1 Selected References on Islam and Somalia The following selected references are classified into: (1) References on Colonialism, Postcolonialism

, Orientalism and Social Movement. (2) References on Islam and Islamic movements. (3) References on Somalia. (4) Dissertations on Somalia and other relevant topics. These references are not exhaustive and mostly are available in the McGill Library. 1. References on Colonialism, Postcolonialism, Orientalism and Social Movements Cooper, Frederick. 2005. Colonialism in question: theory, knowledge, history. Berkeley: University of California Press. Dabashi, Hamid. 2009. Post-Orientalism: Knowledge and Power in Time of Terror. New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers. Hussain, Asaf, Olsen, Robert and Jamil Qureshi (eds.) 1984. Orientalism, Islam, and Islamists. Brattleboro V.T.: Amana Books. Lockman, Zachary. 2004. Contending visions of the Middle East: the history and politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Loomba, Ania. 2005. Colonialism/postcolonialism. London: Routledge. Moghadam, Valentine M. 2009. Globalization and social movements: Islamism, feminism, and the global justice movement. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and subject: contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. MacKenzie, John. 1995. Orientalism: history, theory, and the arts. New York : Manchester University Press Mullen, Bill. 2004. Afro-Orientalism. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press. Neill, Stephen. 1966. Colonialism and Christian missions. New York: McGraw-Hill. Panikkar, K.N. 2007. Colonialism, culture, and resistance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Peters, Rudolph. 1979. Islam and colonialism: the doctrine of jihad in modern history. The Hague: Mouton Said, Edward. 1979. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.


Sinor, Denis, ed. 1970. Orientalism and History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Staggenborg, Suzanne. 2008. Social movements. Don Mills, Ontario : Oxford University Press. Samman, Khaldoun and Al-Zoby, Mazhar. 2008. Islam and the Orientalist worldsystem. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.. Turner, Bryan S. 1994. Orientalism, postmodernism, and Globalism. London, New York : Routledge. Wittberg, Patricia. 1994. The rise and decline of Catholic religious orders: a social movement perspective. Albany: State University of New York Press. Wilkinson, Paul. 1971. Social movement. New York: Praeger. 2.1. General References on Islam and Islamic movements Abdelnasser, Walid Mahmoud. 1994. The Islamic movement in Egypt: perceptions of international relations, 1967-1981. New York: Kegan Paul International. Abdo, Geneive. 2000. No God but God: Egypt and the triumph of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ahmed, Ishtiaq. 1987. The concept of an Islamic state: an analysis of the ideological controversy in Pakistan. London: Pinter. Ayoob, Mohammed. 2008. The many faces of political Islam: religion and politics in the Muslim world. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bar, Shmuel. 1998. The Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan. Tel Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies. Brown, L. Carl. 2000. Religion and state: the Muslim approach to politics. New York: Columbia University Press. Burke, Edmund and Lapidus, Ira (eds.). 1988. Islam, politics, and social movements. Berkeley: University of California Press. Butterworth, Charles and Zartman, William (ed.). 2001. between the state and Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cooper, John and Netter, Ronald and Mahmoud, Muhammad (ed.). 2000. Islam and modernity: Muslim intellectuals respond. London: I. B. Tauris.


