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Calculations on compound cylinders

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Discontinuity Stresses

Lecture 14

Engineering 473

Machine Design

Lame’ Equations for Thick

Walled Cylinders

a 2 p i − b 2 p o (p i − p o )a 2 b 2

σr = −

b −a

2 2

(

b2 − a 2 r 2)

a 2 p i − b 2 p o (p i − p o )a 2 b 2

σθ = +

b −a

2 2

(

b2 − a 2 r 2)

u=

( )

1 − ν a 2 p i − b 2 p o r 1 + ν (p i − p o )a 2 b 2

+

E b −a

2 2

E (

b2 − a 2 r )

Compound Cylinders

Civil War Parrott Guns

to increase the pressure that

can be contained in cylinders.

www.wwd.net/steen

Compound Cylinders

(Assembly)

Outer Cylinder (2)

Inner Cylinder (1)

c

a b−δ

amount (interference) and must be heated to fit over

cylinder 1. This is often referred to as a shrink fit.

Compound Cylinders

(Interference Equations)

Lame’s Equation

u=

( )

1 − ν a 2 p i − b 2 p o r 1 + ν (p i − p o )a 2 b 2

+

E b −a

2 2

E (

b2 − a 2 r )

pb æ b 2 + a 2 ö Inner

u1 = ç

ç − ν i ÷÷

Ei è b − a

2 2

ø Cylinder

pb æ b 2 + c 2 ö Outer

u2 = çç 2 + ν o ÷÷

Eo è c − b 2

ø Cylinder

directly proportional to the pb æ b 2 + c 2 ö pb æ b 2 + a 2 ö

δ= çç 2 + ν o ÷÷ + çç 2 − ν i ÷÷

interference. Eo è c − b 2

ø Ei è b − a

2

ø

Compound Cylinders

(Interference Pressure)

pb æ b 2 + c 2 ö pb æ b 2 + a 2 ö

δ= ç

ç + νo ÷ + ç 2

÷ ç − ν i ÷÷

Eo è c − b

2 2

ø Ei è b − a

2

ø

p=

( )(

Eδ b 2 − a 2 c 2 − b 2 ) For same

b (

2b 2 c 2 − a 2 ) materials

pressure needed to compress the

inner cylinder and expand the outer

cylinder so that the two cylinders

can be assembled.

Ugural, Fig. 8.5

Compound Cylinder

(Shrink Fit Stresses)

Hoop stress due

to interference

pressure

to an internal

pressure

Example Problem

Determine the tangential (hoop) stresses at the inner, outer,

and mating surfaces of a compound cylinder subjected to an

internal pressure of 20,000 psi. The radii are: a=6 in, b=8 in,

and c=10 in. The material is steel with a modulus of

elasticity of E=30x106 psi, and the interference is 0.004 in.

Example Problem

(Interference Pressure)

p=

( )(

Eδ b 2 − a 2 c 2 − b 2 )

b (

2b 2 c 2 − a 2)

p = 1,850 psi

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in

c=10 in

Example Problem

(Inner Cylinder)

Lame’ Equation

a 2 p i − b 2 p o (p i − p o )a 2 b 2

σθ = +

b −a

2 2

(

b2 − a 2 r 2)

External Pressure

− b2p − pa 2 b 2

σθ = 2 + 2

b −a 2

(

b − a2 r2 )

Interference Stresses

− 2pb 2

σθ = 2 = −8,440 psi

E = 30x10 psi

6 r =a

b −a 2

a=6 in

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in − 2p(b 2 + a 2 )

σθ = = −6,590psi

c=10 in

r =b

b −a

2 2

p = 1,850 psi

Example Problem

(Outer Cylinder)

Lame’ Equation

b 2 p i − c 2 p o (p i − p o )b 2 c 2

σθ = + 2

c −b

2 2

(

c − b2 r 2 )

External Pressure

b2p pb 2 c 2

σθ = 2 + 2

c −b 2

(

c − b2 r 2 )

Interference Stresses

æ b2 + c2 ö

σ θ r = b = pçç 2 ÷ = 8,410 psi

2 ÷

a=6 in E = 30x10 6 psi èc −b ø

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in 2pb 2

c=10 in σ θ r =c = 2 = 6,560 psi

p = 1,850 psi c −b 2

Example Problem

(Shrink-fit Stress Distribution)

Outer Cylinder

b c

Inner Cylinder

a=6 in E = 30x10 6 psi

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in

c=10 in p = 1,850 psi

Harvey, Fig. 2.23(a)

Example Problem

(Internal Pressure)

Lame’ Equation

a 2 p i − c 2 p o (p i − p o )a 2 c 2

σθ = + 2

c −a

2 2

(

c − a2 r2 )

Internal Pressure

a 2 pi pia 2c 2

σθ = 2 + 2

c −a 2

(

c − a2 r2 )

Radial Locations

σθ r =a

= 42,500 psi

a=6 in E = 30x10 6 psi σθ = 28,830 psi

r =b

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in σθ = 22,500 psi

r =c

c=10 in p i = 20,000 psi

Example Problem

(Internal Pressure Stress Distribution)

Outer Cylinder

c

b

b=8 in δ = 0.004 in

c=10 in p i = 20,000 psi

Harvey, Fig. 2.23(b)

Example Problem

(Total Stresses)

stress on the inside of

the cylinder is

approximately 20%

less than what it

would have been

without the shrink-fit

stresses.

Discontinuity Stresses

vessels) considered so far have considered only the

cylinder.

• There are often high stresses at geometric

discontinuities in cylinders.

• These high stresses are similar to stress concentrations.

Discontinuity Stresses

(Example)

Cylindrical Shell Juncture

The force and moment required to cause the head and shell to

displace and rotate the same amount will cause local bending

stresses in both the head and shell.

Harvey, Fig. 4.8

Discontinuity Stresses

(Example)

Cylindrical Shell Juncture

be used to accurately compute the stresses around

geometric discontinuities.

Assignment

diameter cylinder, considering it as a thin wall

vessel, to withstand an internal pressure of 1,000 psi

if the allowable tangential stress is 20,000 psi.

2. A cylinder with a 48 in inside diameter and a 60 in

outside diameter is subjected to an internal pressure

of 5,000 psi. Determine value and place of

occurrence the maximum tangential stress, the

maximum radial stress, and the maximum shear

stress.

Assignment

(Continued)

radius of a compound cylinder subjected to an internal

pressure of 32,000 psi. The radii are: a=10 in, b=12 in, and

c=13 in. The material is steel with a modulus of elasticity of

E=30x106 psi, and the interference is 0.005 in.

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