You are on page 1of 200

Introduction to Science and Technology

 Describe how science and technology may improve
or not improve our way of life
 Discuss the significant contributions of great men
and women of science and technology
 Recognize the importance of science in our daily

Do You Want To Be A Scientist?

Prepare a report on one of the career opportunities
in science that you are interested in. you may choose
from the list below.
Marine biologist physicist medical technologist
Environmentalist chemist meteorologist

Others: If possible, interview an individual who works in

the field. A tape recorder will be helpful for the
interview. Be sure to prepare your questions in advance.

As time progresses, the world is changing at an
accelerated or increasing rate. Before, people had only
their senses to rely on for their observations.
Today, we have complex and sophisticated
equipment, such as microscopes, to look into small
objects; satellites that can take photographs of the earth’s
surface and other planets; CT and MRI scanners that can
look inside the human body without the need for surgery;
and the internet that enables us to share volumes of
information with just one click.
We now obtain information faster and easier. With
the tap of our fingers, we can instantly learn about what
is happening around us. Furthermore, there are new
inventions and discoveries that are uncovered every day.
These products of science and technology make our lives
easier and more comfortable.


Science is a continuous Search for Knowledge

Science comes from the Latin word scientia (scient-,
sciens), which means “having knowledge”.
Science involves observations followed by
experimentations leading to further observations and
further experimentations.

Science as a Product and a Process

Science as a product is an ever- changing body of
Science is…
1. an ongoing process of investigating and thinking;
2. a way of thinking that involves reasoning; and
3. a way of investigating which involves questions,
experimentations, and predictions.

Branches of Science
Science may be classified into social science and
natural science.
 Social Science- focuses primarily on the study of
people, culture, and society. Social sciences include
Economics, Geography, History, Law, Education,
Sociology, and Psychology.
 Natural Science- according to its proponents, seeks to
understand the natural world and its different
processes. Natural sciences include Biology,
Chemistry, and Physics.
Natural science can be further divided into pure or applied
o Pure science- used in pursuit of new knowledge.
It deals with new discoveries that may or may not
have current practical applications.
In general, pure science can be divided
further into two divisions: physical sciences and
biological sciences.

 Physical sciences are those that involve the
study of nonliving things.
This group includes the following:
1. Physics- the science that deals with matter and
energy and the interaction between them.
2. Chemistry- the science that deals with matter,
its composition, structure and properties; the
changes it undergoes; and the energy
accompanying these changes.
3. Earth Science- the study of earth and its
composition, what processes happen in its
interior and its surface, and how it is similar to
and different with other entities in space. It
includes the study of nonliving things such as
rocks, soil, clouds, rivers, oceans, planets,
stars, and meteors. It also covers the weather
and climate systems that affect the earth.
 Meteorologists- study weather and climate.
 Earth Scientists- investigate how geologic
features were formed on land and in the
 Geologists- study rock and geologic features.

The table below shows some of the different fields of
science under the category of Physical Sciences.
It also shows some of the overlapping sciences.

Table 1.1: Physical Sciences

Earth Overlapping
Physics Chemistry
Sciences Sciences
Kinetics Analytical Chemistry Astronomy Astrophysics
Nuclear Physics Inorganic Chemistry Geology Atmospheric Chemistry
Quantum Mechanics Nuclear Chemistry Hydrology Geochemistry
Aeronautics Organic Chemistry Meteorology Physical Chemistry
Solid State Physics Qualitative Chemistry Oceanography Physical Geology
Theoretical Physics Quantitative Chemistry Seismology Soil Chemistry
Thermodynamics Soil science
Mechanics Volcanology

Mathematics serves as an important tool for all of these sciences.

Biological sciences or Biology involves the study of
living things. This group includes all the subspecialties in
The table below shows these sciences and their
overlapping sciences with the physical sciences.

Table 1.2: Biological Sciences

Biological Sciences Overlapping Sciences
Zoology Biochemistry
Botany Biophysics
Physiology Paleontology
Anatomy Astrobiology
Histology Human Kinetics
Cytology Ecology
Genetics Agricultural Chemistry
Mathematics serves as an important tool for all of these

o Applied Sciences- uses the discoveries of pure
sciences to create solutions and create products
that can be used in actual settings. Examples of
these are engineering, medicine, electronics,
environmental science, and computer science.

Technology- known as the application of scientific
knowledge for practical purposes. It uses the concepts and
ideas in science in developing products that assist people
in their daily lives.
For example, electromagnetism gave rise to the
invention of generators and power plants.

Here are some other recent developments in our

technology being used today.

 Laser- the acronym for Light Amplification by

Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It has long been
used to encode and decode CD’s and DVD’s, cut glass
and steel, and study the composition of the
atmosphere. Today, it is being used to repair the torn

retina of the eye, bore holes in the skull, and heat
blocked blood vessels. This technology made
bloodless operations possible. Laser has become a
valuable tool for industry, communication, and

 CT and MRI Scanners- CT or CAT is an acronym for

Computerized axial tomography. Using a type of X-ray
device, it can detect disorders of soft internal organ
tissues in the body. It can identify cancerous cells,
small fine bones, and soft organs in an easier and
more accurate way. On the other hand, Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission
Tomography (PET) are other forms of imaging that
can produce pictures of the interior of the body by
using the magnetic properties of substances inside
the bodies. Powerful computers process the data
from the scanners to create a clearer image of the
body parts being examined.

Information and Communications Technology
People used to send messages via letters and
telegrams. It took several days for these messages to
reach their recipients. Today, with the presence of mobile
phones, social networking, e-mail, and the Internet,
messages can be sent to people instantly- replies could be
sent just as quickly.
In addition, computers have evolved from typing
devices and number calculators to information sources
through the Internet, traffic light operators, photo editors,
among others; and they have become powerful tools for
communication. Computers have also shrunk in size from
roomful of metal boxes to little pads the size of a sheet of
paper, with the thickness of a box of matches.

Effects of Science and Technology on Society

Science and technology have influenced much of our
lives. The fruits of research from the different fields of
science have made people’s lives more convenient.
Technology has definitely benefited society.

10 | P a g e
However, some products of science has also caused
human society pain and destruction. Technology was also
responsible for weapons that brought violence within and
among nations.
Another problem is the development of nuclear energy
as a source of power for homes, trains, and submarines. The
worst nuclear power plant accident happened in Ukraine,
the Chernobyl disaster, on April 26, 1986. Explosion and fire
released large quantities of radioactive contamination in
the atmosphere in which the cause of 985,000 deaths.
One of the biggest problems is water and air pollution.
Pollution is not a product of science. It is just an after-effect.
The burning of fossil fuels causes the degradation of our
environment because of air pollution. Furthermore, as we
become a material-based society where everything is man-
made, we create large amounts of waste. Since products
are cheap, we opt to get new items rather than reuse or
repair old and broken ones. We have become a “disposable
society”, which also contributes to the worldwide problem
on solid wastes.
The bottom line is, there are positive and negative
sides in everything, but it is up to humans as consumers of
science and technology to choose how they will be used.
Great Men and Women of Science

11 | P a g e
We will not be enjoying the benefits of science and
technology if there were no scientists and engineers who
are willing to devote their life to research and study.
Here are some individuals who took the challenge of
learning more about their world and were able to make
significant contributions to science and technology.

People Who Paved the Way

 Aristotle (384-322 BC) was the foremost natural
philosopher in the ancient period. He laid the
foundation of modern scientific thought and
assembled materials for an organized encyclopedia.
 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)- was a monk from
Poland who first went against the idea of a geocentric
universe. People back then believed that the earth
was the center of the universe. And all the stars and
other planets revolved around it. Through this
research, he made a Copernican Model for planets,
which showed the sun as the center on which all the
planets revolved around it.

 William Harvey (1578-1657)- was a doctor from

England who discovered the circulation of blood,

12 | P a g e
which became the basis of the study of modern
physiology. This discovery led to a better
understanding of how the body works and brought
the study of biology and medicine to greater heights.
 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)- was a French scientist
who focused on how decay and fermentation
occurred. His findings established the germ theory of
diseases that showed how microorganisms such as
bacteria, fungi, and viruses can cause diseases. As
such, he showed how heat can help sterilize food and
food containers to prevent the growth of germs that
will cause spoilage and diseases. He is also being
credited for the practice of vaccination to prevent
 Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934)- was the first
woman in the world to receive a Noble Prize for
Physics for her study of radioactivity in 1903. She
shared her award with her husband, Pierre Curie, and
colleague, Henri Becquerel. She also received a Noble
Prize in Chemistry for the isolation of pure radium and
discovery of polonium in 1911.

13 | P a g e
Filipino Heroes in Science
Filipinos are also competitive in the field of science
and technology. This topic will feature three known
Filipino scientists who have made significant contributions
to science and technology in the Philippines and the
 Lourdes C. Cruz (Biochemist)
Dr. Lourdes “Luly” Cruz completed her degree of BS
Chemistry at the University of the Philippines in Diliman in
1962. She earned her MS and PhD in Biochemistry at the
University of Iowa, United States in 1966 and 1968,
respectively. She served as a research aide at the
International Rice Research Institute, where she returned
after earning her doctorate degree.
Dr, Cruz’s research focused on extracting toxins from
deadly cone snails to make useful substances. She has
published over 120 scientific papers that greatly
contributed to the understanding of the biochemistry of
toxic peptides from the venom of fish-hunting Conus
marine snails. Her studies helped characterized over 50
biologically active peptides and were later used as
biochemical probes for examining the activities of the
human brain.

14 | P a g e
In March 2010, Dr. Cruz was recognized with a
prestigious award by the 12th L’Oréal- UNESCO for Women
in Science Program representing Asia- Pacific as one of the
five exceptional female scientists in five continents who
exemplifies women scientists in terms of quality of
research and strength of commitment.
At the age of 64, the rank and title of National
Scientist was awarded to Dr. Cruz in 2007. This is the
highest honor given to a man or woman of science in the

 Fabian M. Dayrit (Chemist)

Dr. Fabian “Toby” Dayrit is the son of Conrado Dayrit, a
physician and pharmacologist and Milagros Millar.
After graduating, he immediately took his licensure
exam, where he placed in the top ten. He pursued his
graduate studies at Princeton University in the United
States under a scholarship program. His specialization was
on organometallic chemistry. His findings were published
in several prestigious journals, such as the Journal of the
American Chemical Society, Journal of Organic Chemistry,
and Pure and Applied Chemistry.

15 | P a g e
Through the years, after he returned to the
Philippines, Dr. Dayrit, through the group National
Integrated Research Program on Medicinal Plants
(NIRPROMP), has worked on Vitex negundo (lagundi),
Momordica charantia (ampalaya), Moringa oleifera
(malunggay), Bixa Orellana (achuete), and others. The
goal of this group is to systematize indigenous research by
identifying and analyzing active compounds in medicinal
plants in the hope to boost local medicinal expertise in the
Dr. dayrit’s work on these medicinal plants helps the
growth of phytochemistry in the Philippines. Aside from
finding treatments for illnesses, Dr. Dayrit attempts to
prevent diseases by working in the field of environmental

 Maria Corazon A. de Ungria (Forensic Scientist)

Dr. Maria Corazon A. de Ungria is currently the head of
the DNA Analysis Laboratory of the Natural Sciences
Research Institute of the University of the Philippines in
Diliman, Quezon City.
She finished her degree in Bachelor of Science in Biology
at Macquarie University with honors and her doctorate

16 | P a g e
degree in Microbiology at the University of South Wales,
both in Sydney, Australia.
Dr. Ungria returned to the Philippines after
graduating and worked at the DNA Analysis Laboratory in
1999. She advocated for the use of forensic DNA
technology at the service of society, especially in assisting
the more vulnerable members of our community such as
abused women and children, as well as those who have
been wrongfully convicted in their struggle for justice.
For her efforts, Dr, Ungria had been given several
prestigious scientific awards such as the Outstanding
Young Scientist by the National Academy of Science and
Technology in 2003, the UP Gawad Hall of Fame for Best
REPS in Research in 2005, the Outstanding Young Scientist
Award by the Third World Academy of Science in 2006, as
well as being named as one of the regional fellow affiliates
of the Academy of Science in the Developing World from

17 | P a g e
These people may appear to be superheroes; but they
are also mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, and friends.
They are, in fact, ordinary people like us. This just proves
that all of us can become scientists if we choose to and if
we work hard for it.
Let us look at some modern-day jobs of scientists and
their brief descriptions.
1. Forensic Scientists
A forensic scientist investigates crimes by collecting
and scientifically analyzing physical evidence. He/She is
sometimes called a crime scene investigator or forensic
science technician. If one wants to be a forensic
scientist, he/she can take up a degree in Chemistry,
Biology, or any related degree with specialization in
forensic science.
2. Pharmacologist
A pharmacologist investigates how potential
medicines interact with biological systems. He/She
undertakes an in-vitro research (using cells or animal
tissues) to produce the particular effect the drug might
have in humans.

18 | P a g e
Pharmacologists are responsible in understanding
how drugs work for a more effective and safer use. Their
work. Which involves high level of collaboration with
other scientists, includes conducting researches for
drug discovery and development.
3. Sports Scientist
A sports scientist has a well-founded background
across a large number of objects related to sports
performance. These areas include sports biomechanics,
sports nutrition, physiology, anatomy, psychology, and
prevention of sports-related injuries.
Understanding of these subjects enables a sports
scientist to work with athletes who may have physical,
psychological, and physiological demands of sports and
exercise. They can also elevate their knowledge to
enhance sports performance and injury prevention.
4. Embryologist
Embryologists are biological scientists who study the
development of living organisms from the fertilized egg
stage through hatching or birth.

19 | P a g e
Embryology is a specialized area within the field of
biology. To do research in this field, a doctorate degree
is usually required. A master’s degree is adequate for
some jobs in applied research, while a bachelor’s degree
may qualify a candidate for an entry level job. People
preparing to be embryologists usually major in Biology
or Zoology in college, with numerous courses in the
physical sciences and mathematics as well, and then
specialize in Embryology in graduate school.
5. Life Scientists
Life scientists study living organisms, where they live,
and how they interact. Professionals in the life sciences
include the following:
a. Physical Therapist
Physical therapist carry out treatment programs
to restore the use of arms, legs, or other body parts
that have been damaged by injury or disease.
Treatment may involve exercise, massage, whirlpool
baths, and application of heat. Physical therapist
work with people with disability, teaching them how
to overcome their handicaps. They also teach patients
how to use artificial limbs. Braces, and other
supportive devices.

20 | P a g e
b. Medical Technologist/Technician
In medical laboratories, there are medical
technologists who work under the supervision of a
physician or scientist performing various types of
diagnostic tests.
Medical technologists do complicated diagnostic
tests involving chemical analysis, microscopic
examination of tissues, and cultures of body fluids
to determine the presence of bacteria and other
c. Clinical Dietitian
Clinical dieticians are concerned with the
nutritional needs of patients in health care facilities
such as hospitals, nursing homes and clinics. They
develop and carry out nutrition care plans for
patients, often consulting with doctors and other
members of the health care team. They also
instruct patients and their families on dietary
matters, and they suggest ways to maintain proper
diets after patients leave the hospital.
Clinical dietitians often set up the supervised
food service systems for institutions. They also
promote sound-eating habits through educational

21 | P a g e
activities and research. The clinical dietitian
interacts with patients, doctors, and other health
care professionals, hospital administrators, and
food service workers.

Values of a Good Scientist

If you are planning to become a scientist, there are a
lot of options. You can be an engineer and be a scientist,
you can be a doctor and be a scientist, and you can be a
teacher and still be a scientist. What is ultimately needed
is the passion to learn more, explore, and take the ride
science offers you. Here are some values that one needs
to develop to become a good scientist:
1. Perseverance- a good scientist must never give up. A
good scientist must be bold enough to do the
impossible. Thomas Edison once said, “Success is 1%
inspiration and 99% perspiration.” Discoveries do not
happen overnight. It takes a lot of time, effort,
sacrifice, and other resources. A string of failures
should not stop anyone from satisfying his/her thirst
for knowledge.

22 | P a g e
2. Honesty- being honest is important in acquiring
knowledge. A scientist who gathers data in his/her
work must reflect the truth in his/her findings. Some
misguided scientists have fallen into the practice of
changing the information they gathered to support a
theory or idea that they are promoting. This practice
of dishonesty defeats the purpose of science- to
understand our surroundings and contribute to a
bigger body of knowledge. A dishonest scientist
provides wrong information that does not help in the
development of science and technology.
3. Responsibility- true scientists hold themselves
accountable for the consequences of their study. As
such, they must exercise caution to avoid negative
effects to living organisms and the environment as a
whole. For example, medical practitioners study all
the possible effects of treatments before they try
them on people. This will ensure that the treatment
will be safe for the patient s who will receive them.
4. Discipline- scientists follow the scientific method,
which is made up of a series of steps that was
established to ensure the quality of a scientific study.
More so, when scientists conduct experiments, they
follow a procedure or methodology. A good scientist

23 | P a g e
must follow these steps as closely as they can. If
things don’t work as expected, that is the time to
change it and try again. Making shortcuts or cutting
corners to make things easier is not a good idea
because it prevents one from finding the mistake
made if the process did not work.

These values will help future scientists in dealing

with the challenges of doing scientific study and

24 | P a g e
Solutions- are homogeneous uniform.
When you put sugar into water, the solid becomes
part of the liquid and cannot be seen. You can say that the
sugar dissolves in water or the sugar is soluble in water.
Solutions may be solids dissolved in liquids. There are
solutions where a gas is dissolved in another gas, a liquid
in another liquid or a solid in another solid. Gaseous,
liquid, and solid solutions are all around you. Many
commercial products are sold as solutions.
In this module, you are expected to:
 Investigate properties of unsaturated or saturated
solutions; and
 Express concentration of solutions quantitatively by
preparing different concentrations of mixtures
according to uses and availability of materials.