Choueiri, Youssef M. 1990. Islamic fundamentalism. London: Pinter. Demant, Peter R. 2006. Islam vs. Islamism: the dilemma of the Muslim world. Westport, Conn. : Praeger. Dessouki, Hillal (ed.). 1982. Islamic resurgence in the Arab world. New York: Praeger. El-Affendi, Abdelwahab. 2008. Who needs an Islamic state? London: Malaysia Think Tank London. Esposito, John L. 1997. Islam and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press. Esposito, John L. 1998. Islam and politics. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Feldman, Noah. 2008. The fall and rise of the Islamic state. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Fuller, Graham. 1996. Algeria: the next fundamentalist state? Santa Monica: Rand. Gohari, M. J. 2000. The Taliban: ascent to power. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Griffin, Michael. 2001. Reaping the whirlwind: the Taliban movement in Afghanistan. London: Pluto Press. Habeck, Mary R. 2006. Knowing the enemy: Jihadist ideology and the War on Terror. New Haven: Yale University Press. Halliday, Fred. 1995. Islam and the myth of confrontation: religion and politics in the Middle East. London: I. B. Tauris. Harub, Khalid. 2000. Hamas: political thought and practice. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies. Hashemi, Nader. 2009. Islam, secularism, and liberal democracy: toward a democratic theory for Muslim societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hofmann, Murad Wilfried, and Heradstveit, Daniel. 1998. Political Islam in Algeria. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Hunter, Shareen (ed.). 1988. The Politics of Islamic revivalism: diversity and unity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Husain, Mir Zohair. 2003. Global Islamic politics. New York: Longman.

4 Iqbal, Javid. 2000. The concept of state in Islam: a reassessment. Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan. Inayat, Hamid. 1982. Modern Islamic political thought. Austin: University of Texas Press. Ismail, Salwa. 1994. Radical Islamism in Egypt: discursive struggle. Montréal: InterUniversity Consortium for Arab Studies. Jabiri, Muhammad Abid. 2009. Democracy, human rights and law in Islamic thought. New York: I.B. Tauris, in association with Beirut, Lebanon : Centre for Arab Unity Studies. Jandora, John Walter. 2008. States without citizens: understanding the Islamic crisis. London: Praeger Security International. Kenney, Jeffrey T. 2006. Muslim rebels: Kharijites and the politics of extremism in Egypt. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Laremont, Ricardo René. 2000. Islam and the politics of resistance in Algeria, 17831992. Trenton, N.J. : Africa World Press. Lia, Brynjar. 1998. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942. Reading, UK: Garnet Lumbard, Joseph (Ed.). 2004. Islam, fundamentalism, and the betrayal of tradition: essays by Western Muslim scholars. Bloomington: World Wisdom. Magnus, Ralph H. 2000. Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid. Boulder: Westview Press. Mandaville, Peter G. 2007. Global Political Islam. New York: Routledge. Milton-Edwards, Beverley. 2004. Islam and politics in the contemporary world. Oxford: Polity. Mitchell, Richard. 1969. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. London: Oxford University Press. Moaddel, Mansoor. 2005. Islamic modernism, nationalism, and fundamentalism: episode and discourse. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Mohaddessin, Mohammad. 1993. Islamic fundamentalism: the new global threat. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.

5 Mohammed Ayoob, Hasan Kosebalaban, ed. 2009. Religion and politics in Saudi Arabia: Wahhabism and the state. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. 2001. Islamic leviathan: Islam and the making of state power. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nimtz, August H. 1980. Islam and politics in East Africa: the Sufi order in Tanzania. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Olesen, Asta. 1995. Islam and politics in Afghanistan. Richmond: Curzon. O'Mahony, Geraldine Maria. 2006. Islam in Sudan: identity, citizenship and conflict. Palmer, Monte. 2008. Islamic extremism: causes, diversity, and challenges. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Petterson, Donald. 2003. Inside Sudan: political Islam, conflict, and catastrophe. Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press. Rabasa, Angel. 2009. Radical Islam in East Africa. Santa Monica, CA : RAND Corp. Roberson B.A. (ed.). 2003. Shaping the Current Islamic Reformation. London: Frank Cass, 2003. Roy, Olivier. 1995. Afghanistan: from holy war to civil war. Princeton: Darwin Press. Rubin, Barry M. 1990. Islamic fundamentalism in Egyptian politics. New York : St. Martin's Press. Shahin, Emad Eldin. 1997. Political Ascent: contemporary Islamic movements in North Africa. Boulder: Westview Press. Sidahmed, Abdel Salam. 1997. Politics and Islam in contemporary Sudan. Richmond: Curzon. Sivan, Emmanuel. 1985. Radical Islam: medieval theology and modern politics. New Haven: Yale University Press. Tamimi, Azzam. 2001. Rachid Ghannouchi: a democrat within Islamism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tamimi, Azzam., and Esposito, John (ed.). 2000. Islam and secularism in the Middle East. New York: New York University Press. Tibi, Bassam. 2001. Islam between culture and politics. New York : Palgrave.

