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Satellite Engineering

PROBA Family

Julien Tallineau
A presentation to: ULg

Ir. Julien Tallineau


09/12/2013 Satellite System Engineer
Tel: +32 3 250 14 14 (general)
Tel: +32 3 250 43 43 (direct)
Fax:+32 3 253 14 64
Julien.tallineau@qinetiq.be

© Copyright QinetiQ Limited 2012 QinetiQ Proprietary


1
0 TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PROBA APPROACH

3. PROBA SATELLITE

4. PROBA CASE STUDY

5. CONCLUSION & OPPORTUNITIES

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1 INTRODUCTION

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What is a small satellite for the industry?

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1 INTRODUCTION

What is a small satellite for the industry?

ANSWER = A product you can sell for a given price to a customer!

NB: “small” satellite does not have so much of a meaning for industry because they classify their
platform not with respect to mass but with respect to application (Sun Imaging, Earth Imaging,
…) or product line (P-100; P-200; P-500)

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1 INTRODUCTION

What is the price of small satellite?

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1 INTRODUCTION

What is the price of small satellite?

ANSWER = Varies from 5M€ up to 300M€

NB: one shot satellite like Hubble or SOHO is not interesting for the industry.

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1 INTRODUCTION

How much profit do you make?

ANSWER FOR ESA = 8% Profit is allowed by ESA

NB: one shot satellite like Hubble or SOHO is not interesting for the industry.

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1 INTRODUCTION

How much profit do you make?

ANSWER FOR COMMERCIAL CUSTOMER = Easily 20%


with good negociation skills, political environment and the competitor prices

NB: one shot satellite like Hubble or SOHO is not interesting for the industry.

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1 INTRODUCTION

Mandatory ECSS

Usefull ECSS

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1 INTRODUCTION

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1 INTRODUCTION

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1 INTRODUCTION

Satellite Engineering
1. Customer Need (Scientist)
2. Creation of System Requirements
3. Phase 0 (CDF Study)
4. Phase A (Feasibility Study)
5. Phase B (Preliminary Design)
6. Phase C (Final Design)
7. Phase D (Manufacturing / Testing)
8. Phase E (Launch / Commissionning & Operations)
9. Phase F (De-orbiting)

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Satellite Engineering
1. Customer Need (Scientist)

2. Creation of System Requirements

3. Phase 0 (CDF Study)

4. Phase A (Feasibility Study)

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Satellite Engineering
5. Phase B (Preliminary Design)
• Detailed System Analysis
• Preliminary Subsystem Analysis
• Trade-offs

6. Phase C (Final Design)


• Detailed Subsystem Analysis
• Procurement
• Qualification Testing

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1 INTRODUCTION

Satellite Engineering
7. Phase D
• Manufacturing
• Acceptance Testing
• Requirement Verification
• Shipment to Launch site

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1 INTRODUCTION

Satellite Engineering
8. Phase E
• Launch
• Commissionning
• Operations

9. Phase F (De-orbiting/End of Life)


• None in this case

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2 PROBA APPROACH

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2 PROBA APPROACH

PROBA Philosophy
• PRoject for On-Board
Autonomy (PROBA)

• Missions
− In Orbit Demonstration PROBA-1 PROBA-2
− Earth Observation

• ESA Low Cost Platform

PROBA-V PROBA-ALTIUS

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2 PROBA APPROACH

LightSat Approach
• In-Orbit Demonstration (IOD) aiming at
- Demonstrating new techniques that could lead to new space system
- Reduced cost

• Drastic reduction of the number of requirements

• Keep the system as simple as possible with only limited inter-dependencies

• Accept higher level of risk

• MAXIMUM RE-USE

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Satellite Engineering Tools


1. Requirement Management Tool (DOORS)

2. Mission Analysis Tool (MATLAB)


• Orbit propagator (J2, Drag, Third Body, SRP)
• Attitude Control (Magnetic, Nadir, Sun, Target)
• Incoming fluxes
• Ground Stations Visibility
• In orbit Maintenance
• In orbit Manoeuvring

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Satellite Engineering Tools


1. Thermal Analysis Tool (ESATAN-TMS)

2. Configuration Tool (IRON-CAD/PRO-E)


• IRON-CAD allows for fast iteration
• PRO-E is similar to CATIA

3. Structural Analysis Tool (NASTRAN)

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3 PROBA SATELLITES
• PROBA – 1
• PROBA – 2
• PROBA – 3
• PROBA – ALTIUS
• PROBA – V
• PROBA – IT
• VIETNAM – SAT

