.”
Statement 2: “Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects.”

(i) Suggest ONE reason why someone might say Statement 1. [4 marks]

(ii) Provide FOUR reasons to support Statement 2. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-8-

5. (a) The ‘ecological footprint’ of a country is the amount of biologically productive land and
water needed to supply the people in an area with renewable resources and to absorb and
recycle the wastes and pollution caused by resource use. Study Figure 4 which shows
total and per capita ecological footprint for selected countries and answer the questions
that follow.

Figure 4. Total and per capita ecological footprint for selected countries

(i) What is the total ecological footprint for the country with the LARGEST per capita
footprint? [1 mark ]

(ii) What is the per capita ecological footprint for the country with the SMALLEST
total footprint? [1 mark ]

(iii) Describe the trends observed in Figure 4, using specific values in your answer.
[4 marks]

(iv)
China has a relatively small per capita ecological footprint, yet has the second highest
total ecological footprint. Suggest ONE reason for this apparent discrepancy.
[2 marks]

(b) (i) Describe TWO ways in which people impact negatively on the environment, using
THREE specific examples to illustrate EACH way. [6 marks]

(ii) For EACH way in which people impact negatively on the environment as described
in (b) (i) above, suggest ONE way in which this negative result may be mitigated.
Relevant, specific examples are required in your response. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
-9-

6. (a) An insert is provided for this question.


On the insert provided, construct an age structure diagram from the data presented in Table
3. In your diagram, use a horizontal scale of 2 cm to represent 2 million people.
[5 marks]

TABLE 3: AGE GROUP DATA FOR THE POPULATION OF COUNTRY X

Number of People (millions)


Age Group
Female Male

0 – 14 15 12

15 – 30 7.4 5

31 – 50 5.6 3.8

51 – 70 2.6 2.4
71 and over 1.4 1.2

(b) (i) Suggest a country that would have an age structure diagram similar to the one
developed in (a) above. [1 mark ]

(ii) Would the estimate of the likely rate of population growth in Country X be high,
medium, low or negative? [1 mark ]

(iii) With reference to the age structure diagram developed in Part (a), explain your
response to (b) (ii). [3 marks]

(c) (i) Define the term ‘total fertility rate’. [2 marks]

(ii) Study Table 4 and answer the questions below.

TABLE 4: AVERAGE GLOBAL TOTAL FERTILITY RATE


(CHILDREN/WOMAN)

Developed Countries Developing Countries

1950 2.5 6.5

2007 1.6 2.9

a) What is the trend over time in average global total fertility rate shown in
Table 4? [2 marks]

b) Discuss THREE factors that would have contributed to the trend observed
in Table 4. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
- 10 -

MODULE 3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. (a) Figure 5 represents a traditional agricultural practice of indigenous peoples in a Caribbean


country.

Figure 5. Traditional agricultural practice

(i) Identify the traditional agricultural practice in Figure 5. [1 mark ]

(ii) Outline how this type of agriculture practice is carried out. [4 marks]

(iii) “Indigenous forest dwellers often cause tropical forest destruction because of their
traditional agricultural practice.”

Do you agree with this statement? Provide THREE reasons to support your answer.
[6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2010
- 11 -

(b) Figure 6 shows the percentage employment in a Caribbean country in two natural resource
sectors: fisheries and forestry. Study Figure 6 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 6. Percentage employment in the fisheries and


forestry sector in a Caribbean country

(i) Describe the trend illustrated in Figure 6. [3 marks]

(ii) In which year is the employment in the fisheries sector GREATEST?


[1 mark ]

(iii) What is the TOTAL percentage employment of the forestry sector in 2003 and
2004? [1 mark ]

(c) A logging company applied to the government of the Caribbean country, R, for permission
to harvest logs from a part of the forest. They were advised by the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was needed before their
request could be considered since the conservation of the country’s forests was a priority.

Justify the request of the EPA for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Give TWO
points in your answer. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
- 12 -

8. (a) Figure 7 shows the amount of fish harvested from traditional marine fishing grounds in
Country X. Study Figure 7 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 7. Fish harvest for Country X from traditional fishing grounds

(i) Describe the trends in fish harvest shown in Figure 7. [3 marks]

(ii) In what year was the maximum yield of fish obtained? [1 mark ]

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons for the trends shown in Figure 7. [4 marks]

(iv)
At what production level would you recommend that the country continue to
harvest its fish resource? Provide THREE reasons for your recommendation.
[6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2010
- 13 -

(b) Figure 8 shows a remote location in a Caribbean country where work has begun for the
exploitation of a gold reserve. The location of the gold reserve is a heavily forested and
hilly area with few population centres.

Figure 8. Location of gold reserve in a Caribbean country

Outline TWO factors that the government of the Caribbean country may have considered
before making the decision to grant permission to private investors to exploit the gold
resource. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2010
- 14 -

9. (a) Figure 9 shows the contributions to the economy made by natural resources over a three-
year period for a Caribbean country, P. Study Figure 9 and answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 9. Contributions from natural resources

(i) Describe the trend in the contribution made by natural resources in Country P.
[3 marks]

(ii) What was the percentage contribution made by forestry in Year 1? [1 mark ]

(iii) What was the difference in percentage contributions made by minerals in Year 1
and Year 3? [1 mark ]

(b) In the Caribbean country, P, which has many beaches, many people do not see the need for
conservation and management of beaches as a natural resource. Suggest THREE reasons
to convince a group of students that the conservation of beaches as a natural resource is
necessary for the country. [9 marks]

(c) Justify the usefulness of the following in the conservation and management of beaches in
the Caribbean:

(i) Education and awareness [3 marks]


(ii)
Legislation [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02120020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2010173 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 02

Insert for Question 6 (a) Centre Number ..................................................

Title: .................................................. Candidate’s Number ..................................................

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET


02120020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2010174 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 03/2

2 hours

06 MAY 2010 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2010
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

In 1997, a rare species of tanagers was discovered in a remote forest location in Guyana where development
activity or human interference was not evident. The population of tanagers was observed and monitored
from 1998 to 2007. The estimated number of tanagers in the population from 1998 to 2007 is indicated
in Table 1.

TABLE 1: ESTIMATED NUMBER OF TANAGERS

Year Estimated Number

1998 550

1999 630

2000 730

2001 820

2002 950

2003 970

2004 960

2005 930

2006 820

2007 780

In 2008, a developer was granted a concession for the construction of eco-lodges. These eco-lodges were
to provide accommodation for the increasing number of tourists and birdwatchers who wished to visit the
forest location and observe the tanagers. A part of the area was cleared to construct eco-lodges, viewing
galleries and other infrastructure.

To increase the attraction of the area for bird watching, the developer proposed to introduce three new
species of birds.

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02120032/CAPE 2010
-3-

1. (a) An insert is provided for this question.

Use the information in Table 1 to plot an appropriate graph showing the variation in the
size of the population of tanagers from 1998 to 2007. [12 marks]

(b) With reference to your graph:

(i) Describe the variation of the tanager population between 1998 and 2007.
[6 marks]

(ii) Suggest plausible explanations for the variation in the tanager population identified
in (b) (i) above. [10 marks]

(c) From your graph, estimate the carrying capacity of the ecosystem for tanagers.
[2 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. Evaluate the possible impact of EACH of the following actions of the developer on the tanager
population:

(a) The introduction of the new species [10 marks]

(b) Clearing an area of the forest [10 marks]

(c) Presence of the visitors [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. Design a monitoring plan to determine the impact of the development on the tanager population.

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02120032/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2010174 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 03/2

Insert for Question 1 (a) Centre Number ..................................................

Candidate’s Number ..................................................

TO BE ATTACHED TO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET

02120032/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2010176 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPER 02

2 hours 30 minutes

21 MAY 2010 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. DO NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer SIX questions, TWO from EACH Module.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2010
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer ANY TWO questions.

1. (a) A farmer in Trinidad who was experiencing some problems with pests on his farm sought
the advice of the agriculture extension officer. The officer recommended that the farmer
use the biological pest control method. Study Figure 1, which illustrates the outcome of
the application of this method of pest control, and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 1. Biological pest control on a farm

(i) Describe the trend shown in Figure 1. [4 marks]

(ii) State THREE pieces of information that are vital when employing this method of
pest control. [3 marks]

(iii) Suggest THREE reasons why this method of pest control was recommended.
[6 marks]

(iv) Why would the agriculture officer advise the farmer to try always to maintain the
biological control agent at the level C shown in Figure 1? [3 marks]

(b) The farmer on a nearby farm decided to continue to employ chemical control methods.
Why do you think that the farmer made this decision in spite of his knowledge of biological
pest control? Suggest TWO reasons for your answer. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-3-

2. (a) Distinguish between ‘genetic engineering’ and ‘plant and animal breeding’.
[3 marks]

(b) Study Figure 2, which shows the change in the agricultural labour force and the average
size of farms in a Caribbean country over the period 1998 to 2006, and answer the questions
that follow.

Figure 2. Change in the agricultural labour force and size of farms

(i) Describe the trend shown in Figure 2. [4 marks]

(ii) In which year was the average size of farms 4 hectares? [1 mark ]

(iii) Suggest THREE reasons for the trend observed in Figure 2. [6 marks]

(c) Many Caribbean countries are recommending the practice of sustainable agriculture in an
effort to increase their agricultural output and so guarantee continued food security in the
region.

Suggest TWO reasons for the recommendation above. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-4-

3. (a) Study Figure 3, which shows the causes of soil degradation at two farms, Farm A and
Farm B, and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 3. Causes of soil degradation

(i) Comment on the causes of soil degradation as shown in Figure 3. Include specific
values in your response. [3 marks]

(ii) What mechanism caused the LEAST soil degradation? [1 mark ]

(iii) What percentage of soil degradation on Farm B was caused by erosion?


[1 mark ]

(b) Conservation tillage would be a good measure for reducing soil degradation. Give TWO
reasons to support the statement above. [4 marks]

(c) Farmers in some rural areas are unlikely to consider increasing the level of mechanization
in their operation. They have indicated that they have a number of concerns that need to
be addressed before they can do so.

(i) What is meant by ‘mechanization in agriculture’? [3 marks]

(ii) Suggest FOUR reasons why farmers in some rural areas may not wish to increase
the level of mechanization in their farming operations. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-5-

MODULE 2

Answer ANY TWO questions.

4. (a) Study Figure 4, which shows the total sales of incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs in
the Caribbean between 1996 and 2006, and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 4. Total sales of incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs in the Caribbean

(i)
Describe the trend observed in sales of light bulbs in the Caribbean over the nine-
year period shown in Figure 4. Include specific values in your response.
[3 marks]

(ii) In what year were there sales of 5 million fluorescent bulbs? [1 mark ]

(iii) How many bulbs were sold when sales for BOTH types of bulbs were equal?
[1 mark ]

(iv) Suggest TWO reasons for the trend observed in the graph in Figure 4.
[4 marks]

(b) The use of ‘combined cycles’ is one of the fastest growing processes that is promoted to
increase energy conservation and efficiency.

(i) What is meant by ‘combined cycles’? [3 marks]

(ii)
Would you recommend the use of combined cycles as a process for generating
energy in your country? Suggest FOUR reasons to justify your response.
[8 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-6-

5. (a) Table 1 shows trends in energy use by source and the willingness of people to convert to
the use of a particular energy source in a Caribbean country.

TABLE 1: TRENDS IN ENERGY USE BY SOURCE

Annual Rate of Persons Willing to Use


Energy Source
Growth of Use (%) this Form of Energy (%)

Wind power 5 7

Natural gas 15 35

Solar 30 40

Geothermal 1 2

Hydropower 2 4

(i) Outline the trend in annual rate of growth in use for the energy sources shown in
Table 1. Include specific values in your response. [3 marks]

(ii) Suggest ONE reason for the trends observed in (i) above. [3 marks]

(b) The manager of a Power and Light company in a Caribbean country recently announced
plans to set up a conventional electricity generating facility within the coastal area. This
facility, unlike the previous one set up by the company, will be located in close proximity
to a coastal mangrove swamp.

(i) Justify the locating of this conventional electricity generating facility within the
coastal area as proposed by the manager. Give at least FOUR reasons to support
your answer. [8 marks]

(ii) Outline TWO environmental impacts that the manager of the company should
consider before implementing his decision. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-7-

6. Study Figure 5, which shows the past and projected energy demand patterns from fossil fuels for
three Caribbean countries, Country P, Country Q and Country R, and answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 5. Past and projected energy demand patterns

(a) Outline the overall demand pattern for energy from fossil fuels shown in Figure 5. Include
specific values in your answer. [4 marks]

(b) Suggest THREE reasons for the demand pattern shown in Figure 5. [6 marks]

(c) The Minister responsible for the Environment in Country Q has cautioned citizens about
its demand pattern as shown in Figure 5.

Identify and discuss TWO environmental concerns that the Minister may have regarding
the energy demand pattern as shown in Figure 5. [6 marks]

(d) For EACH of the concerns identified in (c) above, make ONE recommendation.
[4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-8-

MODULE 3

Answer ANY TWO questions.

7. (a) (i) List TWO primary air pollutants. [2 marks]

(ii) Why is nitrogen dioxide considered a secondary air pollutant? [2 marks]

(b) Ozone may be called a gas with a multiple personality, because sometimes it is considered
a pollutant, and sometimes it is not.

(i) Under what condition is ozone NOT considered a pollutant? [1 mark ]

(ii) Explain your response to (b) (i) above. [2 marks]

(c) (i) Outline the formation of acid rain. [4 marks]

(ii) Explain how acid rain results in the destruction of vegetation. [4 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2010
-9-

(d) Figure 6 shows the results of an air quality monitoring exercise that was conducted to
determine the impact of the construction of a new building on the airborne dust levels in
a town. Use the data in the figure to answer the questions that follow.

Figure 6. Results of an air quality monitoring exercise


at two locations over two months

(i) Identify which of Sites A and B was the experimental site and which was the control
site. [1 mark ]

(ii) On which day did construction begin on the site? [1 mark ]

(iii) On which day did construction finally end on the site? [1 mark ]

(iv) Explain how you arrived at the answers to (d) (i) and (ii) above. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
- 10 -

8. (a) Figure 7 illustrates the results of a monitoring exercise of a river that receives effluent
from a sewage treatment plant. The dissolved oxygen levels in the river were monitored
at intervals downstream of the plant, and the recovery of the oxygen in the river was
determined. Study Figure 7, and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 7. Concentration of dissolved oxygen downstream of a sewage treatment plant

(i) At what distance from the sewage plant is the dissolved oxygen concentration at
its LOWEST? [1 mark ]

(ii) What is the LOWEST dissolved oxygen concentration in the river?


[1 mark ]

(iii) Given that fish must have a minimum of 3 mg/L dissolved oxygen for survival, for
what distance downstream of the sewage treatment plant is the river completely
without fish? [1 mark ]

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02220020/CAPE 2010
- 11 -

(b) (i) Copy and complete Table 2 to show the name and ONE source of THREE different
water pollutants EXCEPT nitrates. [3 marks]

TABLE 2: SOURCE OF WATER POLLUTANT

Name of Water Pollutant


Source

Nitrates Nitrogen fertilizers, manure

(ii) Outline how TWO of the pollutants you mentioned in (b) (i) above impact the
environment. [4 marks]

(c) It is suggested that pregnant women do not eat shark, due to the fact that shark meat may
have high concentrations of mercury. Explain how a shark can exhibit possibly dangerous
levels of mercury, if it does not come into contact with actual metallic mercury, and the
concentration of mercury in the ocean is extremely low. [5 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2010
- 12 -

(d) Table 3 provides information on three different methods for determining nitrates in water.

TABLE 3: EVALUATION OF METHODS TO DETERMINE NITRATES IN WATER


Parameter Ion Selective Spectrophotometric Ion
Electrode Method Chromatography

Detection limit
(smallest concentration that Low Medium Very low
the method can detect)

Speed of analysis Fast Slow Very fast

Cost per analysis Medium Low Very high

Ease of use Easy Easy Medium

Waste production per analysis High High Low

Toxicity of waste High Medium Low

(i) You have been asked to recommend a nitrate-measuring method for your new
laboratory. Assuming that you only need to consider the data provided in Table
3, which method would you recommend and why? [4 marks]

(ii) Before you can make a final decision on which method to use for your laboratory,
what is the MOST important factor that you must take into account? [1 mark ]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2010
- 13 -

9. (a) A bioremediation study was performed to determine how well a new bacterial culture would
bioremediate oil-contaminated soil. The soil sample was tested before the experiment
began and the initial soil concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was found
to be 540 mg/kg. Study Figure 8, which illustrates the results of this study, and answer
the questions that follow.

Figure 8. Results of a bioremediation study for an oil-contaminated soil

(i) Define the term ‘bioremediation’. [2 marks]

(ii) How long did it take for the TPH level to drop to 60% of its initial level?
[1 mark ]

(iii) What was the loss in actual TPH concentration by the end of the study?
[2 marks]

(iv) How do you know that it was the new bacterial culture that accomplished the
reduction indicated in Figure 8? [3 marks]

(b) (i) Outline the functioning of incineration as a solid waste disposal technique.
[2 marks]

(ii)
Incineration is being considered in a number of Caribbean islands as an alternative
to open landfills as a waste disposal technique. Discuss this proposal. Include
TWO advantages and THREE disadvantages of incineration in your discussion.
[10 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02220020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2010177 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPER 03/2

2 hours

25 MAY 2010 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®.


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2010
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that follow.

The town of Aloha City sits on the bank of the Grant River, which runs into Half Moon Bay. Half Moon Bay
has been the site of a number of severe fish kills, and the fishermen in the area want the problem resolved.
There are a number of other land use activities in the area: several industries along with residential uses
and large-scale sugar cane production. Figure 1 illustrates the area around Aloha City.

Figure 1. Area around Aloha City

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02220032/CAPE 2010
-3-

1. A monitoring exercise was conducted, with water samples taken from Half Moon Bay and the
nearby rivers, as indicated by the sample points on Figure 1. The results of the monitoring exercise
are shown in Table 1. Study the data in Table 1 and answer the questions below.

TABLE 1: RESULTS OF MONITORING EXERCISE

Results at Sampling Point (mg/L)


Parameter
A B C D E

Lead 0.10 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00

Pesticides 0.00 5.00 1.00 0.00 0.00

BOD 0.00 0.00 15.0 2.00 0.00

Phosphates 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 5.00

Nitrates 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.0 8.00

Dissolved oxygen 7.50 7.80 6.05 3.50 2.00

(a) (i) What land use activity is responsible for the fish kills in Half Moon Bay?
[1 mark ]

(ii) Explain how you came to this conclusion. [8 marks]

(b) (i) Describe the trend in the organic matter results shown in Table 1. [2 marks]

(ii) Suggest ONE reason for the trend you observed in Table 1. [3 marks]

(c) (i) State the name of the process that caused the fish kills in Half Moon Bay.
[1 mark ]

(ii) Explain how this process can result in the fish kills in Half Moon Bay.
[8 marks]

(iii) Recommend and outline a mitigation method to the Aloha City Mayor that will
prevent future fish kills in Half Moon Bay. [7 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2010
-4-

2. (a) Table 2 presents the results of a long-term monitoring programme at the mouth of the Grant
River (Sample Point D). Study the data in the table and answer the questions below.