At the end of this module, you are expected to answer

the following questions:
What common properties do solutions have?
Are solutions always liquid?

25 | P a g e
Pre- Assessment
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which is an example of a solution?
A. Cooked flour
B. Marshmallow
C. Sea water

2. The two components of a solution are solute and

solvent. Which statement describes the solute?
A. It is the solid formed in the solution.
B. It is the liquid component of the solution.
C. It is the component of a solution in smaller
D.It is the component of a solution in bigger quantity.

For items 3-5. Gabriel was task by his teacher to

investigate on how fast table salt dissolves in cold and in
hot water.
3. Observing the fair testing, what will be his control

26 | P a g e
A. Amount of water and table salt in each cup, method
of stirring, time when the solid is added to water,
how long each solution is stirred.
B. Amount of water and table salt in each cup, method
of stirring, how long each solution is stirred.
C. Amount of table salt in each cup, method of
stirring, time when the solid is added to water, how
long each solution is stirred.
D.Amount of water in each cup, method of stirring,
time when the solid is added to water, how long
each solution is stirred.

4. Which variable is being measured by Gabriel?

I. The amount of table salt.

II. The temperature of water.
III. The time the table salt will completely
dissolves in hot water.
IV. The time the table salt that completely
dissolves in cold water.

A. I only C. III only

B. II and II D. II and IV

27 | P a g e
5. What is the independent variable in the investigation
being conducted by Gabriel?
A. Concentration of salt
B. Length of time table salt dissolves
C. Temperature of water
D.Not given

6. Which of the following statements BEST describes a

homogeneous solution?
A. It is usually liquid.
B. It contains a solute and solvent.
C. It can be dilute or concentrated.
D.Its components are distributed evenly in the

7. In a chemistry class, Gabby prepared a solution by

mixing 25 g of sugar in 80 g of water. What are the
concentrations of the solute and solvent in percent
(%) by mass?
A. Solute: 34%, Solvent: 60 %
B. Solute: 14%, Solvent: 86%
C. Solute: 24%, Solvent: 76%
D.Solute: 44%, Solvent: 56%

28 | P a g e
8. A piece of jewelry is made up of 18 K. it means that
the jewelry is made up of _______.
A. 18 parts is made up of copper and 6 parts is gold.
B. 18 parts is made up of gold and 6 parts is copper.
C. 9 parts is made up of gold and 9 parts is made up
D. 18 parts of the jewelry is made up of finest gold
suited for the purpose.
9. Which of these factors will cause more sugar to
dissolve in a saturated sugar solution?

I. Add more sugar while stirring.

II. Add more sugar and heat to the solution.
III. Add more sugar and cool down the solution.

A. I only C. II only
B. II only D. I and II only

10. What is the percentage concentration in the

following solution: 5 g sucrose in 90 grams water?
A. 4% B. 5% C. 6% D. 7%

29 | P a g e
Activity 1
What Solutions Do You Find In Your Home Or In A Store?
After performing this activity, you should be able to:
1. Describe some observable characteristics or properties of
common solutions found at home or in stores; and
2. Presen the data gathered in table form to show some properties
of common solutions you observed.

1. With your group mates, write the name of your products or items
brought from home and describe the characteristics of each of
these products. You may make a table similar to Table 1.
Table 1. Products at home or store and their
Products Found at Home or in Stores Characteristics

2. As you observe each product, describe the products in terms of

color and appearance, odor, feel, taste (for food products) and
number of observable phase/s.
3. Based on what you have learned so far inn grade 6, which of the
products you observed are homogeneous uniform? What
common characteristics do the homogeneous mixtures in your
list have?
4. Which of these products or items are solutions?

30 | P a g e
A solution is not always a liquid; it can be solid, liquid,
or gas. In addition, solutions may either be found in
nature or are manufactured.

Naturally Occurring Solutions

Many materials in nature can be used efficiently only
when these are in the form of solutions. For example,
plants cannot absorb minerals from the soil unless these
minerals are in solution.
Seawater is a solution having a higher percentage of
salt and minerals than other sources of water like ground
water or rivers. Rainwater is a solution containing
dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Air is a mixture of gases. Water vapor is present in
different amounts depending on the location. Air above
big bodies of water contains more water vapor in air. Dry
air consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon,
0.04 % carbon dioxide and traces of argon, helium, neon,
krypton, and xenon.
Useful solutions are found not only in nature; many
solutions are made for a specific purpose.

31 | P a g e
Manufactured and Processed Solutions
Almost every household uses vinegar for cooking and
cleaning purposes. Vinegar usually contains about 5%
acetic acid in water. Generally, samples of vinegar are
clear homogeneous mixtures (solutions) while other kinds
of vinegar are colloidal. Other examples of solutions that
are processed include wine and liquor, and tea (but not
instant tea).
A metal alloy is a solid solution made up of two or
more metals. For example, bronze is an alloy of copper
and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. However,
there are alloys that contain metals mixed with non-
metals. Steel is an alloy made up of iron and carbon. Cast
iron is made up of carbon, silicon and iron and is chiefly
used in cook wares and in bridge constructions.

32 | P a g e
Activity 2: What Are Some Properties Of Solutions?
Q1. Describe the appearance of the mixture (uniform or not
uniform) that resulted after mixing. Write your answer in column 3.
Q2. How many phases do you observe? Write your answers and
observations in column 4.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Sample Will Appearance Uniform Can be Path of Solution or
dissolve in or Non- separated light (can or not?
one cup uniform by cannot be
water filtration seen)
(yes or (yes or no)


Cooking oil

(clear type)
Q3. In which mixture were you able to separate the components by
Write your observations in column 5 of Table 1.
Q4. In column 6, write whether the path of light can be seen across
the liquid.
Q5. Which of the samples are solutions? Write your answer in
Q6. Based on activity 2, what are some common characteristics of
solutions you observed?

33 | P a g e
In general, a solution has two types of component:
the solute and the solvent. The solute and the solvent
dissolve in each other.
 Solute- the component present in small amount. The
particles of solute are dissolved in a solution.
 Solvent- it is usually the component present in
greater amount.
In Activity 2, sugar, salt, powdered juice and vinegar (clear
type) are the solutes and water is the solvent. Solutes and
solvents may be solids, liquids, or gases.
In Activity 3, you will find out how much solute can
dissolve in a given amount of solvent and find out the type
of solution based on whether there is excess solute or not.

34 | P a g e
Activity 3: What are the Evidences that Make a Solution
After performing this activity you will be able to:
1. Determine how much solid solute dissolves in a given volume of
water; through
2. Describe the appearance of a saturated solution.
Materials needed
 6 teaspoons sugar
 1 cup of water
 1 measuring cup (1 cup capacity)
 1 measuring spoon (1/2 tsp capacity)
 2 small transparent bottle
 2 stirrers (may be stirring rod, chopstick, hard straw, or coffee
1. Pour 20 mL (approximately 2 tablespoons) of water in a small
transparent bottle. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar and stir.
Q7. What is the appearance of the solution/ write your
2. To the sugar solution in step #1, add ½ teaspoon sugar and stir the
solution to dissolve the sugar. At this point, you have added 1
teaspoon sugar.
3. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar to the same cup until the added sugar no
longer dissolves.
Q8. How many teaspoons of sugar have you added until the sugar
no longer dissolves?
Q9. So, how many teaspoons of sugar dissolved completely in 20
ml of water?

35 | P a g e
In Activity 3, you have observed that there is a
maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given
amount of solvent at a certain temperature. This is called
the solubility of the solute. From your everyday
experience, you also observe that there is a limit to the
amount of sugar you can dissolve in a given amount of
 Saturated solution- a solution that contains the
maximum amount of solute by a given amount of
If you add more solute to the solvent. It will no longer
dissolve. The solution has reached its saturation point. The
presence of an excess solid which can no longer dissolve is
evidence that the solution is super saturated.
 Unsaturated solution- when it contains less solute
than the maximum amount it can dissolve at a given
In activity 3, it is difficult to conclude that the containers
with all solids dissolves are unsaturated simply by
observing them. Some of these may already hold the
maximum amount of solute, which cannot be observed by
the unaided eye. If they do, then these are classified as
saturated solutions.

36 | P a g e
Concentration of Solutions
The concentration describes the relative amounts of
solute and solvent in a given volume of solution.

 Concentrated solution- refers to the solution when

there is a large amount of dissolved solute for a
certain volume of solvent.
 Dilute solution- has a small amount of dissolved
solute in comparison to the amount of solvent.

You will be able to distinguish between concentrated

and dilute solutions from a simple demonstration your
teacher will perform. You will describe the concentrations
of solutions qualitatively (by simply observing their
appearance) and quantitatively (by comparing the
number of drops per volume water).
From part 1 of the demonstration, you will be able to
describe the solutions as having quantitative
concentrations of 1drop/50 mL and 10drops/50 mL.
Qualitatively, you will be able to distinguish the bottle
with 10 drops/50 mL is more concentrated (darker) than
the bottle with 1 drop/50 mL.

37 | P a g e
Now that you have distinguished dilute from
concentrated solutions qualitatively and quantitatively
from your teacher’s demonstration, you can express
concentration in other ways such as:
1. Percent by volume, which is the amount of solute in
a given volume of solution expressed as grams solute
per 100 milliliter of solution (g/100mL), and
2. Percent by mass, which is the amount of solute in a
given mass of solvent expressed as grams solute per
100 grams of solution.
Labels of products sold often show the concentration of
solutes expressed as percent (%) by volume or mass. (ex.
70% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol, meaning 70 ml alcohol)
Vinegar is often labelled as “5% acidity”, which means that
it contains 5 grams of acetic acid in 100 g of vinegar.
Pure gold is referred to as 24 karats. Jewelry that is said to
be 18 karats contains 18 grams of gold for every 24 grams
of the material, the remaining 6 grams consists of the
other metal like copper or silver. This material has a
concentration of 75% gold, that is, [18/24(100)]. A 14
karat (14K) gold contains 14 grams gold and 10 grams of
another metal, making it 58.3 % gold.

38 | P a g e
The following sample problems show you that there
is a way to know the exact ratio of solute to solvent, which
specifies the concentration of a solution.

Sample problem 1
How many mL of ethyl alcohol are present in a 50 mL
bottle of a 70 % solution?

Calculation for sample problem 1

Since the given is a 70% alcohol solution, it means
that 100mL of the alcohol solution contains 70 mL ethyl
So, the following calculations show that in 50 mL of
the alcohol solution, there is 35 mL ethyl alcohol.
70 mL ethyl alcohol
50 mL alcohol solution x = 35 mL ethyl alcohol
100 mL alcohol solution

39 | P a g e
Sample problem 2
A one peso coin has a mass of 5.4 grams. How many
grams of copper are in a one peso coin containing 75%
copper by mass?

Calculations for the sample problem 2

75% by mass means 75 grams of copper in 100
grams of one peso coin.
So, a 5.4 grams one peso coin contains,
75 g copper
x 5.4 g coin = 4.0 g copper
100 g coin

Factors Affecting How Fast a Solid Solute Dissolves

In activities 4 to 6, you will investigate factors that
affect how fast a solid solute dissolves in a given volume of
The Effect of Stirring
Your teacher demonstrated the effect of stirring in
mixing a solid in water. You observed that stirring makes the
solid dissolve faster in the solvent. Were you able to explain
why this is so?

40 | P a g e
The Effect of Particle Size
In activity 4, you will investigate how the size of the solid being
dissolved affects how fast it dissolves in water.

Activity 4: Size Matters!

After performing this activity the learners shall be able to:
 Design and perform an equipment which will show the effect
of particles size
1. Write a hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could
conduct to find out which dissolve faster: granules (uncrushed)
of table salt or the same amount of crushed salt.
2. Identify variables (for example, amount of table salt) that you
need to control in order to have a fair test.
3. Identify the dependent and independent variables.
4. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask
these from your teacher.
5. Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them. Write
everything you observed during the dissolving test.

Q10. What is your conclusion? Does the size of the salt affect
how fast it dissolves in water?
Q11. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis?
Q12. Based on what you know about dissolving, try to explain
your results.

41 | P a g e
To help you explain the process of dissolving, imagine
that in a solution, the particles of a solute (table salt) and
the solvent (water) are constantly moving. Water particles
collide everywhere along the surface of the particles of
table salt, especially on the corners and edges.
This occurs at the surface of the solid solute when it
comes in contact with the solvent. This particles on the
corners and edges then break away from the crystal and
become surrounded by the water particles. So the solute
particles are separated by the solvent particles.

Can you now explain why smaller pieces of salt

dissolve faster than larger ones?

The Effect of Temperature

Temperature affects how fast a solid solute dissolves
in water. Your solutions in activity 3 were at room
temperature. In activity 5 you will investigate how fast
coffee dissolves in cold and in hot water. At what
temperature will sugar dissolve faster?

42 | P a g e
Activity 5: How Fast Does Coffee Dissolve In Hot Water? In Cold
After performing this activity the learners shall be able to:
 Investigate how the temperature affects how fast a solid solute
dissolves in water.
1. Discuss with your group mates how to answer the question for
investigation, “How fast does coffee dissolve in hot water? In cold
water?” Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test
that you could find out how coffee dissolves in cold and in hot
Note: Do not use 3-in-1 coffee as your sample. Use coffee granules.
2. Identify variables (for example, amount of coffee) that you need to
control in order to have a fair test.
3. Identify the dependent and the independent variables.
4. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these
from your teacher.
5. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure
to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything
you observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the
evidence from which you can draw your conclusions.

Q13. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold

or in hot water? Use the observations and results you recorded to
explain your answer.
Q14. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis?
Explain your results.

43 | P a g e
The Nature of Solute
In activity 6, you will find out if: (1) sugar dissolves faster in hot
than in cold water, and (2) if salt dissolves faster in hot than in cold
Activity 6
Which Dissolves Faster in Hot and in Cold Water: Sugar or Salt?
After performing this activity the learners shall be able to:
 Investigate how the nature of solute and solvent affect how fast a
solid solute dissolves in water.
1. Discuss with your group mates how you will do your investigation.
2. Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could
conduct to find out answers to the given two questions above.
3. Identify variables (for example, amount of coffee) that you need to
control in order to have a fair test.
4. Identify the dependent and independent variables.
5. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask. These
from your teacher.
6. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure
to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything
you observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the
evidence from which you can draw your conclusions.
Q15. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold or
in hot water? Use the observations and results you recorded to
explain your answer.

44 | P a g e
7. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis? Explain
your results.
Q16. The following questions can guide you:
a. Does sugar dissolve faster in hot water than in cold water?
Explain your answer, based on your observations from the
b. Does salt dissolve faster in hot than in cold water? Explain
your answer, based on your observations from the
c. Which is affected more by increasing the temperature of the
water- how fast salt dissolves or how fast sugar dissolves?
Explain your answer.
You learned from Activity 5 that in general, a solute dissolves faster
in water when you increase the temperature. But the effect of
temperature is not that simple. The type or nature of the solute will
affect how fast it dissolves in water.
You observed from Activity 6 that increasing the temperature
either makes a solid dissolve faster or slower in water. For some solutes,
increasing the temperature does not have any effect on how fast the
solute dissolves.
 Solutions are homogenous mixtures. It may be solids dissolved in liquids
or gases dissolved in liquids. There are also solutions where a gas is
dissolved in another gas, a liquid in another liquid or a solid in another
 Solutions has two types of components: the solute and the solvent. The
solute is the substance that is dissolved in a solvent.
 There are factors affecting the solubility of substances. There are: rate of
stirring, particle size, nature of solute ad solvents, pressure and

45 | P a g e
Summative Assessment
1. Why is a solution considered a homogenous mixture?
A. It is usually liquid.
B. It can be dilute or concentrated.
C. It contains a solute and a solvent.
D. Its components are distributed evenly.
2. All of the following describes a solution EXCEPT _______.
A. Clear
B. Homogenous
C. Cannot pass through filter paper.
D. Can be separated through physical means.
3. A solution is prepared by mixing 20 g of sodium chloride in
80 g of water. What are the concentrations of the solute
and solvent in % by mass?
A. Solute:10%, Solvent: 90%
B. Solute:20%, Solvent: 80%
C. Solute:30%, Solvent: 70%
D. Solute:40%, Solvent: 60%
4. A beverage contains 3% alcohol which means that
A. The solution contains 3 ml alcohol in 97 ml of water.
B. The solution contains 30 ml alcohol in 70 ml of water.
C. The solution contains 300 ml alcohol in 700 ml of water.
D. The solution contains 100 ml alcohol in 100 ml of water.

46 | P a g e
5. Which of these actions will cause more sugar to dissolve in
a saturated sugar solution?
I. By stirring vigorously
II. By cooling the solution
III. By heating the solution
A. I only C. II only
B. I and III only D. I and II only
6. What is the maximum amount of solute that can be
dissolved in a fixed amount of solvent in a given
A. Dilution C. percent by mass
B. Dissolution D. solubility
7. How many grams of glucose (C12H22O11) are needed to
prepare 400 ml of a 5% glucose solution?
A. 10 g B. 5 g C. 20 g D. 14 g
8. What is the percentage concentration in the following
solution: 2g sucrose in 80 grams water?
A. 2.4 % B. 4.4% C. 2.5% D. 97.6 %
9. Sterling silver contains 95% silver. If a necklace made of
sterling silver weighs 15 g, what is the mass of silver
dissolved in the necklace?
A. 1.6 g C. 9.0 g
B. 6.2 g D. 14.25 g
10. All of the following affects the solubility of a solid in a
liquid EXCEPT ____________.
A. Pressure C. surface area
B. Stirring D. temperature

47 | P a g e
Substances and Mixtures

Many things around you are mixtures. Some are solids

like brass and rocks, liquids like seawater and fruit juices,
or gases like air. Mixtures contain two or more
components. These components may vary in size. The
variation in size may tell whether a mixture is
homogenous or heterogeneous.
In this module, you are expected to distinguish
mixtures from substances based on a set of properties.
At the end of the module, you are expected to answer
the following questions:

How are mixtures different from substances?

