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You are on page 1of 40

(Multiresolution Analysis)

Christophoros Nikou

cnikou@cs.uoi.gr

2 Contents

– Image pyramids

– Subband coding

– The Haar transform

– Multiresolution analysis

• Series expansion

• Scaling functions

• Wavelet functions

– Wavelet series

– Discrete wavelet transform (DWT)

– Fast wavelet transform (FWT)

– Wavelet packets

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

3

Multiresolution Analysis

transform play an important role in a mathematical

framework called multiresolution analysis (MRA).

of approximations of a signal each differing a factor

of 2 in resolution from its nearest neighbour

approximation.

to encode the difference between adjacent

approximations.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

4

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions

A signal or a function f(x) may be analyzed as a

linear combination of expansion functions:

f ( x) = ∑ akφk ( x)

k

If the expansion is unique then the expansion

functions are called basis functions and the

expansion set {φk ( x)} is called a basis. The

functions that may be expressed as a linear

combination of φk ( x) form a function space called

the closed span:

V = Span{φk ( x)}

k

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

5

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions (cont…)

For any function space V and corresponding

expansion set {φk ( x)} there is a set of dual functions

{φk ( x)} used to compute the expansion coefficients αk

for any f(x)œV as the inner products:

α k = φk ( x), f ( x) = ∫ φ ( x) f ( x) dx

*

k

we have three cases for these coefficients.

6

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions (cont…)

Case 1: The expansion functions form an

orthonormal basis for V :

⎧0, j ≠ k

φk ( x), φ j ( x) = δ jk = ⎨

⎩1, j = k

Then, the basis functions and their duals are

equivalent:

φk ( x) = φ k ( x)

*

α k = φk ( x), f ( x)

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

7

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions (cont…)

Case 2: The expansion functions are not orthonormal

but they are an orthogonal basis for V then:

φk ( x), φ j ( x) = 0, j ≠ k

and the basis and its dual are called biorthogonal.

The expansion coefficients are:

α k = φk ( x), f ( x) = ∫ φ ( x) f ( x) dx

*

k

and the biorthogonal basis and its dual are such that:

⎧0, j≠k

φ j ( x), φ ( x) = δ jk = ⎨

*

k

⎩1, j=k

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

8

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions (cont…)

Case 3: The expansion set is not a basis for V then

there is more than one set of coefficients αk for any

f(x)œV.

The expansion functions and their duals are said to

be overcomplete or redundant.

A f ( x) ≤ ∑ φk ( x), f ( x)

2

≤B f ( x) , A > 0, B < ∞, ∀f ( x) ∈ V

2 2

k

Dividing by the squared norm of the function we see

that A and B frame the normalized inner products.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

9

Multiresolution Analysis

Series Expansions (cont…)

Case 3 (continued): Equations similar to cases 1

and 2 may be used to find the expansion coefficients.

If A=B, then the expansion is called a tight frame and

it can be shown that (Daubechies [1992]):

1

f ( x) = ∑ φk ( x), f ( x) φk ( x)

A k

to the expression obtained for orthonormal bases.

10

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions

Consider the set of expansion functions composed of

integer translations and binary scalings of a real,

square-integrable function φ ( x) :

φ j ,k ( x) = 2 j / 2 φ (2 j x − k ), j , k ∈ , φ ( x) ∈ L2 ( ).

x) the

horizontal axis.

Parameter j determines how broad or narrow it is along

the horizontal axis. The term 2j/2 controls the amplitude.

Because of its shape,φ ( x) is called scaling function.

11

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

By choosing the scaling function φ ( x) properly, the

set {φ j ,k ( x)} can be made to span the set of all

measurable, square-integrable functions L2 ( ).

expansion set {φ j ,k ( x)} is a subset of {φ j ,k ( x)} that

0

spans a subspace of L2 ( ) :

V j0 = Span{φ j0 ,k ( x)}

k

f ( x) = ∑ akφ j0 ,k ( x)

0

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12) k

12

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

If f ( x) ∈ V j0 then we can write: f ( x) = ∑ akφ j0 ,k ( x)

k

More generally,

V j = Span{φ j ,k ( x)}

k

functions with fine details to be included in the

subspace.

This is a consequence of the fact that, as j increases,

the {φ j ,k ( x)} that are used to represent the subspace

functions become narrower.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

13

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

Consider the unit-height, unit-width Haar scaling

function:

⎧1, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

φ ( x) = ⎨

⎩0, otherwise

generated by scaling and translations of the original

function.

14

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

φ j ,k ( x) = 2 j / 2 φ (2 j x − k )

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

15

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

functions are to coarse to represent it. Higher resolution

functions are required.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

16

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

17

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

Note also that φ0,0 ( x) may be decomposed as a

sum of V1 expansion functions.

1 1

φ0,0 ( x) = φ1,0 ( x) + φ1,1 ( x) = φ (2 x) + φ (2 x − 1)

2 2

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

18

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

In a similar manner, any V0 expansion function may

be decomposed as a sum of V1 expansion

functions:

1 1

φ0,k ( x) = φ1,2 k ( x) + φ1,2 k +1 ( x)

2 2

Therefore, if f(x)œV0 , then f(x)œV1.

This is because all V0 expansion functions are

contained in V1. Mathematically, we say that V0 is a

subspace of V1 :

V0 ⊂ V1

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

19

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

The simple scaling function in the preceding

example obeys the four fundamental requirements

of multiresolution analysis [Mallat 1989].

orthogonal to its integer translates.

Easy to see for the Haar function. Hard to satisfy

for functions with support different than [0, 1].

20

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

MRA Requirement 2: The subspaces spanned by

the scaling function at low scales are nested within

those spanned at higher scales.