TABLE 2. RESULTS OF LONG-TERM NITRATE MONITORING

Time (months) Nitrate Concentration (mg/L)

0 10.0

4 9.40

8 10.2

12 10.0

16 14.0

20 16.6
24 16.0

28 16.2

32 15.8

36 16.0

40 16.0

44 12.2

48 8.60

52 2.40

56 1.00

60 1.20

64 0.80


(i) Plot a suitable graph to illustrate the results of the long-term nitrate monitoring at
the mouth of the Grant River. [12 marks]

(ii) Describe the trend observed in the graph. Include specific values in your answer.
[3 marks]

(iii) Determine the slope of the graph over Months 12 to 20. [2 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2010
-5-

(b) (i) During the period of monitoring, there was a major fire that destroyed a significant
portion of the mangrove forest in the area. Indicate on your graph when you believe
this occurred. [1 mark ]

(ii) Give reasons to support your response in Part (b) (i) above. In your response,
include an explanation of the functions of mangrove forest. [8 marks]

(c) Suggest TWO reasons for the trend shown from months 40 to 64. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2010
-6-

3. (a) Due to the pollution in Half Moon Bay, the levels of fish in the bay declined. This
encouraged a number of persons to invest in aquaculture instead.

(i) Define the term ‘aquaculture’. [2 marks]

(ii)
Mr. Pescado, a former fisherman, has decided to take up the farming of the freshwater
tilapia to offset his losses from fishing in Half Moon Bay. Use the sketch map
provided to suggest a location for his aquaculture business.
[2 marks]

(iii) Outline the process of tilapia aquaculture that Mr. Pescado would use on his
farm. [6 marks]

(iv) What are TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of aquaculture that Mr. Pescado
would have to consider? [4 marks]

(b) Table 3 provides world data on the amount of fish farmed by aquaculture and caught in
traditional fisheries. Study the table and use the data to answer the questions below.

TABLE 3: WORLD DATA ON WILD AND FARMED FISHERIES

Catch (millions of metric tonnes)


Year
Wild Aquaculture

1950 20 0

1960 35 2

1970 65 5

1980 70 10

1990 100 15

2000 135 50

2010 A B

(i) Plot a suitable bar chart to display the data shown in Table 3. Include space on
your graph for the 2010 data point. [12 marks]

(ii) Suggest and plot appropriate values for A and B on your graph. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02220032/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2011177 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 02

2 hours 30 minutes

03 MAY 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2011
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. Figure 1 shows the way in which the number of individuals of two symbiotic species change over
time.

120
Species 1
100
Number of Individuals

Species 2
80

60

40

20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (months)

Figure 1. A graph illustrating the way in which the number of individuals


of two symbiotic species change over time

(a) (i) Name the type of symbiotic relationship illustrated in Figure 1. [1 mark ]

(ii) Explain how the symbiotic relationship named in (a) (i) may result in a graph like
Figure 1. [4 marks]

(iii)
An analysis of the graph in Figure 1 resulted in the following statement being
made.
“The presence of Species 2 is a limiting factor for Species 1”.

Is this statement correct? Give ONE reason to justify your answer. [3 marks]

(iv)
After how many months is the difference between the number of individuals in
Species 1 and Species 2 at its greatest? Show how you arrived at the answer.
[3 marks]

(v) What is the smallest number of individuals of Species 1? [1 mark ]

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-3-

(b) Figure 2 shows an outline of an ecological pyramid.

Figure 2. Outline of an ecological pyramid

(i) Reproduce this outline in your answer booklet and label EACH section with the
appropriate organism from the following list:

• Cricket
• Lizard
• Grass
• Mongoose
[4 marks]

(ii) Using the ecological pyramid in (i) explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
[4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-4-

2. (a) You are required to determine the species diversity of some non-mobile (immobile)
organisms in a section of a coral reef in the Caribbean. Name and describe the method
that you would use to collect the data for calculating the species diversity. [5 marks]

(b) Figure 3 shows the species data as a stacked bar chart.

100

90

80

70
Number of Individuals

60
Tridacna gigas
50 Haliclona lehnerti
Epicystis crucifer
40 Balanus eburneus

30

20

10

0
Reef Species

Figure 3. Species diversity data

(i) Use the data in Figure 3 to determine the number of individuals of EACH
species. [4 marks]

(ii) What percentage of the species is represented by Haliclona lehnerti? [ 1 mark ]

(iii) Calculate the species diversity for the coral reef. [4 marks]

(c) (i) Define the term ‘ecosystem stability’. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain why a low species diversity may result in poor ecosystem stability.
[4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-5-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. Figure 4 shows age structure diagrams for three countries, Country X, Country Y and Country Z.
Study Figure 4 and answer the questions that follow.

Country X Country Y Country Z

Male Female Male Female Male Female


Age
80+
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
Population Population Population
(in millions) (in millions) (in millions)

Figure 4. Age structure diagrams for three countries

(a) Name THREE types of population pyramids that are constructed based on mortality and
fertility rates. [3 marks]

(b) (i) State ONE deduction about population growth that can be made for EACH of the
three countries X, Y and Z. [6 marks]

(ii) Which ONE of the three pyramids represents a developing country? Give a reason
for your answer. [2 marks]

(c) Discuss how EACH of the following factors may affect human population growth rate.

(i) Age of marriage

(ii) Family planning services

(iii) Government policy [9 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-6-

4. (a) Figure 5 shows the percentage of people living in urban and rural areas in three countries,
Country A, Country B and Country C. Study the figure and answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 5. Percentage of people living in urban and rural areas in three countries

(i) Copy the diagram above in your answer booklet and complete it by inserting the
missing bars for Country B and for Country C. Assume that the population for
all three countries is comprised of rural and urban only. [2 marks]

(ii) Compare the rural and urban population distribution in the three countries.
[3 marks]

(iii) Explain why the population growth in Country B may have resulted in the population
distribution illustrated in the graph that you have completed. [4 marks]

(b) Outline TWO environmental impacts that are associated with the type of population
distribution in Country C. [6 marks]

(c) (i) State what is meant by the term ‘sustainable development’. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain how an increase in the population may affect a country’s ability to achieve
sustainable development. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-7-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) For any named Caribbean country, identify TWO of its natural resources. [3 marks]

(b) Give FOUR reasons why ONE of the natural resources you identified in (a) above, is
important to the named Caribbean country. [8 marks]

(c) Large areas of Country X are covered in dense forest. In 1975, there was little road access
to many of the forested areas, and no governmental regulation of illegal log removal
in remote areas of the country. During the period 1975 to 1995, two important events
occurred in Country X that affected the illegal tree harvesting trade: a new road was built
into the interior of the forested areas by the government and a new environmental policy
regulating tree harvesting was put in place. Figure 6 below illustrates the trend in illegal
tree harvesting in Country X from 1975 to 1995.

1000
Illegal tree harvesting,

800
’000s of logs

600

400

200

0
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
Year

Figure 6. Trend in illegal tree harvesting in Country X from 1975 to 1995



(i) In what year was the new road built? [1 mark ]

(ii) Explain how the new road might have affected the illegal tree harvesting trade.
[3 marks]

(iii) Explain how the new environment policy would have affected the illegal tree
harvesting trade. [3 marks]

(iv) How long did it take for the illegal tree harvesting trade to return to the level that
existed before the new road was built? [2 marks]

Total 20 marks
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02120020/CAPE 2011
-8-

6. (a) Give ONE reason why natural resources should be conserved. [1 mark ]

(b) Waste reduction and minimisation has been identified as one method by which natural
resources can be conserved. Explain how this practice can result in natural resource
conservation. [3 marks]

(c) Many industries require encouragement to practise waste reduction and minimisation.

(i) Name TWO measures that can be used to encourage industries to practise waste
reduction and minimisation. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain how ONE of these measures functions to persuade industries to practise
waste reduction and minimisation. [4 marks]

(iii) Discuss ONE action that would contribute to the effective use of these measures
in the Caribbean. [3 marks]

(d) The extraction of gravel in quarrying activities can result in significant water pollution
due to sedimentation and siltation. To combat this, a series of settling ponds are used to
reduce the total suspended solid load leaving the quarry. Figure 7 illustrates the water
quality of the quarry effluent before and after each of four settling ponds.

Before Settling Ponds

After Settling Pond 1

After Settling Pond 2

After Settling Pond 3

After Settling Pond 4

0 100 200 300 400 500


Total suspended solids, mg/L

Figure 7. Water quality in quarry effluent before and after settling pond treatment

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02120020/CAPE 2011
-9-

(i) What is the percentage reduction of total suspended solids in the quarry effluent
after the entire treatment process? [3 marks]

(ii) What is the percentage reduction of total suspended solids in the quarry effluent
after TWO ponds? [2 marks]

(iii) Are four settling ponds necessary for good pollution control in this quarry? Give
ONE reason for your answer. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02120020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2011178 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 1: ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

PAPER 03/2

2 hours

05 MAY 2011 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2011
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NOTHING HAS BEEN OMITTED.

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02120032/CAPE 2011
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Answer ALL questions.

1. A group of students from Trinidad and Tobago visited Guyana to conduct an ecological study.
The results of the study showing the numbers of different species observed at each of two sites
are presented in Table 1.

TABLE 1: SPECIES NUMBERS AT TWO SITES IN GUYANA

Species Numbers at Site 1 Numbers at Site 2

Species A 16 23

Species B 4 3

Species C 24 45

Species D 12 9

Species E 4 12

Species F 8 23

(a) Draw a bar graph to present the data shown in Table 1. [6 marks]

(b) (i) Calculate the species abundance for Site 1. [1 mark ]

(ii) Calculate the species diversity for Site 2. [4 marks]

(iii) The species diversity of Site 1 is 3.1. Which of the two sites would you expect to
be more stable? Justify your choice. [5 marks]

(iv)
Using the values calculated in (b) (i) and (b) (ii), and the species diversity of Site
1, compare the ‘species abundance’ and ‘species diversity’ of Site 1 and Site 2.
[4 marks]

(c) (i) Describe a method which may be used to estimate the population size of moving
organisms. [7 marks]

(ii) State THREE assumptions of the method described in (c) (i). [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

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2. Table 2 presents population data for Country A for three years, 1995, 1996 and 1997. At the
beginning of 1995, the population numbered 2,500,000. The data in Table 2 represent changes in
the population at the end of each of the three years.

TABLE 2: POPULATION DATA FOR COUNTRY A

Year
Population Parameters
1995 1996 1997

Number of births 60,200 59,720 59,220

Number of deaths 10,000 8,500 7,000

Number immigrated 300 400 300

Number emigrated 500 620 500

Population at end of year 2,653,020

(a) Calculate, showing each step,

(i) the population size at the end of 1995 [3 marks]

(ii) the birth rate of the population at the start of the 3-year period [2 marks]

(iii) rate of natural increase of the population for 1995 [2 marks]

(iv) total population increase of Country A for the three years. [2 marks]

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(b) Figure 1 depicts four stages of demographic transition.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Age
05

15
Males(%) Females(%) Males(%) Females(%) Males(%) Females(%) Males(%) Females(%)

Figure 1. Four stages of demographic transition

What can be deduced from Stage 1, Stage 3 and Stage 4 about the following parameters?

(i) Birth rate

(ii) Life expectancy [6 marks]

(c) Explain how fertility rates can affect the population growth of

(i) a developed country

(ii) a developing country. [6 marks]

(d) (i) List THREE ways in which human populations impact negatively on the
environment. [3 marks]

(ii)
Explain how lifestyles in developed and developing countries may have an impact
on the patterns of consumption of natural resources in the respective countries.
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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3. (a) The Aripo Savannah in Trinidad is a protected site that is a prime example of a savannah
ecosystem. This area is used primarily for research on savannah species and ecosystems.
Recent times have seen increasing levels of encroachment as persons build houses in the
savannah. Table 3 shows the number of houses built during the period 1960 – 2010.

TABLE 3: NUMBER OF HOUSES IN THE ARIPO SAVANNAH FROM 1960 TO 2010

Year Number of Houses

1960 1

1965 1

1970 2

1975 3

1980 8

1985 8

1990 16

1995 20

2000 21

2005 ?

2010 ?

(i) Plot a line graph to illustrate the data provided in Table 3. [8 marks]

(ii) Use the graph in (i) to determine the rate of house construction in the Aripo
Savannah from 1975 – 2000. [4 marks]

(iii) Use the graph in (i) to estimate the number of houses in the Aripo Savannah in
2010. [3 marks]

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(b) Apart from research and teaching, state TWO reasons for the importance of the Aripo
Savannah as a natural resource. [2 marks]

(c) Describe THREE measures that the Government of Trinidad and Tobago could use for the
management and conservation of the Aripo Savannah. [9 marks]

(d) Choose ONE of the measures described in (c) above. Discuss how effective this measure
is likely to be in preventing additional destruction of the Aripo Savannah. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02120032/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2011180 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPER 02

2 hours 30 minutes

20 MAY 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2011
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MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) List THREE characteristics of commercial agricultural systems. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Give TWO examples of the use of technology in agriculture. [2 marks]

(ii) For EACH example given in (i) above discuss how it can be used to improve
agricultural productivity. [4 marks]

(c) Figure 1 shows the agricultural yield obtained by a farmer when using inorganic fertilisers
and organic fertilisers on his farm.

Fertilisers use and crop yield

12
Crop Yield (tonnes)

10
8
Organic Fertiliser
6
Inorganic Fertiliser
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Amount of fertiliser used (kg/ha)

Figure 1. Agricultural yield obtained by a farmer


when using inorganic fertilisers and organic fertilisers

(i) Based on Figure 1 make FIVE deductions about the agricultural yield from the
farm. [5 marks]

(ii) Give THREE reasons why organic fertiliser is promoted as a feasible alternative
to inorganic fertiliser despite the trend in Figure 1. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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2. Figure 2 shows the contributions made by subsistence and commercial agriculture to agro-
processing, food security, GDP and employment in a Caribbean country.

90
80
Percentage Contribution

70
60
50 Subsistence
40 Commercial
30
20
10
0
Agroprocessing Food security GDP Employment

Figure 2. Contributions made by subsistence and commercial agriculture

(a) (i)
Based on Figure 2 make FOUR deductions about the contribution of subsistence and
commercial agriculture to agro-processing, food security, GDP and employment.
[4 marks]

(ii) What is the total percentage contribution made by subsistence agriculture in the
Caribbean country? [1 mark ]

(b) State THREE features of sustainable agriculture. [3 marks]

(c) Give FOUR reasons why climate change is a major threat to sustainable agriculture in the
Caribbean. [8 marks]

(d) Give TWO reasons why agro-forestry is accepted as an environmentally sustainable practice
in agricultural systems. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2011
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MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. Figure 3 shows the shifts in the use of commercial energy resources in Country Y since 1800, with
projections to 2100.

100 1 Wood
Percentage contribution to total energy consumed

2 Coal
1
Wood 3 Oil
2
80 Coal 4 Natural Gas
5 Nuclear
6 Solar/Hydrogen
60 4
Natural Gas

40 6
Solar/ Hydrogen
3
Oil

20
Nuclear
5
0
1800 1805 1950 2025 2100
Year

Figure 3. Shifts in the use of commercial energy resources in Country Y

(a) Describe the pattern of commercial energy resource use in Country Y. [2 marks]

(b) The energy resources illustrated in Figure 3 can be classified as renewable and non-
renewable.

(i) Which of the commercial energy resources illustrated in Figure 3 is expected to


experience increased usage in the future? [1 mark ]

(ii) Into which classification does the energy resource described in (b) (i) above fall?
[1 mark ]

(iii) Using the information in Figure 3, determine which commercial energy resource(s)
may be in complete disuse by 2100. [2 marks]

(iv) Give an explanation for the answer you provided in (b) (iii). [4 marks]

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(c) For many Caribbean countries energy use is very costly.

(i) Which of the resources illustrated in Figure 3 would you recommend for increased
investment in the Caribbean? Give ONE reason for your answer. [4 marks]

(ii) State TWO limiting factors for the use of the energy resource recommended in
(c) (i) above in a named Caribbean country. [2 marks]

(d) Using alternative energy sources is one method of improving energy conservation and
efficiency. Other than the source mentioned in (c) (i) above, describe ONE method for
improving energy conservation, including a discussion of how relevant this method is for
Caribbean countries. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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4. (a) (i) Use a flow diagram to illustrate the conventional generation of electricity using
natural gas as the fuel. [4 marks]

(ii) Annotate the diagram to indicate the function of EACH unit in the process.
[3 marks]

(b) Table 1 below provides data on the generation and consumption of electricity in various
Caribbean countries in 2006.

TABLE 1: ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION


IN VARIOUS CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES, 2006

Country Electricity Generation, Electricity Consumption,


billion kWh billion kWh

Antigua and Barbuda 0.11 0.10

Barbados 0.98 0.91

Belize 0.21 0.19

Dominica 0.09 0.08

Grenada 0.17 0.14

Guyana 0.90 0.75

Jamaica 7.04 6.10

St. Kitts and Nevis 0.13 0.12

Trinidad and Tobago 6.62 6.23

(i)
Classify the countries above in terms of the magnitude of their electricity generation,
using the criteria in Table 2 on page 7. Present your answer in a suitable table.

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02220020/CAPE 2011
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TABLE 2

Size Electricity generation range,


billion kWh

Small < 0.80

Medium 0.80 – 5.00

Large > 5.00


[3 marks]

(ii) Select ONE country from each of the SMALL and LARGE size classes. Suggest
an explanation for the difference in electricity consumption between the two
countries. [4 marks]

Figure 4 below shows the electricity generation and consumption data for three Caribbean countries.

Figure 4. Electricity generation and consumption data for three Caribbean countries in 2006

(c) What is the difference in electricity generation between Grenada and St. Kitts and Nevis?
[3 marks]

(d)
In the Caribbean, many countries utilise fossil fuels as the major energy source in the
electricity generation process. Outline ONE impact of fossil fuel use on the environment.
[3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) What are ‘secondary air pollutants’? [3 marks]

(b) Figure 5 is an insert which shows an incomplete pathway of a pesticide when sprayed
aerially. Complete Figure 5 to show ONE pathway by which the pesticide may enter

(i) humans

(ii) oceans. [2 marks]

(c) Identify the processes in Figure 5 which are labelled A, B, C and D. [4 marks]

(d) Table 3 presents results from a study that was conducted to determine the levels of a pesticide
in a canal that is adjacent to an agricultural farm. The concentration of the pesticide in the
water was determined to be 0.0003 ppm. During the study, aquatic organisms were sampled
and the trophic structure of the aquatic ecosystem was constructed. The concentration of
the pesticide in the organisms at EACH trophic level was measured.

