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KEY ISSUES IN

CRANE SAFETY
Theresa F. Anderson, CEM
Corporate Equipment Manager
Inspection Services and Sales

Ray Feidt
Inspection/Training Manager
Stephenson Equipment, Inc.

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Presenter:
Theresa F. Anderson

Crane issues:
• Assembly/disassembly procedures [1926.1403]
• Ground conditions [1926.1402]
• Dangers of high voltage [1926.1407 - 1926.1411]
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Why Work Safe?

Source: Yueng-Hsiang Huang, et. al. “Financial Decision Makers’ Views on Safety”. Professional
Safety Magazine April 2009: pages 36-42. Print.
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OSHA Subpart CC:
Cranes & Derricks in Construction

Effective Date: November 7, 2010


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SUBPART CC HIGHLIGHTS
• Scope
• Definitions • Signal Person Qualifications
• Ground Conditions • Qualifications of Maintenance and
• Assembly/disassembly Repair Workers
• Power Line Safety • Training
• Inspections • Hoisting Personnel
• Wire Rope • Multiple Crane/Derrick Lifts
• Safety Devices • Design, Construction and Testing
• Operational Aids
• Equipment Modifications
• Operation
• Tower Cranes
• Authority to Stop Operation
• Signals • Derricks
• Fall Protection • Floating Cranes & Land Cranes on
• Work Area Control Barges
• Keeping Clear of the Load • Overhead and Gantry Cranes
• Free Fall and Controlled Load • Dedicated Pile Drivers
Lowering • Sideboom Cranes
• Operator Qualification and Certification • Requirements for equipment w/ capacity
of 2000 lbs and less

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SCOPE: EQUIPMENT
COVERED BY SUBPART CC
• Functional description:
Any power-operated
equipment which can
hoist, lower and
horizontally move a
suspended load.
[1926.1400(a)]

• Part 1926.1400(a) gives


a long list of examples.
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SCOPE: EXAMPLES LIST

• Articulating cranes (such as


knuckle-boom cranes)
• Crawler cranes
• Floating cranes
• Cranes on barges
• Locomotive cranes
• Mobile cranes
• (such as wheel-mounted, rough-
terrain, all-terrain, commercial
truck-mounted, and boom truck
cranes)
• Multi-purpose machines
• when configured to hoist and
lower (by means of a winch or
hook) and horizontally move a
suspended load
• Industrial cranes (such as carry-
deck cranes)

[1926.1400(a)]

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SCOPE: EXAMPLES LIST - continued

• Dedicated pile drivers


• Service/mechanic trucks with a
hoisting device
• Crane on a monorail
• Tower cranes (such as fixed jib
(“hammerhead boom”), luffing
boom and self-erecting)
• Pedestal cranes
• Portal cranes
• Overhead and gantry cranes
• Straddle cranes
• Sideboom cranes
• Derricks

• . . . and variations of such


equipment.
[1926.1400(a)]

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SCOPE EXCLUSIONS

• Specific exclusions (such as for


power shovels, excavators,
backhoes, loader backhoes, track
loaders) [1926.1400(c)(2)]

• Limited exclusions (such as for


digger derricks, articulating/knuckle-
boom truck cranes) [1926.1400(c)(4)]

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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY

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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
The employer must comply with
all applicable manufacturer’s
prohibitions [1926.1403] and has
two options:

1. Comply with manufacturer


procedures [1926.1403(a)]
or
2. Comply with company written
procedures [1926.1403(b)]

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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
IF the employer uses his own
procedures, he must ensure the
procedures:
• Are developed by a qualified person.;
• Prevent unintended dangerous movement
and collapse;
• Provide adequate support and stability of all
parts of the equipment;
• Position employees involved in the
assembly/disassembly operation so that their
exposure to unintended movement or
collapse of part or all of the equipment is
minimized.
[1926.1406(a)], [1926.1406(b)]

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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
What are the requirements for the person
directing assembly and disassembly
(A/D)? The A/D director must:
• Be a competent & qualified person.
[1926.1404(a)]
• Understand the A/D procedures.
[1926.1404(b)]
• Review procedures (unless A/D
Director has used them before in the
same type and configuration of
equipment) . [1926.1404(c)]
• Check that crew members
understand their tasks and hazards.
[1926.1404(d)]
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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
Additional requirements under [1926.1404]
• Crew members must inform
the operator if they are
moving to a location of
potential danger. [1926.1404(e)]

• No crew members under


areas where pins, etc. are
being removed. [1926.1404(f)]