6 Tibi, Bassam. 2002. The challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Berkeley: University of California Press. Turam, Berna. 2007. Between Islam and the State: the politics of engagement. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Wiktorowicz, Quintan, ed. 2004. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2001. The management of Islamic activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and state power in Jordan. Albany: State University of New York Press. Willis, Michael. 1997. The Islamist challenge in Algeria: a political history. Washington: New York University Press. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2002. The ulama in contemporary Islam: custodians of change. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 3. References on Somalia Abdullahi, Abdurahman. “Recovering the Somali State: the Islamic Factor,” in Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution in the Horn of Africa, ed. A. Osman Farah, Mamo Mushie, and Joakim Gundel, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. Abdullahi, Abdurahman. 2007. “Perspectives on the State Collapse in Somalia,” in Somalia at the Crossroads: Challenges and Perspectives in Reconstituting a Failed State, ed. Abdullahi A. Osman and Issaka K. Soure, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. Adam, Hussein M. 1995. “Islam and politics in Somalia.” Journal of Islamic Studies 6: 189-221. Available from www.csa.com. Accessed 28 October 2004. Ahmed, Jumale (ed.). 1995. The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville: The Red Sea Press. Awes Osman Hagi and Abdiwahid Osman Hagi. 1998. Clan, Sub-clan and Regional Representation in the Somali Government Organization 1960-1990: Statistical Data and Findings. Washington, DC. Besteman, Catherine. 1999. Unravelling Somalia: Race, Violence, and the Legacy of Slavery. University of Pennsylvania Press. Bridges, Peter. 2000. Safirka: An American envoy. Kent, OH: Kent State UP.

7 Brons, Maria. 2001. Society, Security, Sovereignty and the State in Somalia: from Statelessness to Statelessness? Nederland: International Books. Bryden, Matt. 2003. “No Quick Fixes: Coming to Terms with Terrorism, Islam, and Statelessness in Somalia”. Journal of Conflict Studies, 22, no. 2. Cassanelli, Lee. 1982. The Shaping of Somali Society. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press. Cerulli, Enrico. 1957-64. Somalia: Scriti Vari Editi ed Enditi (three volumes), Rome: Istituto Poligrafico della Stato. Constitution for the Somali Democratic Republic, 1979. Available from www. Oceanalaw.com/NXT/gateway.dll/CCW/current/Somalia/Som_Constitution_D.11/4 /2005. Accessed 10 November 2005. Contini, Paolo. 1969. The Somali Republic: an Experiment in Legal Integration. London: Frank Cass & Company. Fox, M. 2000. Political culture in Somalia: Tracing paths to peace and conflict. Uppsala, Sweden: Universitetstryckeriet. Helander, Berhard. 2003. Slaughtered Camel: Coping With Fictitious Descent among the Hubeer of Southern Somalia. Uppsala University. Hess, Robert. 1966. Italian colonialism in Somalia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kusow, Abdi, ed. 2004. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Contested Nationalism and the Crisis of the Nation-State in Somalia. Lawrenceville: The Red Sea Press. Laitin, David D., and Said Samatar. 1987. Somalia: Nation in Search of a State. Boulder: Westview Press. Lewis, I. M. 1980. A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. London: Longmans. Lewis, I. M. 1961. A Pastoral Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Luling, Virginia. 2002. Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-State over 150 Years. London: Haan Publications. Marshal, Ronald. 2001. “Islamic Political Dynamics in the Somali Civil War”. Paper presented at the conference on “Islam in Africa: A Global, Cultural and Historical Perspective.” Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Birmingham University.