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3 PROBA SATELLITES
• PROBA – 1
• PROBA – 2
• PROBA – 3
• PROBA – ALTIUS
• PROBA – V
• PROBA – IT
• VIETNAM – SAT

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PROBA – 1 Mission

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Mission
1. In-orbit demonstration and evaluation of new hardware/software spacecraft
technologies and onboard operational autonomy

2. Obrital Parameter

3. Injection Parameter

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Mission
1. RAAN selected for 10:00 Local Time Descending Node.

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Mission
1. Launcher is PSLV
• Nominal separation rate of 2° per sec.
• Worst Case separation rate of 8° per sec.
• Inclination accuracy of 0.2°
• Altitude accuracy of 35km

2. Radiations of 9 krad for 3 years mission


• Solar maximum is considered
• 3.5mm of Aluminium considered

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Mission
1. Ground segment visibility (REDU)
• 30% of all orbits have contact with the ground station (duration > 0 minutes)
• 21.23 more than 6 minutes
• 10.88% more than 8 minutes
• The longest time between two passes
over the ground station is 11hr 44 min

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Mission
1. Scenario
• Launch and Early Operation Phase (LEOP)
− Boot after separation & De-tumbling
− First Ground Contact + AOCS/GPS switched ON

• Commissioning (two months)


− Nominal Autonomy
− High Flexibility
• Nominal Operations
− High Autonomy

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Satellite Design - Configuration


1. Single H Structure

2. High Unit Density

3. Body Mounted Solar Panel

4. Cut out in panels:


• Star-Trackers
• Instruments

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Satellite Design - Structure


1. Honeycomb panels
• Aluminium core
• Aluminium edge
• Alumiunium facesheet (Primary structure)
• CFRP facesheet (Secondary structure)

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Satellite Design - Mechanics


1. Spacecraft Mass = 95 kg

2. Balance Mass of 2.5kg for


CoG Location Requirement

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Satellite Design - Power


1. Power budget approach could be:
• Rely on Solar Array (SA) in Sun and on Battery in Eclipse
• Rely on both Battery and SA when available.

2. Power budget is positive, independently of the scenario.

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Satellite Design – RF COM


1. Downlink (S-Band)
• Flux margin of 7dB (@max rate = 1Mbps)
• Flux margin of - 2dB (@min rate = 250kbps)
• Telemetry Recovery margin of 8dB

2. Uplink (S-Band)
• Carrier Recovery margin of 26dB
• Telecommand Recovery margin of 17dB

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Satellite Design – Thermal


1. Passive thermal control
• Thermal Blankets + MLI
• Black paint (internal panel+electronic box)

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Satellite Design – Data & memory


1. One Image sequence can be stored before next downlink
• Mass Memory size = 1Gbit
• Image sequence size = 5 image x 19 spectral lines x 742 spatial lines x 9 kbit/line
= 665 Mbit.

2. Data downlinked = 1140Mbit every 12 hours


• Max data rate
• Time ≈ 1300sec (Total Ground Visibility)

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GPS RX

27 000 km
23 000 km

25 000 km

⇒ Position determination

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Magnetometer (2)

Measure continuously the


Earth Magnetic field and
determine itselve where the North is.

⇒ Position determination

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Star-Tracker (3)
•Takes pictures of stars
• Compare it with its internat catalog.
• Compute the satellite orientation/position

⇒ Orientation/Position

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Magnetotorquer (4)
N
Z

Z
• Magnetic Coil
• Align itself to Magnetic lines

⇒ Orientation/Manoeuvre

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Rection Wheel (4)

Accelerates or decelerates while


momentum conservation implies the
PROBA to rotate the other way.
⇒ Orientation/Manoeuvre

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Guidance
= determination of the desired path of
travel from the satellite's current
location to a designated target GPS
Receiver
2. Navigation AOCS Software
Reaction
Head Wheels (4)
Star Tracker - Navigation
= determination of the satellite’s Head (2) - Guidance
location, velocity and attitude - Control Magneto-
torquers (4)
Magneto-
3. Control meters (2)

= manipulation of the forces needed to


track guidance commands while
maintaining satellite stability

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Satellite Design – AOCS ( Pointing Modes)