• Capacity limits must be


observed. [1926.1404(g]
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ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
Additional requirements under [1926.1404]
• Specific hazards must be addressed and dealt with,
including: [1926.1404(h)(1) - 1926.1404(h)(12)]
 Site and ground bearing adequacy
 Stacking of the blocking adequacy
 Proper blocking locations
 Verifying assist crane loads
 Finding proper boom and jib pick points
 Identification of load center of gravity
 Component stability upon pin removal
 Insuring no snagging of ropes, pendants, etc.
 Counterweight movement
 Testing of boom hoist brakes
 Prevention of loss of backward stability
 Effect of wind and weather

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ASSEMBLY
Additional requirements under [1926.1404]

• Respect manufacturers
limitations on maximum
amount of boom supported
only by cantilevering.
[1926.1404(j)]

• The weight of each component


MUST be readily available.
[1926.1404(k)]

• The selection of components


and their configuration must
be in accordance with
manufacturers instructions,
prohibitions, limitations and
specifications
[1926.1404(m)(1)(i)]

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ASSEMBLY
Additional requirements under [1926.1404]

• Post-assembly inspection
must be performed.
[1926.1404(m)(2)]

• Shipping pins (and other


shipping components)
must be removed.
[1926.1404(o)]

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ASSEMBLY

• Outriggers and stabilizers


must be either
[1926.1404(q)] :
 Fully deployed
 Deployed as specified
in load chart.

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Additional requirements under
[1926.1404]

• All rigging work is done by


a Qualified Rigger
[1926.1404(r)(1)]

• Slings must be protected


from anything which could
cause a reduction in rated
capacity. [1926.1404(r)(2)]

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More requirements under
[1926.1404]

• When slings are used, all


applicable manufacturers
instructions, prohibitions,
limitations and
specifications must be
followed. [1926.1404(r)(3)]

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GROUND CONDITIONS
Controlling regulation: "Ground conditions"
means the ability of the ground to support the
equipment (including slope, compaction, and
firmness). [1926.1402(a)(1)]
“… firm, drained and
graded …”

“… sufficient to support
crane (in conjunction with
blocking, mats, etc.) …”

[1926.1402(b)]

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Examples of unsupported ground
penetration

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GROUND CONDITIONS
The “controlling
entity” must inform
equipment user &
operator of known
underground
hazards (voids,
tanks, utilities, etc.)
[1926.1402(c)(2)]

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GROUND CONDITIONS
• The “controlling entity” must
inform the user of the
equipment and the operator of
the location of hazards
beneath the equipment set-up
area if those hazards are
identified in documents (such
as site drawings, as-built
drawings, and soil analyses)
that are in the possession of
the controlling entity (whether
at the site or off-site) or the
hazards are otherwise known
to that controlling entity.
[1926.1402(c)(2)]

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GROUND CONDITIONS
If there is no controlling entity for the project, the
requirement to “inform” must be met by the employer
that has authority at the site to make or arrange for
ground preparations needed to meet the
requirements. [1926.1402(d)]

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POWER LINE SAFETY

1926 Subpart CC: 1926.1407 – 1926.1411


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POWER LINE SAFETY
Before beginning operations, the
employer must specifically identify
the work zone.

Two identification choices:


• Marking boundaries with flags
or range limiting devices
[1926.1408(a)(1)(i)]
or
• 360 degrees around crane up to
maximum working radius
[1926.1408(a)(1)(ii)]

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POWER LINE SAFETY
Could any part of the equipment get within 20 feet of power line?
YES NO

Option #1:
Deenergize and No further
ground action
[1926.1408(a)(2)(i)] required
Option #2:
Encroachment Prevention Measures
20-foot clearance
[1926.1408(a)(2)(ii)] (Equipment Operations) [1926.1408(b)]

Option #3: • Planning meeting with operator/workers


Ask utility for [1926.1408(b)(1)]
• If tag lines used, they must be non-conductive
voltage and [1926.1408(b)(2)]
use ‘Table A ‘ • Elevated warning lines, barricade or line of signs
(with minimum at 20 feet or minimum approach distance ( when
clearance distance) using ‘Table A’) [1926.1408(b)(3)]
PLUS (choose one) [1926.1408(b)(4)] :
[1926.1408(a)(2)(iii)]
• Proximity alarm, designated spotter, warning
device, range limiter, or insulating link
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POWER LINE SAFETY
When choosing ‘Option 3’, the minimum clearance
distances in ‘Table A’ below must be used. [1926.1408(a)(2)(iii)]
VOLTAGE MINIMUM CLEARANCE
(nominal kV, A/C) DISTANCE (feet)
up to 50 10
over 50 to 200 15
over 200 to 350 20
over 350 to 500 25
over 500 to 750 35
over 750 to 1,000 45
over 1,000 As established by the utility owner/operator or
registered professional engineer who is a
qualified person with respect to electrical
power transmission and distribution.

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POWER LINE SAFETY
Exceptions
[1926.1408(d)]

To work under a power line, one of the following needs to be demonstrated:

• For non-extensible booms, no part of the boom – at true vertical – could come
within either 20 feet or the applicable distance in ‘Table A’.