How are they similar?

48 | P a g e
Pre- Assessment
Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. At sea level, an odorless and colorless material boils at 100°C
and freezes at 0°C. What inference can be drawn from this
A. The material is a metal
B. The material is a non-metal
C. The material is a mixture
D. The material is a pure substance
2. Table salt is made up of two elements, sodium and chlorine.
Sodium is a very reactive metal. Once you have placed even a
pea-size of this metal in water, a violent reaction occurs. On the
other hand, chlorine exists as a gas. It is used as a poisonous
chemical weapon during the war. But when a chemical change
between the two takes place, it would form a new and non-
poisonous substance known as a sodium chloride. Which of the
following DOES NOT correctly describe this observation?
A. Sodium and chlorine are both substances while sodium
chloride is a mixture.
B. Sodium, chlorine, and sodium chloride have fixed melting
and boiling points.
C. Sodium chloride can be further broken down into simpler
D. All the three materials are substances.

49 | P a g e
3. A student investigates the nature of an unknown substance. He
decided to heat a sample of a blue-green powder and
eventually it turned into a colorless gas and a black solid. What
could be the nature of the original substance and why?
A. Mixture, because it is homogeneous.
B. Mixture, because the material contains two or more
C. Compound, because heating the sample produced two
different substances.
D. Element, because the original sample can be further divided
into simpler substance.
4. Sugar is heated in a test tube until it is completely changed into
a black mass and droplets of water. This experiment indicates
that sugar is ______________.
A. An element C. a compound
B. A heterogeneous mixture D. a solution
5. A clear, colorless liquid boils sharply at 90.5°C. it dissolves in
alcohol and burns when ignited analysis reveals that it has a
definite composition: 92% carbon and 8.00% hydrogen by
mass. Which properties support that the liquid is a pure
A. It is clear and odorless.
B. It is a liquid and burns.
C. It dissolves alcohol and burns.
D. It boils constantly and has a definite composition.
6. Which statement is NOT TRUE regarding pure substances?
A. Pure substances are homogeneous.
B. Pure substances boil and melt at a particular temperature.
C. Pure substances are made up of only one kind of element.

50 | P a g e
D. Pure substances can be further broken down into simpler

7. Joseph wants to compare the chemical properties of two

substances. In doing it, he prepared two flasks containing the
substances and labelled them Liquid A and Liquid B. he
monitored the boiling points of the liquids and found out that
the boiling points were 100°C for substance A and 110°C-112°C
for Liquid B. how would you classify the two liquids?

A. Liquid A is pure substance while liquid B is a mixture.

B. Liquid A and B contain two or more atoms that are
chemically bonded.
C. Liquid A has a fix boiling point while Liquid B has varying
boiling points.
D. Liquid A may be homogenous or heterogeneous but
substance B is not.
8. Seawater is a mixture made up of salts and water. Which pf the
following statements BEST describes seawater?
A. Seawater has components that are chemically combined.
B. Seawater has components that are strongly bonded to one
C. Seawater cannot be filtered and it shows a single physical
D. Seawater shows the different physical characteristics of the
9. Which of the following statements distinguishes pure
substances from mixture?
A. Can be separated by physical means

51 | P a g e
B. Consists of two or more kinds of matter
C. Have no specific solubility and densities
D. Have constant boiling temperature and melting temperature
10. Mixtures can be separated by physical methods while
pure substances cannot be separated. Which of the following
groups contain only pure substances?
A. Air, methane, sodium chloride
B. Iron, ethanol, calcium fluoride
C. Ammonia, vinegar and silicon
D. Carbon dioxide, air, water

Separating Components of a Mixture

Different separation techniques make components
of a homogeneous mixture more distinguishable, that is,
those “unseen” components when they are in a solution
become “seen”. Just like in the activity below, distillation
and evaporation will help you “see” the two major
components of seawater- water and salt.

52 | P a g e
Activity 1
Seawater! See Water and Salts!
Part A
In this part, you should be able to collect distilled
water and salts from seawater.
Q1. What do you see? Did you notice the solid that
was left after all the liquid has evaporated?

Part B
In this part, you should be able to compare the
residue collected from Part A with table salt using flame
Q2. How does the color of the flame of the residue
compare with that of table salt? What can you say about
the identity of the residue from Part A?

53 | P a g e
Distinguishing Substances and Mixtures

Seawater is a solution of many different solids,

including table salt, in water. Since the solids are
dissolved in water, decantation or filtration will not work
in separating water from the dissolved solids. Other
separation techniques are needed.
In Part A of Activity 1, you were able to separate the
components of seawater- water and salts through
distillation and evaporation the distilled water and the
salt are considered as a substance. But what makes a
In the next activity, you will observe how a
substance behaves while it is being boiled or melted. You
will also find out that these behaviours will help you
differentiate substance from mixtures. Some mixtures,
like substances are homogeneous. Given two unlabelled
samples, one with water (a substance), and the other a
mixture of salt in water; you would not be able to
distinguish one from the other just by looking at them.

54 | P a g e
Activity 2
Looks May Be Deceiving
Part A
In this activity, you should be able to:
1. Assemble properly the setup for boiling (see Figure 4);
2. Describe the change in temperature of a substance during boiling;
3. Describe the change in temperature of a mixture during boiling; and
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based on how
temperature changes during boiling.
Q3. Refer to the graph and your data for distilled water, what do you notice
about its temperature during boiling?
Q4. How would you define a substance based on what you have observed?
Q5. Refer to the graph and your data for seawater, what do you notice
about its temperature during boiling?
Q6. How would you define a mixture based on what you have observed?

Table 2. Temperature readings of the liquid samples during boiling at 30-sec interval

55 | P a g e
Part B
In this activity, you should be able to:
1. Assemble properly the setup for melting (see Figure 6);
2. Describe the appearance of a substance while it is
3. Describe the appearance of a mixture while it is
melting; and
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based
on how they appear as they melt.

Table 3. Appearance of the solid samples

Q7. What did you observe while benzoic acid is melting?

Q8. How would you define substance based on what you
have observed?
Q9. What did you observed while benzoic acid-salt
mixture is melting?
Q10. How would you define a mixture based on what you
have observed?

56 | P a g e
In the next activity, you will apply what you have
learned from this module in classifying unknown samples.
This time, you have to decide what setup fits best with the
sample you are given. You have to work out a procedure
to identify if the sample is a substance or a mixture.

Activity 3
My Unknown Sample: Substance or Mixture?
In this activity, you should be able to design a produce
that will identify unknown samples as mixtures or
Material needed
 Unknown sample

1. Design a procedure to identify if the unknown sample is
a mixture or a substance. Limit the materials that you
are going to use with what is already available.
2. Perform the activity that you designed after yo0ur
teacher has checked your procedure.
Q11. What is your basis in identifying the unknown
sample you have?

57 | P a g e
Summative Assessment
Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. A gaseous material has a strong smell, evaporates

quickly, particularly boils at 33.34 °C and melts at -
77.73 °C. this material can be classified as ________.
A. Metal C. Solution
B. Mixture D. pure substance
2. Iron is a solid, hard metallic element that is used as a
construction material for building houses. It boils at
2862 °C. Oxygen is a gaseous non-metallic element
that we use for breathing. Its boiling temperature is
at -183 °C. When iron is exposed in the air, it reacts
with oxygen. This process produces rust, which has a
chemical name ferric oxide and boils at 1987 °C.
which of the following statement is TRUE about the
materials mentioned above?
A. Rust or ferric oxide is a solution.
B. Rust or ferric oxide is a substance.
C. The materials does not boil at a particular
D. The resulting product of the reaction between
iron and oxygen is a mixture.

58 | P a g e
3. Oliver is experimenting about the possible product
of reaction of magnesium (Mg) metal with
hydrochloric acid (HCl). He dissolved the metal with
the acid in a closed container and observed that it
produced a gaseous substance and he predicted that
the gas formed was hydrogen (H). He further tested
the gaseous material by burning it using a match
stick. The reaction produced a popping sound and a
water droplet. What was the gas really made of?
A. Chlorine C. magnesium
B. Hydrogen D. unknown mixture
4. Which of the substances mentioned in item number
three (3) can be separated further?
A. Chlorine C. Hydrogen
B. Magnesium D. Hydrochloric acid
5. A pinch of bread was placed inside a test-tube and
heated until it became blackish in color and released
some gas. Which of the following statement/s is/are
TRUE according to the given information?

I. Bread is a solution
II. Bread is composed of only one substance
III. Bread is made up of solid and gaseous substances
IV. Bread is consist of mixtures of different substance

59 | P a g e
A. I only C. II only
6. Water boils at 100 °C and pure ethanol at 78°C.
Which of the statements are TRUE about water and

I. Water and ethanol are pure substances.

II. Water and ethanol can be boiled at either 100 °C
or 78 °C.
III. Water and ethanol have specific temperatures at
which they would start to boil.
IV. Water and ethanol can be identified according to
temperature at which they boil.

A. I only C. III only

B. I, II & IV D. I, III & IV
7. Oliver heated a liquid in casserole. He forgot to turn
off the stove right away and all the liquid was gone.
But he noticed that there were some solid materials
that settled at the surface of the casserole. What can
be inferred from this observation?
8. Sodium chloride dissolves in water very well. Which
is NOT TRUE in the following statements?

60 | P a g e
A. Water is a pure substance
B. Sodium chloride
C. Dissolving sodium chloride with water produces
a mixture
D.Dissolving sodium chloride with water produces
a new substance
9. Distillation is a process by which water purifying
stations use to make pure and drinkable water. This
process uses heat to evaporate only the liquid water
and leaves some heavy substances or other
impurities. What idea can be drawn from this
A. Distillation is not the only way to purify water
B. The water that water stations use to purify is
100% pure.
C. Water is always drinkable because it only contains
D.Distillation is a process that can be used to
separate impurities in water.
10. Which of the following lists of materials are
composed of mixtures?

61 | P a g e
A. Vinegar, 70% alcohol, carbon
B. Blood, calamansi juice, air
C. Oxygen, sodium chloride, water
D.Carbon dioxide, bleach, oil

Elements and Compounds

All substances are homogeneous. Some mixtures are
also homogeneous, particularly solutions. Being so, it is
difficult to distinguish mixtures and substances based on
However, there are ways to tell if a sample is a
mixture or a substance. The temperature of a liquid
mixture varies during boiling but for a liquid substance, it
does not. A solid mixture has portions that do not melt but
a solid substance melts completely within a short time.
Substances can be classified into two: compounds
and elements.
In this module, you are expected to:
 Recognize that substances are classified into
elements and compounds; and

62 | P a g e
 Familiarize some elements in their functions in
the human body.

At the end of this module, you are expected to answer the

following questions:

How are elements different from compounds?

How are they similar?
What are the uses of these elements in the human

63 | P a g e
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Ferrous sulfate cannot be broken down into
simpler substances.
B. Compounds can be broken down by physical
C. Water is composed of more than two different
D. Compounds are more complex than elements.
2. Calcium chloride is a compound of two elements
calcium and chlorine. Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
A. Calcium chloride is listed in the periodic table.
B. The symbol for calcium chloride includes Ca and
C. Chlorine may still be broken down into a simpler
D.Calcium and chlorine belong to the same group in
the periodic table.

64 | P a g e
For questions 3 to 5. Refer to the information below. You
may also refer to the periodic table. Write the symbols
Substance Temperature at Temperature at
symbol which the which the
substance melts Substance boils
(°C) (°C)
Calcium (Ca) 850 1490
Copper (Cu) 1083 2600
Iron (Fe) 1540 2900
Helium (He) -270 -269
Magnesium (Mg) 650 1110
-37 71
trichloride (NCl3)
-163 -152
Monoxide (NO)
carbonate 858 890
Silicon oxide
1610 2230

3. Which compound melts above 1000°C and boils

above 2000°C?

65 | P a g e
4. Which element is gaseous at room temperature?
5. Which substance is liquid at -37 °C?
6. The following substances are examples of compounds
A. Hydrogen peroxide C. helium gas
B. Ammonia D. table sugar
7. Elements play an important role in the human body.
Which element and its function are CORRECTLY
A. Sodium: important in nerve conduction and fluid
B. Phosphorous: found inside the cell essential in the
conduction of nerve impulses
C. Chlorine: found outside the cells which serves as a
major electrolyte
D. Oxygen: important in bones and teeth and some
amino acids
8. A black, crystalline solid forms a purple vapor when it
is heated. What is the nature of the solid?
A. Copper sulphate C. phosphorus
B. Iodine D. sulfur

66 | P a g e
9. Which of the following statements is TRUE about
elements and compounds?
A. They are homogeneous in nature.
B. They are the simplest form of matter.
C. They are commonly naturally occurring materials.
D.They can be broken down into simpler substances.
10. Non-metals are brittle and are normally used as
insulators while metals are hard, dense solid material.
Which of the following pairs of elements are metals
and non-metals?
A. K and Na C. Sn and Pb
B. Ca and I D. Ca and Fe

Electrolysis- the process in which with the passage of

electric current, components of water may be separated
from each other.

67 | P a g e
Force and Its Kinds

 Define force operationally
 Differentiate the kinds of forces

Force is a push or pull.

What can force do?
 Force can change the shape and size of things by
compressing, stretching, cutting, tearing, and bending.
 Force can make the stationary ball be put in motion by
rolling it.
 Catching and throwing can stop the ball’s motion or
change its direction of motion when force is applied.

Force can be measured using a spring scale, now

commonly known as spring balance invented by an
English man named Robert Hooke.
Newton (N) is the unit of force in honor of Sir Isaac
 Newton is defined as the force that will give a mass of 1
kg, an acceleration of 1 m/s2.

68 | P a g e
Kinds of Forces
 Contact Forces- results from the direct contact
between two surfaces or objects.
Ex. Friction- always opposes movement between two
surfaces in contact.
Three Different Types of Friction:
 Static Friction- refers to the force between two
stationary surfaces in contact that resist motion.
 Sliding Friction- refers to the resistance an object in
motion experiences through sliding.
 Rolling Friction- the resistance to motion experienced
from rollers.

To reduce friction, the following are employed:

1. Using lubricants, notably grease and oil
2. Using wheels or rollers, notably balls or bearings
3. Streamlining by filling, sandpapering, or scrubbing

 Non-contact Forces- called “forces acting at a

distance.” These forces do not involve direct contact
among objects.

69 | P a g e
Examples of Non-contact Forces
 Gravitational force- is a force of attraction between
two objects. It causes all objects thrown upward to
always fall and move toward the center of the earth.
The occurrence of tides and the fall of an apple from
a tree are also due to gravity as observed by Sir Isaac
Weight is the measure of the pull of gravity on
 Weight of an object depends upon two things:
its mass and the strength of the gravity.
 Magnetic Force- is the invisible force in a
magnetic field that surrounds the magnet. This
force may either attract or repel magnetic
Magnets repel if the north pole of a magnet
is faced to the north pole of another magnet.
Magnets attract if the north pole of a
magnet is faced to the south pole of another
To sum up, like poles repel, and unlike poles

70 | P a g e
Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces
Weak and Strong nuclear forces act inside the
nucleus of an atom, so they are not exactly observed
at work like that of gravity and electromagnetic
 The weak nuclear force is said to be stronger than the
gravity but weaker than the electromagnetic force.
Although recognized by scientists, little is known
about it. It is the force that governs certain types of
radioactive decay.
 The strong nuclear force is the force that holds
atomic nucleus together. It is referred to as (nuclear)
binding energy or nuclear glue. The strong nuclear
force between particles inside the nucleus is about
ten times stronger than the electromagnetic force
and about ten times stronger than the gravitational

71 | P a g e
Describing and Measuring Motion
Describe the motion of an object in terms of distance or displacement,
speed or velocity, and acceleration.

The Race Is On
I. Objective
Calculate the average speed of a moving body
II. Materials
Meter stick Stopwatch
III. Procedure
1. Select three of your members to run the 30 m distance.
2. Choose an area where the members will run. Use a meter stick to
measure the desired distance.
3. Make 10 m intervals along the runway. Record the time the runner
passes the 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m mark.
4. Determine the average speed by dividing the distance by the time
5. Do the same to the other two runners.
IV. Results and Observation
Distance Time Average Speed
(m) (s) (m/s)
Runner 1 Runner2 Runner 3 Runner 1 Runner2 Runner 3

V. Questions for Analysis

1. Compare the first runner’s speed to that of runners 2 and 3.
2. Did each runner achieve a constant speed during his/her travel?
3. Show your computation for each runner’s average speed.
4. Plot a distance versus time graph of your data.
VI. Conclusion

72 | P a g e
Motion can be described as a change in position, to
say that there is a change in position, we must
consider a reference point.
Reference point is something that is stationary.
It is fixed. We can determine whether an object
moves by comparing its position to that of a fixed
point. (see figure 6.11A and figure 6.11B of page
Descriptors of Motion
 Distance vs. Displacement- both distance and
displacement are terms used in a study of motion.
Each has its own meaning.
Distance is the total length covered by the
moving body.
Displacement includes both the length
and the direction of the objects, path from
the starting point to its end point. (see the
drawing on page 188)
If a man walks 20 steps forward from
point A to point B and moves 5 more steps
to Point C, then the man’s total distance is
25 steps while his displacement is 25 steps
If he walks 15 steps backward from
Point C to Point D, then the man’s total

73 | P a g e
distance is 40 steps (25 steps forward + 15
steps backward) while the displacement
steps forward. Notice that direction is
included in the displacement. The
displacement will become zero (0) if he
walks back to his original position (back to
Point A).
Three ways to describe motion:
1. Speed- refers to how fast the object is
moving. It tells you the distance the
object travels in a period of time.
In symbols,
S= d/t
S= speed
d= distance
t= time
 Meters per second (m/s) is the unit use to express
speed. It can also be expressed in kilometres per hour
(km/h or kph), meters per minute (m/min), miles per
hour (mi/h). “Speed Limit 60 kph” means that a
vehicle should travel a distance of 60 km in a period
of 1 hour.

