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Dog’s fertilization is internal.

Gestation in a dog is 63 days in length, if measured

from the day of ovulation. ...Canine sperm can live for 10 to 11 days in the uterine tubes
(fallopian tubes) so if a female is bred 10 days before the oocytes (eggs) can
be fertilized, she will appear to have a gestation length of 70 days.

Stages of growth and development:

 The neonatal stage: Birth to two weeks

 The senses of touch and taste are immediately present after birth.
 The mother has the most influence over the puppy.

 The transitional stage: Two to four weeks

 Mother and littermates continue to influence a puppy’s behavior.

 The sense of hearing and smell develop, eyes open and the teeth begin to
 A puppy begins to stand, walk a little, wag its tail, and bark.
 A puppy’s eyesight is well-developed by the fourth or fifth week.

 The socialization stage: Three to twelve weeks

 A puppy needs occasions to meet other pets and people during this stage.
 By three to five weeks, play becomes important as a puppy becomes aware of
his or her surroundings, companions (both people and dogs), and relationships.
 The influence of the puppy’s littermates increases at four to six weeks as he or
she learns more about being a dog.
 From four to twelve weeks, a puppy’s interaction with people becomes more
influential. With littermates, the puppy learns to play, develops social skills, learns
the inhibited bite, explores his or her social boundaries and hierarchy, and
improves physical coordination.
 By five to seven weeks, a puppy needs positive human interaction as he or she
develops curiosity and explores new experiences.

 A puppy has full use of his or her senses by seven to nine weeks. A puppy is
refining his or her coordination and physical ability, and can begin to be
 At eight to ten weeks, a puppy can experience real fear involving everyday
objects and experiences. During this stage, a puppy needs support and positive
 Enhancing responses, advancing social skills with littermates (proper contact),
and investigating the surroundings and items takes place from nine to twelve
weeks. This is a good time to begin elementary training as a puppy will begin to
focus on people.

 The ranking stage: Three to six months

 Ranking (dominance and submission) within the household or “pack,” including

people, is seen and used by a puppy in this stage.
 A puppy’s play group, which may now include those of other species, becomes
influential in his or her life.
 Teething and chewing begins.
 A puppy experiences another fear stage at four months of age, so be prepared
with positive reinforcement and introductions to objects and situations.

 The adolescence stage: Six to eighteen months

 A puppy is most affected by human and dog “pack” members.

 A puppy may challenge people as part of exploring his or her dominance in the
 At seven to nine months, a puppy will begin exploring more of his or her territory,
prompting a second chewing phase.
 A puppy will experience the beginnings of sexual behavior if not spayed or

Cat’s fertilization is internal. Feline reproduction is quite a unique process.
Female cats are capable of induced ovulation. The female does not ovulate until the
backward pointing spines on the male's penis stimulate the vagina. A single litter of
kittens can have different fathers due to this phenomena. The process of mating is
likewise noisy. The female's cries can be very disturbing if you don't know what they are.

Growth and Development

 Giving birth
After covering, the female cat’s gestation lasts 63 to 66 days on average. A few days
before giving birth, the female cat, anxious, looks for a quiet place, sheltered from light,
where she’ll be able to make her nest. A plastic box the bottom of which has been
covered up with clean pieces of fabric, placed in the bottom of a wardrobe, for instance,
will be likely to be chosen, provided that she may lie down comfortably there with her
little ones. The calm and reassuring presence of her owner is important at that time.
Sharp contractions of the uterus lead to the birth of each kitten, at intervals of about 30
to 60 minutes. The female tears open the amniotic sac and draws out the head of the
newborn, warming him up and stimulating his breathing with intense licking. The litter
may be composed of 1 to 10 kittens (extremes being exceptional) weighing 70 to 150
grams each on average, depending on the breed.
 His first four weeks
As soon as the umbilical cord has been cut, the kitten, cleaned up by his mother, then
crawls to one of her teats, guided by the warmth and smell of the maternal belly. His first
feeds do not give him milk yet, but colostrum. This liquid whose aspect and composition
differ from that of milk contains the numerous antibodies which are essential to ensure
his first immune defenses.
Sucking and sleeping at the contact of his mother and of his siblings are the kitten’s only
activities during these very first days. Completely dependent upon his mother, his
struggle for life has already begun as he tries to appropriate the best possible teat.
Being blind and deaf, his most developed senses are his sense of smell (olfaction) and
his sense of touch. His sense of hearing is functional as early as his 5th day of age.
Between 7 and 15 days of age, he opens up his eyes. He may orient himself with his
sense of hearing from his 14th day of age. Around his 17th day of age, he starts to walk
on his four legs. At 1 month of age, he is able to orient himself by the sounds, lights and
 From preweaning to weaning
After the colostrum received during the first hours of his life, the kitten sucks maternal
milk. In the event of a large litter, of the female cat’s lactation being insufficient or of his
being separated from his mother, you shall have recourse to appropriate formula milk.

