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A unique International Community
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 1
Why is it so Special?
Quoddy is a rich ecosystem that, through an accident of history, lies primarily in Canada 01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 3
Once again the Quoddy Area is being threatened by inappropriate industrial development. This slide show is designed to show you why the area is so special and in need of your protection.
Quoddy's international eco-economy approaches a billion dollars each year and employs thousands ….
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 4
It's hard to argue with money. So, right up front we want you to know that local enterprises likely bring in over a billion dollars annually and they employ thousands of residents. Aquaculture - $249 million, Agriculture - $10 million,
Fisheries - $204 million , Forestry - ?? , Research - $75 million, Tourism - $340 million, Shipping, Education, Arts, crafts, light Manufacturing, Real Estate, Seasonal & Retirement – The balance.
It supports over 3,000 marine creatures including endangered species such as….
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 5
From tiny plankton to gigantic whales, the Quoddy Area's unique ecosystem supports over 3,000 species of plants and animals.
Some Listed Marine Species in the Quoddy Region
Special in red are known to occur at one or both proposed LNG Sites
(Last updated in 2007)
ENDANGERED • • • • • • • Atlantic Salmon (Maine) Butternut (Canada) Eskimo Curlew (Birds) Jacob's Ladder (Vascular Plant) pdf North Atlantic Right Whale (Mammals) Peregrine Falcon (Bird) Porbeagle (Fishes) SPECIAL CONCERN •Atlantic Cod (Maritimes population) (Fishes) •Atlantic Wolffish (Fishes) •Barrow's Goldeneye (Birds) •Bicknell's Thrush (Birds) •Canada Lynx (Mammal) •Eastern Cougar (Mammal) •Fin Whale (Atlantic population) (Mammals) •Gray Wolf (Mammal) •Harbour Porpoise (Mammals) •Harlequin Duck (Eastern population) (Birds) •Monarch (Arthropods) •Redbreast Sunfish (Fishes) •Red-shouldered Hawk (Birds) •Short-eared Owl (Birds) •Shortnose Sturgeon (Fishes) •Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mammals) •Wood Turtle (Reptiles) •Yellow Rail (Birds)
THREATENED • • • • • • • • Bald Eagle (Bird) Cusk (Fishes) Least Bittern (Birds) Peregrine Falcon (Birds) Striped Bass ((Fishes) Tomah Mayfly (Arthropod) Winter Skate (Fishes) Yellow Lampmussel (Freshwater Mollusc)
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 6
Many listed species occur right where industry wants to locate their route of entry and their terminals
… and it’s a great place to live!
Eastport, Maine – the most easterly city in the United States. Canadian islands in the background
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 7
Why is this place so different?
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 8
Because of a unique natural phenomenon ….
… that is centred on Head Harbour Passage at Campobello Island
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 2010 9
You have all heard about the huge tides in the Bay of Fundy. When the tons of water rush in through Head Harbour Passage twice each day, something magical happens here.
Huge tides that reach 28 feet rush in and out between the dozens of islands and ledges twice every day …
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20100 1
As the water rises and falls 24 – 28 feet and rushes through the passages between islands and ledges, the upwellings and whirlpools support spectacular life forms.
Plankton concentrates in the passages supporting an abundance of bottom life ….
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20101 1
As the waters funnel through the passages, this concentrates plankton and virtual gardens of bottom-dwelling animals feed on the passing abundance. They themselves produce eggs and larvae and spew these into the water creating a localized increase in plankton and productivity
The resident creatures also spew their larvae into the water creating an astounding local elevation in planktonic food ….
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20102 1
The marine life is so spectacular that thousands of visitors come each year just to see this natural wealth. Fishermen, tourist operators, and fish farmers depend on the pristine nature of the area.
This plankton “spike” feeds a complex food web that is the foundation of all the natural wealth of this area.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20103 1
The plankton produced in the Head Harbour Passage area, is the foundation of a complex food web that produces the enormous natural wealth of the Pasdsamaquoddy Bay area.
