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LIFE AND WORKS OF

robert merton
émile durkheim
David Émile Durkheim was a French
sociologist and is considered one of the
most great minds of modern social
science.

His works focus primarily on humane


order—integrity and coherence—of the
20th century and how it is maintained.

He was born on April 15, 1858 and died by


a stroke on November 15, 1917 (59 years
old).

émile durkheim
background

Émile Durkheim was born into a Jewish


family. As a child, he lived a pretty modest
lifestyle. In his teen years, following his
father’s death, he became a more
discipline individual. During this time, he
attended Lycée Louis le Grand where his
intellect was recognized and given
attention.
background
After his third attempt, Durkheim finally
got accepted by École Normale
Supérieure, one the most competitive
universities in Paris, in 1879.
He was interested mostly on social norms
and behavior.

His influencers during this stage was


Auguste Comte (The Course in Positive
Philosophy) and Herbert Spencer (Social
Statics).
background
Later on he developed an interest on the
application of scientific theories on society
that eventually ended up in the
development of social science.

After finishing college in 1882, he thought


philosophy on several provincial schools
for 5 years.

In 1885, he left for Germany. In Leipzig, he


learned to appreciate logic and order
especially empiricism.
career
works
1893 De La Division du Travill
Sociale (The Social Division of
Labour)
1897 Le Suicide (The Suicide)
1912 Les Forms Elementaries
de La-yie Religiouse (The
Elementary Forms of religious
life)
1922 Education at Sociology
(Education and Sociology)
career
Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
1893 De La Division du Travill that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
Sociale (The Social Division of
Labour) Durkheim believed that there are four major
forms of suicide:
1897 Le Suicide (The Suicide)
Egoistic Suicide — happens when a person
1912 Les Forms Elementaries thinks that he or she does not belong to a
de La-yie Religiouse (The larger unit of the society.
Elementary Forms of religious
life) Altruistic Suicide — happens when a person
deems it necessary for the sake of others.
1922 Education at Sociology (Harakiri)
(Education and Sociology)
career
Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
1893 De La Division du Travill that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
Sociale (The Social Division of
Labour) Durkheim believed that there are four major
forms of suicide:
1897 Le Suicide (The Suicide)
Anomic Suicide — happens when a person
1912 Les Forms Elementaries experiences a huge devastating change in their
de La-yie Religiouse (The life.
Elementary Forms of religious
life) Fatalistic Suicide Suicide — happens when a
person no longer feels in control of his or her
1922 Education at Sociology life.
(Education and Sociology)
career Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
1893 De La Division du Travill
Sociale (The Social Division of Durkheim analyzed these situations and came
Labour) up with a systemized reasoning.

1897 Le Suicide (The Suicide)


Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
1912 Les Forms Elementaries Suicide Suicide
de La-yie Religiouse (The
Elementary Forms of religious
Egoistic Anomic
life) Suicide Suicide
1922 Education at Sociology LOW
(Education and Sociology) Integration Regulation
career Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
that suicide is an act influenced by the society.

Durkheim analyzed these situations and came


Integration here refers to the
up with a systemized reasoning.
strength of the attachment that we
have to society whereas regulation
refers to the degree of external Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
constraint on people. Suicide Suicide

Now, lets try to analyze


Egoistic Anomic
them using the infographic. Suicide Suicide
LOW
Integration Regulation
career
Integration here refers to the Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
strength of the attachment that we work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
have to society whereas regulation that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
refers of the degree of external Durkheim analyzed these situations and came
constraint on people. up with a systemized reasoning.
A highly integrated person is
Now, lets involved
extremely try to thus
analyzed them
demonstrates
using the infographic.
a deeper commitment to the society. Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
The person feels that what he/she Suicide Suicide
does directly affects his/her peers.
That is why sometimes, people who
commit this form of suicide is a part of Egoistic Anomic
group like a soldier or police officer. Suicide Suicide
LOW
Integration Regulation
career
Integration here refers to the Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
strength of the attachment that we work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
have to society whereas regulation that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
refers of the degree of external Durkheim analyzed these situations and came
constraint on people. up with a systemized reasoning.
A person who’s not full integrated to
Now,
societyletsthinks
try to
thatanalyzed
he/she them
is not
using the infographic.
significant and different. This feeling is Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
what most people call self-loathing. Suicide Suicide
They think that alive or dead, nobody
would care.
Egoistic Anomic
Suicide Suicide
LOW
Integration Regulation
career
Integration here refers to the Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
strength of the attachment that we work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
have to society whereas regulation that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
refers of the degree of external Durkheim analyzed these situations and came
constraint on people. up with a systemized reasoning.
A person who’s not in control of his or
Now, lets try to
her behavior or analyzed
to the them
highest
using the infographic.
degree—life—feels that he or she is Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
unable to affect change in his/her life Suicide Suicide
and no longer feels empowered. An
example of this is an OFW worker
who’s often abused by his/her boss. Egoistic Anomic
Suicide Suicide
LOW
Integration Regulation
career
Integration here refers to the Le Suicide is Durkheim’s most controversial
strength of the attachment that we work. Throughout the paper, he strongly argued
have to society whereas regulation that suicide is an act influenced by the society.
refers of the degree of external Durkheim analyzed these situations and came
constraint on people. up with a systemized reasoning.
A person who is not aware of the
Now, letspossibilities
different try to analyzed
that may them
occur in
using the infographic.
their environment has a low tendency Altruistic HIGH Fatalistic
of acceptance. And when they cannot Suicide Suicide
take huge changes anymore, they end
up devasted and incapable of
recovering. Egoistic Anomic
Suicide Suicide
LOW
Integration Regulation
LIFE AND WORKS OF
robert merton
émile durkheim
Robert King Merton was an American sociologist. He is
considered a founding father of modern sociology and
an expert in criminology.

His works focus primarily on the relationship of


expectation and reality.

He was born on July 4, 1910 and died of old age on


February 23, 2003 (92 years old).

robert merton
background

After receiving a Ph.D. from Harvard


University in 1936, he taught in few
universities and ended with a tenure in
Columbia University where he was deemed
Giddings Professor of Sociology in 1963.
background
He served as associate director of the
university’s Bureau of Applied Social
Research (1942–71), which had opened
under the direction of Paul Lazarsfeld one
year before Merton’s arrival.

He and Lazarsfeld were like-minded and


got along easily. They collaborated and
worked together with Merton’s knowledge
on historical studies and Lazarsfeld’s
expertise on logic.
career
background
works
Theories of the middle range
Strain Theory
Clarifying functional analysis
On the Shoulders of Giants
Dysfunctions
Functional alternatives
Sociology of science
Unanticipated consequences and
manifest and latent functions
Theory of deviance

Institutionalized Means
Accept Reject

Accept Conformity Innovation

Reject Ritualism Retreatism New Means


Cultural Goals
Rebellion
New Goals
Theory of deviance

This theory is crime-inspired. This


was analyzed through the
“American dream” principle. It
shows the relationship of the action
(to attain the goal) and the society’s
take on it.

The beauty of this theory is that


it can be applied to any
sociological situation. However,
this is best observed in
criminology, money attainment
specifically.
Theory of deviance

Example
Situation:
Money Attainment

Conformity: Working to provide


and support luxury
Innovation: Theft or scamming
Ritualism: Working to survive
Retreaters: Unemployment
Rebellion: Having an unstable
job
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/the-contribution-of-emile-
durkheim-towards-sociology-1198-words/6250
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile_Durkheim
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emile-Durkheim
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_K._Merton
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-K-Merton

sources