TABLE 3: CONCENTRATION OF PESTICIDE IN ORGANISMS FROM


AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

Trophic Level Pesticide concentration (ppm)



Producers 0.06

Primary consumers 0.4 – 1.3

Secondary consumers 1.5 – 2.7

Tertiary consumers 4.2 – 6.1

(i) State THREE inferences that may be drawn from the results presented in Table 3.
[3 marks]

(ii) Calculate the minimum concentration factor of the pesticide in the tertiary
consumers. [2 marks]

(iii) Explain the pattern of pesticide concentration in the ecosystem that is shown in
Table 3. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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6. (a) Figure 6 shows the amount of waste produced by three countries for the period 1965 to
2005. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 6. Amount of waste produced by three countries for the period 1965 to 2005

(i) List THREE categories of waste produced in the Caribbean. [3 marks]

(ii) Make THREE deductions from the information presented in Figure 6.


[3 marks]

(iii) Based on the information in Figure 6 estimate the projected waste production in
2010 for Country A. [2 marks]

(b) Assess the effectiveness of EACH of the following as mitigation measures or solutions
for environmental pollution.

(i) Legislation [4 marks]

(ii) Policy incentives [4 marks]

(iii) Public awareness and education [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02220020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2011180 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL


ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
PAPER 02
Insert for Question 5. (b) and 5. (c) Centre Number ..................................................
Title: .................................................. Candidate Number ..................................................

aerial Target
Air Crop
spraying Pest

essB
oc
Pr

Soil
Process A
Animals

Freshwater
Process C

Humans
Process D

Oceans

Figure 5. Pathway of pesticide after aerial spraying


02220020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2011181 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 2: AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

PAPER 03/2

2 hours

24 MAY 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2011
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) A new fertiliser formulation has arrived on the market, and the distributor claims that using
it will increase crop yields significantly over any other type of fertiliser available. As the
agriculture extension officer in your area, you decide to test these claims so that you can
advise local farmers correctly. The results of your experiment are listed in Table 1.

TABLE 1: COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF TWO


DIFFERENT FERTILISERS ON CROP PRODUCTION

Crop yield, tonnes/ha


Application rate, kg/ha
Old fertiliser New fertiliser

10 2.5 1.0

20 5.0 3.5

30 8.0 4.0

40 8.5 6.0

50 9.5 6.5

60 12.0 6.5

70 13.5 7.0

80 14.0 6.5

(i) Present the data in Table 1 using a line graph. [10 marks]

(ii) What would you recommend as the BEST application rate for the new fertilizer?
[1 mark ]

(iii) Explain how you decided on your answer to (a) (ii) above, using your graph to
illustrate your answer. [2 marks]

(iv) Calculate the difference in crop yields at an application rate of 65 kg/ha.


[3 marks]

(v) Are the fertilizer distributor’s claims valid? Give ONE reason for your answer.
[3 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2011
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(b) Figure 1 illustrates a number of different sustainable farming practices.

B C

Figure 1. Sustainable farming practices

(i) Name the farming practices at A, B and C. [3 marks]

(ii) Explain how the farming practice at A can allow for the ecological integrity of that
farm. [2 marks]

(iii) How does the farming practice at A differ from that at B? [2 marks]

(c) Explain why farmers in the Caribbean should be concerned about global warming.
[4 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2011
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2. (a) Figure 2 illustrates the amount of carbon dioxide emissions produced by a number of
Caribbean countries.

St. Vincent and The Grenadines Under 2 million metric tonnes


St. Lucia
St. Kitts and Nevis
Guyana
Grenada
1997
Dominica
2007
Belize
Barbados
Antigua and Barbuda

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Carbon dioxide emissions (million metric tonnes)

2 to 10 million metric tonnes

The Bahamas

1997
2007
Suriname

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Carbon dioxide emissions (million metric tonnes)

Over 10 million metric tonnes

Jamaica

1997
2007
Trinidad and Tobago

0 10 20 30 40 50
Carbon dioxide emissions (million metric tonnes)

Figure 2. Carbon dioxide emissions from selected Caribbean countries for 1997 and 2007

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02220032/CAPE 2011
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(i) Describe the general trend of the carbon dioxide emissions for the Caribbean.
[3 marks]

(ii) The carbon dioxide emission data from Barbados displays a different trend. State
the trend in Barbados and suggest ONE reason for the difference. [3 marks]

(iii) Which country had the greatest change in carbon dioxide emissions from 1997 to
2007? [1 mark ]

(iv) Calculate the percentage increase in carbon dioxide emissions for the country
stated in (a) (iii) above. [4 marks]

(v) Consider the data for Grenada. Calculate an estimate of the carbon dioxide
emissions in 2017.
[4 marks]

(vi) Outline the MOST likely impact of carbon dioxide emissions on the Caribbean
region. [4 marks]

(b) The trends observed in Caribbean carbon dioxide emissions suggest that energy efficiency
needs greater emphasis in many countries.

(i) Define ‘energy efficiency’. [2 marks]

(ii) Identify THREE methods of improving energy efficiency. [3 marks]

(iii) For EACH method identified in (b) (ii) above, explain how that method would
result in improved energy efficiency. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2011
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3. (a) Table 2 shows some characteristics of three pesticides.

TABLE 2: SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE PESTICIDES

Half-Life (days) Solubility


Type of Pesticide (mg dm–3)
Water Soil

Pesticide A 140 30 7

Pesticide B Stable 400 5800

Pesticide C 9 10 144

(i) What is meant by the term ‘half-life’? [2 marks]

(ii) Which of these pesticides would MOST likely continue to pollute ground water
supplies a year after application? [1 mark ]

(iii) State THREE reasons to support your answer to (ii) above. [3 marks]

(iv) Construct a bar graph to present the data on the half-life of the three pesticides in
soil. [6 marks]

(b)
A farmer thought of applying all three pesticides at the same time. Which other characteristic
of these pesticides should he consider before doing so? Explain your answer.
[4 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2011
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(c) Table 3 shows the concentration of Pesticide C in the tissues of two different types of
organisms.

TABLE 3: CONCENTRATION OF PESTICIDE C

Organism Concentration of Pesticide C


in tissue (ppm)

Primary producer 0.08

Tertiary consumer 86.00

(i) Calculate the concentration factor for Pesticide C in the Tertiary consumer when
the concentration of Pesticide C in the water is 0.004 ppm. [2 marks]

(ii) The farmer discontinued the use of Pesticide C two years ago. Examination of
the tissues from the Tertiary consumer (fish) showed heavy concentrations of the
pesticide. Explain why the pesticide concentration in the fish is so high even
though no pesticide was applied for the last two years. [12 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02220032/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2012177 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

03 MAY 2012 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer items.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2012
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. Figure 1 shows the population size of the aquatic duckweed, Lemna minor. This weed grows in
canals adjacent to agricultural farms that discharge effluents enriched with agrochemicals, one of
which is a limiting factor for the growth of the duckweed. Study Figure 1 and answer the questions
that follow.

Figure 1. Variation in population size of duckweed

(a) Using an example, other than agrochemicals, explain what is meant by the term ‘limiting
factor’. [4 marks]

(b) Using the information provided in Figure 1, describe the trend in population size of the
duckweed. [4 marks]

(c) It was determined that there was a high concentration of phosphate and nitrate in the
effluent. Using the information in Figure 1, explain

(i) why the effluent concentration resulted in the trend observed in (b) [8 marks]

(ii) how the variation in the duckweed population may impact on the population of
other aquatic species in the same ecosystem. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2012
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2. (a) Distinguish between ‘gaseous biogeochemical cycles’ and ‘sedimentary biogeochemical


cycles’. In your response give ONE example of a gaseous biogeochemical cycle and
ONE example of a sedimentary biogeochemical cycle. [4 marks]

(b) “In a food chain there is a unidirectional flow of energy from the sun to producers and
then to a series of consumers of various types.”

(i) State the ten per cent rule for the transfer of energy from one trophic level to the
next in an ecosystem. [2 marks]

(ii) On the basis of the rule stated in (b) (i), explain why it will be more energy efficient
for humans to eat corn rather than beef. [3 marks]

(c) Figure 2 shows the current forest area as a percentage of the original forest cover in three
Caribbean countries, Guyana, Haiti and Dominica.

Haiti, 5%

Dominica, 65%

Guyana, 85%

Figure 2. Intact forest as a percentage of original forest cover

(i) Showing how you arrived at your answer, determine which TWO countries together
have a combined total of 50% deforestation. [4 marks]

(ii) Based ONLY on the information presented in Figure 2, which country would most
likely have experienced the greatest loss of biodiversity? [1 mark]

(iii) Identify the country where secondary ecological succession is LEAST likely to
occur. [1 mark]

(iv) Justify your response in (c) (iii) above. [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2012
-4-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. Table 1 presents data for per capita CO2 emissions for two countries, A and B. Study the data and
answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: PER CAPITA CO2 EMISSIONS FOR TWO COUNTRIES


Country Population Size (millions) Per Capita CO2 Emissions (kg)

A 8.3 8580

B 71.5 1465

(a) Define ‘per capita CO2 emissions’. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Calculate the total per capita CO2 emissions for BOTH countries. [4 marks]

(ii)
Based on the results of the calculation in (b) (i), in which of the two countries will
the CO2 emissions most likely have a GREATER impact on the environment?
[1 mark ]

(c) “When assessing the relationship between people and their environment, consideration
must be given to abiotic and biotic factors.”

With reference to this statement, explain how EACH of the following can affect the
distribution and activities of human populations.

(i) Extremes of temperature [4 marks]

(ii) Fertile soil [4 marks]

(d) Discuss TWO reasons why some people believe that poverty tends to encourage population
growth. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2012
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4. Table 2 presents data on environmental impacts of over-consumption of natural resources in


Country A and Country B. Study the data and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 2: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF OVER-CONSUMPTION


IN TWO COUNTRIES

Environmental Impact of Intensity of Impact


Over-consumption
Country A Country B

Deforestation Medium Medium

Introduction of exotic species High No impact

Pollution Low High

(a) (i) In which country will there be a greater impact on natural habitats? Give a reason
for your answer. [2 marks]

(ii) In which country will there be a greater displacement of native species? Give a
reason for your answer. [2 marks]

(b) Outline ONE way in which a change in lifestyle can mitigate the impacts identified in
Table 2. [3 marks]

(c) Define the term ‘sustainable development’. [2 marks]

(d) Explain how high fertility rates may impact on a country’s ability to achieve sustainable
development. [6 marks]

(e) (i) Suggest an appropriate fertility rate that would allow Caribbean countries to achieve
sustainable development. [1 mark ]

(ii) Justify your response in (e) (i) above. [4 mark]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2012
-6-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. Figure 3 shows variation in tree density from 1980 to 2000 in three Caribbean countries. Study
Figure 3 and answer the questions that follow.

3500

3000
Tree density (No. of trees/km2)

2500

2000
Country A
1500
Country B
Country C
1000

500

0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Figure 3. Variation in the tree density from 1980 to 2000 in three Caribbean countries

(a) (i) Identify the country, A, B or C, that practises consumptive use of trees.
[1 mark ]

(ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (a) (i) above. [2 marks]

(iii) In what year did the country you identified in (a) (i) above begin to practise
consumptive use? [1 mark ]

(iv) During the decade 1985 – 1995, what rate of change of tree density was observed
in the country identified in (a) (i) above? Show your working. [3 marks]

(v) Which country demonstrated the LEAST change in tree density? [1 mark ]

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02120020/CAPE 2012
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(b) (i) Other than logging, list THREE examples of consumptive use of natural resources
important to the Caribbean. [3 marks]

(ii) A country wishes to invest in tourism as a non-consumptive use of their beautiful


beaches. Several large hotels are planned for one of the country’s best beaches.
Explain THREE possible environmental impacts of this proposed development
on the area. [6 marks]

(iii) To encourage natural resource conservation, the country in (b) (ii) above implements
the following measures and tools for conservation:

1. Sustainable yield management



2. Use of substitutes for non-renewable resources

3. Reduction and minimization of waste

Which ONE of the three measures listed above would apply to the proposed
development in the country in (b) (ii)? [1 mark ]

(iv) Explain why the other measures would NOT apply to the proposed development
in the country. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2012
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6. (a) (i) Using ONLY the examples of natural resources provided below, copy and complete
Table 3 by inserting TWO renewable and TWO non-renewable natural resources.

Natural resources:

• Ground water
• Bauxite
• Seagrass beds
• Sand
• Oil
• Gravel
• Beaches
• Coral reefs
• Gold
• Soil

TABLE 3: CLASSIFICATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Type of Natural Resource

Renewable Non-renewable

1. 1.

2. 2.

[4 marks]

(ii) Discuss the effect of geographical and technological factors on the use of natural
resources. Use suitable examples to illustrate your response. [6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2012
-9-

(b) Table 4 shows data on the growth in population and gravel extraction activities in a country
from 1900 to 2000. Study the data and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 4: POPULATION GROWTH AND GRAVEL EXTRACTION,


1900 TO 2000

Year Population Gravel extracted


(millions) (000’s of tonnes)

1900 0.69 0.15

1920 0.72 0.59

1940 0.87 0.87

1960 0.95 1.66

1980 1.02 2.86

2000 1.31 4.03

(i) Describe the patterns in population growth and gravel extraction in the period
1900 – 2000. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain the relationship between population growth and gravel extraction illustrated
in Table 4. [2 marks]

(iii) Estimate the amount of gravel that would be extracted in the year 2020.
[2 marks]

(iv) Gravel extraction can have significant negative impacts on the environment.
Suggest TWO ways in which these impacts can be mitigated. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2012178 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNIT 1 – Paper 032

2 hours

07 MAY 2012 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer items.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2012
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. Figure 1 (a) and Figure 1 (b) show two ecological pyramids. Study the pyramids and answer the
questions that follow.

Top Carnivore

1 kg

Primary
Carnivore
10 kg

Herbivores
100 kg

Producers
1000 kg

Figure 1 (a) Figure 1 (b)

(a) (i) Describe how energy flows within an ecosystem. [3 marks]

(ii) Which of the two diagrams represents the pyramid of biomass from an aquatic
ecosystem? Give a reason for your answer. [3 marks]

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02120032/CAPE 2012
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(b) Table 1 presents data on population numbers of a predator and its prey collected over a
seven-month period. Study the data and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: PREDATOR AND PREY POPULATION DATA

Number of Organisms
Month
Predator Prey

1 250 340

2 140 180

3 160 100

4 180 120

5 230 150

6 160 240

7 110 220

(i) Use the data in Table 1 to draw an appropriate graph to represent the population
data for the predator and the prey. [10 marks]

(ii) With reference to the graph drawn in (b) (i) above, compare the trends in the
population size of BOTH populations. You are required to use specific values
from the graph. [4 marks]

(iii) Describe TWO ways in which predation may benefit the prey population.
[4 marks]

(c) Discuss THREE ways in which human activities can disrupt the integrity of natural
ecosystems. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2012
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2. Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender Development Index (GDI) are two indices used
when assessing the relationship between population growth, development and poverty. Table 2
presents information relating to Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender Development Index
(GDI) of two countries, A and B. Study the data in Table 2 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 2: HDI AND GDI VALUES FOR TWO COUNTRIES

Country HDI GDI

A 0.33 0.49

B 0.86 0.82

(a) (i) What are the THREE demographic considerations that are taken into account when
determining the Human Development Index (HDI) of a country? [3 marks]

(ii) Why is the Gender Development Index (GDI) useful when assessing the relationship
between population growth, development and poverty? [2 marks]

(iii) State THREE deductions that can be made regarding the relative achievement of
BOTH countries based on their HDI value presented in Table 2. [6 marks]

(iv) What conclusion can be made about Country A and Country B based on the GDI
presented in Table 2. [2 marks]

(b) In Less Developed Countries many women do not have access to education and as a result
have children very early in their child-bearing years. Discuss how improving access to
education for women in Less Developed Countries can contribute to the lowering of the
population growth rate of Less Developed Countries. [8 marks]

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02120032/CAPE 2012
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(c) Table 3 presents data on the world population numbers in 1995 and estimated population
in 2025. Study the data in Table 3 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 3: POPULATION DATA FOR LESS DEVELOPED


AND MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Less Developed Countries More Developed Countries


(millions) (millions)

Population in 1995 4,954 1,465

Estimated Population in 2025 7,542 1,597

(i) Calculate the estimated percentage growth in the world population attributable to
Less Developed Countries between 1995 and 2025. [5 marks]

(ii) What are the implications of this estimated population growth for a Less Developed
Country? Suggest FOUR points in your answer. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2012
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3. Figure 2 shows how the quantities of two natural resources in a country changed during the
exploitation of these resources over a period of ten years. Study Figure 2 and answer the questions
that follow.

Figure 2. Variation in quantities of natural resources A and B over ten years

(a) (i) Based on Figure 2, compare the changes in the quantity of BOTH resources over
the ten-year period. Include FOUR deductions in your answer. [8 marks]

(ii) From the data illustrated in Figure 2, identify the resource which is a renewable
resource. [1 mark ]

(iii) Justify your response to (a) (ii) above. [5 marks]

(b) The Minister of Natural Resources of the country issues a statement saying that the country
will become more involved in bioprospecting since it is an excellent non-consumptive use
of natural resources. Why is bioprospecting considered a non-consumptive use of natural
resources? Include FOUR reasons in your answer. [4 marks]

(c) Explain how EACH of the following can affect the manner in which a country uses its
natural resources.

(i) Population growth

(ii) Public environmental awareness [6 marks]

(d) Discuss how the use of environmental legislation can assist efforts for the conservation
and protection of natural resources. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120032/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2012180 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

22 MAY 2012 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do NOT open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer items.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2012
-2-

NOTHING HAS BEEN OMITTED.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2012
-3-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) State THREE characteristics of subsistence agricultural systems. [3 marks]

(b) Discuss, giving THREE reasons, why natural disasters are threats to sustainable agriculture.
[6 marks]

(c) A student from a Caribbean island assessed the impact of agriculture on the island’s
environment. The results obtained by the student are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Impact of agriculture on the environment

(i) Study Figure 1 and make THREE deductions about the impact of agriculture on
the environment. [3 marks]

(ii) Based on the results depicted in Figure 1, what is the total percentage impact on
water resources? Show your working. [2 marks]

(iii) Explain, giving THREE reasons, why land degradation was as high as 42 per cent.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2012
-4-

2. (a) State FOUR features of sustainable agriculture. [4 marks]

(b) Choosing the right pest control method is an integral part of sustainable agriculture.
Figure 2 shows the frequency of use of different methods of pest control by three farms,
Farm A, Farm B and Farm C. The three methods of pest control used were Integrated Pest
Management (IPM), Biological Control (BC) and Chemical Control (CC).

Figure 2. Methods of pest control used by three farms

Based on Figure 2, make FOUR deductions on the use of different methods of pest control
by the three farms. [4 marks]

(c) Explain, citing TWO reasons, why a decline in agricultural production may be detrimental
to the economy of some Caribbean countries. [6 marks]

(d) Discuss why EACH of the following is considered an environmentally sustainable


agricultural practice:


(i)
Agro-forestry [3 marks]


(ii)
Conservation tillage [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2012
-5-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Figure 3 shows energy output data from a developed country. Study Figure 3 and use the
data it provides to answer the questions that follow.