• For extensible booms, no part of the boom – at true vertical and fully extended
– could come within either 20 feet or the applicable distance in ‘Table A’.

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POWER LINE SAFETY

To intentionally work closer than a


‘Table A’ zone:
The employer must show:

• Staying outside zone is infeasible


[1926.1410(a)]

• Infeasible to deenergize and ground


(after consultation with the utility)
[1926.1410(b)]

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POWER LINE SAFETY
To intentionally work closer than a
‘Table A’ zone:
All of the following are required:
1. Power line owner (or qualified registered professional engineer) sets minimum approach distance.
[1926.1410(c)]
2. Planning meeting with employer and utility (or qualified registered professional engineer) is
required to determine procedures. [1926.1410(d)]
3. Minimum procedures [1926.1410(d)(1) - 1926.1410(d)(12)] :
• Deactivation of automatic reenergizing device
• Dedicated spotter (a) equipped with visual aids, (b) effectively positioned, (c) communications
• Elevated warning line or barricade
• Insulating link/device
• Nonconductive rigging
• Range limiter (if equipped)
• Nonconductive tag line (if used)
• Barricades - 10 feet from equipment
• Limit access to essential workers
• Prohibit non-operator workers from touching above insulating link
• Properly ground crane
• Insulating line cover-up installed

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POWER LINE SAFETY
The requirements of [1926.1407] and [1926.1408] apply to power
lines over 350kV except:

• For power lines at or


below 1,000kV, wherever
the distance “20 feet” is
specified, the distance
"50 feet" must be
substituted;
[1926.1409(a)]

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POWER LINE SAFETY
HIGH VOLTAGE

• For power lines over


1000 kV, the minimum
clearance distance must
be established by the
utility owner/operator or
registered professional
engineer who is a
qualified person with
respect to electrical
power transmission and
distribution.
[1926.1409(b)]
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Presenter
Ray Feidt, Inspection/Training Manager
Stephenson Equipment, Inc.

• Crane Operator Qualifications


• Crane Inspections

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CRANE OPERATOR
QUALIFICATIONS

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Experience, Training and Certification

• When the qualification


of a crane operator is
discussed, these three
things are generally a
part of that discussion.
– Were they trained….
– How much experience Certification
do they have….. Training
– and are they certified
• And not necessarily in
this order.

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Experience
• Experience (noun):
• Experience defined: skill or knowledge that
you get by doing something.
• In the past, experience was the only way a
person learned the trade of crane operation.
Formal training and certification weren’t a
part of the process.
• Because of this, unfortunately some bad
habits were passed down and many times
correct operational techniques were never
learned.
• These bad habits that were passed down
from generation to generation has been the
cause of many crane accidents over the
years.
• So, experience alone isn’t the only thing that
qualifies a crane operator, although it is an
important component.

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Experience
• Types of experience:
• Experience is gained by doing
something.
• Because cranes are used in
many different applications, and
operators experience tends to
be specific to the field that they
worked in, it isn’t always
sufficient to just ask “how many
years of experience do you
have”. The better question
could be, “how many years of
experience do you have and
what type of work have you
done with a crane”.

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Training
• Formal training is another component that qualifies
a crane operator.
• The majority of crane operator training classes
focus on technical knowledge based subject matter
which can be taught in a classroom setting.
• Most crane operator training classes cover general
technical knowledge subject matter that is relevant
to all crane types. It is not specific to a certain crane
make or model.
• Formal training is important and was a missing
component in the way crane operators learned the
trade in years past.
• A training process that is not as popular is hands-on
training.
• Because safe crane operation requires both
technical knowledge and operational skill, hands-on
training that teaches crane operators how to control
the swing of a hook/load is critical to safe crane
operations.
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Training
• Whenever crane operator training is
discussed, two things must be
considered.
– Does the training cover general crane
knowledge subject matter…..
– and/or is it specific to a certain crane
make and model.
• For a crane operator to be
considered “qualified” on a specific
make/model crane, both types of
training are required.
• As cranes have gotten more
technologically advanced over the
past several years, specific training
focused on a certain make and
model is a critical component to safe
crane operation.
• Obviously, the more complex cranes
require more crane specific training.

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Certification
• Certification is another component that is
used to consider whether a crane operator is
“qualified”.
• Crane operator certification exams are used
to verify an operators technical knowledge
by using a written exam process and
operational skill by using a practical exam
process.
• Because “Crane Operator Certification
Programs” focus on general crane
knowledge and operational skill by crane
type, the exams are based on subject matter
that is relevant to all cranes of a certain type,
not a specific make or model.