74 | P a g e
1. Lydia de Vega is a world known Filipino track and
field athlete. She can run the 100.0 m dash in about
11.0 seconds. What is her average speed?
Given: d= 100.0 m
t= 11.0 s
RTF (required to find) = average speed
S= d/t
S= 100.0 m/ 11.0 s
S= 9.09 m/s
2. What distance would be covered by a moving
vehicle in 1 minute if its speed is 5.0 m/s?
Given: S= 5.0 m/s
T= 1 min= 60 s
RTF= distance
d= (5.0 m/s)(60 s)
d= 300 m

75 | P a g e
2. Velocity is a vector quantity, which includes not
only the rate but also the direction the object takes.
It is a speed with direction.
In equation, we can express velocity as:
v= d/t
v= velocity
d= displacement (distance + direction)
t= time
The sample weather bulletin bellow will show you the
importance of knowing not just the speed of the storm
but also its direction.
Weather Bulletin : Super Typhoon “Yolanda”
Thursday, 07 November 2013 at 5:00 AM
Location of Center 975 km southeast of Tacloban City, Leyte
Coordinates 8.4°N, 133.4°E
Strength of the Max. wind speed of 280 km/h near the
winds center and gustiness of up to 335 km/h
Movement 35 km/h going West-Northwest
On Friday AM: Expected to make
Forecast landfall over the northeastern
shores of Leyte, about 35 km of

76 | P a g e
Tacloban City between 10 AM to 11
AM and will cross Northern Leyte
passing over or very close to Ormoc
City around noontime Friday.
1. The car is heading north covering a distance of 500
meters in 20.0 seconds. What is the car’s velocity?
d= 500 m
t= 20 s
RTF (Required to Find) = v
v= d/t
v= 500 m/ 20.0 s
v= 25.0 m/s, north
2. Jed’s house is 6.0 km away from his school. How
long would it take him to go to school, riding a
bus, if its velocity is 30 km/h?
d= 6.0 km
v= 30 km/h
RTF= time

77 | P a g e
t= d/v
t= 6.0 km/30 km/h
t= 0.2 h or 12 minutes
3. Acceleration- is a change in velocity. Whenever
there is a change in speed, change in direction or
change in both, there is a change in velocity. It is a
vector quantity.
Acceleration = change in velocity
In symbols, where:
a= v a= acceleration
t vf= final velocity
a= Vf – Vi vi= initial velocity
t t= time
Meter per second per second (m/s/s) or meter per
square second (m/s2) is the unit used for acceleration.
A cyclist starts from rest and reaches a velocity of
10.0 meters per second in 5.0 seconds. What is the
acceleration of the cyclist?

78 | P a g e
0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s
0 m/s 2 m/s 4 m/s 6 m/s 8 m/s 10 m/s
From calculation, the cyclist accelerates at 2 m/s
every second. This means that the cyclist changes its
velocity by 2.0 m/s every second.
Notice that since the cyclist starts from rest, its initial
velocity is zero. Since it changes its velocity by the same
amount per second, the cyclist is said to be moving at a
constant acceleration.
However, if the body is moving at a constant velocity
or is at rest, then the body does not accelerate. Changing
velocity by speeding up achieves positive acceleration
(accelerating) while those slowing down achieve a
negative acceleration (decelerating).
Practice Exercises:
1. A man is driving his sports car down a four-lane
highway at 40 m/s. He comes up behind a slow-
moving dump truck and decides to pass it in the left-
hand lane. If Nathaniel can accelerate at 5 m/s2, how
long will it take for him to reach the speed of 60 m/s?

79 | P a g e
vi= 40 m/s
vf= 60 m/s
a= 5 m/s2
RTF= time

2. If a car, with an initial velocity of 20 m/s, accelerates

at a rate of 5 m/s2 for 3 seconds, what will its final
velocity be?
vi= 20 m/s
a= 5m/s2
t= 3 s
RTF= final velocity

80 | P a g e
Waves and Their Types

Wave, Wave, Wave!

1. Lay several drinking straws on a table.

2. Position the straws about one inch apart horizontally.
3. Keep the straws in place by using masking tape that will
run through the center across straws, forming
somewhat like a ladder.
4. Now, find a partner to hold one end of the straw ladder
while you hold the other end.
5. Tap the right end part of the straw ladder. Do this
alternately with your partner.
6. What was produced when you tapped the straws?
7. How did the straw move? Describe its movement.
8. Draw the movement produced by the straws.
Waves as Energy Carriers
Throwing a rock in a pond of water produces wave.
When the rock touches the water, circular ripples are
created from the place of disturbance. The energy that
the rock possessed is transferred into the water
molecules. However, the rock itself does not leave the

81 | P a g e
The particles on the slinky continue to move up and down
with the other particles but do not leave the slinky. This
means that the energy can be transferred from object to
object through a medium such as water and slinky in our
case. Both instances imply that waves carry and transfer
energy, but they do not transfer particles of the medium.
Wave is a propagation of disturbance through a medium
in which energy is transferred.
Wave Pulse is a simple disturbance.
Wave Train is a series of disturbances created in a
Wave Motion is energy propagation by means of motion
of a change in medium rather than the medium itself.

82 | P a g e
Activity: Let’s Make Waves!
After performing this activity, you will observe and
draw different types of waves and describe how they
are produced. You will also describe the different
types of waves.

Materials needed
 A rope (at least five meters long)
 A colored ribbon
 A coil spring (Slinky™)
 A basin filled with water
 A paper boat/ foil barge
 Adhesive tape

A. What are transverse waves?
1. Straighten the rope and place it above a long
table. Hold one end of the rope and vibrate it up
and down. You would be able to observe a pulse.
Draw three sketches of the rope showing the
motion of the pulse at three subsequent
instances (snapshots at three different times).
Draw an arrow to represent the direction of the
pulse’s motion.

83 | P a g e
Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

Q1. What is the source of the wave pulse?

Q2. Describe the motion of your hand as you create the
Q3. Describe the motion of the pulse with respect to the

84 | P a g e
Types of Waves
 Transverse waves is a wave in which particles of the
medium move in a direction perpendicular (or at right
angles) to the direction of the wave’s movement.
 Longitudinal wave is a wave in which particles of the
medium move in a direction parallel to the direction
of the wave.
Compression- is the section of a longitudinal
wave where the particles are crowded together.
Rarefaction- is the section where the particles
are less crowded. Examples under this category
are sound waves, tsunami waves, and
earthquake p-waves. (see figure 7.2 and 7.3)
Another basis for classifying waves is their ability or
inability to transmit energy through various media.

Medium is the means through which the wave travels

from one point to another. There are two types of waves
under this category: mechanical waves and
electromagnetic waves.
 Mechanical wave is a wave that is not capable of
transmitting energy through a vacuum. It needs a
material/medium such as solid, liquid, or gas to
transport its energy from one location to another.
Water waves created in a pond and sound waves
produced by musical instruments are two familiar

85 | P a g e
examples of this wave type. Slinky waves, earthquake
waves, stadium waves, and jump rope waves are also
mechanical waves. (see figure 7.4)
 Electromagnetic wave is the type of wave that can
transmit energy even without any material medium.
The term electromagnetic wave (EM waves) was
credited to a Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell
(1831-1879), who found that EM waves are produced
by oscillating charges. Although they cannot be
directly observed, Maxwell was able to prove that
these waves are moving at the velocity of light that is
at 3 x 108 m/s.
Every time you listen to your radio or music player,
watch movies on your LCD or LED television set, or
prepare popcorn in the microwave oven, you are
using electromagnetic waves. Radio waves, television
waves, and microwaves are all types of EM waves.
(see figure 7.5)

86 | P a g e
Wave Characteristics

 Relate the characteristics of waves
 Explain the relationships among frequency,
amplitude, wavelength, and wave velocity

Crest and Trough

Consider a transverse wave shown in the figure
In the figure, points B and F are called crests.
Crest is the highest point of a wave, while the lowest
point of a wave, as in points D and H, is called trough
(pronounced as trof).



87 | P a g e

Figure 7.6: The crest and the trough
The maximum distance covered by a particle from its resting
position is known as amplitude (A). The positive amplitude is the
distance from rest to crest, while the negative amplitude is the
distance from rest position to the trough position. The total energy
of a wave is proportional to its amplitude. The greater the
amplitude, the greater the amount of energy carried by the wave.
Figure 7.7: The amplitude
Another distinguished characteristic of a wave is frequency.
Frequency, abbreviated as f, if the number of waves passing
through a given point during the interval of one second. The unit for
frequency is Hertz (Hz), credited to German physicist Heinrich
Rudolf Hertz. A frequency of 10 Hz would mean 10 waves are
passing through a given point during the interval of one second.
Higher frequencies are expressed in terms of kilohertz (1,000 cycles
per second) or megahertz (1,000,000 cycles per second) just like in
our radio stations.
88 | P a g e
Wavelength and Wave Speed
Wavelength (λ, Greek, lambda) is the length of one
complete cycle. It is a measure of a distance between a
crest and the adjacent crest, or a trough and the adjacent
trough in a transverse wave.





Figure 7.9: Waves at different frequencies

Wave speed, symbolized by v, is a product of frequency

and wavelength. Over the interval of one second, a given
number of waves pass a certain point (frequency), and
each wave occupies a certain distance (wavelength).
Wave speed is typically calculated in meters per second.




Figure 7.10: Wavelength at different points

89 | P a g e
Sound and Light
Where Does Sound Travel the Fastest?
I. Objective
Describe how the speed of sound varies in a material
II. Materials
Hardbound books ruler or meter stick
III. Procedure
1. Measure a one-meter distance using a meter stick.
Mark end points as start and finish.
2. Set up two lines of books (like dominoes) along the
measured distance. Line A consists of books that are
far from each other but are close enough to touch
the next book when tapped. Line B of books is set
near each other.
3. Tap the first book of both lines at the same time.
Take note which line crosses the finish line first.
Describe what you have observed.
IV. Data and Results
Draw your setup here.

90 | P a g e
V. Questions for Analysis
1. Which line of books was able to reach the finish
line first? Why?
2. Does the spacing of the books affect their
respective speed? Explain.
3. What type of material will you relate the books
in lines A and B, respectively?
4. What type of material will allow sound to travel
the fastest?
VI. Conclusion

91 | P a g e
The Nature of Sound
 Discuss the nature of sound
 Describe the characteristics of sound using the
concepts of wavelength, velocity, and amplitude

Live by Sound, Not by Sight

1. You are to guess mystery sounds while in a blindfold.
2. Choose somebody who will act as a leader who will
do the task of dropping five different objects.
3. Drop the objects one at a time. Guess what the
material is by saying it aloud. You can make up three
4. This time, drop the objects at different areas in the
classroom. Again, make a guess. This time, on the
location of the drop.
5. Take off the blindfold to determine the identity of the
6. Were you able to guess all the materials’ identity just
by their sounds?
7. Were you able to locate the areas where the objects
were dropped?
8. How does sound help you in locating objects?

92 | P a g e
Definition of Sound
(We are living in a world of sound- the crowing of
a rooster, ringing of a bell, chirping of birds, rushing
of waves on the shore, buses and jeepneys blowing
their horns, and even talking, laughing, and
whispering. All of them involve sound.)

Sound is a form of energy that is produced when

air molecules vibrate and move in pattern known as
waves or sound waves.

Characteristics of Sound
 Acoustics- the science that focuses on the study of
properties and transmission of sound.
 Acoustician- a person who works in this field.
 Acoustical or Audio Engineer- someone working in
the field of acoustic technology.

93 | P a g e
Look at the wave slope of a musical note below.
Compare it with the wave slope of a noise. How do
they differ?


Figure 8.1: (A) wave slope of a musical note, (B) wave slope of a noise

The differences between sounds are caused by its

three basic characteristics: pitch, intensity, and quality.
Each of these is associated with one of the properties of
the source or the type of wave which it produces. Such
that, the pitch is dependent upon the frequency of the
waves; the intensity depends on the amplitude of the
waves; and the quality on the form of the waves. The tone
is pleasant to the ear if these three characteristics are
properly combined. Otherwise, the quality will turn into

94 | P a g e
Three basic characteristics that cause sound:
1. Pitch- refers to our subjective impression about the
“highness or lowness” of a tone, which is related to the
frequency of the tone.
The sensation of the pitch depends upon the
frequency of the waves received by the ear. A low-
frequency vibrating source produces a sound with low
pitch, while a high-frequency vibrating source produces
a sound with high pitch. Sound waves of the same
frequencies are said to be in same pitch.
High-frequency Sound Waves Low-frequency Sound Waves

Figure 8.2: Sound waves at different frequencies

2. Loudness and Intensity

The intensity of the sound wave refers to the amount
of energy that is transported past a given area of the
medium per unit of time.
 Intensity- is the amount of sound energy of a wave.
 Loudness- is the sensation on the ear that the
intensity of sound wave produces.

95 | P a g e
 Decibel system (dB)- is used to measure the loudness
of sounds.
 Decibel meter- (sound level meter or dB meter)
- is a device that is designed to accurately measure the
sound or noise that can be heard by the human ear.
The meter is used to study how sound pressure
changes with distance from the sound source.

3. Quality or Tone
Tone refers to the sound quality. It depends on
the combination of different frequencies of sound
waves. It is the tone of a vibrating medium that
distinguishes it from another source.
Sound quality depends on the complexity of its
sound waves. Look at figure 8.4.

Tone A

Tone B

Tone C

Figure 8.4: Tones at different frequencies and qualities

96 | P a g e
Tone A shows a sound wave of a specific
frequency produced by a tuning fork, a piano, or
other musical instruments.

Tone B shows a sound wave with different


Tone C shows the combination of Tone A and

Tone B. it has the same frequency as Tone A with an
increase in amplitude, but the human ear could easily
distinguish between Tone A and Tone C because of
the quality.

97 | P a g e
Production of Sound

 Explain how sound is produced in the human voice
box and how pitch, loudness, and quality of sound
vary from one person to another.
 Describe how organisms produce, transmit, and
receive sound of various frequencies (infrasonic,
audible, and ultrasonic sound)
Straw Flute
1. Get a drinking straw
2. Using a pair of scissors, cut a V-shaped notch at
the end of the straw.
3. Blow through the straw to produce a sound.
4. Repeat the procedure but have the length of the
straw shorter this time. Observe the sound
5. Make two or three more cuts on the length of the
straw and observe what happens to the sound and
pitch produced.
6. What part of the straw vibrates to produce
7. Is there a difference between the sound and pitch
produced by longer straws to shorter ones?
8. What happens to the sound as you decrease the
length of the straw?

98 | P a g e
Sound Production and Transmission
Sound waves are longitudinal waves. They are
also called compression waves whose existence
depends on the transfer of energy.

Three Basic Elements to Make Vibrations

Become Sound:
1. The Source (transmitter) - the object producing the
2. The Medium- the vehicle through which the wave
travels from one point to the next.
3. The Detector or Receiver- the object that responds
to the wave.

How Humans Produce Sounds

Humans use sound waves in communicating with
each other. The production of sound/human voice is
attributed to the three components:
1. The lungs that produce sufficient airflow and air
2. The vocal folds within the larynx that are
responsible for producing the sound; and
3. The articulates (parts of vocal tract such as tongue,
palate lips) that articulate and filter the sound
emanating from the larynx.

99 | P a g e
Figure 8.6 shows the anatomy of the vocal folds and
cords. When one speaks, the air is expelled and the
vibrating vocal cords initiate the sound. The greater the
tension on the cords, the lower the pitch.
Men and women have different sizes of vocal folds or
cords, which would mean that men and women have
different pitches. Males usually have larger folds
(17 mm- 25 mm) than females (12.5 mm- 17.5 mm).

Figure 8.6: Anatomy of the Vocal Folds or Cords

Detecting Sounds
Our ears are used to detect sounds. These
extraordinary organs pick up all he sounds around us
and then translate the information in a form that our
brain can understand. (Figure 8.7 shows the parts of
the human ear.)

100 | P a g e
Figure 8.7: Parts of The Human Ear
The human ear is divided into three parts: the outer ear,
the middle ear, and the inner ear.
 The outer ear act as a funnel to channel the sound
wave to the eardrum, which then will set the eardrum
into vibration.
 These vibrations will pass through the middle ear by
the three tiny bones or ossicles (the hammer or
malleus, anvil or incus, and stirrup or stapes).
 These bones amplify the amplitude of the vibrations
and then pass them on to the inner ear.
 A bony, spiral-shaped cochlea is found in the inner ear
which contains fluid through which the amplified
vibrations pass to reach the auditory nerve to the
brain where they are interpreted as either a speech,
music, noise, and so forth.