At 7 or 8 weeks of age, the kitten is weaned. After 4 months of age, a 2nd Stage Health
Nutrition food formulated for his growth from 4 to 12 months of age may take over.

Chicken reproduce through internal fertilization. A rooster fertilizes the unlaid

eggs by mating with the female. Chickens come in two sexes, roosters or cocks
and hens. The rooster inseminates the hen, who then produces fertilized eggs. She
lays the eggs and, if allowed to sit on them, will sit for 21 days more or less, at which
time the eggs hatch out chicks.It is a known fact that hens lay eggs. However, what is
not very well known is that hens can lay eggs with or without the presence of a rooster.
For the eggs to be fertilized, the hen and rooster must mate first, and this process must
occur prior to the formation of the egg.

Six Milestones of Chicken Growth Stages

 Weeks 1-4: Baby chicks. Start your birds strong by providing a complete starter-
grower feed with at least 18 percent protein to support chick growth. ...
 Weeks 5-15: The teenage bird stage. ...
 Weeks 16-17: Eggticipation. ...
 Week 18: The first egg. ...
 Month 18: Molting. ...
 Retirement.

Cows reproduce through internal fertilization.

Growth and Development

At birth a calf lives off of milk. Weaning happens anywhere from 10 weeks to 8
months depending upon them being dairy or beef animal. Puberty happens for both
males and females at about a year. Males that will become herd bulls will breed
anywhere from 15–40 cows per breeding season. Most bull age out at about 8 years old
and weigh up to 2,000#. Females will have their first calf at 2 years of age, and can
have a calf each year. Dairy cows live to about 5–7 years old, at which time they are
slaughtered for their meat. Beef breed cows may live to be 8–10 years old. Cattle
destined for slaughter for beef are usually slaughtered at 14–16 months.

Reproduction in Fishes. Nearly all fish reproduce by sexual reproduction -

the fusion of sperm produced from testes and eggs produced from ovaries. ...
Fertilization is external in most fish species. Large quantities of eggs and sperm are
simultaneously released into the water by females and males. In some fishes the eggs
are fertilized internally but are shed before development takes place.

Growth and Development

In general, however, fish progress through the following life cycle stages: Eggs:
Fertilized eggsdevelop into fish. Most eggs do not survive to maturity even under the
best conditions. ... When the yolk sac is fully absorbed, the young fish are called fry.

Like all reptiles, saltwater crocodiles reproduce via internal fertilization, and
females carefully look over their nests after laying a clutch of approximately 50 eggs. ...
Cooler nests produce mostly females, while warmer nests produce mostly males.

Growth and Development

Crocodiles lay 10 to 60 eggs at a time. The hatchlings stay in their eggs for 55 to
110 days. They are 7 to 10 inches (17.8 to 25.4 centimeters) long when they are born
and don't mature until they are 4 to 15 years. How long a crocodile lives depends on its
species. Some only live to around 30 years, while others live up to 75 years.

Lizard reproduces through internal fertilizations.

Lizards do no have stages in life, and unlike humans

which develop, lizards experience growth. Lizard's life cycle mainly consist of an egg,
a baby lizard, a juvenile lizard, and an adult lizard.

Typically, frogs lay eggs. This process usually occurs through external fertilization,
where the female releases her eggs from her body into water. Then, the male releases
his sperm to fertilize them. However, a few species of frog use internal fertilization

Growth and Development

Egg - Tiny frog eggs are laid in masses in the water by a female frog. The eggs hatch
into tadpoles.
Tadpole - (also called the polliwog) This stage hatches from the egg. The tadpole
spends its time swimming in the water, eating and growing. Tadpoles breathe using gills
and have a tail.
Tadpole with legs - In this stage the tadpole sprouts legs (and then arms), has a longer
body, and has a more distinct head. It still breathes using gills and has a tail.
Froglet - In this stage, the almost mature frog breathes with lungs and still has some of
its tail.
Adult - The adult frog breathes with lungs and has no tail (it has been absorbed by the

Horse reproduces through internal fertilizations.

Growth and Development

Mares, or female horses, typically experience seasonal estrous cycles, going into
heat in late spring or early summer. If breeding is successful, the mare carries her baby
for about 11 months, or an average of 335 days. The foal develops a heartbeat around
day 23. After about 150 days of pregnancy, the placenta is fully formed around the baby.
A mare spends about an hour in labor, on average, then lies down to deliver the foal.
The foal begins to stand and walk within minutes of birth.

Birds reproduce by internal fertilization, during which the egg is fertilized inside
the female. Like reptiles, birds have cloaca, or a single exit and entrance for sperm,
eggs, and waste. The male brings his sperm to the female cloaca.