Inertial Pointing Earth Pointing Point and Stare Scanning Modes


• Inertial pointing • On-track • On-track • Motion compensation
• Sun Pointing • Off-track • Off-track • Multiple scans
Utilisation: Utilisation: Utilisation:
• Astronomy • Earth Observation • High Resolution
• Solar Physics • Telecommunications Imaging
• Space Weather • Elevation Modeling
• Disaster Monitoring

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Specifications Errors at 95% confidence level
Absolute Pointing Error (APE) 100 arcsec
Relative Pointing Error (RPE) 5 arcsec over 10 s

Absolute Measurement Error (AME) 10 arcsec

2. AOCS SW Modes
• Quiscient Quiscient Mode
• Magnetic - No AOCS
- Most units are OFF
• Celestial
• Terrestrial

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Specifications Errors at 95% confidence level
Absolute Pointing Error (APE) 100 arcsec
Relative Pointing Error (RPE) 5 arcsec over 10 s

Absolute Measurement Error (AME) 10 arcsec

2. AOCS SW Modes
• Quiscient Magnetic Mode
• Magnetic - Sensor: magnetometer
- Actuator: magnetotorquers + 1 RW stby (momentum bias)
• Celestial
- Guidance: No
• Terrestrial - Navigation: No
- Control: Bdot Algorithms (Kinetic Energy Dumping)

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Specifications Errors at 95% confidence level
Absolute Pointing Error (APE) 100 arcsec
Relative Pointing Error (RPE) 5 arcsec over 10 s

Absolute Measurement Error (AME) 10 arcsec

2. AOCS SW Modes
• Quiscient Celestial Mode
• Magnetic - Sensor: Star-tracker + Magnetic mode sensors
- Actuator: Reaction Wheels + Magnetic mode actuatord
• Celestial
- Guidance: Sun pointing, Inertial pointing
• Terrestrial - Navigation: Attitude and Orbit evaluator (Kalman Filter)
- Control: State feedback, PID, angular momentum control

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Specifications Errors at 95% confidence level
Absolute Pointing Error (APE) 100 arcsec
Relative Pointing Error (RPE) 5 arcsec over 10 s

Absolute Measurement Error (AME) 10 arcsec

2. AOCS SW Modes
• Quiscient Terrestrial Mode
• Magnetic - Sensor: GPS + celestial mode sensors
- Actuator: Same as Celestial mode
• Celestial
- Guidance: Nadir, Fixed-target pointing, Imaging scans
• Terrestrial - Navigation: Same as Celestial mode
- Control: Same as Celestial mode

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Launched on the 22/10/2001 from India

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LEOP Activities
1. Rotating Energy is dissipitated progressively using the magneto-torquers.
1,4E-02

1,2E-02
Square angular rate (rad/sec) 2

1,0E-02

8,0E-03
Five hours
6,0E-03 to detumble!

4,0E-03

2,0E-03

0,0E+00
0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00

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Normal Operations Activities

Ile de Ré,
France

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Normal Operations Activities

Etna eruption,
Sicily, 20.10.2002

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Normal Operations Activities

North Sentinel Island


India, 29.05.06

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Normal Operations Activities

Palm Island
Dubai

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PROBA – 2 Mission

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Mission
1. In orbit Demonstration, PROBA-2 aimed at technological innovation.

Altogether, 17 new technological developments and four scientific


experiments are being flown on Proba-2.

2. Orbital Parameter

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Mission
1. RAAN selected for 6:00 AM Local Time Ascending Node

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Mission
1. Launcher is Rockot
• Worst Case separation rate of 8° per sec.
• Inclination accuracy of 0.05°
• Altitude accuracy of 12km
• RAAN accuracy of 3.75° (≈15min LT)

2. Injected via the Breeze upper stage

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Mission

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Mission
1. Ground segment visibility
• REDU
• KIROUNA

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Mission
1. Scenario
• LEOP
• Commissioning (three months)
• Nominal Operations

2. Spacecraft Modes
• Separation
• Safe
• Observation
• Stand-by

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Mission

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Satellite Design - Configuration


1. Single H Structure

2. Sun Shield
• Standard STR
• Bepi-Colombo STR

3. High Unit Density

4. Deployable Solar Panel (x2)

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Satellite Design - Mechanics


1. Spacecraft Mass = 122.5 kg

2. CoG Choice
• Folded Configuration (LV requirement)
• Deployed Configuration (GNC requirement)

NB: LV I/F Ring Mass included

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Satellite Design - Power


1. Power budget is positive, independently of the mode
• Observation (w/o TX)
• Observation with TX
• Safe mode with TX (worst Beta-angle).