This is an Economic Contest with a Huge Environmental Backdrop. Here’s What We Can Lose.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20100 2
Our Billion Dollar Eco-Economy includes:
Washington Co. Charlotte Co. Employment Total Value
Aquaculture* Agriculture* Fisheries* Forestry* Research* Shipping Tourism* Education Arts, crafts, light Manufacturing Real Estate Seasonal & Retirement
$26 million $5 million $31 million (lobster only) Unknown Unknown $50 million Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
$223 million $5 million $173 million $75 million Unknown $300 million Unknown Unkown Unknown Unknown
2,700 ? 3,500 ? 100 ships ? ? ? ? ?
$249 million $10 million $204 million $75 million ? $340 million ? ? ? ?
TOTAL ESTIMATED VALUE APPROXIMATELY $1 BILLION
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20101 2
* Aquaculture -Salmon of the Americas, Maine 20% of $130 million; Agriculture - Primarily Blueberries – 4-5 million Charlotte County, estimated the same in Washington County, no other products included; Fisheries DFO $173 million Charlotte County (internal source), Washington County unknown. Lobster only $31 Million (DMR); Forestry – Little Sustainable practice. Not included; Research – DFO $40 million building budget, Estimated $30 Million budget of $160 million science budget; Huntsman at about $2 million, ASF at about 4.5 million; Tourism – Estimated at 1/3 of $1.2 billion in New Brunswick = $300 million, Maine about $40 million upriver (SCIWWC) and $10 million estimate for coastal areas.
Today it’s a billion dollar industry!
$1.2 Billion – Province Wide in NB Estimated $300- $400 Million locally
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20103 2
Today, the tourism industry is worth more than a billion dollars in New Brunswick and 8.9 billion dollars in Maine where there are 115,000 jobs.
The traditional fishery has sustained our society for more than 10,000 Years.
It’s worth about $173 million today. Employs 3,500.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20105 2
The local fishery has sustained generation after generation and continues to do so. Today it is worth about $172 million on the Canadian side alone.
Averages $200 - $300 million on the Canadian side alone. Employs 2700.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20100 3
Highly controversial, fish farming began in 1979 on Deer Island and in Eastport in 1981. It has since grown into a major industry that employs large numbers of coastal residents. Salmon pens are located where LNG tankers will need to go.
Vital Ferry Traffic and Small Scale Shipping
Unknown local value
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20102 3
The Quoddy Region has two ports: one at Eastport and another at Bayside. Small scale shipping also occurs from other ports such as Blacks Harbour. Passage of LNG tankers will likely delay access and could lead to loss of business. In addition, several ferries in the area could be delayed on an almost daily basis.
There are Two Proposed Terminal Sites May, 2010
Calais LNG Red Beach Robbinston Downeast LNG Terminal & Tanks
Robbinston Quoddy Bay LNG Tanks
Split Rock, Eastport Quoddy Bay LNG Terminal APPLICATIONNOT ACTIVE
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20104 3
Developer 1 proposed a terminal at Split Rock near Eastport. This proposal appears to have been terminated. Developer 2 proposes a terminal and tanks at Robbinston with a similar or shared pipeline going to Baileyville. Developer 3 proposes LNG terminal and facilities at Red Beach within the city limits of Calais, Maine. The pipeline will go to Baileyville. All tankers going to any of these terminals must pass through sovereign Canadian waters and then pass back and forth across the international boundary as they proceed to their terminals or lay over.
And These Tankers are huge – About the size of the Queen Mary shown here in downtown Bar Harbor (actual photo)
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20106 3
This is an actual photo of the Queen Mary in Bar Harbor. It is huge. Photo Credit: Joyce Morrell
LNG Tanker in Downtown Bar Harbour (simulated).
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20107 3
This is a simulation of an LNG tanker at Bar Harbour. It is only slightly smaller than the Queen Mary. Photo Credit: Joyce Morrell
At about 290 meters, LNG Tankers are slightly smaller than very large Crude Carriers. They require several large tugs to pass through Head Harbour and into Passamaquoddy Bay. LNG Tankers currently under contract will be as large as VLCCs
QE 2 150,000 tons 14 decks above water 1,132 feet long 136 feet wide 33 foot draft 01/06/10
LNG Tanker 130,000 – 150,000 tons 12 stories above water 800 – 1000 feet long 150 – 200 feet wide 40-50 foot draft Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20108 3
The inset photo shows one of the largest coastal freighters currently entering Passamaquoddy Bay and docking at Bayside Port. It is compared with the size of an average simulated LNG tanker.