101 | P a g e
Infrasonic vs. Ultrasonic Sound
The range of sound that the human ear can detect
varies with each individual.
 Infrasonic- sounds that exist below the audible range
(below 0.001 Hz- 16 Hz).
 Ultrasonic- those sounds that are too high for us to
hear (20,000 Hz- above).
Table 8.3: Sound Range and Its Characteristics
Name Characteristics
Range (Hz)
Very low frequencies of sound that
the human ear cannot detect, but you
Infrasonic 0.001-16 may feel the rumbling of the waves
through your body.
Normal range for human ears,
Sonic although not everyone (especially the
20.20,000 elderly) will hear the extremes of this
(aka Audio)
Beyond normal hearing for humans,
although some animals (like dogs) hear
Ultrasonic 20,000+ part ways into this range; also used in
medicine (e.g., ultrasounds for
pregnant women)

102 | P a g e
Light Waves and Their Characteristics

 Infer that light travels in a straight line
 Discuss the theories about the nature of light
 Relate characteristics of light such as color and
intensity to frequency and wavelength

Visible light- (or simply light) is a form of electromagnetic

radiation with frequency ranges from 4 x 104 to 8 x 1014 Hz. It
is responsible for the sense of sight.
Wavelength of light ranges from 7.5 x 10-7 in the red end
(longest wavelength, but with the lowest frequency) down to
3.8 x 10-7 in the violet end (shortest wavelength, but with the
highest frequency).

Nature of Light
Two Theories on the Basic Nature of Light:
1. The Wave or The Undulatory Theory- explains that light
has a wave motion, which starts from a vibrating body
which is transmitted at a high speed.
2. Corpuscular or Emission Theory- based on this theory,
light consists of tiny particles of matter emitted by a
source that travel only in straight lines called rays.

103 | P a g e
Characteristics of Light
 Color- arranged in increasing frequency: radio,
microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray,
and gamma rays.
 Band- a particular range of wavelength
where each type of wave occupies.

Figure 8.8: Electromagnetic spectrum showing wavelengths and frequencies

As you will notice, visible light is just a part of the

electromagnetic spectrum. The visible part of the
spectrum is subdivided according to color.

Intensity or Brightness

104 | P a g e
All lights must come from a source.
 Luminous objects- objects that emit or send off their
own light. They tend to radiate heat as an effect of
being luminous, and they can store energy. (sun,
stars, light bulbs, lamps, lasers, campfires)
 Nonluminous objects- (illuminated objects) objects
that cannot emit their own light. In order for us to see
them, a light from a luminous object must be
reflected. (moon, cars, buildings)

Photometry- deals with the measurement of visible light

as perceived by human eyes. The brightness of a light
source is measured through luminous intensity expressed
in candela (cd), an SI base unit.
When light waves encounter any substance, they may
either be transmitted, refracted, reflected, or absorbed as
depicted in figure 8.10.
Incident light rays

Figure 8.10: Light waves being reflected, absorbed, and transmitted

105 | P a g e
Objects can be classified in terms of the way they allow
light to pass through them:
 Transparent- materials such as air, glass, water, and
clear plastic permit the passage of light.
 Opaque- materials that block light such as woods,
concretes, metals, and flesh of some animals.
 Translucent- objects that allow only some amount of
light to pass through. These materials have both the
characteristics of opaque and transparent materials.

Heat Transfer
 Differentiate heat from temperature
 Infer the conditions necessary for heat transfer to
 Explain the three modes of heat transfer: conduction,
convection, and radiation
Nature of Heat
 Heat is being used synonymously with temperature.
Heat and temperature may be related to one
another, but they are actually two different terms.
 Temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness
or coldness of an object. It can be described by the
units Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Rankine.
 Thermometer- the instrument used to measure
 Calorie- the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C. A kilocalorie

106 | P a g e
is 1,000 calories (the amount of heat needed to
change 1 kilogram of water by 1°C).
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 Heating- the process of increasing the internal
 Cooling- the process of decreasing internal energy.
Heat transfer takes place because of a temperature
difference occurs in three different ways: conduction,
convection, and radiation.
1. Conduction- the transfer of energy from molecule to
 Nonconductors (insulators) - materials that
do not allow heat to pass through. (Ex. glass,
rubber, plastic and nonmetals)

107 | P a g e
2. Convection- the movement of liquids or gases from a
colder region to a warmer region, producing a

 Wind- produced due to the unequal heating

of the earth’s surface. A convection current
produced by the rising and the sinking of air.
Warm air is less dense, so it rises. Cold air is
denser, so it sinks.

3. Radiation- the third way of heat transfer that takes

place because of the temperature difference. It
involves the form of energy called radiant energy-
energy that moves through space.

 Radiant energy- Any energy including heat

that is transmitted by radiation. It is carried
by the electromagnetic (EM) wave at the
speed of light.
 Radiant heat (infrared waves) - the part of
the EM wave that makes us feel warm.
(the hotter the object, the greater the
amount of radiant heat being emitted.)

108 | P a g e
Absorption and Emission of Infrared Radiation
The nature of the surface of the material affects the
rate of emission and absorption of radiant heat.
 Dull, black surfaces are better emitters of radiant
heat than white, shiny surfaces.
 Dull, black surfaces are also better absorbers of
radiant heat than shiny, white surfaces.
o Hence, a good emitter of radiant heat is also a
good absorber of radiant heat.

Common Applications of Heat Transfer

 Metals are used for immediate transfer of heat since
they are good conductors of heat.
(Ex. cooking utensils, flat iron)
 Insulators are very useful in preventing heat from
being transferred.
(Ex. handles of cooking utensils, thick coats during
cold season, and saw dust or rice hulls to cover ice)

109 | P a g e
Electric Charge
 Describe the different types of charging processes
 Explain the importance of earthing or grounding

Moving Towards, Moving Away

1. Inflate a balloon.
2. Rub the balloon on a wool or sweater.
3. Place the balloon close to the wall. What happens?
4. Inflate another balloon. Just as the first balloon, rub it
against a wool or sweater.
5. Place this balloon near the first balloon. What

Electrical Energy (Electricity)

- A form of energy that comes from electrically
charged bodies such as ions and electrons.

Electricity results from electrical charges.

 Electron- the atomic subparticle found outside the
nucleus which is negatively charged. The movement
of these electrons causes the formation of

110 | P a g e
Electricity- in its broadest sense, is a collective term
describing a phenomenon also associated with the
interaction between electrically charged objects.
 Electrification or charging by contact- the process of
rubbing two materials together and then separating
them to produce the above effect. The objects are
said to be electrified or have acquired electric

Law of Charges
 Electric charge- a fundamental property of matter. It
is an intrinsic characteristic associated with atomic
particles, the electron and proton.
 Nucleus- a core containing most of the atom’s mass
in the form of protons;
 and the electrically neutral particles called neutrons.
 Protons- carry a positive charge.
 Electrons- carry a negative charge.

- -
- +
+ +
Like Charges Repel Unlike Charges Attract
Figure 9.6: Law of Charges
111 | P a g e
Charging Processes
 Conductors- Materials that permit electric charge
to move from one region to another.
 Insulators- Materials that do not permit the
passage of charges through them.

Charging- is a process by which an insulator or an

insulated conductor receives a net charge. Charging can
be done by conduction and by induction.

How do these two charging processes differ?

 Charging by Conduction (charging by contact) -
requires contact between the neutral body and the
charged object. This process produces similar
 Charging by Induction- does not require contact but
does require the presence of a ground. This process
produces opposite charges.

Importance of Earthing or Grounding

 Grounding- used in various appliances that we have
like refrigerator, cooker, heater, and toaster. These
appliances have to be earthed for safety.

112 | P a g e
Earth and Philippine Environment

Locating Places on Earth

Demonstrate how places on Earth may be located
using coordinates

Locate Places Using Latitude and Longitude

Given three coordinates, identify the specified

country/body of water:
1. 5000’0”N 3000’0”E
2. 4000’0”S 10000’0”W
3. 1300’0”N 12200’0”E

Describe each distance in latitude and longitude in the

map. Give the distance between the given locations. An
estimate of the distance will do.
 Hawaii and the Philippines
 Mongolia and Portugal
 The Philippine Sea and the Atlantic Ocean
 The North Pole and the South Pole

113 | P a g e
Places on Earth
 Celestial Navigation- The system of navigation using
heavenly bodies as bases. (Ex. People travelling were
sure they were heading north the moment Polaris
appeared in the sky; Hunters in the forest would know
they were heading east because they looked for the
part of the sky where the sun rises.)
 Latitude and Longitude- Two imaginary lines that run
from pole to pole and from west to east in the globe.
Systems of geometrical coordinates used as bases in
telling direction and locating places, measuring
distance, and reckoning time on the earth’s surface.
 Equator (prime parallel) - passes horizontally through
the center of the earth, dividing the earth into
northern and southern hemispheres.
 Prime Meridian- the vertical line that passes through
Greenwich, England, dividing Earth into western and
eastern hemispheres.
 Great Circles- the equator and the prime meridian.
 Latitude- the north or south location of any place on
Earth. Marked by imaginary lines called parallels of
latitude drawn parallel to the equator.
 Longitude- the west or east location of any place on
Earth. Marked by imaginary lines called meridians of
longitude drawn parallel to the prime meridian.

114 | P a g e
Pole Pole
Parallel Meridian

North West
South Prime

The parallels of latitude The meridians of longitude

Latitude and Longitude Distance Measurements

 Degree- unit used to express distances on earth in
angular measurements.
One degree of latitude or longitude is equal to
70 miles (112 km).
 Minute- refers to each degree which is divided into
equal parts. A minute of latitude or longitude is
equal to 70/60 or 1,1667 miles (also called nautical
- A minute is divided into equal parts called seconds.
- A second of latitude or longitude is equal to 100 ft.

115 | P a g e
The Earth’s Lithosphere
 Describe the layers of the earth’s interior
 Discuss the rocks that compose the earth’s lithosphere
 Relate the location of the Philippines with respect to
the continents

What are the Layers of the Earth’s Interior?

Using your reference book, answer the following questions:

1. In which layer do you see mountains and ocean basins?
2. Which layer contains the most dense materials like iron
and nickel?
3. Which layer is rigid but molten?
4. Which layer is the thinnest?
5. Which layer can be studied directly by geologist?
6. Which layer is composed of:
a. Silicates of metallic compounds?
b. Silicon and aluminum?
c. Iron and magnesium?
d. Iron-rich metal alloy?
e. Iron ad nickel?
7. Recall the different layers of the earth’s interior and the
materials that compose each layer.
How are the materials of the earth’s interior arranged?

116 | P a g e
Lithosphere- the solid portion of the earth. It is solid and
hard because it is made of rocks.

Layers of the Earth’s Interior

1. Crust- the thinnest and the outermost layer of the
earth’s interior. This layer shows great variations in
thickness and composition. It is divided into two
parts: the continental crust and the oceanic crust.
 Continental crust- 30 to 50 km thick. It is
chiefly composed of rocks rich with silicon
aluminum (SiAl). Granite is the basic type of
rock that composes the continental crust.
 Oceanic crust- comparatively thinner, being
about 7.5 km thick. It is chiefly composed of
rocks rich with silicon, iron, and magnesium
(Sima). Basalt is the basic type of rock that
composes this region of the crust. Basalt
rocks are heavier and denser than granite
Moho discontinuity- a zone that separates the crust and
mantle. (discovered by Andrija Mohorovicic, a Croatian

117 | P a g e
2. Mantle- the next layer beneath the crust and under
the Moho. This layer reaches almost halfway to the
center of the earth. The upper 965 km is the upper
mantle, composed chiefly of silicates of metallic
compounds that are different from the crust. The
lower 1,930 km is the lower mantle, which is
composed of iron and magnesium.
3. Core- is the innermost and the central region of the
earth’s interior. It extends to about 3,200 km from
the mantle. Its temperature is about 3,038°C and
has a pressure of three million atm. It is divided into
two distinct layers.
 Outer core- extends from 2,880 km- 5,036
km from the mantle. This layer is composed
of iron-rich metal alloy, and it is inferred to
be liquid in form. Seismologist inferred that
the outer core is in liquid form because the
elements that combine with iron lower the
melting point of iron.
 Inner Core- comprises the entire center of
the earth’s interior. This layer is inferred to
be composed of heavy iron and nickel, which
are solid in form, very dense but highly
elastic. These materials release gravitational
energy and heat of fusion that conduct and
drive electricity on the layers above it- a
condition that explains the earth’s

118 | P a g e
Rocks and Minerals
Rocks may be composed of a single mineral or a
group of minerals.

 Petrology- the science that deals with the study of

the formation, composition, and classification of

Based on the origin and mode of formation, rocks are

classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.

1. Igneous rocks- form from molten materials that

crystallize for a long period of time (millions of years).
 Magma- remains confined beneath the
surface. Crystallizes into intrusive igneous
rocks or plutonic rocks, which have
phaneritic texture.
 Lava- molten materials that welled up or
flow onto the surface. Cools and hardens
rapidly into extrusive igneous rocks or
volcanic rocks. These rocks are fine-grained
or aphanitic in texture since the crystals are
very small, almost invisible to the naked eye.

119 | P a g e
2. Sedimentary rocks- formed from small particles of
rocks that have been lithified (compacted and
cemented) together.
 Weathering- the physical and chemical
breakdown of rocks.
 Sediments- refers to small particles due to
the crumbling of rocks as a result of

3. Metamorphic rocks- rocks that chemically changed in

form, structure, and composition under great heat and
pressure and through other agents of metamorphism.
These rock types are usually more crystalline, harder,
and denser than the rocks where they originate.

Minerals Compose Rocks

 Minerals- naturally formed elements and inorganic
compounds whose atoms and molecules are bound
together in a definite orderly arrangement to form
crystals. Minerals are the materials that compose
 Mineralogy- the study of minerals.
 Mineralogists- persons who subject the minerals to
various tests to identify them and determine their
Landforms in the Philippines

120 | P a g e
The earth’s land is separated into large masses called
continents (large areas of land).
There are seven continents in the world:
Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America,
Australia, and Antarctica.
In terms of size, Asia is the biggest continent, followed
by Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica,
Europe, and Australia.
The Philippines is in the continent of Asia. It has many
natural landforms.
A. The country has about 37 known volcanoes, of which
18 are confirmed active. Some are enumerated
1. Mount Mayon- an almost perfect cone-shaped
volcano found in Legaspi, Albay in Bicol region.
2. Mt. Pinatubo
3. Taal Volcano- the smallest volcano in the
Philippines located at the middle of a lake.
4. Mt. Bulusan
5. Mt. Hibok-Hibok
6. Mt. Apo- the highest mountain in the Philippines
that is 9,692 feet above sea, located in Davao City.
7. Mt. Banahaw
8. Mt. Iraya

121 | P a g e
B. The Philippines is also teeming with nonvolcanic
mountains, hills, and mountain ranges.
1. Mount Dulang-dulang in Bukidnon
2. Sierra Madre Mountains in Northern Luzon
3. Mt. Pulag in Ifugao
4. Mt. Halcon in Oriental Mindoro
5. Mt. Kanlaon in Negros Oriental
6. The Chocolate Hills of Bohol
7. Aurora Hills of Bohol
8. Antipolo Hills in Rizal

C. There are flatlands in the archipelago.

 Plains- flatlands that serve as good sites in raising
crops and building towns and cities.
 Valleys- flatlands located between mountains.
 Plateaus- flatlands that are located in high level areas
1. The Central Plain of Luzon- the largest lowland in
the country.
2. Cagayan Valley- provides the country’s top
agricultural crops.
3. Trinidad Valley- known as the “Salad Bowl of the

122 | P a g e
The Earth’s Hydrosphere
 Relate the location of the Philippines with respect to the
oceans of the world.
 Describe the different bodies of water in the Philippines
 Explain the proper ways to improve water quality

Hydrosphere- the liquid portion of the planet Earth. It

includes bodies of water found over and under the earth’s

The Earth’s Oceans

1. Pacific Ocean- the world’s largest ocean.
Encompasses approximately a third of the earth’s
surface, having an area of 179.7 million square
2. Atlantic Ocean- the second largest ocean and the
most heavily travelled. It has a surface area of
about 82 million square kilometers.
3. Indian Ocean- covers approximately one-fifth of
the total oceans in the world. It has an area of 73,
440, 000 square kilometers, and it is considered the
world’s third largest ocean.
4. Arctic Ocean- the smallest of the world’s oceans.
Covers an area of about 14,090,000 square

123 | P a g e
5. The Southern Ocean (Antarctic Ocean)- For
decades, Southern (Antarctic) Ocean waters have
the coldest and deepest currents. Now, according
to scientists, the coldest ocean currents have shut
down due to climate change.

Characteristics of Ocean Water

1. Ocean water is salty.
Salts (sodium chloride-most common and abundant
salt) dissolved in ocean water come from two sources:
weathering of minerals from rocks and volcanic gases.
Salinity- the measurement of the amount of salt
dissolved in water.
The average ocean water’s salinity is 96.5 percent water
and 3.5 percent salt.

2. The density of pure water is 1,000 kg/m3.

Ocean water is denser than pure water because of the
salt dissolved in it. One liter of freshwater is less
dense than one liter of saltwater.
Two main factors affect the density of ocean water:
temperature and salinity.
 When the temperature is high, the density of ocean
water increases.

124 | P a g e
 Increasing salinity also increases the density of water.
When two types of water that differ in salinity are
mixed, the less saline water will float on top of the
more saline water.

3. The temperature of the ocean water is not constant,

nor is it uniform throughout the oceanic mass.
Temperature of water varies with location.
4. Dissolved gases are important in maintaining life
activities of marine gases. Carbon dioxide is sixty
times greater in marine waters than in the
atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is important for marine
producers in photosynthesis and in building coral
reefs and exoskeletons of some animals.

