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Adler, Richard P.

; And Others
This report summarizes the present state of knowledge about the effects of television advertising
on children. After a discussion of children's television viewing patterns, the report reviews the
existing research relevant to such issues as children's ability to distinguish commercials from
program material; the influence of format and audiovisual techniques on children's perceptions of
commercials; the effects of characters in commercials, self-concept appeals, premium offers,
food advertising, the volume and repetition of commercials, and medicine advertising; violence
and unsafe acts in commercials directed to children; the effects of television advertising on
consumer socialization; and television advertising and parent/child relations.
E. Hitchings and P. J. Moynihan
A relationship was found between the foods for which the children could remember the
advertisement and the number of these foods which the child ate (r=0.58). For individual food
groups the relationship between foods remembered and foods consumed was strongest for soft
drinks (r=0.68) and crisps and savoury snacks (r=0.61). Four out of 10 of the most frequently
requested foods were amongst the 10 most frequently recalled television food advertisements.
Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that television advertisements influence food choice.
Donkin, A.J.M., Tilston, C.H., Neale, R.J. and Gregson, K., “Children’s
food preferences: television advertising versus nutritional advice”,
British FoodJournal, Vol. 94 No. 9,1992, pp. 6-9
It concluded that 39 per cent of the products requested by the children had been advertised in the
six-month period prior to the survey and that “in some cases” the frequency of requests for types
of products was significantly related to the intensity of the advertising campaigns.This result
should not be taken as evidence that advertising causes purchase requests, and the well-known
adage that “correlation does not imply causality” can be cited, as one is unable to establish
whether the relationship (if one indeed exists) between purchase requests by children of various
food types and the advertising of different foods to children is a consequence of the child
responding to adver-tising or the advertiser responding to the wants of the child market.
Bolton[ 171
used a mathematical modelbased on multivariate analysis to estimate the power of television
food advertising relative toother variables such as the kind of supervisionand behaviour of the
parents, and the prevail-ing patterns of diet and other characteristicsof the child. She concluded
that such advertis-ing had a small and relatively insignificanteffect on nuuitional and physical
wellbeing.In conclusion, there is evidence that theadvertising of food products, such as cereals,to
children will produce a short-term effect sothat children will tend to want that brand andchoose
that brand. There is also evidence forlinkage between the presence of brands ofcereals in the
household and the extent towhich the child has viewed commercials forthese brands. All of these
studies are fromNorth America
Dr. A Sivakumar and Mr. K.Manoj
From the study it is concluded that the junk food is consumed by the teenagers because of its taste,
variety etc., and they are partially aware about the junk food safety level and nutrient factors. They think
that the junk food is good but fattening. The television advertisement helps to attract the teenagers and
play an important role in the buying behaviour of teenagers. As the price of some junk food like fries,
soft drinks etc., is low compared to fresh juices and healthy foods due to low price also the teenagers
preferring junk food. And the future trend for the junk food is increasing day by day as it is liked by most
teenagers and children’s

Gregory M. Rose, Altaf Merchant, and Aysen Bakir (2012)


Revealed that the use and effects of fantasy in food advertising targeting children. A content analysis
documented the prevalence of fantasy appeals, including fantasies that center on product ingredients,
animals, and adventures. Viewer’s responses to health food advertisements revealed substantial
variability in their understanding of advertising, inference of manipulative intent, and use of persuasion
knowledge. An experiment shows imagination was associated with positive attitudes toward an
advertisement when perceived manipulative intent was low and negative evaluations when perceived
manipulative intent was high.
Bilal Mustafa Khan and Saima Khan (2013)
raveled that the effect of humorous advertising on brand recognition by consumers. For this purpose,
four brands were selected, namely, Fevicol, Cadbury Chocolate, Karrbon Mobiles and Coca- Cola. For
each 21 brand, two television commercials were chosen, ensuring that one is humorous and the other
non-humorous. So, in all, eight television commercials were shown to audience and their responses were
suggested that humor is an essential ingredient of an advertisement and has profound effect on building
brand recognition. This could be conditional by comparing the results of the same brand. Humorous
advertisements were found to be more effective than non-humorous advertisements. Thus, it can be
secondary that humor should be used in advertising as it leads to positive brand recognition.
Dr. Kadambini Katke (2007) found that children are especially vulnerable to persuasive messages.
Advertisers of children's television used to appeal to the parents but now they appeal directly to children
-- who do not have the emotional or cognitive tools to evaluate what is being sold to them. They are a
showcase for "must have" items that parents expected to buy, teaching our children to become
consumers before they have even reached the age of three. The study explored relation between
television advertising and its influence on child health and family spending, based on entertainment and
spending television hours to watch their preferred channel or program.
A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING KIDS PREFERENCES REGARDING CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS Maithili
R. P. Singh* & Tika Ram**
Majority of kids start buying confectionary products below 5 years of age. They are less concerned about
international brands of confectionary products. National brands are patronized and wafers are most liked
by kids. Teeth trouble is the most acknowledged after effect of consuming confectionary products. Free
Gifts has been found the most effective sales promotion tool for them. Taste and Shape of confectionary
products are the most and least preferred respectively in their buying decisions.

Impact of TV Advertisement on Children Attitude in Karachi Shaista Kamal Khan*, Sheheryar Syed**
The researcher discussed the impact of TV advertisement on children attitude in Karachi of the age of
10-15. Data which gathered it shows that children are very much aware about the products and they
compare different products TV advertisement. Advertisement is the main purpose which not only
changes the behavior regarding TV commercials it also change their buying behavior. The researcher
used Rosster’s Likert-scale to evaluate the attitude of children’s toward advertisement. Children are very
much aware about the good and bad aspects of TV advertisements. In this research study researcher
found out six variables (poor taste, annoy, reality, good only, different and attract me). In this research
the result show that depict is the most important factor that highly influence on children attitude
towards TV advertisement. Marketer or advertising agencies should understand the psychic of children
before launching any TV advertisement. So for the advertisers it’s necessary to not ignore children
because they are the important content of their advertising campaigns. It is also clear that if
advertisements are created professionally they can be a good effective media for conveying the message
in a child segment. Lastly advertisers are required to focus on the content of the advertisement, they can
not only rely on comic and colors in the children related advertisement, over promising in the
advertisement campaign must be avoided by them.