Figure 3. Energy outputs from a developed country

(i) Define the term ‘energy efficiency’. [2 marks]

(ii) What percentage of this country’s energy output is in some beneficial form? Show
your working. [3 marks]

(iii) Assuming a total energy output of 1 x 1015 BTU, how much energy is lost as
unnecessary energy waste? [2 marks]

(iv) The country described in Figure 3 above has a significant amount of energy lost
unnecessarily. Suggest THREE ways in which this country could improve its
energy efficiency. [6 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ‘kinetic energy’. [1 mark ]

(ii)
With the use of a suitably labelled diagram, explain how wind energy is harnessed
to produce electricity. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2012
-6-

4. (a) A small Caribbean island state is considering diversifying its energy sources and using
less fossil fuels.

Suggest TWO reasons why the island is considering diversification. Provide ONE economic
and ONE environmental reason in your answer. [4 marks]

(b) Figure 4 is a diagram of the physical geography of a small Caribbean island. Use the
diagram to answer the questions that follow.

Figure 4. Diagram of the physical geography of a small Caribbean island

(i) Define the term ‘renewable energy’. [2 marks]

(ii) Based ONLY on the information provided in Figure 4, identify THREE types of
renewable energy sources that would be suitable for use on the island. Justify your
selection of EACH renewable energy source. [6 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2012
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(c) Figure 5 depicts the distribution of the commercial energy use of the world (excluding
the United States). Study Figure 5 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 5. Distribution of commercial energy use by source for the world


(excluding the United States)

(i) What percentage of the commercial energy used is derived from renewable energy
sources? [5 marks]

(ii) In the United States, 7% of the commercial energy used comes from renewable
sources. Compare this value with your answer to Part (c) (i), and suggest ONE
reason for the difference. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2012
-8-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) Figure 6 illustrates the results of a two-month monitoring exercise conducted to determine
the levels of BOD found in the effluent of a sewage treatment plant. During the course of
the monitoring period there were a number of periods when the sewage treatment plant
was malfunctioning (not functioning properly). Study Figure 6 below, and use the data it
provides to answer the questions that follow.

Figure 6. BOD levels in the effluent of a sewage treatment plant over a two-month period

(i) Define the term ‘BOD’. [3 marks]

(ii) How many times during the monitoring period was the sewage treatment plant
malfunctioning? [1 mark ]

(iii) Explain how you arrived at the answer to (a) (ii). [2 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2012
-9-

(iv) What were the first and last days of the LONGEST plant malfunction?
[2 marks]

(v) On average, what was the BOD concentration when the plant was operating
normally? [1 mark ]

(b) Figure 7 illustrates the lower section of a river course. Recently, the oysters collected
from the swamp area were found to contain a significant concentration of heavy metals.
The river water was analysed at Sample Point A, and the water was found to have very
low concentrations of heavy metals. Study the figure and then answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 7. Sketch diagram of the lower section of a river course

(i) Describe the pathway of heavy metal pollution in this section of the river, and use
this information to explain why the concentration of heavy metals is much higher
in the swamp’s oysters than in the river water. [5 marks]

(ii) Fully discuss ONE possible environmental impact of the effluent from the sewage
treatment plant on the river. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2012
- 10 -

6. (a) Define the term ‘pollutant’. [3 marks]

(b) “The institutional framework within a country can be an underlying cause of air pollution.”
Discuss this statement, including THREE points in your response. [6 marks]

(c) (i) Describe the formation of acid rain. Appropriate chemical equations are required
in your response. [6 marks]

(ii) Outline a method to determine if there is an acid rain problem in an entire country.
Your outline should provide a description of any experimental techniques you
might need and clearly explain how you would use your experimental results to
arrive at your conclusion about any acid rain problems. [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2012181 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 032

2 hours

24 MAY 2012 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer items.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2012
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a)
Farmer Singh owns and operates a small dairy farm in a Caribbean country. Describe the
likely characteristics of this farm with respect to its inputs and productivity.
[6 marks]

(b) Table 1 presents Farmer Singh’s milk production data over a month. Plot a suitable graph
to illustrate these data. [10 marks]

TABLE 1: FARMER SINGH’S PRODUCTION DATA FOR ONE MONTH

Date Milk Date Milk


Production, l Production, l

1 Feb 25.5 15 Feb 31.0

3 Feb 22.0 17 Feb 30.5

5 Feb 28.5 19 Feb 15.0

7 Feb 30.0 21 Feb 12.0

9 Feb 28 23 Feb 15.0

11 Feb 26.5 25 Feb 13.5

13 Feb 31.0 27 Feb 12.5

(c) Farmer Singh’s current waste management practice is as follows. The dairy cows’ pens
are cleaned on a daily basis. The solid waste material is removed and placed on a pile in
a distant corner of the farm. The pens are then power washed and more bedding material
provided. The water waste runs off Farmer Singh’s farm into a large drain.

Farmer Singh is interested in improving his waste management practices at his farm and
asks you to suggest some ways in which he can do so.

(i) Suggest THREE ways in which Farmer Singh can improve the waste management
practices at his farm. [3 marks]

(ii) Discuss ONE environmental impact that may occur if Farmer Singh does NOT
improve the waste management practices at his farm. [6 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2012
-3-

(d) Farmer Singh’s milk production has declined recently and he is now considering expanding
his farm to include growing tomatoes and lettuce on the steep hill above his dairy farm.

(i) Name TWO environmentally sustainable practices Farmer Singh can implement
that would address his use of the steep hill for his new expansion. [2 marks]

(ii)
Discuss ONE environmental impact that may occur if Farmer Singh does NOT
implement any of the practices named in Part (d) (i). [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2012
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2. (a) Figure 1 illustrates the trends in energy usage on Farmer Singh’s farm over a period of
two years. Study the figure and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 1. Trends in electricity usage on Farmer Singh’s farm over a two-year period

(i) Describe the trends in energy use on Farmer Singh’s farm in the 24-month period
illustrated in Figure 1. Include specific values in your answer. [8 marks]

(ii) Due to the pattern of energy usage at his farm, Farmer Singh has decided to invest
in solar energy to improve energy conservation at the farm. How many 50 watt-
hour solar panels will Farmer Singh need to meet his farm’s projected electricity
needs in 12 months time? [2 marks]

(iii) Explain how photovoltaic cells convert solar energy into electricity. [3 marks]

(iv) Petroleum can be described as ‘indirect solar power’. Is this description accurate?
Justify your answer. [6 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2012
-5-

(b) (i) State FIVE factors which affect electricity-generating capacity and demand.
[5 marks]

(ii) Use a labelled flow diagram to describe the conventional generation of electricity.
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02220032/CAPE 2012
-6-

3. (a) (i) State the chemical formulae of THREE greenhouse gases. [3 marks]

(ii) Using a labelled diagram, explain the greenhouse effect. [8 marks]

(iii) A student has written the following inaccurate statement in his notebook,
“Greenhouse gases are the most terrible things for the environment”. Explain why
this statement is NOT accurate. [3 marks]

(b) Farmer Singh has been the subject of a study to measure the amount of methane emitted
by the animals in his dairy farm. The data produced by the study are provided in Table 2.
Study the data and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 2: METHANE EMISSIONS (dm3/day) FROM FARMER SINGH’S


DAIRY CATTLE OVER A THREE-WEEK PERIOD

Day Methane Day Methane Day Methane


Emissions, dm3/day Emissions, dm3/day Emissions, dm3/day

1 5.6 8 6.8 15 8.8

2 5.3 9 7.3 16 9.6



WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3
3 6.2 10 7.5 17 8.5

4 6.0 11 8.0 18 9.3

5 7.2 12 7.5 19 9.6

6 7.5 13 8.3 20 9.7

7 6.6 14 8.1 21 9.9

(i) Calculate the average weekly methane emissions from Farmer Singh’s cattle and
record the data in an appropriate table. [4 marks]

(ii) Plot a bar chart to represent the average weekly methane emissions calculated in
Part (b) (i). [7 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2012
-7-

(c) After seeing these methane emission results, Farmer Singh decides to try to capture the
methane emissions.

(i) State TWO reasons why Farmer Singh should try to capture the methane emissions
from his dairy cattle. [2 marks]

(ii) Outline a method Farmer Singh could use to capture the methane emissions from
his cows. [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220032/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2013177 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

07 MAY 2013 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2013
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the nitrogen cycle.

Atmospheric
Lightning nitrogen
Process
I
Animals
Process
III Plants
Decomposers

Process
Ammonium Nitrites Nitrates
II

Figure 1. The nitrogen cycle

(i) Name the types of bacteria that allow processes I, II and III to occur.


Process Type of Bacteria
I
II
III
[3 marks]

(ii) Explain THREE ways by which human beings may alter the nitrogen cycle.
[6 marks]

(iii) A farmer was advised that he could reduce the amount of money spent on nitrogen fertilizers
if he practised intercropping with legumes regularly. Justify the advice given to the farmer.
[5 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-3-

(b) Table 1 below shows the results of an ecological study to determine the diversity of insects
in three ecosystems, A, B and C.

TABLE 1: RESULTS OF ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF INSECTS


IN THREE ECOSYSTEMS


Number of Insects in Each Ecosystem
Species of Insects Ecosystem A Ecosystem B Ecosystem C
Grasshoppers 50 30 45
Wasps 35 3 44
Pond flies 18 19 23
Beetles 70 63 55
Species diversity 3.39 2.55

(i) The species diversity for Ecosystem A and Ecosystem B are given in Table 1. Calculate
the species diversity for Ecosystem C using the equation below.

D = N(N-1)
Ʃ n(n-1) [3 marks]

(ii) Which of the three ecosystems is likely to better withstand ecological disturbance? Give
ONE reason for your answer. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-4-

2. (a) Outline the role of natural selection in the evolution and adaptation of a species.
[3 marks]

(b) Figure 2 shows the percentage impact of different human activities on an aquatic ecosystem
and a terrestrial ecosystem. The impact is measured by the decline in the number of
organisms.

100%
Fertilizer use
90%
80% Pesticide use
70%
Recreational activities
Impact 60%
on
Sewage disposal
ecosystem 50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Aquatic Ecosystem Terrestrial Ecosystem

Type of Ecosystem

Figure 2. Percentage impact of human activities on an aquatic and a terrestrial ecosystem

(i) State THREE deductions that can be made from Figure 2. [3 marks]

(ii) Using values from Figure 2, show which two anthropogenic activities together have the
HIGHEST impact on the terrestrial ecosystem. [2 marks]

(iii) Explain why the discharge of sewage into aquatic ecosystems should NOT be encouraged.
[6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-5-

(c) Figure 3 shows the relationship between the change in the number of fish and the change
in pH in an aquatic ecosystem.

Number of fish

= 100 fish

1 4 6 pH scale 9 11 14

Figure 3. Relationship between the change in the number of fish and the change in pH

Give an explanation for the distribution pattern of fish shown in Figure 3. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Distinguish between Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender Development Index
(GDI). [4 marks]

(b) Explain how EACH of the following factors may affect human population density.

(i) Climate

(ii) Economy [6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-6-

(c) Table 2 shows the percentage of people residing in urban areas in three countries.

TABLE 2: PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE RESIDING IN URBAN


AREAS OF THREE COUNTRIES FROM 1960 ‒ 2000

Country 1960 1980 2000
% % %
A 24 35 55
B 58 65 75
C 72 70 75

(i) Describe the trend of urbanisation for each country as shown by the data in
Table 2. [3 marks]

(ii) The total population of Country B in 1980 was 7.5 million. Calculate the number
of people from Country B who lived in rural areas in 1980. [3 marks]

(d) The pictures below depict environmental issues associated with urbanization.

W X

(i) Identify TWO environmental impacts depicted in the pictures. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain ONE way by which ONE of the impacts identified in (d(i) may be
mitigated. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks
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02120020/CAPE 2013
-7-

4. Figure 4 shows the total fertility rates for women in a country, who are educated at different levels.

3.5

2.5

Total 2
Fertility
Rate 1.5

0.5

0
Primary School Secondary University University University
School (2 years) (4 years) (6 years)
Level of education

Figure 4. Total fertility rates for women by education levels

(a) State FOUR deductions that can be made from the graph about the relationship between
total fertility rate and the level of education of women. [4 marks]

(b) Suggest TWO reasons that can explain the relationship between total fertility rate and the
level of education of women. [4 marks]

(c) Explain how an increase in the fertility rate may affect the country’s ability to use its
natural resources in a sustainable manner. [6 marks]

(d) Table 3 shows data on the per capita waste production in two countries, A and B.

TABLE 3: PER CAPITA WASTE PRODUCTION



Country Population Size (millions) Per Capita Municipal Waste
Production (tonnes)
A 8.1 2.1
B 68.5 0.2

(i) Define ‘per capita waste production’. [2 marks]

(ii) In which country, A or B, does waste production have a greater impact on the
environment. Support your answer, giving THREE reasons. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-8-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions

5. (a) The policies of a country’s government can significantly affect the use of natural resources
by citizens. One such policy is the use of tax incentives. In 1978, Country A implemented
a policy that allowed a 100% tax refund on the cost of purchasing and installing a solar
water heating system. With reference to the data provided in Figure 5, answer the questions
that follow.

3000

2500
Number of solar water heaters

2000

1500

1000

500

1974 1978 1982 1986 1990

Year

Figure 5:. Number of solar water heaters sold in Country A from 1974 to 1990

(i) Describe how a tax incentive works to manage the use of a natural resource.
[3 marks]

(ii) What was the average annual increase in solar water heaters for the first five years
after the tax incentive policy was introduced? [3 marks]

(iii) Evaluate the effectiveness of the tax incentive for changing the behaviour of
Country A’s citizens with respect to the use of a natural resource. Use the actual
values from Figure 5 to support your response. [6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2013
-9-

(b) A student wrote an examination in Environmental Science and gave the following
INCORRECT answers to a number of questions on the paper. For EACH question, provide
the correct answer and explain why the given response is incorrect.

(i) Question: What is the difference between a renewable and an inexhaustible


resource?

Answer: There is no difference between these terms, they are the same thing.
[4 marks]

(ii) Question: Explain how technological factors can affect natural resource use in
the Caribbean.

Answer: Technological factors do affect natural resource use in the Caribbean. For
example, issues such as population growth can have a big impact. As populations
increase, they require more raw materials for housing, etc., and so more resources
will be used up to satisfy the growing population. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) A student was overheard making the following statement:

“I don’t understand why our teacher says that the landscape is a natural resource. You
can’t sell a mountain, or make anything out of a beach. I don’t think that our teacher is
correct about this.”

Present TWO arguments in support of the teacher’s statement. [4 marks]



(b) Using an example, explain what is meant by the ‘non-consumptive’ use of a natural
resource. [3 marks]

(c) Give TWO reasons for the importance of ONE named natural resource to a named
Caribbean country. [6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2013
- 10 -

(d) Table 4 below provides information on the forest cover of a country.

TABLE 4: LAND AREA UNDER FOREST COVER FROM 1990 TO 2005

Year Forest Cover (ha)


1990 235 000
1995 233 500
2000 226 000
2005 224 000

(i) Which five-year period saw the greatest decline in forest cover? Show ALL
working. [4 marks]

(ii) Given that the country has a total area of 512,800 ha, what percentage of the country
was under forest cover in 2005? [1 mark]

(iii) An eco-group in the country is concerned about the rate of loss of forest cover, and
they believe that the government should promote natural resource conservation
more actively in the country. Give TWO reasons to support the opinion of the
eco-group. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks


END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2013178 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNIT 1 – Paper 032

2 hours

09 MAY 2013 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2013
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was conducted for a coastal hotel development project
at Site A, a location which consists of dense mangrove vegetation.

Table 1 provides the population data collected for some of the species from Site A, together with
their feeding relationships.

TABLE 1: POPULATION SIZE AND FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS OF


SELECTED SPECIES OF MANGROVES AT SITE A

Organisms Number at Site A Feeding Relationship


Mangrove trees 10
Caterpillars from Butterfly Species A 10 Feed on leaves of mangrove trees
Danaus chrysippus
Caterpillars from Butterfly Species B 15 Feed on leaves of mangrove trees
Euploea castelnaui15
Bird Species C – Pitangus sulphuratus 5 Feeds on caterpillars of Butterfly
Species A
Bird Species D – Tyrannus melancholicus 10 Feeds on caterpillars of Butterfly
Species A and butterfly Species B
Bird Species E – Harpia harpyja 2 Feeds on Bird Species C and Bird
Species D

The developer was not granted permission for the project and requested an explanation for the
decision. The Environmental Officer explained that the decision was made based on the species
abundance and species diversity of Site A.

(a) Differentiate between ‘species diversity’ and ‘species abundance’. [4 marks]

(b) Use the information in Table 1 to construct a pyramid of numbers to reflect the different
trophic levels for Site A. [6 marks]

(c) Outline an appropriate method that could be used to estimate the size of the mangrove
population. [6 marks]

(d) State TWO limitations of the method you have outlined in Part (c). [2 marks]

(e)
Provide a detailed explanation of how the ecosystem will be affected if a predator of the
butterfly that produces the caterpillars of Species A is introduced into the ecosystem.
[12 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2013
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2. Figure 1 shows the age structure diagrams for a country. The fertility rate is at
replacement level.

MALE FEMALE
100+
95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Population in millions

Figure 1. Age structure diagram

(a) State what is meant by EACH of the following terms:

(i) Total fertility rate

(ii) Replacement level fertility [4 marks]

(b) Use the diagram to calculate the

(i) number of people in the pre-reproductive age group for the country [4 marks]

(ii) percentage of the population that is in the pre-reproductive age group if the total
population of the country is 72.5 million. [4 marks]

(c) Explain how the population of this country will change over the next ten years.
[4 marks]

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02120032/CAPE 2013
-4-

(d) Table 2 presents data for per capita water consumption for developing and developed
countries.

TABLE 2: PER CAPITA WATER CONSUMPTION FOR


DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Group of Countries Per Capita Water Consumption (m3)


Developing 445
Developed 898

(i) Calculate the percentage difference in the per capita water consumption between
developing and developed countries. [4 marks]

(ii) Explain an environmental impact associated with high per capita water
consumption. [4 marks]

(iii)
Account for the difference in per capita water consumption between developing
and developed countries. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2013
-5-

3. (a) Table 3 shows the amount of fish harvested from a mangrove ecosystem and the fishing
effort in terms of number of boats used.