Formation of Water Currents

 Water Currents- the motion of the bodies of water,
which may be visible or less obvious. These currents
move the warm waters in the tropics toward the
poles and the cold waters from the poles toward the
tropics. These currents also exist on the surface and
at certain depths (up to 4 km) in the ocean.

125 | P a g e
Organisms that Inhabit the Ocean Environment
Living things that inhabit the ocean are grouped into
three categories:
1. Planktons- microscopic organisms that float on the
surface of the water.
 Phytoplanktons- are various species of
single-celled, colonial, and filamentous
algae. They are photosynthetic and are
considered the producers of the aquatic
 Zooplanktons- are chiefly small animals like
rotifers and larvae of some small aquatic
animals that feed on phytoplankton, which,
in turn, also serve as food for other larger

2. Nektons- these are the larger swimming species like

fish, squids, turtles, sharks, and whales. Most of these
species are being harvested as food sources.

3. Benthos- these consist of organisms that live at the

bottom, like plants rooted at the bottom of the soil
(hydrilla, lilies, and lotus), algae (seaweeds), and
animals like barnacles, sea slugs, sponges, and those
that burrow into the muddy substratum like small
crustaceans and worms.

126 | P a g e
Bodies of Water in the Philippines
The Philippine archipelago has several inland bodies
of water. Inland bodies of water are divided into two
types: the lotic or flowing water system and the lentic or
standing water system.

Different Types of Lotic Water System

 Stream- a body of water flowing through a
permanent channel that begins in an elevated area
and usually ends in a sea or lake.
 Rapid- a stream on a steep slope where
water is fast flowing.
 Waterfall- a stream with its water flowing
over a precipice or the vertical side of the
 River- a permanent body of flowing water. Brooks,
creeks, and rivulets are small channels of running
water, which may or may not be permanent.

Different Types of Lentic Water System

 Basins- Deep areas wherein large bodies of standing
water like lakes are held within.
 Ponds- shallow and smaller bodies of standing water.

127 | P a g e
 Swamps- bodies of water that are generally wider
than ponds and lakes but are comparatively shallower
due to the thick deposits of sediments at the bottom.
 Lakes- bodies of freshwater that are suitable for
fishing, boating, swimming, and other recreational

The Underground Water System

Rainwater that falls on the surface may run off and
eventually reach a body of water, or may infiltrate the soil,
and may be stored there for a long periods of time.
 Runoff- water that continues to flow and does not
soak into the ground.
Plants Affect Runoff Water
A hard rain that falls on a barren, sloping land will
probably runoff, but not so much in areas covered with
vegetation. Plant roots act like a sponge that soak up and
hold water.
 Aquifer- the water reaches and saturates an
impermeable layer of soil containing gravel, sand, and
silt. Natural source of pure water.
 Groundwater- the water that is stored and that
saturates the area.
 Water table- the top layer of the aquifer saturated
with water.

128 | P a g e
Uses of Water
We all need water. Industries and businesses all
depend on water for many processes. Water is also
needed in the performance of some religious ceremonies.
Water is important that is why we need to conserve it.
Below is a list of the many uses of water in our everyday
1. The main use of water is for drinking and for various
life processes. To survive, an average man consumes
about 60,000 to 80,000 liters of water in his/her
2. A great amount of agriculture water is needed for
irrigation systems. Crops grow with the help of the
nutrients they absorbed from the soil in the form of
dilute aqueous solutions.
3. Water plays a vital role in the global food industry. It
is the common ingredient in preparing various types
of foods.
4. Industries like chemical-manufacturing plants
consume a great amount of water.
5. Finally, water is needed for hydroelectric power
production, transportation, and recreation.
6. Even in our daily activities, such as bathing, washing,
cleaning, and sanitation, we consume water.

129 | P a g e
Problems that Affect the Quality of Coastal Water
 Water Pollution- pertains to any physical, chemical,
and biological changes in water quality that adversely
affects living organisms. Pollution makes water
unsuitable for its desired use or purpose.
 Watershed- a land area where all waters coming from
various sources (lakes or rivers and its tributaries)
drain off.

Sources of Water Pollution

 Deliberate disposal of domestic waste at point
sources such as landfills, septic tanks, water-borne
sewage system, and storm drain wells can have an
impact on the quality of groundwater.
 Agricultural practices like excessive addition of
fertilizer, agrichemicals, and the artificial withdrawal
of large amounts of water to irrigate croplands
contribute to water pollution.
 Industrial activities use nearby aquatic resources as
accessible waste dumps.
 Litter consists of plastic items, wrappers, and garbage
thrown directly in creeks, lakes, or rivers.
 Petroleum spills happen either accidentally or

130 | P a g e
Effects of Water Pollution
 Water pollution can cause serious health problems in
humans. Contaminated water can cause water-borne
diseases like cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, and many
 Minamata Disease- the abnormality that
resulted from mercury contamination.

 Water pollution also degrades rivers and coasts as

recreation areas.
 It also destroys commercial fisheries that are sources
of food and livelihood. Toxic compounds can cause
massive fish kills.
 Pollution reduces the amount of water available for
purposes like drinking, bathing, and other domestic
 Eutrophication- defined as the
overfertilization of water with nutrients that
results in oxygen depletion.

131 | P a g e
Characteristics of a Eutrophic Body of Water

 Eutrophic Body of Water- one that is disturbed by

human activities. It has the following characteristics:

 The water is turbid and has a tea- colored

 There is a rapid increase in phytoplankton’s
 Depleted amount of oxygen: Phytoplankton
releases oxygen when it photosynthesizes,
but the gas escapes into the atmosphere
since it thrives at the surface of water.
 There is a heavy detritus at the bottom. The
detritus comes from dead plants and animals
that cannot be readily decomposed by
aerobic microorganisms.
 Diminished or no benthic plants: since the
phytoplankton dominates the water surface,
it blocks the light from penetrating the

132 | P a g e
Characteristics of an Oligotrophic Body of Water

 Oligotrophic Body of Water- is undisturbed by

human activities. It has the following characteristics:
 The water is clear and prized for its
recreational and aesthetic qualities.
 There is an abundant growth of benthic
 The water is nutrient-poor but oxygen-rich
from top to bottom.
 There are less sediments at the bottom.
 The body of water favors the growth of fish
and seashells.

Ways to Improve the Quality of Ocean Water

Each one of us can help in the care and
conservation of the earth’s waters. Excessive use of water
can be avoided in many ways at home.
 Never leave tap water running while you wash your
hands or brush your teeth.
 Open it when you are ready to use the water.
 Reuse water whenever possible.
 Rivers and lakes should not be used as garbage and
water dumps.
 Factories and industrial firms should also learn how to
use and conserve water.

133 | P a g e
Ways to Improve Water Quality
Because we rely on tap water for our daily needs,
improving the quality of water is necessary since tap water
can contain chemicals and organisms that are harmful
when ingested.
Several simple procedures can be employed to
purify water that we drink.
 Boiling tap water vigorously for at least 10 minutes.
 Add a pinch of salt to purify water.
 Installing a water filtration system on the water
source is a method that several manufacturers
 Nowadays, water purification tablets are available in
the market. These tablets can purify water and make
it sanitary.
 You can also run your drinking water through an
improvised pitcher filtration system that utilizes a
layering system used in actual water filtration

134 | P a g e
The Earth’s Natural Resources

Focus Points:
 Recognize that soil, water, rocks, coal, and other fossil
fuels are Earth’s material resources
 Describe the ways of using Earth’s material resources

How Do People Destroy Natural Resources?

1. Your group needs to identify the effects of some
human activities on natural resources and discuss
them. Suggest ways to reduce the effects.
2. Make a table to show your observation and
discussion on ways people destroy natural
a. What human activities cause the depletion of
natural resources?
b. What can you do to conserve resources?

135 | P a g e
Where Does Energy Come From?
All the materials which living things need come
from the different spheres of the earth. Only one resource
comes from the outside, and that is sunlight.
 Sunlight- produces heat that moves the wind onto
the surface and drives waves and currents in the seas
and oceans. It is the power behind the various
weather phenomena that we experience, and it also
determines the climate of different areas on Earth. It
is harnessed to generate electricity. A resources that
sustain life, but cannot be recycled.

Resources Found in the Lithosphere

 Lithosphere- composed of rocks, and the rocks in turn
are composed of minerals.
 Rocks- important in building materials. Rocks contain
substances that are of great economic value. Metal
ores are rocks that contain metallic substances. (see
figure 10.4)

136 | P a g e
Table 10.4: Examples of Metallic Ores
Metallic Ore Metal Content
Galena Lead
Chalcopyrite Copper
Sphalerite Zinc
Cinnabar Mercury
Bauxite Aluminum
Hematite Iron
Dolomite Magnesium
Argentite Argentite
Cassiterite Tin
Limonite Iron
Other minerals are being mined in large quantities
because of their economic importance. (see figure 10.5)
Table 10.5: Examples of Minerals
Mineral Economic Importance
Halite Salt
Calcium Fluorite Steel making
Sylvite Fertilizer
Pyrite Sulfuric acid
Copper Electricity
Graphite Lead of pencil
Talc Paints and cosmetics
Quartz Glass making
Muscovite Insulator
Gypsum Plaster of Paris

137 | P a g e
Energy Resources
 Solar Power: Energy from the Sun
Unlike oil and coal, solar energy does not pollute
the air or contribute to global warming. Solar
collectors have no moving parts and produce power
continuously for 30 years before needing
maintenance. Excess solar energy can be stored in
batteries for use at night and on cloudy days.
 Wind Energy
We can use the energy from wind by building a
tall tower, with a large propeller on the top. The wind
blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to
produce electricity.
 Geothermal Power
o Geothermal- comes from two Greek words geo
which means “earth,” and thermal which means
“heat”. Combining this, geothermal means heat
coming from the earth.
In some regions, the hot material is close enough to
the surface to heat underground water and form
 Hot rocks underground heat groundwater to
produce steam. Holes are drilled down to the hot
region for steam to come up. Steam is then
purified and used to drive turbines which drive
electric generators to produce electricity

138 | P a g e
 Hydroelectric Energy: Energy from Water
Hydroelectric energy gets its energy from flowing
water. A dam is usually built to trap water. Water is
allowed to flow in tunnels in the dam to turn turbines
and drives generators. Hydroelectric power plants
can produce a great deal of power very cheaply.

 Biomass: Energy from Organic Materials

 Biomass- is matter usually thought of as
garbage. It includes dead trees, leftover
crops, wood chips, bark and saw dust,
rubbish, corn stalk, and even animal manure.

The process of harnessing energy from biomass

involves the gathering of waste materials to be
delivered in a biomass power plant. It is soon burnt in
a furnace, and the heat produced is used to boil
water. The steam created will soon make turbines
move and the generators work.

139 | P a g e
 Fossil Fuels: Energy from Fossilized Organic Materials
Coal, oil, and natural gas are three major forms
of fossil fuels. They are formed from organic remains
of plants and animals that died millions of years ago.
 Coal- is a hard, black-colored rocklike
substance. It is made up of C, H, O, N, and
varying amount of sulfur.
 Crude Oil (petroleum)- is mainly composed
of hydrocarbons which were formed more
than 300 million years ago. This thick, black
oil has to be changed or refined into other
products before it can be used.
 Natural Gas- mostly made up of methane
(CH4), a highly flammable gas. It is pumped
from the ground and travels in pipeline and
storage tanks.

Resources Found in the Atmosphere

The gases important for life and the normal
workings of nature are found in the atmosphere.

 Oxygen- comprises about 21 percent of the air that

we breathe. This gas is important in the survival of
every living organism on earth. It is also important in
the oxidation of food to release energy that powers
the various life activities of all living things.

140 | P a g e
 Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the air- the
naturally occurring gases that trap heat on the
surface, providing Earth with its characteristic
warmth, a phenomenon called greenhouse effect.
This heat is important in the metabolism of some
exothermic animals (cold-blooded animals). It is also
needed by plants in photosynthesis.

 Nitrogen- an important component of protein.

Resources Found in the Atmosphere

Water- an essential resource because of its
remarkable physical properties- two of which are
considered the most useful.
 Water is a universal solvent that can dissolve many
materials- nutrients, chemicals, and wastes.
 Water has high heat capacity than any other
substances. For this reason, it is used up in large
quantities for cooling purposes in commercial and
industrial processes. Water’s ability to retain heat is
also the reason why local temperatures in areas near
large bodies of water do not change tremendously.

141 | P a g e
Ways by Which Water is Consumed

Human consumption of water is categorized

into four: domestic, agricultural, industrial, and in-
stream consumption (Chiras 2000).

 Domestic consumption- pertains to household

activities like bathing, washing clothes, cooking,
cleaning, watering plants, and of course, drinking.
 Agricultural consumption- includes the process of
irrigation to provide water for large farms where
crops or livestock are raised.
 Industrial consumption- involves the use of water as
a transporting medium in discharging industrial
wastes and as a cooling medium in power generation
 In-stream consumption- pertains to the use of the
body of water for recreational purposes like
swimming, rowing, skiing, fishing, and traveling. Using
the aquatic environment to generate electricity as in
hydroelectric power plants is also considered in-
stream utilization of water.

142 | P a g e
Natural Resources: Renewable and Nonrenewable
 Renewable resources- those that can be used readily
and can be produced or regenerated repeatedly (in
one or two human lifetime) by nature’s recycling
process and sound management practices of human
 Nonrenewable resources- those that have finite
existence, that is, they cannot be replaced or
regenerated easily (in one or two human lifetime), or
the rate by which the regeneration process occurs is
so slow. Fossil fuels- coals, oil, natural gas, and
minerals from the soil- are examples of non-
renewable resources.

How Renewable Natural Resources Can Become

Nonrenewable in Time
Mismanagement and the impact of human
activities can limit the regrowth of renewable resources.
Once renewable resources are consumed at the rate that
exceeds their natural rate of replacement, the supply of such
resources will dwindle and eventually such resources become
The demand in the consumption of natural
resources has increased in the past 40 years. The utilization
of our natural resources has gone beyond nature’s
regenerative capacity, and one root cause is the increasing
human population.

143 | P a g e
Mismanagement Affects the Workings of Our Environment
 When trees in the forest are cut, the soil quality changes
since it has been turned upside down, and it becomes
susceptible to agents of erosion.
 The supply of fresh water for our daily use comes from
watersheds that drain into streams, rivers, and lakes.
When trees are cut, soil erosion sets in, and the
sediments are deposited into low-lying areas until they
reach rivers and lakes.
 Pollution tremendously affects water quality.
Commercial and industrial establishments use nearby
lakes and rivers as “waste sinks”.
 Eutrophication- a phenomenon in which agricultural
activities like the use of fertilizers and pesticides and
deforestation bring and create a surplus of nutrients
which overfertilize the aquatic resource.
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environmentalists and people who are concerned in
protecting the environment suggest that conservation and
preservation are two important measures that will protect
and reclaim our environment.
 Conservation- means using and managing the earth’s
resources sustainably.
 Preservation- means maintaining the present state or
conditions of areas and protecting them from
destruction and exploitation brought about by human

144 | P a g e
Composition and Layers of the Atmosphere

 Discuss the different layers of the atmosphere
 Explain how greenhouse effect and global warming affect
the environment
 Explain how some human activities affect the atmosphere

What Gases are Present in the Atmosphere?

Lighted candle, beaker (2), limewater, a piece of paper

1. Get a candle. Cover the lighted candle with a beaker.
What do you think will happen to the lighted candle?
2. Get a beaker with limewater. Light a piece of paper
and place it at the opening of the beaker.
a. What do you notice in the limewater?
b. What makes the limewater turn milky?

Describe some of the gases in the atmosphere.

145 | P a g e
The atmosphere consists of several different gases.
(see Table 11.2)

Table 11.2: Composition of the Atmosphere

Atmospheric Composition
Nitrogen (N2) 78
Oxygen (O2) 21
Argon (Ar) 0.3
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 0.03
Other gases 0.07

Aside from these gases, moisture and particulate

matter like salt particulates, pollen grains, spores, and
microorganisms are also present in the atmosphere. The
gases in the atmosphere play important roles in the
existence and functions of living things on Earth.
 Nitrogen- the most abundant gas in the atmosphere.
It is stable gas, which means that it does not enter
into chemical combinations easily. Nitrogen is an
important component of protein.
 Oxygen- the second most abundant gas. Living things
take in oxygen during respiration. Photosynthesis
contributes to the oxygen content of the atmosphere
by releasing it as a by-product of the process.

146 | P a g e
 Carbon dioxide- comprises a tiny fraction of the
atmospheric gases. Living things releases carbon
dioxide during respiration and by natural activities
like volcanic eruptions. It is important for plants
because it is raw material of photosynthesis.

Different Atmospheric Layers

As shown in Figure 11.2, the atmosphere is divided
into four distinct layers.

100 km Thermosphere

Mesopause 0.001 mb
90 km

0.01 mb

Mesosphere Pressure

70 km
0.1 mb

50 km
1 mb

30 km
Stratosphere 10 mb
Tropopause 100 mb
10 km
0 1000 mb
100 0 60
Temperature (C)
Figure 11.2: Atmospheric Layers 147 | P a g e
 Troposphere- this is the layer that is nearest to the
earth’s surface. It extends from the surface up to 8 to
14.5 km high. The troposphere is the densest layer
since it contains about 75 percent of the atmospheric
gases enumerated above. Clouds of all types, storms,
and all types of weather phenomena characterize this
 Tropopause- The upper boundary of the
 Stratosphere- the layer immediately above the
troposphere. It extends to about 50 km high.
Compared to the troposphere, this layer is less dense
and relatively dry. Strong steady winds, absence of
clouds and vapors, and a warm temperature
characterize this layer.
 Stratopause- the upper boundary of the
 Mesosphere – this layer starts just above the
stratosphere and extends to a height of about 85 km.
The gases in this layer are in excited state as they
absorb heat energy from the sun.
 Mesopause- separates the mesosphere
from the next layer.