This means that:

V−∞ ⊂ ⊂ V−1 ⊂ V0 ⊂ V1 ⊂ V2 ⊂ ⊂ V∞

21

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

Moreover, if f(x)œVj , then f(2x)œVj+1.

requirement is not an indication that any function

with support of width 1 satisfies the condition.

⎧1, 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.75

φ ( x) = ⎨

⎩0, otherwise

is not a valid scaling function for MRA.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

22

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

MRA Requirement 3: The only common function to

all subspaces Vj is f(x)=0.

In the coarsest possible expansion the only

representable function is the function with no

information f(x)=0. That is:

j → −∞, V−∞ = {0}

represented with arbitrary precision.

This means that in the limit:

j → ∞, V∞ = { L ( )}

2

23

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

Under these conditions, the expansion functions of

subspace Vj may be expressed as a weighted sum

of the expansion functions of subspace Vj+1:

φ j ,k ( x) = ∑ anφ j +1,n ( x)

n

Substituting

φ j ,k ( x) = 2 j / 2 φ (2 j x − k )

and changing variable an to hφ(n), we obtain:

φ j ,k ( x) = ∑ hφ (n)2( j +1) / 2 φ (2 j +1 x − n)

n

24

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

Because φ0,0 ( x) = φ ( x)

φ ( x) = ∑ hφ (n) 2φ (2 x − n)

n

coefficients.

This equation is fundamental to MRA and is called

the refinement equation, the MRA equation or the

dilation equation.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

25

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

φ ( x) = ∑ hφ (n) 2φ (2 x − n)

n

functions of any subspace may be obtained from

double-resolution copies of themselves, that is, the

expansion functions of the next higher resolution

space.

We can start at any resolution level.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

26

Multiresolution Analysis

Scaling Functions (cont…)

The scaling function coefficients for the Haar

function are the elements of the first row of matrix

H2, that is:

1

hφ (0) = hφ (1) =

2

1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⎡ ⎤ = φ (2 x) + φ (2 x − 1)

φ ( x) = 2φ (2 x ) + 2φ (2 x − 1)

2⎣ ⎦ 2⎣ ⎦

27

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions

Given a scaling function that meets the MRA

criteria we can define a wavelet function ψ(x) that

together with its integer translates and binary

scalings, spans the difference between any two

adjacent scaling subspaces Vj and Vj+1.

28

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

We define the set {ψ j ,k ( x)} of wavelets

ψ j ,k ( x) = 2 ψ (2 x − k ), j , k ∈

j/2 j

W j = Span{ψ j ,k ( x)}

k

If f(x)œWj, f ( x) = ∑ akψ j ,k ( x)

k

29

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

The scaling and wavelet function subspaces are

related by

V j +1 = V j ⊕ W j

The orthogonal complement Vj of in Vj+1 is Wj and all

members of Vj are orthogonal to the members of Wj.

φ j ,k ( x),ψ j ,l ( x) = 0, ∀j , k , l.

30

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

We can now express the space of all measurable,

square-integrable function as

L ( ) = V0 ⊕ W0 ⊕ W1 ⊕ … = V1 ⊕ W1 ⊕ W2 ⊕ … ⇔

2

L ( ) = …W−2 ⊕ W−1 ⊕ W0 ⊕ W1 ⊕ W2 ⊕ …

2

wavelet functions

31

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

If f(x)œV1 but f(x)–V0 its expansion using

L2 ( ) = V0 ⊕ W0

contains an approximation using scaling functions V0

and wavelets from W0 would encode the difference

between this approximation and the actual function.

32

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

The representation may be generalized to yield

L2 ( ) = V j0 ⊕ W j0 ⊕ W j0 +1 ⊕ …

starting from an arbitrary scale and adding the

appropriate wavelet functions that capture the

difference between the coarse scale representation

and the actual function.

33

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Any wavelet function, like its scaling function

counterpart, reside in the space spanned by the next

higher resolution level. Therefore, it can be

expressed as a weighted sum of shifted, double-

resolution scaling functions:

ψ ( x) = ∑ hψ (n) 2φ (2 x − n)

n

coefficients. It can also be sown that

hψ (n) = (−1) n hφ (1 − n)

Note the similarity with the analysis-synthesis filters.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

34

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

The Haar scaling function coefficients were

defined as 1

hφ (0) = hφ (1) =

2

1 1

hψ (0) = (−1) hφ (1 − 0) =

0

, hψ (1) = ( −1) hφ (1 − 1) = −

1

2 2

second row of the Haar transformation matrix H2.

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

35

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Substituting this result into ψ ( x) = ∑ hψ (n) 2φ (2 x − n)

n

⎧ 1 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5

⎪

we get ψ ( x) = φ (2 x) − φ (2 x − 1) = ⎨−1 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1

⎪ 0 otherwise

⎩

36

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Using

ψ j ,k ( x) = 2 ψ (2 x − k ), j , k ∈

j/2 j

and scaled Haar wavelets.

37

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Any function f(x)œ V0 may be expressed by the

scaling function φ(x):

38

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Any function f(x)œV1 may be expressed by the

scaling function φ(x) describing the coarse form

that cannot be represented in V0 by φ(x).

39

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

Remember the function of an earlier example

f(x)œV1 but f(x)–V0. This indicates that it could be

expanded using V0 to capture the coarse

characteristics of the function and W0 to encode

the details that cannot be represented by V0.

40

Multiresolution Analysis

Wavelet Functions (cont…)

f ( x) = f a ( x) + f d ( x)

3 2 2 − 2 2

f a ( x) = φ0,0 ( x) − φ0,2 ( x) f d ( x) = ψ 0,0 ( x) − ψ 0,2 ( x)

4 8 4 8

C. Nikou – Digital Image Processing (E12)

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