Definition
Beta Angle = angle between the Sun-Earth vector and the orbital plane.
• β = 90° implies max sunlight time
• β = 0° implies min sunlight time

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Satellite Design - Power

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Satellite Design - Power

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Satellite Design – Power


1. Battery DoD (Ah)
in function of time
2. Non Regulated bus 28V

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Satellite Design - Power


1. Power budget while de-tumbling !

2. Trade-off between:
• Performance (GNC)
• Time (LEOP schedule)
• Battery Discharge (Higher DoD)

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Satellite Design - Avionics


1. System is fully redundant

2. Data & Power centralized (ADPMS)

3. Interface Unit
• AOCS Module
• Deployment Module
• Propulsion Module
• Thermal Control Module

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Satellite Design – RF COM

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Satellite Design – Data & Processing


1. Processing budget shows how busy is the processor with all the units +
instruments.
• On Software Verification Facility
• On S/C during System Validation Test 5

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Low power resistojet (Xenon)
• 15W for heater (x2)
• 50s Isp (min)
• 20mN Thrust

• Total ∆V = 2m/s

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Satellite Design – AOCS


1. Sensors
• 2 Star-tracker
• 2 GPS RX
• 2 Magnetor-Meter

2. Actuators
• 4 Reaction Wheels
• 3 dual-coil magneto-Torquer

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4 CASE STUDY: PROBA-3
• The Mission
• Phase A
• Phase B

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Mission
1. The PROBA-3 mission will provide an opportunity to validate and develop
• The Metrology and Actuation techniques / technologies
• The Guidance strategies and Navigation and Control algorithms necessary for
formation flying.

2. One mission, two spacecrafts:


• Coronagraph S/C (CSC)
• Occulter SC (OSC)

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Mission
1. High Elliptical Orbit (HEO) with 20 hours period
• Low perturbation in Apogee
• Low AoP drift (fixed above REDU) Parameter Value
Orbit type HEO
• Limited Eclipse duration
Perigee altitude 600km
Apogee altitude 60530km
• Radition Issue Inclination 59°
• Stringent Constraint on RF Link Eccentricity 0.8062
• Delta-V issue. AoP 188°
RAAN 173°
Epoch Jan 2017
Formation 3km

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Possible Launchers
1. PSLV Launcher
• Low Cost
• Heritage from PROBA-1
• Reduced Volume

2. Falcon 9 Launcher
• High Cost
• Higher Performance
• Large Volume
• No Heritage Falcon 9
PSLV

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Which one of the two shall you design your Spacecraft for ?

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Which one of the two shall you design your Spacecraft for ?

ANSWER = The Two !

But it is up to ESA + Delegates to decide the mission budget

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What would you put in your spacecraft ?

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What would you put in your spacecraft ?

Subsystem Design
Structure Aluminium/CFRP/Invar/Titanium ?
Thermal Passive/Active ?
Mechanism Body Mounted/Deployable SA?
Power Large/Small SA ?
Large/Small Battery?
GNC Sensor?
Actuator?
RF High/Low Gain COM Antenna?
High/Low Gain FF Antenna?

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Welcome in Phase A !

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase A

Outcome of Phase A is our STARTING POINT


1. Configuration
2. Mass
3. Power
4. Avionics
5. Thermal
6. Propulsion
7. Link & Data
8. Payload

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. From Top
2. From Bottom

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. From Back Left
2. From Back Right

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. From Front
2. From Inside

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Mass Budget
• “Total CSC dry mass including I/F ring with L/V shall be less than 360kg (with
margins)”.
• Current estimate: 376.44kg

2. Power Budget
• “ Total CSC maximum power consumption shall be less than 294W (with margins)”
• Current estimate: 353.15W

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Avionics
• Centrilized around Advance Data & Power Management System (ADPMS)
• Support of Interface Electronics

PROBA-V ADPMS Flight Model

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Thermal
• Solar array temperature range (-169°C to +79°C).