8 Menkhaus, Ken. 2004. Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, for the International Institute for Strategic Studies; London. New York: Rutledge. Mohamoud, Abdullah. 2006. State collapse and post-conflict development in Africa: the case of Somalia (1960-2001). West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. Mukhtar, Mohamed. 1995. “Islam in Somali History: Fact and Fiction.” In The Invention of Somalia, ed. Jumale Ahmed. Lawrenceville: The Red Sea Press. Poalo Tripodi. 1999. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia: Rome and Mogadishu: from Colonial Administration to Operation Restore Hope. London: Macmillan Press. Pastaloza, Luigi. 1973. The Somali Revolution. Bari: Edition Afrique Asie Amerique Latine, 1973. Richard Burton. 1966. First Footsteps in East Africa. New York: Praeger. Samatar, Abdi Ismail. 1992. “Destruction of State and Society in Somalia: Beyond the Tribal Convention.” Journal of Modern African Studies 30: 625-647. Samatar, Ahmed. 1988. Socialist Somalia: Rhetoric and Reality. London: Zed Books. Samatar, Ahmed ed. 1994. The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Samatar, Said. 1982. Oral poetry and Somali nationalism: the case of Sayyid Mahammad Abdille Hasan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shauy Shaul. 2008. Somalia between Jihad and Restoration. London: Transaction Press. Tadesse, Medhane .2002. Al-Ittihad: Political Islam and Black Economy in Somalia. Addis Ababa: Meag Printing. Tahir, Mahmood. 1987. Personal Law in Islamic Countries. New Delhi: Academy of Law and Religion. Tauval, Saadia. 1963. Somali Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Transitional Charter of the Somali Republic. 2000. Unpublished English version Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic. 2003. Unpublished English version.


Dissertations .4
Abdullahi, Abdurahman. 1992. Tribalism, Nationalism and Islam: Crisis of the Political Loyalties in Somalia. MA thesis, Islamic Institute, McGill University. Altammimi, Turki. 2006. Political Islam: Emergence, Containment. A PhD thesis, Johns Hopkins University. confrontation and

Combargi, Asma Bahsali. 1998. The Politics of Islamists in Algeria, Egypt and the Sudan. A PhD thesis, University of Houston. Edelen, Annamarie. The Muslim Brotherhood’s quit revolution. A PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999 Hersi, Ali Abdirahman. 1977. The Arab Factor Somali history: The Origins and Development of Arab Enterprise and Cultural Influences in the Somali Peninsula. A Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Le Sage, Andre. 2004. Somalia and the War on Terrorism: Political Islamic Movements and US-counter Terrorism efforts. A PhD thesis submitted to the Cambridge University. Logan, Carolyn. 2002. Rebuilding Somali Political System: Growing new Roots in Indigenous Realities, or Merely Reconstructing the Past? A PhD Dissertation, Tufs University. Mohamed, Hamdi. 2003. Multiple Challenges, Multiple Struggles: A History of Somali women’s Activism in Canada. A PhD Dissertation, University of Ottawa. Noor, Abdurahman Ahmed. 1999. Arabic Language and Script in Somalia: History, Attitudes, and Prospects. A PhD Dissertation, Georgetown University. Schwoebel, Mary Hope. Nation Building in the Lands of Somalis. PhD Dissertation, George Mason University, 2007. Reese, Scott Steven. Patricians of the Banadir: Islamic Learning, Commerce and Somali Urban Identity in the 19th century. PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1996. Toga, Dawit. 2000. Super power Rivalry and Regional Conflict in the Horn of Africa: Shifting Alliances, Strategic choices, and Domestic politics. A PhD dissertation, Columbia University.


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