TABLE 3: AMOUNT OF FISH HARVESTED AND FISHING EFFORT USED

Fish Catch kg/day Number of Boats


200 5
400 10
1600 15
3200 20
4000 30
4500 40
3500 50
3000 55
1600 60
200 70

(i) Draw a graph to illustrate the data in Table 3. [8 marks]

(ii) Describe FIVE trends observed in the graph drawn in a (i). [5 marks]

(iii) Explain the term ‘maximum sustainable yield’ (MSY). [2 marks]

(iv) Using the data in Table 3, state the maximum sustainable yield of fish.
[1 mark ]

(v) Explain, giving THREE reasons, why it is advisable to harvest the fish below their
MSY. [6 marks]

(vi) Explain how human population growth may impact the fish resource.
[4 marks]

(b) (i) Identify an appropriate measure that can be implemented to protect and conserve
the mangrove ecosystem. [1 mark ]

(ii) Explain how the measure identified in b (i) works. [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120032/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2013180 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

14 MAY 2013 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so.

2. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

3. Answer ALL questions.

4. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2013
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Figure 1 shows the results of a survey conducted in two Caribbean countries to determine
the public’s perception of the level of importance of different threats to sustainable
agriculture.

Import of Cheap Products

Climate Change

COUNTRY B
External Shocks COUNTRY A

Natural Disasters

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Figure 1. Results of survey to determine the public’s perception of the level of


importance of different threats to sustainable agriculture

(i) State THREE features of sustainable agriculture. [3 marks]

(ii) Using the data in Figure 1, make FIVE deductions about the perception of the level
of importance of the different threats to sustainable agriculture. [5 marks]

(iii) Explain, giving THREE reasons, why ‘external shocks’ are threats to sustainable
agriculture. [6 marks]

(b) “More Caribbean people should become involved in agriculture because it can contribute
to the economies of Caribbean countries”. Give TWO reasons to justify this statement.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2013
-3-

2. (a) Figure 2 shows the amount of fish produced from traditional fishing grounds and aquaculture
over a ten-year period.

14
Production from
traditional fishing
12 grounds

Production from
Fish production x kg/103

10
aquaculture

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Year

Figure 2. Fish production from traditional fishing grounds and aquaculture

(i) Describe the trends in fish production illustrated in Figure 2. [5 marks]

(ii) Suggest TWO reasons why fish production from aquaculture shows the trend
illustrated in Figure 2. [4 marks]

(iii) Outline TWO impacts that this trend in fish production from aquaculture can have
on the environment. [4 marks]

(b) Figure 3 shows the terrain over which a farmer plans to establish a new commercial farm
to cultivate crops.

Figure 3. Terrain for establishing a commercial farm

(i) State THREE characteristics of commercial agriculture systems. [3 marks]

(ii)
Recommend TWO sustainable farming practices that the farmer should use to
successfully farm the area. Give ONE reason why EACH practice is recommended.
[4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2013
-4-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) A diagram of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is provided in Figure 4 below. Study
the diagram and identify the substances present at points A, B and C. [3 marks]

e- e-

Hydrogen C
e- heat
e-

e
e

e
B A

Anode Cathode
Electrolyte

Figure 4. Diagram of a proton exchange fuel cell

(b) Why is a fuel cell considered a ‘secondary energy source’? [3 marks]

(c) Fuel cells are being considered as a contender for replacing gasoline as the fuel for motor
vehicles. Discuss the feasibility of this in the Caribbean, with specific reference to the
reliability of supply, and economic factors. [6 marks]

(d) Outline the production and transmission of electricity using the combustion of a fossil
fuel. [3 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2013
-5-

(e) Table 1 below shows the electricity rates in Country X from 1971 to 1990.

TABLE 1: ELECTRICITY RATES IN COUNTRY X FROM 1971 TO 1990

Year Rate, $/kWh Year Rate, $/kWh


1971 0.10 1981 0.30
1972 0.10 1982 0.30
1973 0.10 1983 0.30
1974 0.20 1984 0.30
1975 0.20 1985 0.20
1976 0.20 1986 0.30
1977 0.20 1987 0.20
1978 0.20 1988 0.30
1979 0.20 1989 0.30
1980 0.30 1990 0.30

(i) In your answer booklet, sketch a graph of the data shown in Table 1. (You are NOT
required to plot a detailed graph.) [3 marks]


(ii) State TWO major trends that can be deduced from your sketch. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2013
-6-

4. (a) A student is conducting an experiment to investigate the hypothesis, “Fluorescent light


bulbs are more energy efficient than incandescent ones”. To do this, the student sets up
the apparatus as shown in Figure 5.
Lux meter
(measures the
amount of light
emitted by the
light fixture)

Thermometer Thermometer

60 W incandescent 15 W fluorescent
light fixture light fixture

Figure 5. Experimental setup for light bulb efficiency experiment

(i) Outline THREE steps the student will have to take to conduct this experiment.
[3 marks]

(ii) State THREE precautions the student will have to take to get the most accurate
results. [3 marks]
Table 2 below shows the data collected by the student during the experiment.

Table 2: RESULTS OF THE LIGHT BULB EFFICIENCY EXPERIMENT

Temperature, °C
Type of Light Bulb Amount of
Before After Light, Lux
Experiment Experiment
60 W incandescent 28.1 86.7 50
15 W fluorescent 28.1 32.6 50

(iii) Identify which light bulb is more efficient AND clearly explain how the experimental
results allow you to reach your conclusion. [5 marks]

(b) The total cost of generating electricity by natural gas combustion can be divided into
generation, environmental and ‘other costs’.

(i)
List THREE costs, other than generating and environmental costs, that could be
included in the ‘other costs’ category. [3 marks]

(ii) Explain why TWO of the costs listed in Part (b) (i) above should be included in
any discussion of the overall cost of using natural gas to produce electricity.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2013
-7-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) Explain the difference between the terms ‘pollutant’ and ‘pollution’. [2 marks]

(b) Figure 6 illustrates the trends in population numbers and per capita gross national income
for a Caribbean country from 1990 to 2005.

1.30 80
Population
1.29
70
Per capita GNI
1.28

National Income ($ Thousands)


Population numbers (Millions)

60
1.27

Per capita Gross


50
1.26

1.25 40
1.24
30
1.23
20
1.22

1.21 10

1.20 0
1990 1995 2000 2005
Year
Figure 6. Data on the population and per capita gross national income
for a Caribbean country from 1990 to 2005.

(i) What were the overall rates of increase in the per capita gross national income
over the period 1990 – 2000 and 2000 – 2005? [5 marks]

(ii) The country has recently completed a ‘pollution index’ exercise for the entire
country. The index ranges from 0 to 100 and can be used to rate the level of
pollution in the country. A pollution index of 0 indicates no pollution, while 100
indicates a highly polluted environment. In 1990, the pollution index was 14,
while in 2005,the pollution index rose to 73. Use the information provided in
Figure 6 and your answer to (b) (i) to discuss TWO likely causes of the rise in
pollution. [6 marks]

(c) The Montreal Protocol is an international convention that has proven to be very successful
in controlling a certain type of pollution around the world.

(i) State the name of the group of pollutants that the Montreal Protocol is used to
control. [1 mark]

(ii) Describe the way in which the Montreal Protocol works to control the type of
pollution identified in (c) (i) AND provide ONE reason for its success.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks
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02220020/CAPE 2013
-8-

6. Figure 7 illustrates the area surrounding Green Valley Village. The residents of the village all
receive tap water from the nearby drinking water treatment plant, and also use the river water
directly for farming and animal husbandry. The residents have recently been complaining of an
unpleasant taste in their tap water, and some farmers are noticing a decline in their crops irrigated
by river water. Only Farm A has been unaffected by crop decline. You have been assigned by the
Ministry of the Environment to investigate the complaints.

River
KEY
A
Direction of water
flow
Sanitary Houses
landfill Drinking water
treatment plant Farms

C
B

Green Valley Village

Figure 7. Sketch map of the area surrounding a sanitary landfill

(a) Outline a plan that will allow you to determine the source of the problems being experienced
by the residents and farmers of Green Valley Village. In your response, explain clearly
how the plan you propose will allow you to determine the source of the problems.
[5 marks]

(b) State THREE pollutants that are likely to be found in the Green Valley River. [3 marks]

(c) Persons fishing in the river below Green Valley Village have found that the fishes are highly
contaminated with materials they believe came from the landfill. Explain how fish found
far from the landfill could be so highly contaminated. [4 marks]

(d) Suggest TWO measures that can be implemented to mitigate the impact of pollution on
the residents and farmers in the Green Valley area. [2 marks]

(e) The landfill is also a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Explain how methane
from the landfill can contribute to global warming. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2013181 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 032

2 hours

28 MAY 2013 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2013
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) A farmer operates a small farm in a hilly area using organic farming techniques, because
this is all that he can afford. Give a detailed explanation as to why this practice is more
affordable to the farmer. [8 marks]

(b)
The farmer’s neighbour operates a farm of similar size, in the same hilly terrain. He
operates his farm with high levels of agrochemicals and intensive irrigation. List THREE
environmental impacts that may be expected to occur due to these practices.
[3 marks]

(c) Choose ONE of the impacts listed in (b), and outline how it occurs. [3 marks]

(d) The farmer’s neighbour believes that his farm has a much higher productivity. Plan
and design an investigation to determine which farm is more productive. Present your
answer under the following headings: Aim, Method, Expected Results, Conclusions and
Limitations. [16 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Define the unit ‘kWh’. [2 marks]



(b) The cost of electricity to residents in a country over the period 1990 – 2005 has been
compiled in Table 1.

TABLE 1: ELECTRICITY RATES FOR A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY


FROM 1990 – 2005

Year Electricity Rate, $/kWh Year Electricity Rate, $/kWh


1990 0.20 1998 0.44
1991 0.22 1999 0.43
1992 0.20 2000 0.45
1993 0.35 2001 0.52
1994 0.36 2002 0.53
1995 0.35 2003 0.53
1996 0.35 2004 0.54
1997 0.44 2005 0.55

(i) Using the data in the table, plot a suitable graph to illustrate the trends in electricity
rates for the period. [13 marks]

(ii) Identify the trend of the data in the graph in (a) (i). [2 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2013
-3-

(c) (i) Given the nature of the trends in the cost of electricity, the government of this
country decides to embark on an energy conservation campaign. Define the term
‘energy conservation’. [1 mark]

(ii) To achieve greater energy conservation, a government minister suggests a national


policy to replace all incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent ones. Explain why
this policy may result in increased energy conservation. [6 marks]

(iii) Another government minister disagrees with replacing incandescent bulbs with
flourescent ones and suggests investing in renewable energy. Explain why a
policy of encouraging solar power applications may result in increased energy
conservation. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

3. Two farmers both live on the same hill, above two different rivers, as shown in Figure 1 below.
The environmental officer for the area has received complaints about the quality of the water in
both rivers. The residents in the area believe the problems are being caused by runoff from the
two farms on the hill.

Blue River KEY


Snake River
Organic
farmer

Commercial
farmer

Direction of
water flow

River

House

Figure 1. Sketch map of the area surrounding the two farms

(a) (i) Define the term ‘pollutant’. [2 marks]

(ii) Differentiate between a ‘point’ and ‘non-point’ source of pollution. [2 marks]

(b) The environmental officer takes two river water samples, one from each river impacted by
runoff from each farm. Copy Figure 1 in your answer booklet and identify TWO suitable
sampling points. [2 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2013
-4-

(c) The environmental officer carries the samples to the laboratory and asks the analyst to
perform tests for nitrates, phosphates, biochemical oxygen demand and faecal coliforms
on both samples.

Outline the methods for TWO of the tests performed by the laboratory analyst.
[12 marks]

(d) The labels on the sample bottles fall off in the refrigerator, so the analyst re-labels the
bottles A and B. The results of the analyses are presented in Table 2.

TABLE 2: RESULTS OF WATER QUALITY ANALYSES ON TWO SAMPLES


TAKEN FROM THE RIVERS IN THE VICINITY OF THE TWO FARMS

Parameter Sample A Sample B


Nitrates, mg/L 53 21
Phosphates, mg/L 1.6 0.17
Biochemical oxygen demand, mg/L 25.7 249
Faecal coliforms, colonies/100 mL 77 234

Using the data in the table and the information provided about the farming practices of
both farmers, deduce which water sample came from which river. In your answer, clearly
explain how you arrived at your conclusion. [12 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220032/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2014178 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

06 MAY 2014 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.

2. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2014
-2-

MODULE 1
Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Figure 1 shows the different trophic levels in a terrestrial ecosystem. The total amount of
usable energy present at the level of the producers is 30 000 kilocalories.

30
kilocalories

300
kilocalories

30 000
kilocalories

Figure 1. Trophic levels in a terrestrial ecosystem

(i) Calculate the amount of energy that will be present at the primary consumer level.
[2 marks]

(ii) Explain the pattern of energy flow through the trophic levels. [2 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ‘carrying capacity’. [2 marks]

(ii) Why is carrying capacity important in maintaining balance in ecosystems?


[4 marks]
(c) Explain why phosphorous is a limiting growth factor in terrestrial ecosystems.
[4 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2014
-3-

(d) A biologist attempted to estimate the population of deer in Royal Park using the capture-
mark-recapture technique as shown below.

TABLE 1: STEPS IN THE CAPTURE-MARK-RECAPTURE TECHNIQUE USED


TO ESTIMATE THE POPULATION OF DEER IN ROYAL PARK

Step 1 A biologist caught and marked 100 deer from Royal Park.

Step 2 The 100 marked deer were released back into their habitat at Royal Park.
The biologist recaptured 55 deer.
Step 3 Out of this number, 25 were from the original marked sample.

(i) Based on the information provided in Table 1, use an appropriate formula to


calculate the estimated population size of deer in Royal Park. [4 marks]

(ii) State TWO assumptions of the method used by the biologist. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2014
-4-

2. (a) Figure 2 is a graph which represents a predator–prey relationship. Study Figure 2 and
answer the questions that follow.

450

400

350
Population number

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time (Month) Prey Predator

Figure 2. Graph representing a predator–prey relationship

(i) Explain the trend in the population numbers of the predator and prey as shown in
the graph. [3 marks]

(ii) Calculate the change in the size of the predator population between Month 2 and
Month 7. [3 marks]

(b) Explain the importance of natural selection in the evolution of species. [4 marks]

(c) Explain TWO ways by which human activities can disrupt the integrity of natural
ecosystems. [4 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2014
-5-

(d) Figure 3 shows data collected from an ecological study of a school garden.

100
90
80
Number of individuals

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Species A Species B Species C Species D

Figure 3. Data collected from an ecological study

(i) Use the data in Figure 3 to calculate the TOTAL number of individuals of the TWO
LEAST collected species. [2 marks]

(ii) Using an appropriate formula, calculate the species diversity for the school
garden. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2014
-6-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Table 2 shows data on the factors that are used to calculate the Human Development
Index (HDI) for two countries, A and B, for the year 2011.

TABLE 2: FACTORS USED TO CALCULATE HUMAN


DEVELOPMENT INDEX FOR COUNTRIES A AND B


Country Health Education Life Expectancy
A 0.664 0.406 62.1
B 0.964 0.985 81.1

(i) What is meant by the term ‘Human Development Index’ (HDI)? [1 mark]

(ii) Make FOUR deductions from the data presented in Table 2. [4 marks]

(b) “Educating women is a critical approach that can be used by countries for achieving the
goal of sustainable development.” Evaluate this statement giving FOUR points in your
response. [4 marks]

(c) Figure 4 shows the per capita freshwater consumption of a country from 1999 to 2004.

600
Per capita freshwater consumption (m3)

500

400

300

200

100

0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Year

Figure 4. Per capita freshwater consumption (m3) of a country from 1999 to 2004

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02120020/CAPE 2014
-7-

(i) State the meaning of the term ‘per capita freshwater consumption’. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the rate of per capita consumption of freshwater for the period 2000 to
2003. [3 marks]

(iii) Suggest a plausible reason for the trend in per capita freshwater consumption
shown in Figure 4. [2 marks]

(iv) Describe TWO possible environmental impacts on the freshwater resource which
could result from the trend in consumption shown in Figure 4. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2014
-8-

4. (a) Table 3 provides data on infant mortality for two countries, A and B.

TABLE 3: INFANT MORTALITY RATE (PER THOUSAND)


FOR COUNTRIES A AND B
Country Infant Mortality Rate
A 16.4
B 29.7


(i) Define the term ‘infant mortality’. [1 mark]

(ii) Giving a reason for your answer, state which country will have a FASTER growing
population. [2 marks]

(iii) Giving a reason for your answer, state which country is most likely a developing
country.
[2 marks]

(b) Table 4 presents some demographic data for a country for three different years.


TABLE 4: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR A COUNTRY

Annual Population
Birth Rate Death Rate Growth Rate
1990 4.8% 2.2%
2000 2% 0.9% 1.1
2010 1.5% 0.7% 0.8%

(i) What is meant by the term ‘annual population growth rate’? [1 mark]

(ii) Use the data provided in Table 4 to calculate the annual population growth rate for
the country in the year 1990. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the doubling time for the country for the year 2010. [3 marks]

(iv) State the trend in annual population growth rate and describe ONE implication
that it may have for the country. [3 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO impacts that increasing population growth would have on less developed
countries. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2014
-9-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) State TWO ecological reasons and ONE ethical reason for resource conservation.
[3 marks]

(b) Why is slash and burn agriculture as practised by Indigenous Caribbean Peoples considered
a sustainable practice? [4 marks]

(c) Table 5 shows the annual amount of municipal solid waste received by a landfill in a
Caribbean country. Examine the data in Table 5 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 5: ANNUAL MASS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE RECEIVED


BY A LANDFILL IN A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY

Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Mass of Solid
Waste (tonne) 133 700 177 400 176 900 172 300 196 000
Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Mass of Solid
Waste (tonne) 207 500 238 500 269 400 298 500

(i) What is the TOTAL mass of solid waste sent to the landfill from 1998 to 2000?
[2 marks]

(ii) Estimate the annual mass of solid waste that will be sent to the landfill in the year
2005. [2 marks]

(iii) State the trend highlighted by Table 5, and explain how a recycling scheme might
help the problem illustrated in Table 5. [3 marks]

(d) (i) Explain how natural resource conservation can be achieved by EITHER land use
planning and zoning regulations OR sustainable yield management. [3 marks]

(ii)
Suggest THREE systems that the government could use to effectively achieve
natural resource conservation in Caribbean countries. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2014
- 10 -

6. (a) Why can fertile soil, a natural resource, be described as BOTH renewable AND exhaustible?
[2 marks]

(b) State ONE consumptive and TWO non-consumptive uses of natural resources. [3 marks]

Figure 5 illustrates the average net productivity of some natural ecosystems. Study Figure
5 and answer the questions that follow.