148 | P a g e
 Thermosphere- starts just above the mesosphere and
extends to about 600 km high. In this layer, the
temperature rises steadily as the altitude increases.
This layer contains a tiny fraction of the atmospheric
gases and chemical reactions occur much faster in this
layer due to increasing heat from the sun.
 Ionosphere- a layer which is about 258 km
thick and rich with charged particles or ions.
Plays an important role in radio and
telecommunication operations on Earth.
 Thermopause- separates the thermosphere
from the exosphere.
 Exosphere- a thin transition layer into outer

The Ozone Layer

The ozone layer is found within the troposphere.
Ozone is an unstable bluish gas composed of three atoms
of oxygen (O3). Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has
reached 710 percent over the Antarctic. The hole was
discovered in 1985. Ozone depletion had also been
observed in the Arctic and North Pole.

149 | P a g e
Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

 Greenhouse effect- is the natural warming of the

earth attributable to the presence of atmospheric
gases. This natural thermal insulation raises global
temperature from 15°C to 18°C. The temperature
gets higher as the concentration of greenhouse gases

 Carbon dioxide and Water- the naturally occurring

greenhouse gases present in the air, hold the heat for
a certain period of time.

 Greenhouse gases- are heat-trapping gases.

 Global warming- a phenomenon in which

greenhouse gases released by human activities that
have twofold effects intensifies the atmospheric
temperature and destroy the ozone layer.

150 | P a g e
Types and Sources of Greenhouse Gases
Table 11.3: Greenhouse Gases with their Impacts and Sources
Types of
Impacts Sources
Greenhouse Gas
Burning of fossil
Carbon dioxide Contributes to 50% of the
fuels, deforestation,
(CO2) earth’s global warming
changes in land use
Traps heat 20-30 times more Landfills, wetlands,
efficiently that carbon dioxide; flooded rice
contributes to 16% of the paddies, natural
warming phenomenon on gas, and biomass
earth burning
Formed when
Contributes to 8% of the global
Ozone nitrous oxide reacts
warming phenomenon on
(O3) with unburned
Accounts for 6% of the global
Forest fires, burning
warming phenomenon on
Nitrous oxide of fossil fuel, and
Earth; traps heat 230 times
(NO) motor vehicle
more efficiently than carbon
Pressurized spray
Most destructive greenhouse
Chlorofluorocar cans, polystyrene,
gas; heat-trapping property is
bons solvents,
20,000 times than that of
(CFCs) refrigerator, and air
carbon dioxide
conditioning units

151 | P a g e
 Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)- is a synthetic chemical
substance that contains chlorine and bromine. Its
trade name is Freon.
 Freon- is a non-flammable, noncorrosive, chemically
stable, and inexpensive super coolant developed by
DuPont industries.
 A molecule of CFC- according to experts, can destroy
100 thousand molecules of ozone. This is one harmful
gas that nature cannot identify and assimilate.

152 | P a g e
153 | P a g e
Weather and Changes in Water
 Discuss how energy from the sun enters the
 Explain how the changes in the different atmospheric
factors affect the weather
 Account for the occurrence of land and sea breezes,
monsoons, and intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)

What Are Some of the Weather Instruments Used by

Scientists in Studying the Atmosphere?

A. Using reference books, list about four to five

weather instruments, identify each, and give its uses
and the corresponding units used in relaying
weather information.
B. Which instruments would best measure each of the
following conditions?
1. A three-inch snowfall
2. A period of hot, humid weather3
3. A gentle land breeze
C. Which instrument would give each of the following
1. 20 kilometers per hour
2. 65 percent
3. 5 centimeters

154 | P a g e
 Weather- refers to the general condition of the
atmosphere over an area within a specified period of

How Energy from the Sun Enters the Atmosphere

When the sun’s energy gets into the atmosphere,

there are parts of the earth that get warmer than others.
Forests, lakes, oceans, glaciers, deserts, and cities all
absorb, reflect, and radiate heat differently.
Light colors reflect the light back into space while
dark colors absorb heat, warming the earth.

Effect of Temperature on Weather Changes

Energy is needed to bring about changes in the
atmosphere that result changes in weather. This energy
comes from the sun. The solar energy that is absorbed by
the troposphere and the earth’s surface is converted to
heat energy.
 Insolation- the solar radiation that reaches and heats
Earth’s surface.
Not all places on earth receive equal amount of solar
radiation. This is attributed to the variations in the angle
of insolation. As the earth revolves around the sun, some
areas on earth receive vertical rays from the sun, while
others receive slanting or oblique rays.

155 | P a g e
Oblique rays

Larger area at
high latitudes
Vertical rays Small area at
low latitudes

Figure 11.7: Some parts of the earth receive oblique rays from the sun,
while others receive vertical rays

Vertical sun’s rays are concentrated in small

areas giving more heat, slanting or oblique rays are
concentrated on broader areas, so there is less heat in the

How Temperature is Recorded

Meteorologist use the thermometer in
measuring air temperature. Since temperature fluctuates
during the day, the readings are recorded every hour.

 Thermograph- a self-recording thermometer that

records the rise and fall of the temperature during the

156 | P a g e
Effect of Air Pressure on Weather Changes

 Pressure- the force exerted on a unit area of a

 Air pressure- the weight of air on a unit when air
passes on the ground.
 Air pressure is exerted in all directions.
 It is affected by altitude. As one goes higher
in the air, pressure drops. This is because air
molecules near the ground are close to each
 Air pressure is affected by temperature. In
areas where the temperature of the ground
is high, the air above it is heated, causing air
molecules to expand and rise. In cooler
areas, air is dense. The cooler air molecules
sink, resulting in higher air pressure; thus,
there is more air in high-pressure areas.

How Air Pressure is Measured

 Barometer- the instrument used in measuring air
 Atmosphere (atm)- the unit used in atmospheric
 Millibar- the unit for air pressure used in
international forecasting.

157 | P a g e
 Atmospheric pressure- expressed in terms of the
column of mercury it can support.

Effect of Humidity on Weather Changes

 Humidity- the concentration of water vapor in the
 Humid- air containing much water vapor.
Humidity varies with temperature. Temperature limits the
amount of water vapor which air can absorb.

 Air capacity- pertains to the amount of water vapor

which the air can absorb.
Generally, the air does not contain all the water vapor it
can hold. Usually, it contains only a fraction of its moisture
or water vapor capacity.

 Relative humidity- the actual volume of water vapor

in a volume of air in relation to its capacity.
Relative humidity is expressed in percentage. A relative
humidity of 0% means the air is perfectly dry, while a
relative humidity of 100% means the actual water vapor
in the air is equal to its water vapor capacity. The air in this
case is saturated. Adding more water to it will bring about
condensation so that relative humidity is important in
predicting precipitation.

158 | P a g e
How Relative Humidity is Determined
 Hygrometer- the instrument used to determine
relative humidity.
 Pycnometer- the most common hygrometer which is
composed of wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers.

 Dry-bulb thermometer- measures air temperature.

 Wet-bulb thermometer- measures the air cooled to
The differences in the two thermometer readings
are used to calculate the relative humidity of the air.

Wind Movement
 Air Current or Convection Current- refers to the
movement where air could move vertically up and
down. Such movement is influenced by temperature
and pressure.
 Wind- an air movement which likewise is influenced
by temperature and pressure, occurs horizontally.
The wind is formed when the dense, cold air that sinks
near the ground moves horizontally.

159 | P a g e
Land and Sea Breezes
 Breeze- a gentle wind.
 Sea breeze- cooler air from over seawater that
gently blows inland during the day.
 Land breeze- cold air coming from the land blowing
towards the sea.

Land breeze and sea breeze are convection currents.

Return Flow

Warm Cool
Sea Breeze

Figure 11.11: Diagram showing how sea breeze forms

Return Flow

Cool Land Breeze Warm

Figure 11.12: Diagram showing how land breeze forms

160 | P a g e
Monsoon Winds
The uneven heating of the earth’s surface modifies
the general circulation of air and changes the wind
direction over land and water from season to season.
During summer, the wind moves from the ocean
towards the land.
During winter, the wind moves from the land
toward the ocean.
 Monsoon Effect- the seasonal change in wind
 Monsoons- the winds that blow and whose directions
change from season to season.

How Does Earth’s Rotation Affect Wind Direction

Coriolis Effect- effect on the earth’s rotation on

wind circulation in which the motion of the wind follows a
curved line.
During rotation, the earth moves in a counter
clockwise direction (West to East). Thus, wind from the
poles moving toward the equator curves to the west,
while wind from the equator moving toward the poles
curves to the east.

161 | P a g e
Different Winds and Pressure Belts
 Global winds- the general patterns of wind circulation
in the troposphere. The uneven heating of the earth’s
surface causes them.
 Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)-
a belt of low pressure found at the equator. It is
characterized by weak and calm winds.
polar easterlies
60° Subpolar low 60°

Prevailing westerlies
30° Subtropical high 30°

Tropical easterlies

0° Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) 0°

Tropical easterlies

30° Subtropical high 30°

Prevailing westerlies

60° Subpolar low 60°

polar easterlies

Figure 11.14: Illustration of the location of the global winds

162 | P a g e
 Tropical Easterlies- pertain to warm air from the
equator that rises, cools, and flows back toward the
equator. It appears to flow to the west because of the
Coriolis Effect.
 Horse Latitudes- are located at about 35° north and
south latitudes. These areas are characterized by high
pressure and gentle winds. The air in this area is
cooler compared to the air in the doldrums, but the
air pressure is higher than in the doldrums. Horse
latitudes are areas where most of the world’s deserts
are situated.
 Tropical Westerlies (Trade winds)- winds that blow
toward the equator from the high pressure regions of
the horse latitudes.
 Prevailing Westerlies- winds that are coming from 30
to 35 north and south latitudes moving toward the
poles. It is called by such name because the wind is
coming from the western directions.
 Polar Easterlies- winds that come from the poles
which cool, sink back down, and eventually return to
the equator.

163 | P a g e
How Clouds are Formed
 Clouds- indicate that changes are taking place in the
upper atmosphere; they provide clues to the
forthcoming weather conditions. The formation and
movement of clouds likewise indicate how moisture
in the air affects our day-to-day weather.
 Condensation- the process in which clouds form. For
clouds to form in the upper atmosphere, the air must
be cooled to its dew point.
 Dew point- the lowest temperature that cools the air
at constant pressure to bring about condensation.

When warm air and humid air is heated near the

ground, the molecules expand and begin to rise to
higher, cooler altitudes where air pressure is low. As
the molecules continue to ascend due to expansion,
they undergo automatic cooling at the rate of 10°C for
every 1 km rise in altitude.

 Adiabatic Cooling- refers to the automatic cooling

process of the rising air molecules at a constant

164 | P a g e
On the other hand, when denser air sinks in the
lower atmosphere or on the ground, its temperature also
rises at the same rate.
 Adiabatic Heating- refers to the automatic heating of
the sinking cold air.
 Adiabatic- refers to a temperature change within a
substance brought about by its own compression and
Water vapor will not condense if there are
no surfaces that will collect the water vapor and start
the condensation process . In the upper atmosphere,
these surfaces may be dust and salt particles where
water vapor can cling and condense into tiny droplets
of water.
 Condensation Nuclei- the particles around which
water vapor condense.

Lifting condensation
Warm air level

Surface warms
Figure 11.15: Warm air expands and becomes less dense
until it reaches adiabatic cooling. 165 | P a g e
Different Types of Cloud Formation
The movement of the air where condensation
occurs determines the shape of the cloud.
If air movement is primarily horizontal, clouds will
form layers, and they are described as stratiform or
layered clouds.
If the air movement is primarily vertical, the clouds
formed will be billowy, and they are described as

1. Cirrus clouds- Curl of hair. Feathery white clouds that

are very high and composed of icy crystals.
2. Stratus- Spread or stretch out. Grayish clouds with
layered or sheet-like appearance; low-lying and often
the source of drizzles.
3. Cumulus- Heap or pile. High billowy white clouds that
look like piles of puffed cotton; indicate fair weather
4. Cirrostratus- Curl of hair that is stretched out. Thin
sheets of high clouds that cover the entire sky; rain
sometimes accompanies these clouds, which are rich
with icy crystals.
5. Altostratus- High and spread or stretched out. Gray
clouds that resemble cirrostratus clouds; often source
of light rains or snow.

166 | P a g e
6. Altocumulus- High, spread, or stretched out and in
heap or pile. High, thin, and sheet-like clouds that
resemble stratocumulus clouds; usually appearing
before thunderstorms, source of brief rain showers,
and are common in mountain peaks.
7. Stratocumulus- Spread or stretched out and in heap
or pile. Globular masses of dark clouds that cover the
entire sky; may produce brief rain showers.
8. Nimbostratus- Rain and spread or stretched out. Dark
gray clouds that are low-lying and shapeless; may
produce steady rains.
9. Cumulonimbus- Heap or pile and rain. Thick, white,
dense, and fluffy clouds with dark gray underside;
with great vertical development and assume an anvil
shape; seen as isolated clouds or may appear in
cluster; often produce thunderstorms.

How Precipitation is Formed

 Clouds- consists of many billions of tiny water
 Droplet- about 20 microns (0.020 mm) in diameter -
that combine as they collide with one another to form
into raindrops.
 Rain- refers to the form which came from the
accumulation of raindrops in the cloud that becomes
so heavy, and eventually fall on the ground.

167 | P a g e
 Precipitation- the process in which all forms of
moisture from the clouds fall to the ground.

Different Types of Precipitation

Table 11.4: The Different Types of Precipitation

Types of
Descriptions Sources
Very fine drops of water;
Drizzle raindrop diameter is less Fogs or stratus clouds
than 0.3 mm
Cumulonimbus clouds
Sleet Frozen droplets of rain
(thunderstorm clouds)
Frozen drops of water that
appear like lumps or balls
of ice; as the raindrops
Cumulonimbus clouds
Hail move up and down, the
(thunderstorm clouds)
water freezes and thaws
giving its onion-like shape;
varied sizes
Clouds that primarily
Large, far apart droplets of contain abundant
Rain water; raindrops are larger rainwater like
than 0.5 mm in diameter nimbostratus, cumulus,

168 | P a g e
High and Low Pressure Areas

The unequal heating of the earth’s surface results in

the formation of high and low pressure areas.

 Low pressure- a large area with pressure lower than

normal; formed when warm air rises in the
 High pressure- - a large area with pressure higher
than normal; formed when cold air descends in the
lower atmosphere.

 Cyclone- low pressure area with its counterclockwise

system of revolving winds. Usually bring bad weather
since the cold air around it pushes up the warmer air.
 Anticyclone- high pressure area with its clockwise
system of revolving winds. Usually bring good
weather because the colder, denser air, and high
pressure area grows warmer as it descends toward
the earth’s surface.

169 | P a g e
Different Types of Tropical Cyclones

Tropical Cyclones are classified according to wind


 Depression- a weather disturbance which the

circulating wind has a speed of 63 kilometers per hour
(63 km/hr) or less.

 Storm- the weather disturbance which has a wind

velocity beyond 63 km/hr up to about 118 km/hr.

 Typhoon- the weather disturbance with a wind

velocity more than 118 km/hr. Heavy rains and a
strong or sometimes violent wind moving around a
low pressure area characterize it.

170 | P a g e
Atmospheric Pollution
Discuss the different types of atmospheric pollution.

How Do You Detect the Presence of Atmospheric

I. Materials
4 pieces of ¼ bond paper
Colorless baby oil
Cotton buds
II. Procedure
1. Put baby oil at the center of the ¼ bond paper.
Spread the oil using cotton buds. Do the same
procedure on the other three sheets.
2. Choose four areas in class where you will place the
four ¼ pieces of bond paper. Allow the bond paper
to stay in place for 30 minutes. Then collect the
bond papers.
III. Results and Observations
Examine the filter paper after the time has
passed. Compare the four pieces of paper in terms of
the amount of dust particles that were gathered.
Present your findings in class.
IV. Questions for Analysis
What can you say about the quality of the air in
each of the different locations where you placed the

171 | P a g e
 Pollution- the undesirable change in the physical.
Chemical, and biological conditions of the
environment. The atmosphere is polluted by both
natural events and human activities.

Natural Activities that Pollute the Atmosphere

 Volcanic activities- expel large amount of poisonous
gases like carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and
particulate matter.
 Forest fires- release large amounts of nitrous oxide,
carbon dioxide, and particulates.
 Marshes and natural vegetation- release methane
and other toxic ethylene gases.

Different Types of Atmospheric Pollutant

There are two major types of air pollutants: gases
and particulates.

 Particulates- pertain to the solid and liquid droplets

suspended in the air like smoke, ash, soot, dust, salt
particles, aerosols, spores, and pollens.