• Battery operational temperature range:


− -10°C minimum operational temperature
− +40°C maximum operational temperature

• Star Tracker detector maximum operational temperature


− Current prediction: 40°C
− Required: 15°C

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Propulsion System (HPGP) Scheme

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Propulsion System (HPGP) Scheme

What is the cost?

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


2. Propulsion System (HPGP)
• 2x4 thrusters to raise orbit

• Constrains
− Pre-warming needs 64W (=2x4x8W) during 30 min
− Propellant needs to be kept
above 10°C (Always)

• Performance
− Isp = 202 EoL
− Thrust = 1N

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


3. Propulsion System (Cold Gas)
• Siwteen thruster for GNC and FF
• Performance

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. GNC Sensors
3. GNC FF
• 6 Sun Acquisition Sensors
• Omni-directional RF
• 2x3 Gyros Sensor (FFRF)
• 2x3 Acceleromter • Coarse Lateral Sensor
• 3 Star Trackers Head + 2x1 Electronics • Fine Formation Sensor
• 2x1 GPS

2. GNC Actuators
• 3+1 Reaction Wheels
• Cold Gas thrusters

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. RF Scheme

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Coronagraph Satellite Overview


1. Link Budget
• “The CSC shall be able to downlink data at a symbol rates of 256ksps and 2Msps
using REDU-3 Ground Station”

• “The CSC shall be able to receive TC data at a symbol rates of 64ksps


using REDU-3 Ground Station”

• Current estimation:
− Downlink not closed for 2Msps (@apogee)
− Uplink not closed for 64ksps (@apogee)

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SUMMARY
1. Satellite is too heavy
2. Satellite is too power consuming
3. Satellite is too hot or too cold
4. Satellite is too far to close its downlink and uplink
5. Satellite is too far to downlink its science data
6. Satellite is too un-protected wrt radiations (20krad under 2mm Al)

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What can we do?

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ANSWER
1. Mass & Power reduction exercise

2. Perform a detailed thermal analysis


• Active control
• Electronics Location
• Radiator size

3. Review Operation concept for U/D link


+ MINIMIZE THE COST !
4. Increase Satellite Shielding

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Welcome in Phase B !

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Mass reduction
1. Who are the biggest contributors ?

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Mass reduction
1. Who are the biggest contributors ?
• Structure
• Formation Flying
• Propulsion System
• Payload

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What can we do?

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Mass reduction
1. Structure
• Shield the spacecraft with outer panels !
• Remove materials in the Bottom Board !
• Remove two panels while re-arranging structure
• Shorten the satellite
• Consider LV I/F ring as part of system mass margin

2. GNC & Propulsion


• Remove the Accelerometer
• Remove Cold Gas Propulsion System (Transfer to OSC)
• Include 2x4 additional HPGP thruster for 6DoF

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Mass reduction results


1. Structure has been reinforced (corner bracket)
• Honeycomb Al-Al-Al (Primary & Secondary Structure )
• Honeycomb CFRP-Al-CFRP (Solar Cells accommodation)

2. Satellite has better shielding

3. Mass has decreased to 318kg

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Power reduction
1. Who are the biggest contributors ?
• Thermal control = 91W (due to propellant thermal constraint) 30%
• Propulsion (HPGP) = 128W (16x8W after the mass reduction) 43%
• Payload = 40W (pre-warming) 13%
• Reaction Wheel = 42W (when 3 accelerating + 1 constant speed) 13%
99%
2. Still to be included within the 294W
• STR / Gyro / GPS / RF systems / On-Board Computer / Propulsion Electronics / …

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Power reduction
1. Who are the biggest contributors ?
• Thermal control = 91W (due to propellant thermal constraint) 30%
• Propulsion (HPGP) = 128W (16x8W after the mass reduction) 43%
• Payload = 40W (pre-warming) 13%
• Reaction Wheel = 42W (when 3 accelerating + 1 constant speed) 13%
99%
2. Still to be included within the 294W
• STR / Gyro / GPS / RF systems / On-Board Computer / Propulsion Electronics / …

What would do a good system engineer ?

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Power reduction
1. Thermal Control
• Satellite wrapped into MLI
• Electronics as close as possible to cold points

2. Propulsion
• Only half of thruster pre-warmed + duty cycle
• Only less than half the power is given at the same time (longer pre-warming!)