Aquatic ecosystems
Open ocean
Terrestrial ecosystems
Lakes and streams

Estuaries

Desert scrub

Agricultural land

Savannah

Tropical rainforest

Swamps and marshes

0 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000


Average net primary productivity (kJ/m2/yr)


Figure 5. Average net primary productivity in some natural ecosystems

(c) (i) What is the total net primary productivity that could be achieved from the tropical
rainforest and savannah ecosystems? [3 marks]

(ii) Which ecosystems have the HIGHEST and LOWEST average net primary
productivity? [2 marks]

(d) (i) Identify THREE named natural resources present in a named Caribbean
country. [4 marks]

(ii) Discuss TWO reasons for the importance of EACH of the natural resources identified
in Part (d) (i) above. Each reason may be used only once. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks


END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2014179 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 032

2 hours

08 MAY 2014 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2014
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. A Caribbean country established a Protected Area as a management and conservation measure to


protect a recently discovered rare and endangered species. The Wildlife Division of the country
conducted annual population counts as part of their management and conservation programme
for this species. The results of these annual population counts are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1: ANNUAL POPULATION COUNTS FOR RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES

Estimated Population
Year Numbers
2000 250
2001 290
2002 400
2003 520
2004 590
2005 650
2006 690
2007 690
2008 690
2009 640

(a) Use the information in Table 1 to plot an appropriate graph showing the variation in the
size of the population of this species between the years 2000 and 2009. [12 marks]

(b) Describe the trend shown for the population between 2000 and 2009. Include values in
your answer. [6 marks]

(c) Suggest FIVE reasons for the observed trend in the population of this species.
[10 marks]

(d) Estimate the carrying capacity of the forest ecosystem for the species. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2014
-3-

2. (a) Table 2 presents data for per capita waste generation for two countries, A and B.

TABLE 2: PER CAPITA WASTE GENERATION



Country Per Capita Waste Generation
(kg)
A 150
B 750

(i) What is meant by ‘per capita waste generation’? [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the percentage difference in the per capita waste generated between
Country A and Country B. [4 marks]

(iii) Use the data in Table 2 to determine which country is most likely a developed
country. Give THREE reasons to justify your answer. [4 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows the age distribution for Country B for the year 2000. The population of
the country is 18 million. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.

85+
80 – 84
75 – 79
70 – 74
65 – 69
60 – 64
55 – 59
50 – 54
45 – 49 Female
40 – 44 Male
35 – 39
30 – 34
25 – 29
20 – 24
15 – 19
10 – 14
5–9
0–4
6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0%

Figure 1. Age distribution data for Country B in the year 2000

(i) Calculate the percentage of the population that is in the pre-reproductive age
group. [5 marks]

(ii) How many females are in the pre-reproductive age group? [3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120032/CAPE 2014
-4-

(c) Table 3 shows the percentage population distribution in rural and urban areas in
Country A. Study the data in Table 3 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 3: PERCENTAGE POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population


Year in Rural Areas in Urban Areas
1881 75 25
1911 55 45
1931 46 54
1971 24 76
2001 20 80

(i) What is the term used to describe the trend in population distribution in Table 3?
[1 mark]

(ii) State THREE features of this population distribution. [3 marks]

(iii) Suggest FOUR reasons for the trend in population distribution shown in Table 3.
[8 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2014
-5-

3. (a) Figure 2 depicts impacts arising from the consumptive use of two natural resources in a
country.

Impact expressed as a percentage


100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10 Mineral extraction
0 Timber harvesting
os
s pe tion i on ls)
y
l
sca lu t at ic
a
sit nd ol sil em
v er la tp d ch
di of us an f
io io
n D n eo
B
at atio ar
g
rm nt h
fo
e isc
s dim (d
an Se n
Tr tio
llu
Po

Figure 2. Impacts from consumptive use of two natural resources in a country

(i) What is meant by ‘consumptive use of natural resources’? [2 marks]

(ii) Make THREE deductions from the data presented in Figure 2. [3 marks]

(iii) Rank the impacts, in INCREASING order, for timber harvesting using the
information in Figure 2. [1 mark ]

(b) Explain THREE ways in which EACH of the following can be useful for natural resource
management in the country:

(i) Environmental legislation

(ii) Education and awareness [6 marks]



(c) (i) State TWO factors that could affect natural resource use in the country.
[2 marks]

(ii) For EACH factor stated in (c) (i) above, explain TWO ways in which it influences
the exploitation of natural resources in the country. [4 marks]

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02120032/CAPE 2014
-6-

(d) Figure 3 shows the percentage contribution made by three countries to the total regional
production using a specific natural resource for 1990, 2000 and 2010.

Percentage contribution to total regional


80
70
60
50
production

40 1990
30 2000

20 2010

10
0
A B C
Country

Figure 3. Percentage contribution to total regional production

(i) Make FOUR deductions from the trend observed in Figure 3. [4 marks]

(ii) Suggest FOUR reasons for the trend observed in Figure 3. [8 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120032/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2014181 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

13 MAY 2014 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2014
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Figure 1 shows the percentage of farmers in a country that use environmentally
sustainable practices.

60
Percentage of farmers using practice

50

40

30

20

10

0
Terracing Organic Contour Hydroponics
farming farming
Environmentally sustainable practice

Figure 1. Percentage of farmers that use environmentally sustainable practices

(i) State THREE deductions that could be made from the data presented in
Figure 1. [3 marks]

(ii) Calculate the combined percentage of farmers who use the TWO LEAST popular
practices. [2 marks]

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons why the practices identified in (a) (ii) above are not popular.
[4 marks]

(iv) State TWO benefits that farmers derive from practising organic farming.
[2 marks]

(b) Explain, giving TWO reasons, why global warming should be of major concern to
agriculture-based economies in the Caribbean. [6 marks]

(c) Suggest THREE reasons why more farmers in the Caribbean are increasing their use of
technology in agriculture. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2014
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2. (a) Table 1 summarizes some characteristics of the agricultural systems on two farms, A and
B.

TABLE 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS



Characteristics of Agricultural Systems Farm A Farm B
Use of agrochemicals High None
Yield per input High Low
Labour input Low High
Mechanization High None
Scale of operation Large Small

(i) Which farm engages in subsistence agriculture? Using the information in


Table 1, give FOUR reasons to justify your answer. [5 marks]

(ii) Which farm is MOST likely to have a greater impact on the environment? Explain
THREE reasons for your answer. [7 marks]
(b) Explain why the practice of sustainable agriculture maintains ecological integrity.
[4 marks]

(c) Figure 2 depicts the percentage of pests that were eliminated using different pest control
methods on Farm A.

Genetic
Pest control methods

IPM

Biological

Chemical

0 20 40 60 80 100
Eliminated pests expressed as a percentage

Figure 2. Percentage of pests eliminated using various pest control methods

(i) What percentage of pests was eliminated using the LEAST effective method?
[1 mark]
(ii) Which method was the MOST effective in controlling pests on Farm A?
[1 mark]

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons why the method identified in (c) (ii) above may have been
the MOST effective. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2014
-4-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Figure 3 is an incomplete flow diagram illustrating the conversion of energy from the solar
energy in sunlight to the kinetic energy in a moving, gasoline-powered vehicle. Copy this
diagram into your answer booklet, and fill in the blank spaces on the diagram.
[3 marks]

________ energy ________ energy Kinetic


Solar energy ___________
in plants in gasoline energy

Figure 3. Incomplete flow diagram illustrating the conversion of energy


from sunlight into kinetic energy in a moving vehicle

(b) Table 2 illustrates specifications for two types of water heaters.

TABLE 2: SPECIFICATIONS FOR TWO TYPES OF WATER HEATERS

Specifications Natural Gas Electric


Size, l 190 190
Purchase cost, $ 2,230.00 1,850.00
Operational cost, $/year 1,045.00 1,200.00
Energy factor (higher = more efficient) 0.90 0.58
Availability in stores Rare Common

(i) Which type of water heater is cheaper to operate? [1 mark]

(ii) What annual savings could be gained from owning the kind of water heater chosen
in (b) (i) above? [1 mark]

(iii) Consider the information provided in Table 2 and compare each water heater’s
performance based on economic and energy conservation issues. [6 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2014
-5-

(c) Figure 4 illustrates the trends in petroleum prices from 1980 to 2011. Carefully examine
the data in the graph and answer the questions that follow.

100

Petroleum price (US$/barrel) 80

60

40

20

0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Year

Figure 4. Petroleum prices from 1980 to 2011

(i) Describe the trend illustrated in Figure 4. [3 marks]

(ii) Give TWO reasons to explain how EACH of the following may produce the trend
in petroleum prices seen in Figure 4:

– Technological limitations
– Geographical restrictions
– Reliability of supply [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2014
-6-

4. Figure 5 illustrates the process of electricity generation by the combustion of natural gas.
Study the figure and answer the questions that follow.

Turbine Y Electricity to national


distribution grid

Steam
out
Steam
in

X
Cold
water in
Z Waste heat out

Natural gas
burnt
Figure 5. Flow diagram of the processes and units involved in the
conventional generation of electricity

(a) (i) Identify the units labelled X, Y and Z in Figure 5. [3 marks]



(ii) Discuss in detail ONE environmental impact that is likely to result from the
conventional generation of electricity from fossil fuels. [6 marks]
(b) Table 3 presents the per capita electricity consumption and population sizes of a number
of Caribbean countries in 2006. Study the table and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 3: PER CAPITA ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AND POPULATION SIZE OF


SELECTED CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES IN 2006
Per Capita Electricity
Country Consumption (Million BTU) Population
Antigua and Barbuda 135 76 000
Jamaica 59.3 2 700 000
Saint Lucia 32.2 160 000
Montserrat 106.6 9 500

(i)
Rank the countries in order of DECREASING per capita electricity
consumption. [1 mark]

(ii) Use the data in Table 3 to determine which country has the SMALLEST total
electricity consumption. [4 marks]

(iii) Explain how EACH of the following can affect electricity generating demand:
– Economic cost

– Government policies [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2014
-7-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) A list of pollutants and their sources can be found below. Correctly match the pollutants
with their sources. [3 marks]

Pollutants: Ammonia; Leachate; Carbon dioxide


Sources: Forest fires; Industrial activities; Landfills

(b) Two large ponds in a Caribbean country are being affected by effluents contaminated with
high levels of nitrate. Table 4 provides information about the characteristics of the two
ponds and the effluents that enter them. Use the data in Table 4 to answer the questions
that follow.

TABLE 4: CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO LARGE, NITRATE-AFFECTED PONDS


IN A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY

Characteristic Pond A Pond B


Volume, m3 1 500 000 5 650 000
Effluent flow rate into the pond, m3/day 4.5 2.0
Nitrate concentration in effluent, mg/l 350 350
Nitrate removal rate from the pond, mg/l/day 20 250
Average nitrate concentration in the pond, mg/l 2 550 400

(i)
Explain why the average nitrate concentrations in the two ponds are so different,
even though the concentration of nitrate entering each pond is the same.
[3 marks]

(ii) State the name of the MOST likely environmental impact that will occur in Ponds
A and B AND discuss how this impact will affect the ponds. [6 marks]

(iii) Suggest ONE measure that could be taken to mitigate the environmental impact
stated in (b) (ii) above. [1 mark]

(iv) Would the measure suggested in (b) (iii) above be effective? Give ONE reason for
your answer. [2 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2014
-8-

(c) Not all pollutants are generated by humans; sometimes natural processes can result in
water pollution. Figure 6 illustrates the result of an experiment to determine how rapidly
the turbidity of a river changed after a short rainfall event. Study the figure and answer
the questions that follow.


Figure 6. Results of turbidity monitoring experiment

(i) How long did it take for the river to show the effects of the rainfall event?
[1 mark ]
(ii) When was turbidity at its maximum? [1 mark ]
(iii) The following statement was recorded in the experimenter’s laboratory notebook.

“Five hours is a suitable experimental time for the river to achieve its pre-rainfall event
turbidity.”
Assess this statement. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2014
-9-

6. The flowchart in Figure 7 illustrates a pathway for the movement of a pesticide in the environment.
Some of the arrows are in the WRONG direction. Study the diagram and answer the questions
that follow.

Air A
Pesticide D
Pesticide in river water
sprayed on crops
Runoff B Pesticide in fish
C

Pesticide in sediment E F

Pesticide in humans

Figure 7. Movement of a pesticide through the environment.

(a) Identify which of the arrows labelled A – F in Figure 7 are INCORRECTLY placed.
[2 marks]

(b)
The combustion of fossil fuels is known to cause atmospheric pollution. However, this is
just the last stage of pollutant generation by fossil fuel use. Pollution can also occur from
the extraction stage, the transportation stage or the processing stage for fossil fuels. Choose
ONE of these stages and explain why it may also lead to environmental pollution.
[3 marks]

(c) (i) Using ONLY a suitably annotated diagram that shows the movement of energy,
explain the ‘greenhouse effect’. [5 marks]

(ii) What is the Kyoto Protocol? [2 marks]

(iii) Currently, the Kyoto Protocol has not been very successful. Suggest ONE reason
why this is so. [3 marks]

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02220020/CAPE 2014
- 10 -


(d) Figure 8 illustrates the levels of CFC-11 in the atmosphere over the period 1977-2011.
Study the figure and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 8. Atmospheric CFC-II levels from 1977 to 2011

(i) What was the annual rate of increase of atmospheric CFC-11 from 1979 to
1989? [3 marks]

(ii) The Montreal Protocol first entered into force sometime in the 1980s. During
what period did the Montreal Protocol begin to have an effect on the atmospheric
levels of CFC-11? [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2014182 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 032

2 hours

27 MAY 2014 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. The use of a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator is permitted.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2014
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) Farmer Smith has been growing short-term vegetable crops for many years, but has become
concerned about the impact of his farming practices on the environment. Therefore, Farmer
Smith is considering changing to organic farming. Explain THREE ways in which organic
farming practices can minimize the impact of the farm on the environment. [9 marks]

(b) Mrs Smith has heard that organic farming may not produce as much crop yield as traditional
farming methods. Plan and design an experiment to determine whether there is any validity
to Mrs Smith’s concerns. Present your plan under the following headings: Hypothesis,
Experimental Methods, Expected Results, Conclusions and Limitations. [10 marks]

(c) List FOUR features of sustainable agriculture. [4 marks]

(d) State ONE threat to sustainable agriculture and explain why this threat would be of concern
to Farmer Smith and his organic farming plans. [7 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) (i) Explain the general operation of a nuclear power plant. [4 marks]

(ii)
Many persons are concerned about the increase in nuclear power plants in operation
today. Discuss TWO reasons for these concerns about the use of nuclear energy.
[6 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2014
-3-

(b) Figure 1 shows the amount of electricity generated by nuclear power worldwide in 1990
and 2010. Study the figure carefully and answer the questions that follow.

3000

2500
Electricity generation by nuclear power

2000
(billion kWh)

Asia & Oceania


1500 Eurasia
Europe

1000 North America

500

0
1990 2010
Year

Figure 1. Electricity generation from nuclear power worldwide in 1990 and 2010

(i) What is the total increase in nuclear electricity generation between 1990 and 2010?
[3 marks]

(ii) What percentage of nuclear electricity generation did Eurasia account for in 2010?
[2 marks]

(iii) State which region produced the GREATEST amount of electricity from nuclear
generation in 1990 AND use the graph to determine how much electricity was
produced in the named region. [4 marks]

(c) (i) Define the terms ‘kilowatt hour’ and ‘power’. [4 marks]

(ii)
How many Joules are equivalent to ONE gigajoule? [ 1 mark]

(d) Explain THREE ways in which energy efficiency can be improved. [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2014
-4-

3. (a) Figure 2 is a sketch of the area surrounding a landfill. Study the figure carefully and answer
the questions that follow.
Drinking
water
well
Landfill

River

Homes

Aquifer

Bedrock


Figure 2. Sketch of the area surrounding a landfill

(i) Define the term ‘environmental receptor’. [2 marks]

(ii) Copy Figure 2 into your answer booklet and include on your diagram arrows to
show the movement of pollutants from the landfill. [4 marks]

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02220032/CAPE 2014
-5-

(b) Table 1 shows an estimate of the amount and type of solid waste received by the Forres
Park landfill in 2004. Plot a suitable bar chart to display this information. [10 marks]

TABLE 1: AMOUNT AND TYPE OF SOLID WASTE RECEIVED


AT THE FORRES PARK LANDFILL IN 2004
Type of Waste Mass (tonne)
Organic 67 000
Paper 27 000
Glass 12 000
Metal 12 000
Plastic 19 500
Textile 6 000
Rubber and leather 3 000
Other 3 000

(c) Discuss in detail the environmental impacts that may occur from a poorly managed landfill.
[8 marks]

(d) (i) List THREE measures that could be used to mitigate the impacts of pollution
caused by landfills. [3 marks]

(ii) Choose ONE of the measures listed in (d) (i) above and suggest THREE ways to
ensure that the measure will be effective in the Caribbean context. [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220032/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2015189 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes
5189

05 MAY 2015 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.

2. Candidates MUST answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120020/CAPE 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Figure 1 shows an ecological pyramid. Study Figure 1 and answer the questions that
follow.

2. 489 kcal

1. kcal

Figure 1. Ecological pyramid

(i) Name the type of ecological pyramid shown in Figure 1. [1 mark]

(ii) Use the information in Figure 1 to calculate the amount of energy that is available
at the level of the producers. Show all working. [3 marks]

(b) Outline THREE ways in which the phosphorus cycle may be impacted by the activities
of humans. [6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2015
-3-

(c) Figure 2 illustrates the change in population size of iguanas in a mangrove habitat over a
12-year period.

Figure 2. Change in population size of iguanas

(i) What is the population of iguanas in Year 2? [1 mark]

(ii) Define the term ‘carrying capacity’ AND use Figure 2 to estimate the carrying
capacity of the mangrove habitat. [3 marks]

(iii) Discuss TWO factors that may influence population size at the carrying capacity.
[6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2015
-4-

2. (a) Outline the role of natural selection in the evolution of a species. [3 marks]

(b) Table 1 shows the results from an ecological study using indicator species to investigate
water quality in three aquatic environments, A, B and C. Study the information in
Table 1 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: RESULTS OF ECOLOGICAL STUDY

Aquatic Stability Water


Environment Stoneflies Beetles Fly Larvae Index Quality
A High Low None 10 Good
B Low High Low 7 Intermediate
C None Low High 4 Poor

(i) State FOUR deductions that can be made from the information provided in
Table 1. [4 marks]

(ii) State which of the three environments is expected to have the GREATEST species
diversity AND give ONE reason to support your answer. [3 marks]

(iii) Explain, using six points, how species diversity influences ecosystem stability.
[6 marks]

(c) During the study a student attempted to estimate the population size of manatees in one
of the aquatic environments. The data obtained by the student is given in Table 2. Use
the information provided in Table 2 to calculate the population size of the manatees.

TABLE 2: RESULTS OF ECOLOGICAL STUDY



Number of manatees caught and marked in first sample 12
Number of marked manatees caught in second sample 5
Total number of manatees caught in the second sample 15
[4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2015
-5-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Figure 3 represents the age structure diagram for Country A with a population of 750 000.
Study Figure 3 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 3. Age structure diagram

(i) Deduce from the diagram whether Country A is a developing or developed country
AND explain your answer. [3 marks]

(ii) Calculate the number of persons in the population that belong to the pre-reproductive
age group. [4 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2015
-6-

(b) Explain how temperature influences the distribution AND activities of human populations.
[6 marks]

(c) Table 3 provides infant mortality estimates for Jamaica, Cuba and Guyana for the year
2012.