Growth and Development

Eagles are from the same taxonomic family as another common bird of prey, the hawk.
While the bald eagle is well known as a symbol of the United States, the golden eagle,
found in North America, Europe, North Africa and Asia, is the most widespread variety
and a good one to consider when studying the life cycle of an eagle. While the feeding
habits of these two species differ slightly, they are very similar in how they mate and
raise their young.
The Egg
Eagles build their nests, or eyries, atop tall trees, high cliffs and bluffs. The female
usually lays a clutch of two eggs, though she can lay as many as four. She incubates
the eggs for about 40 days by sitting on the nest to keep them warm. Depending upon
the climate, incubation can range from 30 to 50 days. Peter Nye, writing about bald
eagles in The Journey North, says that males may incubate the eggs too. More
commonly, the male takes part in this life cycle stage by catching small mammals to
feed to the nesting female.
The newly hatched eaglet's survival depends on its place in the pecking order. After
emerging from its egg covered in white fluff, the helpless hatchling is completely
dependent upon its mother for food. It weighs about three ounces (85 grams). The first
hatchling to emerge from its egg has an age and size advantage over the others in the
nest. It grows stronger faster and can compete more successfully for food. Later
hatching eaglets may starve if they are not feisty enough to compete.

An elephant uses the internal fertilization as the male elephant mounts the female.

Growth and Development

Days below are post-ovulatory.

50 days - embryonic vesicle earliest observation
62 days - embryo detectable
71 days - embryonic heartbeat and allantois visible as a single sacculation
76 days - allantois subdivided in four compartments
95 days - head, rump, front and hind legs distinguishable
95 to 103 days - choriovitelline placenta was replaced by the chorioallantoic placenta
95 to 116 days - midgut herniation

Bears have a cool internal thing called “delayed implantation” which allows the
female to hold off fertilization of the egg until a later date and time the birth of her cubs
to happen during hibernation where they will be born in a safe and warm
place. Bear cubs are born helpless.

Growth and Development

Bears can weigh 150-200 pounds at the end of their first year of life. They reach
sexual maturity between 4 and 5 years and are considered fully grown by 8 to 10 years
of age (Brown 1993, p 139). ... Making a Living: In general, bears will flee as soon as
they detect humans.

Lion’s fertilization is internal.

Growth and Development

Day 1 Cubs are 1 - 2kg at birth, they are blind and helpless.

Day 3 - 11 Their eyes open but vision is little more than a blur for another week.

Day 10 - 15
Cub starts to walk.

The milk teeth erupt; the canines come first with the back teeth a few
Day 21 - 30
weeks later.

Day 25 - 30 The cubs are able to run

Cubs come out of hiding and are capable of the full repertoire of lion calls
Month 1 - 2
except roaring.

Able to keep up with the pride and start to observe prey movements.
Month 2 -3
Weaning starts.

The cubs are weaned but remain dependent on their mother until month
Month 6 - 10
16, or even later.

Eruption of permanent teeth begins but may take some months to

Month 9 - 12
complete the process. Cubs start to take part in hunts.

Month 12 - 24 Cubs make their first kills, usually on small or injured animals.

Month 24 - 27
Both males and females become sexually mature.

Young males are pushed out of the pride. Young females unable to stand
Year 2 - 3
up to pride adults may also be forced to leave

Year 3 - 4 Reach adult size

Year 4 Females have given birth to their first surviving litter

Year 4 - 5 Males take over a pride tenure

Year 7 Weight peaks, mane reaches fullest extent

Males ousted from their pride quickly die but may survive until c. 14 - 16
Year 10
years if part of a strong coalition

Year 11 Female breeding starts to reduce

Year 10 - 15 Females die but may survive until c. 15 - 18 years

Monkey’s fertilization is internal.

The reproduction process can be full of rituals for the Monkey. Those rituals will
depend on the species though. They generally will become mature between 4 and 5
years of age. The females are attracted to the biggest and strongest males. Those are
going to be the leaders of the group. They are the only ones that will breed within that
group. This is why there can be plenty of conflict in a group of Monkeys. The males may
fight with each other to be the dominant one. Males may leave a group when they
mature to go create their own that they will be in charge of. A lone male may challenge
the leader of a given group and then take over if he winds.

Growth and Development

The gestation period is about six months, and females will typically give birth only
once every two years. The howler monkey life cycle looks like this: fetus->baby-
>immatureadult->mature adult. In the wild, howler monkeys usually live about 15-20
years, though they can live up to 25 years.

Unlike a majority of fish that release eggs and sperm into the water for external
fertilization, sharks fertilize their eggs internally. A major disadvantage ofinternal
fertilization is the limitation on the number of young one can have at one time because
growing young internally takes up space.

Growth and Development

Eyes Open to Development of Baby Sharks. Baby sharks grow slowly, changing
their fins as they grow and can see a month before they leave their eggs, according UQ
research. ... Warmer temperatures sped up growth with one bamboo sharkhatched at
101 days.

Submitted by:
Grade V- Mars Pupil

Submitted to:
Subject Teacher


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