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Power reduction
1. Thermal Control reduced to 75W (instead of 91W)
2. Propulsion reduced to 33,6W (instead of 128W)
3. Payload reduced to 10W (instead of 40W)

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Power reduction
1. Thermal Control reduced to 75W (instead of 91W)
2. Propulsion reduced to 33,6W (instead of 128W)
3. Payload reduced to 10W (instead of 40W)

What is the next


step ?

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Electrical Architecture
1. Power Generation & Storage
• Solar Array
• Battery

2. Power Conditioning
Distribution Unit
• ADPMS

3. Connections
• Safe & Arm
• Umbilical Connection

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Solar Array Design


1. Main components
• Cells Series (TBD)
• String Parallel (TBD)
• 6xSection (TBD strings)

2. Secondary components
• Shunt Selection
• Dump Resistor

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Solar Array Design How can we


calculate this?
1. Main components
• Cells Series (TBD)
• String Parallel (TBD)
• 6xSection (TBD strings)

2. Secondary components
• Shunt Selection
• Dump Resistor

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Solar Array Design (3G28%)


1. Evaluate the degradation?
• Coverglass thickness

• Degradation of Electrical Parameters

• Degradation of Temp. Coefficient

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Solar Array Design (3G28%)


1. Evaluate the degradation?
• Coverglass thickness

• Degradation of Electrical Parameters

• Degradation of Temp. Coefficient

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Solar Array Design


2. Evaluate the number of cells ?
• Max battery voltage to be provided (29.4V)
• Compute all voltage drop
• Compute number of cells (MPP)

18 Cells / Strings

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Solar Array Design


3. Evaluate the number of strings ?
• Max current allowed by ADPMS (12A)
• Compute string current
− EoL ( di/dt < 0)
− Minimum Solar Cste
(di/dC > 0)
− Operating temperature
(di/dT>0 but dU/dT<<0)
− Operating point

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Solar Array Design


3. Evaluate the number of strings ?
• Max current allowed by ADPMS (12A)
• Compute string current
− EoL ( di/dt < 0)
− Minimum Solar Cste
(di/dC > 0)
− Operating temperature
(di/dT>0 but dU/dT<<0)
− Operating point

23 (+1) Strings

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Solar Array Design


4. Evaluate the Power available?
• Power = Current * Voltage
• 1 String Failure Tolerance

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Solar Array Design


4. Evaluate the Power available?
• Power = Current * Voltage
• 1 String Failure Tolerance

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What if GNC has a failure?

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What if GNC has a failure?

ANSWER = Needs to be taken into account if pointing accuracy of SUN


POINTING is decreased!

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Battery Design
1. Main components
• Cells Series (TBD)
• String Parallel (TBD)

2. Secondary components
• Internat heaters
• Thermistors

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Battery Design How can we


calculate this?
1. Main components
• Cells Series (TBD)
• String Parallel (TBD)

2. Secondary components
• Internat heaters
• Thermistors

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Battery Design
1. Evaluate the number of cells ?
7 Cells / String
• Nominal non regulated bus voltage (28V)
• Cells characteristics (4.2V EoC)

4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7

Cell Level EMF (V)


3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
State of Charge (%)
Discharge EMF Charge EMF

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Battery Design
2. Evaluate the number of strings ?
• Approach decision
− Battery for both Sun & Eclipse
− Battery for Eclipse only

• Check Power Budget (Wst Case)


− Detumbling (200W / 1hr)
− Eclipse (240W / 30min)
− Long Eclipse (190W / 3.5hrs)

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Battery Design Scenario Used Capacity (Wh)


Detumbling 200
2. Evaluate the number of strings ? Eclipse 120

• Capacityused = Power * Time Long Eclipse 665

• Capacityrequired = CapacityUsed/(1-DoDAllowed) Scenario DoD choice Required


Capacity (Wh)
• Capacity of 1 string = NbCells*CapacityCell
Detumbling 20% 240
• One String Failure Tolerance Eclipse 20% 148
Long Eclipse 60% 1064

Parameter Value
NbCells 7
29 (+1) Strings CapacityCell 5,4 Wh
Capacity 1 string 37,8 Wh

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U/D Operational Concept Problems


1. Downlink not closed at apogee at Max Rate
2. Uplink not closed at apogee at Max Rate
3. Data not able to be downlinked below 50kkm at max rate (coverage)
4. Data not able to be downlinked at min rate (coverage)

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What can we do?