TABLE 3: INFANT MORTALITY RATES FOR JAMAICA,


CUBA AND GUYANA, 2012

Country Infant Mortality Rate%


Jamaica 14.30
Cuba 4.83
Guyana 35.59

Source: https://www.cia-gov/library/publications/
the-world-factbook/rankorder/209/rant.html

Use the information in Table 3 to explain which country had the FASTEST growing
population in 2012. [4 marks]

(d) Describe the relationship between per capita GDP and the level of poverty in a country.
[3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02120020/CAPE 2015
-7-

4. (a) Table 4 presents data on the per capita greenhouse gas emissions for Country B and
Country C.

TABLE 4: PER CAPITA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS



Country Population Per Capita Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Size (millions) (tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita)
Country B 9.8 68.6
Country C 2.1 42.0

(i) Define the term ‘per capita greenhouse gas emission’. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain why people should be concerned about the level of greenhouse gas
emissions in the atmosphere. [3 marks]

(iii) Identify the country, Country B or Country C, in which greenhouse gases are likely
to have the greatest impact AND use the information in Table 4 to justify your
answer. [4 marks]

(b) Discuss TWO ways by which an increase in the fertility rate of a country may affect a
country’s ability to achieve sustainable development. [4 marks]

(c) Figure 4 shows how the population of a native species and an introduced species in a
country changed over a period of seven years. Study Figure 4 and answer the questions
that follow.

450
400
350
Population size

300
250
200 Native species
150 Introduced species
100
50
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Year

Figure 4. Population of native and introduced species

(i) State the trend in the population of the native species AND the population of
introduced species illustrated in Figure 4. [2 marks]

(ii) Suggest ONE reason for the trend observed for the native species in Figure 4.
[2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the average annual decrease in population of the native species for the
period represented in Figure 4. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02120020/CAPE 2015
-8-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions

5. (a) List THREE types of natural resources other than beaches that are found in the Caribbean.
[3 marks]

(b) Figure 5 shows the mean annual beach width for selected beaches in Antigua from 1992
to 1999. Carefully examine Figure 5 and answer the questions that follow.

40

35

30
Mean annual beach width (m)

25

Dickenson Bay A
20
Dickenson Bay B

15 Crab Hill Bay


Halfmoon Bay

10

0
1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
Year
Figure 5. Mean annual beach width for selected beaches in Antigua, 1992–1999

(i) Estimate the average annual rate of change of beach width at Dickenson Bay
A over the period 1992 to 1999. Express your answer in m/year and show all
working. [4 marks]

(ii) Assuming that the trend in beach width at Dickenson Bay A remains the same,
predict the width of the beach at Dickenson Bay A in 2002. [1 mark]

(iii) Outline FOUR problems that may be caused by the trend of beach width for
Dickenson Bay A illustrated in Figure 5. [8 marks]

(c)
Compare the use of forest resources by indigenous people and commercial operations.
In your answer include TWO points. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120020/CAPE 2015
-9-

6. (a) Define the term ‘non-consumptive’ as it relates to the use of natural resources.
[2 marks]

(b) Figure 6 illustrates the trends in the amount of crude oil transported by sea and the amount
of oil spilled by tankers worldwide from 1970 to 2010. Carefully examine Figure 6 and
answer the questions that follow.

3 000 450 000


Seaborne oil trade (millions of tonnes)

400 000
2 500

Amount of oil spilled (tonnes)


350 000

2 000 300 000

250 000
1 500
200 000

1 000 150 000

100 000
500
50 000

0 0
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Year
Seaborne oil trade Amount of oil spilled

Figure 6. A comparison of the amount of crude oil transported by sea


and the amount of oil spilled by tankers, 1970–2010

(i) In which decade did the seaborne oil trade decline? [1 mark]

(ii) State the trend in seaborne oil trade AND the trend in the amount of oil spilled as
illustrated in Figure 6. [2 marks]

(iii) Geograhical and demographic factors could give rise to the trend in the seaborne
oil trade while technological factors could give rise to the trend in the amount of
oil spilled as illustrated in Figure 6. Explain this statement. [6 marks]

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02120020/CAPE 2015
- 10 -

(c) (i) Name the international environmental and conservation agreement which would
apply to the activities illustrated in Figure 6. [1 mark]

(ii) Outline FOUR principles of the agreement identified in (c) (i) that allow it to be effective.
[4 marks]

(d) Suggest ONE way in which the activities illustrated in Figure 6 may have an impact on
biodiversity AND explain why the effects of this impact are likely to be minimal during
the period 1990–2010. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120020/CAPE 2015
TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2015190 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 032

2 hours

07 MAY 2015 (a.m.)


5190

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02120032/CAPE 2015
--

Answer ALL questions.

1. Table 1 shows the results of a study by a farmer who investigated the rat and mongoose populations
on a farm over a seven-month period. Study the data in Table 1 and answer the questions that
follow.

TABLE 1: NUMBER OF RATS AND MONGOOSES



Animal Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6 Month 7
Rat 25 15 15 20 25 15 10
Mongoose 35 20 10 10 15 25 20

(a) Draw an appropriate graph to present the data in Table 1. [8 marks]

(b) Use the graph drawn in (a) to describe THREE trends displayed by EACH of the animals
for the seven-month period. Include specific values in your answer. [6 marks]

(c) The farmer decided to use a chemical to kill the rats on the farm. Assess ONE possible
impact of this decision on the environment. [3 marks]

(d) Explain how a NAMED density independent factor may affect the population size of the
rats on the farm. [4 marks]

(e) Describe a suitable method that the farmer may use to determine the population size of
the mongooses and state the formula used for the calculations in this method. [6 marks]

(f) State THREE assumptions of the method described in part (e). [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2015
--

2. (a) Figure 1 presents data on water use in a developed and a developing country. Study
Figure 1 and answer the questions that follow.

Developed Country

Industrial
Agriculture

Developing Country Domestic

0 20 40 60 80 100
Percentage water use

Figure 1. Percentage water use in a developed and a developing country

(i) State FOUR deductions which can be made using the information in Figure 1.
Include specific values in your answer. [4 marks]

(ii) Calculate the difference in water use for industrial purposes between the developed
country and the developing country. Show your working. [3 marks]

(iii) Discuss TWO reasons that could account for the difference in water consumption
between the developed country and the developing country. [4 marks]

(iv) Describe TWO environmental impacts associated with high per capita water
consumption in a country. [4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02120032/CAPE 2015
--

(b) Table 2 presents population data for a country. At the beginning of 2005 the population
of the country was 4 500 000.

TABLE 2: POPULATION FOR A COUNTRY

Population Parameters Year


2005 2006
Number of births 60 500 59 820
Number of deaths 10 250 8 900
Number of persons who emigrated 320 500
Number of persons who immigrated 550 640
Total population at the end of each year 4 550 020

Calculate

(i) the population size at the end of 2006 [5 marks]

(ii) the rate of natural increase of the population for 2005. [4 marks]

(c)
A student was heard saying to his friends that developing countries should pay more
attention to their lifestyles as it relates to the consumption of natural resources because
“lifestyles in developed and developing countries can have an impact on the patterns of
consumption of the natural resources in the countries”. Justify this statement.
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02120032/CAPE 2015
--

3. (a) Table 3 shows the estimated landings of blackfish in a Caribbean country over ten years.

TABLE 3: ESTIMATED LANDINGS OF BLACKFISH

Year Blackfish Landings


(Tonnes)
1992 3.5
1993 8.0
1994 6.0
1995 6.0
1996 10.0
1997 3.0
1998 8.0
1999 5.5
2000 4.5
2001 4.0

(i) Plot a line graph to illustrate the data for blackfish presented in Table 3.
[8 marks]

(ii) Describe FIVE trends observed in the graph drawn in (a) (i). [5 marks]

(b) Describe THREE measures that the government of the Caribbean country could use for
the management and conservation of its blackfish resource. [9 marks]

(c) Choose ONE of the measures described in (b) and discuss how effective this measure is
likely to be in preventing overharvesting of blackfish resources in the Caribbean country.
[4 marks]

(d) Explain TWO ways that the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) Protocol can
be used by the Caribbean country in the management and conservation of its blackfish
resource. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02120032/CAPE 2015
TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2015192 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

12 MAY 2015 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.


5192

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220020/CAPE 2015
--

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a)
The practice of agriculture impacts the environment in different ways. Table 1 provides
information on how students in two Caribbean countries ranked some of these impacts
in their respective countries. A ranking of 1 represents the highest impact and a ranking
of 5 represents the lowest impact. Study Table 1 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: RANKED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM AGRICULTURE

Impact Country A Country B

Health 5 1

Sustainable livelihood 1 5

Pollution 2 2

Habitat loss 3 4

Soil degradation 4 3

(i) State THREE features of sustainable agriculture. [3 marks]

(ii)
Using the information from Table 1, state FIVE deductions about the students’
perceptions of the impact of agriculture on the environment in their country.
[5 marks]

(iii) Discuss TWO ways by which pollution from agrochemicals can threaten sustainable
agriculture. [4 marks]

(b) “Agriculture plays significant roles in the Caribbean region, and therefore it should be
afforded greater importance and support in the Caribbean region”. Provide TWO reasons
to justify this statement. [4 marks]

(c) Explain, citing TWO reasons, how technology could impact POSITIVELY on agriculture
in the Caribbean. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2015
--

2. (a) Figure 1 shows an agricultural practice that is commonly used in the Caribbean.

Figure 1. Agricultural practice

(i) Identify the agricultural practice shown in Figure 1. [1 mark]

(ii) State TWO reasons why this practice is suitable for use in Caribbean countries.
[2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2015
--

(b) A farmer used two methods of cultivation for melons. In one method, melons were planted
alone and in the second method melons were planted with legumes. Figure 2 presents a
record of the yield of melons harvested by the farmer for the two methods for the past ten
years. Study Figure 2 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 2. Yield of melon for a ten-year period using two different methods

(i) Calculate the difference in the yield of melon for Year 10 for the two methods.
[3 marks]

(ii) Based on the results shown in Figure 2, compare the trends in the yield of melon
for the two methods. Include FOUR points in your answer. [4 marks]

(iii) Provide THREE different explanations that may account for the trends observed
in Figure 2. [6 marks]

(c) Farmers in the Caribbean are being encouraged to practise organic farming. Suggest
FOUR benefits of organic farming. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2015
--

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) At a conference, a speaker states that “the world’s socioeconomic dependency on fossil
fuel combustion will make it difficult to reduce carbon dioxide emissions”. Explain this
statement. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ‘efficiency of conversion’ as it refers to energy. [2 marks]

(ii)
A Caribbean family uses 7 200 MJ of energy per year on household lighting using
incandescent light bulbs. Only 432 MJ of the energy used is actually converted
into light. State the efficiency of conversion of these light bulbs AND state TWO
things that the family can do to improve their energy usage for household lighting.
[4 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows the distribution of world biofuel production in selected regions. Study
Figure 3 carefully and answer the questions that follow.

100%

Key
Percentage of world biofuels

80%
Asia & Oceania
production

60% Europe

Central & South


40% America

North America

20%

0%

Figure 3. World biofuel production by region, 2011

Source: US Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov.

(i) The total world production of biofuel in 2011 was 1 810 000 barrels per day. How
much more biofuel was produced in North, Central and South America combined
than in Europe? [5 marks]

(ii) In 2011, the total world production of petroleum was 87 331 600 barrels per day, as
compared to 1 810 000 barrels per day of biofuel. Discuss TWO different reasons
that could have resulted in this great disparity in the production of petroleum and
biofuel in 2011. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2015
--

4. (a) Table 2 shows the amount of electricity generated by renewable energy sources in selected
territories in the Caribbean. Study Table 2 carefully and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 2: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION BY RENEWABLE SOURCES, 2010

Electricity Production by Renewable Source (billion KWh)


Country
Solar, Tidal Waste &
Hydroelectric Geothermal Wind
& Wave Biomass

Barbados 0 0 0 0 0

Belize 0.316 0 0 0 0.200

Grenada 0 0 0 0 0

Jamaica 0.150 0 0.053 0 0.064

St Vincent 0.026 0 0 0 0

Trinidad 0 0 0 0 0.020

Source: US Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov.

(i) Which country generated the MOST electricity by renewable sources in 2010 AND
how much was generated? [2 marks]

(ii) Using the information in Table 2, identify the TWO LEAST popular renewable
energy sources in the Caribbean in 2010. [2 marks]

(iii) Hydroelectric power generation is practised in a number of Caribbean territories.


Discuss the impact that hydroelectric power generation would have on a Caribbean
country. [6 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ‘energy’. [1 mark]

(ii) List THREE ways to improve energy efficiency. [3 marks]

(iii) Discuss how the implementation of EACH of the three ways identified in (b) (ii)
would result in greater energy efficiency. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2015
--

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. (a) (i) Identify THREE pollutants that could come from a solid waste landfill.
[3 marks]

Figure 4 illustrates the volume of solid waste taken to landfills in Saint Lucia over
the period 1998–2000. Study Figure 4 carefully and answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 4. Disposal of solid waste at landfills in St. Lucia, 1998–2000

Source: Saint Lucia’s Compendium of Environmental Statistics, 2001,


www.stats.gov.lc/Environ.pdf.

(ii) What is the percentage increase in solid waste deposited at landfills in Saint Lucia
from 1999 to 2000? [4 marks]

(iii)
Given that the population of Saint Lucia was approximately 152 000 in 1998, how
much solid waste per capita was sent to landfills in Saint Lucia in 1998?
[2 marks]

(iv) The activities that occur in and around a landfill can be quite noisy. Briefly describe
ONE health risk that may occur due to excessive noise. [2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220020/CAPE 2015
--

(b) Figure 5 shows the area around two lakes, Lake Tranquility and Spring Lake. Each lake
receives 150 m3 per day of an effluent stream containing chromium from a factory. Study
Figure 5 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 5. Diagram of the area around a factory that is discharging effluent into two lakes

(i) Identify TWO environmental receptors for the chromium emitted by the factory.
[2 marks]

(ii) Is it necessary that these environmental receptors actually be in the lakes? Explain
your answer. [3 marks]

(iii) The two lakes supply drinking water for the communities around each lake. Explain
how technological and legislative measures can be used to solve the pollution
problem in Lake Tranquility and Spring Lake. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02220020/CAPE 2015
--

6. (a) (i) State TWO underlying causes of pollution, other than lack of environmental
ethics. [2 marks]

(ii) Define the term ‘environmental ethics’. [1 mark]

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons which show how a lack of environmental ethics could be
an underlying cause of pollution. [4 marks]

(b) A Caribbean country has recently introduced new legislation to include a deposit on
plastic bottles (for example, plastic soft drink bottles). Persons bringing these bottles to
an approved depot would receive a cash payment. The legislation is intended to reduce
the quantity of plastic bottles that are simply thrown out into the environment. Present
an outline of a research project that will determine the effectiveness of this legislation.
Your outline must indicate exactly how what you measure will allow you to determine the
legislation’s effectiveness. [5 marks]

(c) (i) Consider the following headline in the Kaiteur News Online on 30 December 2012.

“CARICOM intensifies call for halt of hazardous waste shipment via Caribbean
Sea”.

Explain why CARICOM countries would NOT want to have hazardous waste
shipped through the Caribbean Sea. [4 marks]

(ii) Outline the basis for the Basel and Cartagena Conventions, AND use this
information to indicate which convention would be best suited to treat the situation
in the headline of the Kaiteur News Online. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220020/CAPE 2015
TEST CODE 02220022
FORM TP 2015313 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

16 JUNE 2015 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220022/CAPE 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) “Agriculture is an important activity for promoting food security in many Caribbean
countries”. Suggest TWO reasons to justify this statement. [4 marks]

(b) The government of a Caribbean country is encouraging farmers to engage in sustainable


agricultural practices to reduce some of the environmental impacts of agriculture.
Figure 1 shows some of the observed impacts from agriculture in the Caribbean country.
Study Figure 1 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 1. Impact of agriculture on the environment

(i) State THREE ways by which the practice of sustainable agriculture promotes
ecological integrity. [3 marks]

(ii) Using the information presented in Figure 1, make THREE deductions about the
impacts of agriculture in the Caribbean country. [3 marks]

(iii) Using the information presented in Figure 1, calculate the total percentage
impact on the terrestrial resources of the Caribbean country. Show your
working. [2 marks]

(c) State FOUR reasons why the failure to achieve certification of agricultural products to
meet international standards may threaten sustainable agriculture in the Caribbean.
[4 marks]

(d) Explain how genetic engineering may improve agricultural productivity in the
Caribbean. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220022/CAPE 2015
-3-

2. (a) Figure 2 shows the amount of soil lost annually from three farms that engage in commercial
farming. Different sustainable agricultural farming methods are used on these farms.
Study Figure 2 and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 2. Amount of soil lost annually on farms using different sustainable agricultural
methods

(i) State ONE characteristic of commercial agricultural systems. [1 mark]

(ii) With reference to Figure 2, state THREE deductions about the annual soil loss
from the commercial farms. [3 marks]

(iii) Calculate the percentage annual soil loss that is attributed to crop rotation. Show
your working and give your answer correct to two decimal places. [4 marks]

(iv) Choose any TWO of the sustainable agricultural methods and for EACH, provide
an explanation to account for the amount of soil loss attributed to it. [6 marks]

(b) “In an effort to increase and sustain agricultural productivity, more farmers in the Caribbean
should be engaged in the practice of hydroponics”. Justify this statement. Include THREE
points in your answer. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220022/CAPE 2015
-4-

MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) (i) Define the terms ‘watt’ and ‘energy conservation’. [3 marks]

Table 1 shows data on the cost and number of installations of residential


photovoltaic systems in a Caribbean country. Study the table carefully and then
answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: COST AND NUMBER OF INSTALLATIONS OF RESIDENTIAL


PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY

Installed Capacity Cost of Installation
Year
(MW) ($/W)

2008 150 8.40

2009 400 7.00

2010 600 6.50

2011 1000 6.40

2012 1750 5.20

2013 2200 4.90

(ii) Summarize in one sentence, the overall trend of the data shown in the table.
[3 marks]

(iii)
If you had to plot a graph showing the relationship between the installed capacity
and cost of installation, which set of data should be plotted on the x-axis?
[1 mark]

(iv) How many watts are there in a megawatt? [1 mark]

(b) A speaker at a conference states that “the use of solar energy to produce electricity has
no impact on the environment”. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement. [6 marks]

(c) The government of the Caribbean country has decided that the energy conservation of
domestic energy users needs to be improved. Explain TWO methods the government
can employ to improve the energy conservation by domestic energy users. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220022/CAPE 2015
-5-

4. (a) (i) What do the abbreviations ‘kWh’ and ‘TJ’ stand for? [2 marks]

(ii) The recent rapid changes in global oil prices have been described as ‘an energy
war’. Explain what is meant by this description. [3 marks]

Figure 3 illustrates the energy efficiency of electrical power plants using a variety
of energy sources. Carefully study the figure and then answer the questions that
follow.