172 | P a g e
Table 11.5: The Different Atmospheric Pollutants, their
Sources, and Impacts
Pollutants Sources Impacts
Fossil fuel burning,
Acid precipitation and eye,
Sulfur dioxide transportation, and
mouth, and throat problems
(SO2) other combustion
in humans
Fossil fuel burning, Acid precipitation and
Nitrous oxide transportation, and respiratory problems in
(NO2) other combustion humans; can react with VOCs
activities to form photochemical smog
Motor vehicle
Can destroy ozone formation,
Carbon exhaust; formed by
can combine with blood, and
monoxide incomplete
interferes with oxygen
(CO) combustion of fossil
transport in the body
Volatile solvents like
ether, acetone and Eye and respiratory irritation;
xylene, industrial prolonged exposure can
processes, and fossil cause leukemia and cancer
fuel combustion
Formed when nitrous Harms vegetation, health
oxide reacts with hazards in man when at
Ozone (O3)
unburned ground level, accelerates
hydrocarbons environmental temperature
Fossil fuel burning, Allergic reactions and
forest fires respiratory problems

173 | P a g e
How are Pollutants Classified?
Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary.
 Primary pollutants- those directly emitted by
identifiable sources. (Ex. carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide,
nitrous oxide, and volatile organic compounds which are
products of fossil fuel burning, deforestation,
transportation, and industrial processes.
 Secondary pollutants- products of the chemical
reactions among the primary pollutants powered by
solar radiation. Examples include:
Nitrous oxide + VOCs Photochemical smog
Nitrous oxide + unburned hydrocarbons Ozone
Sulfur + water Sulfuric acid
Nitrous oxide + water Nitric acid

Effects of Air Pollution

In humans, the most affected by pollution (identified as
the high-risk group) are the children, pregnant women, and
the elderly.
Three categories of impact: acute (short term), chronic
(long term), and carcinogenic.
 Acute effects- usually immediate and often
reversible. (eye irritation, headaches, nausea)
 Chronic effects- usually not immediate and tend to
not to be reversible.
 Carcinogenic effects- can initiate changes in the cells
and tissues that lead to uncontrolled growth.

174 | P a g e
Acid Precipitation
Acid precipitation- pertains to any precipitation-
rain, fog, mist, and snow- that is more acidic than usual.
The natural system is slightly acidic (pH 5.6). Such
acidity is due to the formation of carbonic acid, a product
of the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide with water.
 The chemical substances that bring about this
problem are:
 Nitrous oxide
 Sulfur dioxide
 Chloride ions
 Chemical reactions on the earth’s surface and in the
atmosphere can change these gaseous pollutants into
secondary pollutants:
 Nitric acid
 Sulfuric acid
 Hydrochloric acid
Effects of Acid Precipitation
 Death to many forms of aquatic life
 Increase in corrosion rates of monuments, buildings,
and work of arts: metals corrode two to three times
faster due to exposure to acids.
 Forest decline since increased acidity causes
unbalanced growth.
 There is reproductive failure in some plants and
animal species.

175 | P a g e
About the Earth in Space
 Create models to show the relationship between the
earth’s tilt to the length of daytime, the length of
daytime to the amount of energy received, the earth’s
position in its orbit to the sun’s height in the sky, the
sun’s height in the sky to the amount of energy received,
and the latitude of an area to the amount of energy the
area received
 Discuss what causes change in the seasons in the
Philippines using models

Why Do Seasons Change?

Study a drawing or an illustration that shows the location
of the earth at different times of the year. Notice that the axis of
the earth is not perpendicular to its orbit; it is tilted.
Study also a drawing that shows where direct rays from
the sun fall in the month of June and in the month of December.
Notice also where the earth is tilted.
In which month is the North Pole tilted toward the sun?
(June or December)
In which month is the North Pole tilted away from the sun?
(June or December)
In June, which hemisphere receives direct rays from the
In December, which hemisphere receives direct rays from
the sun?
Why do seasons change?

176 | P a g e

152, 500, 000 km 147, 500, 000 km

94, 500, 000 mi 91, 500, 000 mi
Aphelion Perihelion
July 4 January 3

Figure 12.1: The Earth at perihelion and aphelion distances

The earth on the average is 93 million miles away

from the sun. its orbit around the sun is elliptical, so there
are times that it is 2 percent nearer to the sun (perihelion)
and 2 percent farther from the sun (aphelion).
Perfect Sphere


Earth’s Volume, Mass and Density

Figure 12.2: The earth is not a perfect sphere.
177 | P a g e
The mass of the earth was found to be about 5.98
x 1024 kg using mathematical calculation and very delicate
laboratory equipment and applying Newton’s law of
 Mass- the amount of matter an object contains.
Because the shape of the earth is known, its volume
can be calculated (from its radius). The known volume of
the earth is 260 billion mi3.
Since the earth’s mass and volume are known,
average density can be calculated.
 Density- the mass of an object per unit volume.
To understand what density is, prepare two boxes of
shoes with identical size. Fill one box with sand and the
other with cotton both tightly packed as possible. Cover
and lift both boxes. Which is heavier? The heavier one has
more mass in the same amount of volume (shoebox).
Thus, the shoebox filled with sand is denser than the
shoebox filled with cotton.
The earth’s mass is divided by its volume, a density
of about 5,500 kg/m3 will be obtained. This value indicates
the earth is 5.5 times denser than water (1,000 kg/m3).

Albedo- Defined as the amount of light reflected by a


178 | P a g e
How the Earth’s Motion Affects the Earth
Do you know that every day and for one year, we are
traveling the distance of 940 million kilometers at the
speed of 107,000 kilometers per hour without consciously
feeling and noticing it?
 Revolution- Motion of the planet Earth which
functions as a spaceship that brings us around the sun
in a counterclockwise direction (west to east).
One complete journey around the sun takes 365 ¼ days.

Because the orbit of the planet Earth is elliptical,

there are times wherein earth is nearer to the sun, about
147 million km away (perihelion) and farther from the sun,
about 152 million km away (aphelion). Such variations in
distance affect the speed of the planet Earth. At
perihelion, earth moves at its fastest speed in response to
the sun’s gravitational force. As it moves away from the
sun, the gravitational force of the sun retards and earth’s
speed slows down until it reaches aphelion. The fast and
slow motion is a natural rhythm, which earth undergoes
as it revolves around the sun. Revolution causes the
changes in seasons.

179 | P a g e
 Rotation- the spinning motion of the earth in space.
It spins in its axis like a top, also in a counterclockwise
direction. Rotation is completed in one day or in a
span of 24 hours. The counterclockwise motion of the
earth is the reason why the sun seems to move across
the sky rising in the East and setting in the West,
causing day and night cycles.

180 | P a g e
Factors that Determine Seasons on Earth
The shape of the earth is described as an oblate
 Oblate Spheroid- a sphere with flat poles and a
bulging equator.
Because of the spherical shape of the earth, there is
uneven solar distribution. As sunlight strikes the earth’s
surface, the part that faces the sun receives vertical rays,
while the part that curves away from the sun receives
slanting or oblique rays.

181 | P a g e
The earth revolves in its orbit in a counterclockwise
manner. As the earth revolves around the sun, the sun’s
rays seem to sweep from northward to southward and,
back within a year, causing the alternate change in
position of the vertical and slanting rays of the sun. So that
if in the month of June, earth’s axis is tilted towards the
sun, as the earth revolves halfway in its orbit in the month
of December, the Earth’s axis is now tilted away from the

182 | P a g e
Different Seasonal Phenomena

 Summer Solstice- refers to the time when the areas

beyond the Arctic Circle (located at 66.5° north)
receive 24 hours of daylight during the month of June
each year when Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun
and the Tropic of Cancer (located at 23.5° north)
receives vertical rays from the sun while the rest of
the parts of the earth receive slanting or oblique rays.
It is in the month of June that we experience
longer days than night, and the hottest season of the
year for people living in the northern hemisphere.

 Autumnal or Fall Equinox- refers to the time when

everywhere on Earth, the length of day and night is
equal. This happens by the month of September when
the vertical rays of the sun sweep from the Tropic of
Cancer to the equator (0° latitude) while the rest of
the part of the earth receives slanting rays. This
month mark the beginning of autumn in the northern
hemisphere and spring in the southern hemisphere.

183 | P a g e
 Winter Solstice- refers to the time when areas
beyond the Arctic Circle experience 24 hours of
darkness during the month of December when the
northern hemisphere is now tilted away from the sun
and the vertical rays of the sun strike the Tropic of
Capricorn (located at 23.5° south).
This marks the beginning of winter in the
northern hemisphere and summer in the southern
hemisphere. It is in this time that we experience
longer nights than days.

 Vernal or Spring Equinox- refers to the time when the

earth reaches three-fourths of its path around the sun
by the month of December. As in the month of
September, the vertical rays of the sun are again
directly over the equator.
It marks the beginning of spring in the northern
hemisphere and autumn or fall in the southern
hemisphere. Again, everywhere on Earth, the length
of day and night is equal.
Thus, within a year, we experience two solstices
and two equinoxes.

184 | P a g e
Seasons in the Philippines
The Philippines is in the tropical climate zone. Tropical
climate receives vertical rays from the sun (during the
months of March and September). Consequently, people
in the Philippines do not experience four seasons. Instead,
the seasons in the Philippines are described as the wet and
dry seasons.
 Dry Season- described as the season when it seldom
 Wet Season- described as the season when there is
much rainfall.

Wind Systems in the Philippines

 Northeast Monsoon- the wind system where cold air
from the high-pressure area in Siberia moves towards
the low-pressure area over the North Pacific Ocean.
However, the Coriolis effect gradually turns it to the
right in a giant arc that reaches the Philippines from
the northeast direction. This large mass of moving air
passing over the Philippines and drawn to the low-
pressure center over Australia is locally called

185 | P a g e
 Southwest Monsoon- refers to the wind system
when the Philippines is on the path of strong winds
that start from the southern hemisphere during the
months from June to about September, or sometimes
up to October or even November. This wind originally
blows from a southeast direction coming from the
area of Australia.

During the monsoon periods, farmers take

advantage of time to irrigate the rice fields and start
the planting season. For fishermen, the monsoons
mean less catch because they cannot go far out the
sea. At these time of the year, the seas are very rough
and dangerous. Thus, monsoons are both beneficial
and harmful.

186 | P a g e
About the Moon
 Explain how solar and lunar eclipse occur
 Collect, record, and report data on the beliefs and
practices of the community in relation to the eclipses.

Properties of the Moon

The moon is about 384,400 kilometers away from
Earth. Its size is only one-fourth of the earth’s diameter or
about 3,476 kilometers. It revolves around the earth in an
elliptical orbit and in a counterclockwise direction within
a period of 27.3 days.
The orbit of the moon is fairly eccentric; there are
times when it is nearer to the earth and at other times
farther from it.
 Perigee- the shortest distance from the moon to
Earth which is about 356,400 kilometers.
 Apogee- the farthest distance from the moon to Earth
which is about 406,700 kilometers.

187 | P a g e
Figure 12.8: The moon at perigee Figure 12.8: The moon at apogee

 Synchronous Rotation- the moon’s period of rotation

is equal to its period of revolution.
 Craters- circular depressions formed by the impact of
meteorites on the surface (called impact cratering).

The moon’s gravity is only one-sixth of the earth’s

gravity. Thus, a 120 lbs person would weigh only about
20 lbs on the moon.

188 | P a g e
Varied Phases of the Moon
The variations in the area of illumination that
gives the moon its varied shapes are attributed to the
relative orientation or position of the moon in relation to
the earth and sun.
When the moon is between the earth and sun, the
side that faces the earth is not lighted. This position where
the moon is faintly visible on earth, is the new moon
Two or three days later, a small portion of the moon’s
side becomes lighted in the form of a crescent, whose
“horns” are away from the sun.
In about a week’s time after the new moon, the moon
has reached about one-fourth of its orbit around the
earth, the side of the moon that faces us is half-lit, and this
is the first quarter phase.
As the moon continues to move in its orbit around the
earth, the lighted surface increases. When the moon’s
lighted portion becomes more than half appearing
humped, the moon is in its gibbous phase. About two
weeks after the new moon, the moon has reached one-
half of its orbit around the earth. The side of the moon
that faces Earth is well-lit; this is the full moon phase.

189 | P a g e
From the full moon phase, the portion of the moon’s
lighted surface begins to shrink (waning phases) and the
phases are repeated from gibbous to last quarter to
crescent (this time, the “horns” are directed toward the
sun) to another new moon, thus repeating the cycle of

190 | P a g e
It takes about 29.5 days for the moon to complete its
phases. Have you noticed something strange? How come
that one complete revolution of the moon takes only
about 27.3 days, while one complete cycle of phases takes
about 29.5 days? The difference of about two days to
complete the moon’s phases is attributed to the relative
motion of the earth in its orbit around the sun. Figure
12.15 would help explain this.
Types of Eclipses

191 | P a g e
Solar Eclipse
The shadow of the moon cannot be noticed until
it falls on earth. When it does, people in the place where
the shadow falls experience an eclipse of the sun or a solar

In areas where the umbra of the moon falls, the

eclipse is called total solar eclipse (A). In places where the
penumbra falls, the eclipse is called partial solar eclipse
(C). There are times when the umbra of the moon’s
shadow fails to reach fully the earth’s surface. This
happens when the moon is at apogee; consequently, a
ring of light (called antumbra) surrounds the umbra. Such
type of eclipse is called an annular eclipse (B).

192 | P a g e
Lunar Eclipse
As the moon revolves around the earth, it also
passes on the earth’s shadow. An eclipse of the moon or
lunar eclipse occurs. Lunar eclipse happens during full
moon. However, just like a solar eclipse, it does not
happen every full moon because of the tilting of the
moon’s orbit. Total eclipse of the moon happens when the
moon crosses the umbra of the earth’s shadow. The moon
frequently passes the earth’s penumbra but the shadow
cast by the earth on the moon’s surface is hardly visible.

193 | P a g e
Tides and How They Occur
 Tide- the regular rise and fall in the level of the ocean
On the side of the earth where the moon is, the
gravity of the moon causes the bulge to occur on the solid
part of the earth. The bulge is only about a few inches at
most, but because the water in the ocean is free to move,
it behaves as if it is pulled away from the earth. Thus, the
level of the water in the region where the moon is, rises.
A high tide in this region occurs.

 Direct ideal bulge- The bulge on the side facing the


194 | P a g e
Spring Tides
Twice each month, that is during full moon and new
moon, high tides and low tides are respectively higher and
lower than usual. At such time, the sun, the moon and the
earth are in line with each other. The gravitational pull of
the sun, although weaker (only about 7 %) because of its
great distance, coordinates with the gravity of the moon.
Tides produced in this case are called spring tides.

Neap Tides
Twice a month also, the high tides are lower than
usual and the low tides are higher than usual. This
happens when the sun, moon, and earth are at the right
angles with each other (during the first and last phases).
The gravitational pull of the sun and the moon seems to
cancel each other. The tides produced in this case are
called neap tides.
The moon’s closeness to the earth also affects the
magnitude of the tides. When the moon is at perigee, the
tide-raising force is greater than normal at about 20

195 | P a g e
People’s Beliefs and Practices about Eclipses
Viewing an eclipse generates much interest in the
community; and despite the awareness of the nature of
this natural phenomenon, many people throw away many
logical explanations and associate these phenomena to a
lot of superstitious beliefs, lore, myths, and legends.

196 | P a g e
Superstitious Beliefs about the Occurrence of an Eclipse

1. In many regions, it was believed that eclipse occur

when evil mythological creatures attack the sun: a
giant turtle (Vietnam), a jaguar (Latin America), a
dragon (Asia), or a werewolf (Romania).
2. In Tahiti, eclipses have been interpreted as the
lovemaking of the sun and the moon. People in Tahiti
find the event to be something to look forward to
since the eclipse seems to be the harbinger of a divine
3. The Maoris believe that the lunar eclipse is a sign of
eminent victory over their enemy in a war and the
collapse of their enemy’s fort.
4. Ann eclipse was also thought to foretell the death of
great people like the Roman emperor Nero and
Catherine of Aragon.
5. Eclipses also precede great and tragic events such as
the Black Death of 1348 or the start of the First World
War in 1914.

197 | P a g e
Practices and Rituals that have been Followed
During an Eclipse

1. During an eclipse, impure gases are circulated in the

environment. These gases also get absorbed in our
food and water. People should avoid eating and
drinking during the eclipse phase. Water can be made
pure by adding basil leaves. The cooked food should
be eaten before the eclipse begins. Pregnant women
should strictly observe these tips.
2. After the eclipse, people need to take a bath with the
clothes they have been wearing. After bathing, they
should prepare food and offer it to their deity at
home and then eat. People should give alms to the
poor and the needy.
3. In India, people immerse themselves in water up to
the neck in an act of cleansing. They believe that this
act would help the sun fight the beast or the demon
that was believed to have devoured the sun.
4. Also in India, pregnant women are forbidden from
cutting and sewing clothes and cutting vegetables and
herbs during the eclipse. This is because they believe
that the unborn child will possess some deformity.

198 | P a g e
5. Pregnant women from Mexico and other parts of
Latin America used to wear bright red pants, to which
safety pins are attached to avoid suffering from birth
6. Muslims continue the tradition of praying during an
eclipse because this astronomical event is the sign of
the apocalypse as it is said in the Qur’an (75:6-9).
There is also a recommended prayer (salat-ul-Kusuf)
that is performed by the Muslim community in
congregation during the eclipse.

Practices and Rituals that Counteract the Negative

Effects of Eclipses

1. Chinese people used to shoot fireworks in the sky and

make great noise by shaking bells or beating gongs,
pots, and drums to chase away the dragon that
guzzled the piece of the sun.
2. In Ethiopia, people make as much noise as they could
and practice various rituals in order to return the sun
in the sky. After the sun comes back, they celebrate
this event with animal sacrifices.

199 | P a g e
3. In Thailand, lucky objects are bought to ward off evil
omens during the eclipse. Since black is the color of
the demon of darkness, devotees in Thailand buy
black chicken, black liquor, black beans, black eggs,
black rice, and black moss sticks.
4. Resounding screams and cries were the means by
which people from ancient Rome tried to cast out the
demons that overshadowed the sun.
5. Hindus bathe in the Ganges and other holy rivers to
purify their bodies from the evil effects of a solar
6. In Japan, Shinto believers hung an amulet with a shiny
gem in a Clauria tree to compensate for the lack of
the solar light.

200 | P a g e