Exclusion Zone Armed boats prevent boats from entering the exclusion zone.
Exclusion Zone = 2 miles
All activities cease within the exclusion zone during anchorage or passage. Ships are protected by gun boats. 2 Miles ahead 1 Mile behind 500 yards on either side Area may be extended if Terror Alert rises. Arrival is not announced
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20109 3
Armed Guards enforce the exclusion zone around tankers and terminals. Security will be provided by boat and by land-based vehicle; probably on Campobello, at Eastport and along the western shore of Passamaquoddy Bay.
30% – 100% Downtime for the Tourism, Fisheries, Transporation, and Aquaculture Businesses
All activities cease within the exclusion zone. 2- 9 ships per week could pass in and out of Passamaquoddy Bay resulting in potential downtime ranging from 30% – 100% for operators in the passage and terminal areas. Losses will be in the millions Elsewhere, potential layover time to fog during May – October (Green lines show inner and outer daytime limits) could be as high as 20 days/month average.
01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20100 4
As capacity grows, so does the frequency of tankers entering Passamaquoddy Bay. Originally 2-3 tankers per week were predicted. With current proposals this could rise as high as nine tankers per week. This could result in total closure within the excluded areas. Fog data from Gaskin.
• LNG is highly volatile and in the era of terrorism offer opportunities for terrorist strikes on vulnerable energy infrastructure. • A terrorist attack by a boat bomb - such as the one used against the French tanker Limburg off the coast of Yemen in 2002 - could cause at least half a cargo hold's worth of LNG to seep out of the ship and ignite.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20101 4
Sources of LNG
• • • • • • • • • Trinidad and Tobago Indonesia Algeria, Nigeria, Libya Malaysia Australia Alaska Qatar, Oman , United Arab Emirates Russia, soon Iran, soon, worlds second largest supply
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20102 4
Not all potential suppliers are friendly to America.
•In just over 3 minutes, a fire could spread 2/3 of a mile from the ship. •There is nothing safety officials can do in such a case. They would have no time to evacuate people or to put out the fire. •Intense heat within a mile radius of the tanker would set fire to homes and cause significant losses of life and property. •Costs for safety, rescue, and fire services will be large. Each community will have to pay for this upgrade. 01/06/10 Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20104 4
Belgian Gas Explosion - 18 dead, 200 injured Workers Had Reported piercing underground pipeline, Associated Press, Saturday, July 31, 2004
Increased Air Pollution
Current available data show an average of more than 1 ton of Toxic chemicals are released by Industry into the air each day - 2000/01 (Red are cancer causing chemicals)
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20106 4
Currently EPA and Environment Canada data show that during plant operation, approximately a ton of toxicants are released into the air each day, on the average based on available statistics.
Local Water Pollution
Table 8.1 Environmental Releases, Transfers, and Production-Related Waste (Pounds from TRI (total Release Inventory) sources) Year Air Releases Water Releases Land Releases 1988 3,352,445 27,195 0 1989 2,460,654 33,780 0 1990 2,078,702 28,820 0 1991 2,091,422 202,060 139 1992 1,823,063 141,050 91 1993 1,007,585 125,890 5,376 1994 816,266 111,850 10,320 1995 935,755 59,890 9,267 1996 679,577 122,773 4,148 1997 742,305 276,460 67,994 1998 748,905 310,260 128,561 1999 547,477 138,239 109,959 2000 591,556 256,110 58,374
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20107 4
Water Pollution Impacts of releases from tankers, terminal, tugs, escort vessels, dredging is unknown.
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20108 4
Releases from terminals, tugs, escort vessels, and potential dredging are expected to be substantial but are presently unknown. Water needed for regasification may be cooled by 10 degrees. This will have an impact in Passamaquoddy Bay at least in the vicinity of the regasification facility.
A Sustainable Eco-Economy Requires Choices
Copyright Art MacKay, 2005 - 20109 4
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