Figure 3. Energy efficiency of electrical power plants using a variety of energy


sources

(b) (i) Arrange the different types of electrical power plants in order of decreasing
energy efficiency. [1 mark]

(ii) Use the data for the FOUR most energy efficient types of power plants in
Figure 3 to construct a suitable table. [4 marks]

(iii) An electrical plant uses 7.8 × 1017 J of natural gas in one year. Calculate the
amount of energy in the natural gas that is wasted during the process.
[4 marks]

(iv) One type of electrical power plant stands out as being the most energy efficient in
comparison to the other types. However, it is not commonly used in the Caribbean.
Suggest TWO reasons why this might be so. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220022/CAPE 2015
-6-

MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions.

5. Figure 4 illustrates the levels of carbon dioxide found in the earth’s atmosphere from 1960 to the
present. Study the figure and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 4. Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide as measured at


the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, 1960 to present

(a) (i) What is the overall rate of increase in carbon dioxide concentration from 1960 to
2010? [4 marks]

(ii) Based on the data in Figure 4, predict the atmospheric concentration of carbon
dioxide in 2050. [2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220022/CAPE 2015
-7-

(b) (i) One of the problems with using landfills for waste disposal is that they can
ignite, causing landfill fires that are difficult to extinguish. List THREE air
pollutants, other than carbon dioxide, that could be generated in a landfill fire.
[3 marks]

(ii) Air pollution has particularly problematic impacts on receptors in the


environment, even those receptors that are a great distance away from the source
of the air pollution. What is an environmental receptor AND why is it that air
pollution can cause problems for a receptor that is located far from the source of
the pollution? [5 marks]

(i) Air pollution is caused not only by landfill fires but also by the use of fossil fuels in
vehicles. Explain how TWO technological methods and ONE legislative method
can be used to minimize the problem of air pollution from vehicles. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) Population lifestyle and consumption patterns are two underlying causes of pollution.
In an effort to improve air pollution by changing the energy consumption patterns of its
population, a Caribbean country institutes a policy of 100% tax rebate on solar water
heaters.

(i) List THREE underlying causes of pollution other than population lifestyle and
consumption patterns. (3 marks)

(ii) Explain why changing energy consumption patterns could be expected to improve
air pollution. (4 marks)

(iii) Outline a research project to determine the effectiveness of this tax rebate
policy at reducing air pollution. In your response, ensure that you clearly identify
how the factors you plan to measure will indicate the effectiveness of the policy.
(5 marks)

(b) Explain how the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) functions
to protect the environment. (4 marks)

(c) An oil tanker travelling through the Caribbean Sea begins to leak, and a large amount of
oil is discharged into the ocean. Explain TWO impacts of this accident on the countries
of the Caribbean. (4 marks)

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220022/CAPE 2015
TEST CODE 02220032
FORM TP 2015193 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL


5193

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 032

2 hours

26 MAY 2015 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the answer booklet provided.

4. Graph paper is provided.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02220032/CAPE 2015
-2-

Answer ALL questions.

1. (a) Table 1 shows the total production of milk in the Caribbean region from 2000 to 2010.
Construct a line graph to illustrate this data. [8 marks]

TABLE 1: TOTAL MILK PRODUCTION IN THE CARIBBEAN, 2000–2010

Milk production
Year (thousand tonnes)
2000 1525
2002 1620
2004 1340
2006 1365
2008 1610
2010 1640

(b) (i) List THREE greenhouse gases, other than ‘methane’. [3 marks]

(ii) Dairy farming is a significant source of methane, as cattle produce approximately


0.0233 tonnes of methane per tonne of milk produced. How much methane was
produced from dairy farming in the Caribbean region in 2010? [2 marks]

(iii) Use the graph to predict the amount of methane that will be produced in 2015.
[4 marks]

(c) (i) Given your responses to (b), suggest ONE threat to sustainable agriculture that
is likely to occur as a result of dairy farming in the Caribbean AND explain how
this threat might impact sustainable agriculture in the Caribbean. [8 marks]

(ii) The improper disposal of animal waste (manure) is one other major environmental
problem of livestock farming. Discuss how this may affect surface water
resources. [5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02220032/CAPE 2015
-3-

2. (a) (i) Define the terms ‘potential energy’ and ‘kinetic energy’. [4 marks]

(ii) Explain, with the aid of a suitable diagram, how these forms of energy are exploited
to produce electricity by hydroelectric power plants. [8 marks]

(b) Table 2 shows the world electricity generation by hydroelectric power plants in 2010.
Construct a pie chart to illustrate this data. [10 marks]

TABLE 2: WORLD ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY HYDROELECTRIC


POWER PLANTS, 2010

Electricity Generation
Region (billion KWh)
Africa 105
Asia and Oceania 1090
Central and South America 686
Eurasia 242
Europe 616
Middle East 18
North America 645

Source: US Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov,


(figures rounded to the nearest whole number)

(c)
Explain how using a renewable energy source like hydropower to generate electricity may
result in energy conservation AND a reduction in pollution. [8 marks]

Total 30 marks

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3. A group of students are conducting an experiment to estimate the concentration of ground level
ozone in their school using the Schoenbein method. In this method, a paste made of a mixture of
water, starch and potassium iodide is spread on paper to make indicator strips. In the presence of
ozone, the iodide ions are oxidized to iodine, which turns dark blue on reacting with the starch.

The students placed these strips in a variety of locations around the school and left them for 8
hours. The strips were then collected, and their colour compared to the Schoenbein colour scale
below. The numbers on the colour scale correspond to ozone concentrations, as can be seen in
Table 3 which gives these correlations for an environment where the relative humidity is 70%.
The results of the experiment are seen in Table 4.

TABLE 3: CORRELATION OF SCHOENBEIN COLOUR SCALE AND NUMBERS


WITH GROUND LEVEL OZONE CONCENTRATIONS AT
A RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF 70%

Colour scale

Schoenbein number 0 1 2 3 4 5

Ozone concentration, ppb 0 15 40 75 100 130

TABLE 4: RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE GROUND LEVEL OZONE


CONCENTRATIONS USING THE SCHOENBEIN METHOD

Location Indicator strip Ozone concentration, ppb

Form 5 classroom

Under tree on playing field

School auditorium

Middle of playing field

Control

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(a) (i) Copy the first and last columns of Table 4 into your answer booklet. Use the data
provided in Tables 3 and 4 to estimate the concentration of ground level ozone in
the different locations of the school. [5 marks]

(ii) Calculate the average concentration of ozone ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ of the school.
[4 marks]

(iii) What is the BEST way to store the control? [2 marks]

(iv) What conclusion can be made about the effect of location on the concentration of
ozone at the school? [1 mark]

(b) (i) Give THREE reasons why ozone in the atmosphere can be considered good and
THREE reasons why it can be considered bad. [6 marks]

(ii) State the name AND use of TWO ozone depleting substances. [4 marks]

(c) (i) Identify TWO receptors for a chemical spilled into the soil. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain how it is possible for a shark to have high levels of mercury in its body.
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02220032/CAPE 2015
TEST CODE 02120020
FORM TP 2016199 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each Module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet.

4. Do NOT write in the margins.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

6. If you need to rewrite any answer and there is not enough space to do
so on the original page, you must use the extra lined page(s) provided
at the back of this booklet. Remember to draw a line through your
original answer.

7. If you use the extra page(s) you MUST write the question number
clearly in the box provided at the top of the extra page(s) and, where
relevant, include the question part beside the answer.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

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MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Distinguish between sedimentary biogeochemical cycles and gaseous biogeochemical cycles.
In your response give ONE example of a sedimentary biogeochemical cycle and ONE example
of a gaseous biogeochemical cycle.

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(b) Figure 1 shows the results of an investigation of the carrying capacity in a forest area by
two different students, Student A and Student B, for a particular species. Study Figure 1 and
answer the questions that follow.

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Figure 1. Results of the investigation of the carrying capacity in a forest area

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(i) Make THREE deductions about the variation of the population of the species obtained
by Student A.

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(ii) Calculate the difference in the carrying capacity values obtained by Student A and
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Student B.

[3 marks]

(iii) Suggest TWO reasons for the difference in carrying capacities obtained by the two
students.

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(c) Distinguish between ‘intraspecific competition’ and ‘interspecific competition’ and explain
why intraspecific competition is more intense.

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2. (a) State THREE ways in which primary ecological succession is different from secondary
ecological succession.

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(b) Figure 2 shows the percentage deforestation that occurred in three countries: A, B and C.
Study Figure 2 and answer the questions that follow.

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Figure 2. Percentage deforestation that occurred in Country A, Country B and Country C

(i) Use Figure 2 to determine which two countries have a combined total of 70% of their
forest intact. Show your working.

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(ii) State the country in which ecological succession is MOST likely to occur and justify
your response.

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(c) Define the term ‘limiting factor’ and explain how limiting factors operate in the environment.

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(d) Explain the role of natural selection in the adaptation of species to their natural environment.

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Total 20 marks

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MODULE 2

Answer BOTH questions.

3. (a) Table 1 presents data for water consumption per capita for developed and developing countries.

TABLE 1: WATER CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA FOR DEVELOPED


AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Type of Country Water Consumption per Capita (m3)


Developed 2840
Developing 1070

(i) Calculate the percentage difference in the per capita water consumption for developing
and developed countries.
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[4 marks]

(ii) Account for the difference in per capita water consumption for developing and
developed countries.

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(iii) Discuss the environmental impact which may occur as a result of high per capita
water consumption.

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(b) Explain how EACH of the following may impact on the rate of growth of a population:

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(i) Religion

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(ii) Culture

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4. (a) What is meant by the term ‘sustainable development’?

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(b) Explain how high birth rates may impact on a country’s ability to achieve sustainable
development.

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(c) Table 2 shows the Human Development Index (HDI) for two countries, Country A and
Country B.

TABLE 2: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)


FOR COUNTRY A AND COUNTRY B

Country HDI
A 0.449
B 0.955

Use the two values in the table to make TWO comparisons between Country A and
Country B.

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(d) Figure 3 shows the percentage of the world’s population that is affected by the lack of access
to selected social services. Study Figure 3 and answer the questions that follow. In this
question assume that the world’s total population is 7.1 billion.

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Figure 3. Percentage of the world’s population affected by


lack of access to selected social services

(i) What percentage of the world’s population lacks access to adequate health care
services?

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(ii) Calculate the total number of people who lack access to BOTH clean drinking water
and improved sanitation services.

[4 marks]

(iii) Poor sanitation services may lead to increased levels of pollution. Explain THREE
different ways by which the impact of pollution may be mitigated.
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MODULE 3

Answer BOTH questions

5. Figure 4 is a diagram of coastal areas with cliffs, forests, hills, a river which runs into the ocean, some
oil rigs and a quarry.

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Figure 4. Diagram showing coastal areas

(a) Identify TWO types of natural resources illustrated in Figure 4.

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(b) Choose ONE of the natural resources identified in (a) above and answer the following
questions
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(i) Classify the selected natural resource as renewable or non-renewable and exhaustible
or inexhaustible.

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(ii) Using a selected natural resource as an example, explain the difference between
‘non-renewable natural resources’ and ‘exhaustible natural resources’.

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(c) You overhear a student saying that a natural resource cannot be important for both livelihood
AND recreation. State whether this statement is true or false. Using ONE of the natural
resources illustrated in Figure 4 as an example, justify your response.
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(d) Table 3 shows the Amerindian population as a percentage of the total population in selected
Caribbean countries.

TABLE 3: AMERINDIAN POPULATION AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE


TOTAL POPULATION IN SELECTED CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES

Country Percentage of Amerindians


in the Total Population (%)
Belize 15
Dominica 6
Guyana 9
St Vincent and the Grenadines 2
Suriname 2
Trinidad and Tobago 0.1

(i) Sketch a bar chart illustrating the data presented in Table 3. A detailed graph is not
required.

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[3 marks]

(ii) Given that the total population of Trinidad and Tobago is approximately 1.3 million,
how many Amerindians are there?

[2 marks]
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(iii) Outline ONE practice that the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean use to manage
their natural resources.

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6. (a) Define the term ‘non-consumptive use of natural resources’ and identify ONE example that
illustrates non-consumptive use of natural resources.

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[2 marks]

(b) (i) Three tools that can be used for natural resource management and conservation are
sustainable yield management, waste minimization and environmental legislation.
Choose ONE of these tools and explain how it works to achieve natural resource
management and conservation.

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(ii) Explain how political factors can influence the successful use of the tools for natural
resource management.

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(c) Figure 5 shows the number of threatened plant and animal species in selected Caribbean
territories. Study Figure 5 carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Figure 5. Graph showing the number of threatened plant and animal


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species in selected Caribbean territories

Source: The World Bank, Environmental Indicators, www.data.worldbank.org/indicator.

(i) Using a suitable table, summarize the information shown in Figure 5.


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(ii) Suggest THREE reasons why fish are the most threatened species in all three
territories.

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Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

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TEST CODE 02120032
FORM TP 2016200 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY, PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNIT 1 – Paper 032

2 hours

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of THREE questions.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet.

4. Do NOT write in the margins.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

6. If you need to rewrite any answer and there is not enough space to do so
on the original page, you must use the extra lined page(s) provided at the
back of this booklet. Remember to draw a line through your original
answer.

7. If you use the extra page(s) you MUST write the question number
clearly in the box provided at the top of the extra page(s) and, where
relevant, include the question part beside the answer.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

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Answer ALL questions.

1. Table 1 shows the results obtained from an ecological study of two sites, Site 1 and Site 2. The
species diversity of Site 1 is 0.419. Study the data in Table 1 and answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 1: NUMBERS OF DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AT TWO SITES,


SITE 1 AND SITE 2

Organism Numbers at Site 1 Numbers at Site 2


Mango tree 5 30
Kiskadee (an 20 5
omnivorous bird)
Snake 15 0
Caterpillar 60 10

(a) (i) Use a suitable scale to construct a pyramid of numbers for Site 1. State the scale
used.

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(ii) Calculate the species abundance and species diversity for Site 2. Use the formula
below to calculate the species diversity.

∑ n(n–1)
Formula: D =
N (N–1)
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[6 marks]

(iii) Use the information provided in Table 1 and the values obtained from the
calculations in (a) (ii) to explain THREE differences in the two sites.

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(b) (i) Describe a detailed method that could be used to estimate the population of snakes.

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(ii) State FOUR assumptions of the method described in (b) (i).

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Total 30 marks
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2. (a) Figure 1 shows four population pyramids representing different stages of demographic
transition. Explain the shape of the population pyramid at each stage with respect to birth
rate and life expectancy.

Figure 1. Population pyramids showing stages of demographic transition

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(b) Table 2 presents data on world population numbers in 1995 and the estimated numbers
for 2025.

TABLE 2: WORLD POPULATION SIZE IN 1995 AND


ESTIMATED POPULATION NUMBERS FOR 2025

Less Developed Countries More Developed Countries


(millions) (millions)
Population in 1995 4590 1345
Estimated population in 2025 7550 1525

(i) Calculate the estimated percentage growth in world population attributable to less
developed countries between 1995 and 2025.
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[5 marks]

(ii) Explain why the estimated growth in the population of less developed countries
calculated in (b) (i) should be a cause for concern.
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(c) A student conducted a survey in two communities, one urban and one rural, to identify the
most prevalent environmental issues in each community, Table 3 presents the percentage
of respondents who identified each type of environmental issue.

TABLE 3: RESULT OF SURVEY TO IDENTIFY PREVALENT


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN TWO COMMUNITIES

Environmental Issue Community A Community B

Traffic congestion 70 10
Housing shortage 80 10
Pollution 70 20

(i) Draw a bar graph to represent the results in Table 3.

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(ii) Which of the two communities is most likely the urban community? Suggest
THREE reasons to justify your answer.

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3. (a) Using ONE example for EACH, distinguish between ‘consumptive use of natural resources’
and ‘non-consumptive use of natural resources’ .

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(b) Figure 2 shows a plot of the data for the total number of a species of fish caught by two
countries, A and B, over a 12-year period. The fishing effort was constant over the period.
Study Figure 2 and answer the questions that follow.
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Figure 2. Plot of the data for the catch of species of fish


by two countries over a 12-year period

(i) Compare the trend illustrated in Figure 2 for BOTH countries for the catch of the
species over the 12-year period. Include specific values in your response.

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(ii) Suggest FOUR possible reasons that may explain the trend observed for
Country B.

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(iii) Define the term ‘maximum sustainable yield’ (MSY).

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(iv) Complete Table 4 using the information from Figure 2.

TABLE 4: MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD AND YEAR


ACHIEVED FOR COUNTRY A AND COUNTRY B

Country MSY (tonnes) Year Achieved


Country A
Country B
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(v) Suggest FOUR reasons why it is advisable that the fishery resource be harvested
below the MSY levels.

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(c) Country B reported that international ships were polluting its marine fishing areas. Which
international agreement could Country B use to help address this problem? Give THREE
reasons for your answer.
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Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

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TEST CODE 02220020
FORM TP 2016202 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AGRICULTURE, ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of SIX questions, TWO from each module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet.

4. Do NOT write in the margins.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable, scientific calculator to answer


questions.

6. If you need to rewrite any answer and there is not enough space to do so
on the original page, you must use the extra lined page(s) provided at the
back of this booklet. Remember to draw a line through your original
answer.

7. If you use the extra page(s) you MUST write the question number
clearly in the box provided at the top of the extra page(s) and, where
relevant, include the question part beside the answer.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

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MODULE 1

Answer BOTH questions.

1. (a) Ms Farmer wishes to cultivate a vegetable crop using a sustainable method. She was
advised to consider using hydroponics.

(i) Describe the practice of hydroponics.

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(ii) Explain FOUR benefits of hydroponics.

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(b) Figure 1 shows the percentage contribution of agriculture by various roles to the economies
of two Caribbean countries, A and B. Study Figure 1 and answer the questions that follow.

Agroprocessing industries

Production of non-food materials Country A


Country B

Economic
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Production of food materials

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Percentage contribution

Figure 1. Percentage contributions made by the role of agriculture


to the economies of two Caribbean countries

(i) Make FOUR deductions about the contributions made by agriculture to the two
countries.

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(ii) In which country is the contribution of food security to the economy GREATER?
Justify your answer.

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[4 marks]

(c) Suggest THREE reasons why climate change is a major threat to sustainable agriculture
in the Caribbean.

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2. (a) Figure 2 shows the percentage impact of the negative effects of agriculture in a country
for two years, Year 1 and Year 2.
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Figure 2. Impacts due to agriculture over a period of two years

(i) Use Figure 2 to make FIVE deductions about the impact of the negative effects of
agriculture in the country. Include specific values from Figure 2 in your responses.

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(ii) Choose any THREE negative effects from Figure 2 and for EACH negative effect
chosen, suggest ONE reason that can explain the difference in the percentage
impact between Year 1 and Year 2.

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(b) Outline THREE characteristics of commercial agricultural systems.

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(c) Using TWO examples, discuss how technology can be used to improve agricultural
productivity.

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