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U/D Operational Concept Solutions


1. Use more power @ Ground Segment

2. Use more power @ Space Segment

3. Use one/several high gain antenna @ Space Segment

4. Use variable data rate


• Low Rate (Uplink & Downlink) when at apogee
• High rate (Uplink & Downlink) when at perigee

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U/D Operational Concept Solutions


1. Use more power @ Ground Segment What is the consequence ?

2. Use more power @ Space Segment

3. Use one/several high gain antenna @ Space Segment

4. Use variable data rate What is the consequence ?


• Low Rate (Uplink & Downlink) when at apogee
• High rate (Uplink & Downlink) when at perigee

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Results !

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Updated Block Diagram

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Updated Configuration

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Updated Configuration

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3 PROBA – 3 Phase B

Updated Configuration

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Final Stack Configuration

1. Occulter Spacecraft

2. Coronagraph Spacecraft

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3 PROBA - 3

How would you now further reduce the cost ?

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3 PROBA - 3

How would you now reduce the cost ?

ANSWER = Increase the risk !

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4 CONCLUSION

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4 CONCLUSION

Satellite System Engineering


1. Follows the Project Life Cycle
• Starts with Mission Concept
• Prepares System Requirements
• Proposes System Designs based on Trade-Offs (Technical + Programmatics)
• Manufacture the S/C
• Verify Requirements (Review of Design / Analysis / Test)
• Launch it !

2. Iterative Multi-disciplinary approach + Massive Communication

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4 OPPORTUNITIES

QinetiQ Space
1. Proposes Fast Learning Curve on Satellite Systems

2. Offers possibility to built international network quickly

3. Provides opportunity to be known at the European Space Agency

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4 OPPORTUNITIES

INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. Mission design and analyst
• Orbit1: SSO 450km
from 10:00 & 11:00

• Orbit2: Semi-Equatorial
(incl = 10° max) at 450km

• Lifetime: 7 years

Target: < 1 m resolution


(GeoEye Arizona USA 10/01/2009)

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INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. Mission design and analyst
• Launch Vehicle Selection (Current Generation)
• Launch Vehicle Selection (Next Generation)
• Orbit selection, and injection, propagation and drift analysis
• Ground Visibility & Data downlink assessment
• Incoming Power analysis based on assumed attitude for mission
• Propulsion Operations and scheduling

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4 OPPORTUNITIES

INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. System Engineering on PROBA-NEXT & VNREDSAT-1B platform

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INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. System Engineering on PROBA-NEXT & VNREDSAT-1B platform
• Mission analysis follow-up
• Spacecraft accommodation contribution & follow-up
• Mass, Power, Link, Data downlink, Pointing, delta-V, processing, memory budgets
• Spacecraft database contribution & maintenance
• Development approach assessment (what test shall we do? When? …)
• Team management & organization of meetings

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4 OPPORTUNITIES

1. GNC & Propulsion System Engineering


• Hydrazine Propellant
• HPGP Green Propellant (6% more efficient than Hydrazine)
• Available thrust = 1N
• Available delta V = 100m/s

2. Cold Gaz
• Nitrogen Propellant
• Available thrust = 80mN
• Available delta-V = 2m/s

Propulsion integrator (OHB-SE)

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1. GNC & Propulsion System Engineering


• Xenon propellant
• Available thrust = 7mN
• Available delta-V = 300m/s

Propulsion integrator (RAFAEL)

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INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. GNC & Propulsion System Engineering
• Propulsion sizing based on Mission analysis
• Propulsion detailed simulations on commanding and control (duty cycles)
• Propulsion mass & power estimations based on simulations
• Integration of propulsion simulations into MATLAB Mission Analysis Tool
• GNC Loop impacts & modifications for propulsion system
• Propulsion requirement preparation
• Propulsion supplier follow up
• Strength – Weakness, Opportunities and Treats of proposed system (SWOT)

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INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. Communication Engineering on PROBA-NEXT platform (RF & Optical)

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INTERNSHIPS / SUMMER JOB


1. Communication Engineering on PROBA-NEXT platform (RF & Optical)
• Operations considering Mission analysis visibility
• Optical COM detailed simulations on commanding and control (duty cycles)
• Optical COM mass & power estimations based on supplier data
• Integration of Optical COM into RF architecture
• Optical COM requirement preparation
• Optical COM supplier follow up
• Strength – Weakness, Opportunities and Treats of proposed system (SWOT)

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