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Certification
• Another important point to consider concerning a “Crane
Operator Certification” is this……
• Many times crane operators are expected to know how to:
– Drive the crane….
– Assemble and disassemble the crane…..
– Assess soil type and compaction……
– And operate the crane
• Because of the expectation that crane operators can do all of
these tasks, it is many times assumed that all operators
know how to drive and assemble and disassemble every
specific make and model crane, and because they are
“certified”, they are qualified to do all of these. This could not
be further from the truth!
• It is important to note, crane operating isn’t necessarily
driving or assembling or disassembling the crane. It is
operating.
• A “Crane Operator Certification” process verifies an
operators, operator knowledge and skill, not his/her ability to
drive, access soil type or condition or assemble or
disassemble a specific make/model crane.
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So, what Qualifies a Crane Operator
• Because the topic of safe crane operation always revolves around the
crane operator, the discussion usually leans toward, how do we know
the crane operator is qualified.
• I believe it needs to be said, safe crane operation requires more than
just operating.
• A “Crane Operator Certification” does not verify that a crane operator is
necessarily qualified to set-up, assemble or disassemble every make
and model crane.
• It means, an operator has proven they have general crane technical
knowledge and at least a minimum level of proficiency of operational
skill.
• So, a certified crane operator should be able to “operate” a crane of the
type that he/she is certified in, not necessarily set it up, assemble it or
disassemble it.
• There isn’t one wallet card that is going to assure overall safe crane
operations in every case. Total safe crane operations will many times
require more than one qualified person and/or more crane specific
training.
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CRANE INSPECTIONS

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Who Can Inspect? – Competent Person

• Competent person OSHA


Definition: one who is capable
of identifying existing and
predictable hazards in the
surroundings or working
conditions which are unsanitary,
hazardous, or dangerous to
employees, and who has Competent Person:
authorization to take prompt A person that is
…..and has the capable of identifying
corrective measures to
authority to take hazards related to
eliminate them.
prompt corrective the type of work that
measures. is being done.
In order for an employer to consider an employee competent as related to crane
inspection, the person must have enough knowledge of the crane that he/she is
inspecting so that this person can identify hazards and must also be given authority by
the employer to take prompt corrective action if immediate hazards are found during an
inspection.

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Who Can Inspect? Qualified Person

• Qualified person OSHA


Definition: a person who, by
possession of a recognized or
degree, certificate, or
professional standing; or who Has a degree has professional
by extensive knowledge, or certificate standing
training and experience,
successfully demonstrated the Or someone who has….
ability to solve/resolve
problems relating to the
subject matter, the work, or
the project.
extensive knowledge, training and experience
In order for an employer to consider an employee qualified as related to crane inspection, the
person must have a degree or certificate, or professional standing; or have extensive
knowledge, training and experience in the type of crane that they are inspecting and they have
demonstrated they can solve problems related to the type of crane they are inspecting.

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OSHA Crane Inspections 1926.1412 & 1926.1435 (tower cranes only)
Inspection Type Who Inspects Regulation

Modified Cranes Inspection Qualified Person 1926.1412(a)


Repaired Cranes Inspection Qualified Person 1926.1412(b)

Pre-assembly Inspection (tower Qualified Person 1926.1425(f)


cranes only)
Post-assembly Inspection Qualified Person 1925.1412(c) &
1926.1435(f)(3)
Shift Inspection Competent Person 1926.1412(d)

Monthly Inspection Competent Person 1926.1412(e) &


1926.1435(f)(4)
Annual Comprehensive Inspection Qualified Person 1926.1412(f) &
1926.1435(f)(5)
Severe Service Qualified Person 1926.1412(g)
Cranes Idle for at least 3 months Qualified Person 1925.1412(h)

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What Qualifies a Crane Inspector
• Extensive knowledge and • A qualified crane inspector
training is key to being a must at a minimum:
qualified crane inspector. – Have extensive knowledge in
• Crane inspectors can be very the type of crane they are
inspecting,
knowledgeable in one type of
– Have a thorough understanding
crane and not in another type of the regulations and standards
of crane. applicable to the type of crane,
• Being qualified to inspect all – Have extensive knowledge of
types of cranes requires much wire rope construction, types,
experience and knowledge safety factors and removal
criteria,
with all types of cranes. – Have a good mechanical
understanding of crane
components.

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Crane Inspector Certification
• Crane Inspector Certification exams
are also something that is used to
verify Crane Inspector
Qualifications.
• Many training companies provide
Crane Inspector training classes
and provide their own Crane
Inspector Certification credential
that is generally provided at the
completion of a training course.
• Crane Inspector Certification exams
are also available through some
Professional Associations or
Certification Agencies.

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Crane Inspector Certification
• Some Certification Agencies that provide a
Crane Inspector Certification program
require a pre-requisite of several years of
verifiable experience prior to being
permitted to take the certification exams.
• If an inspector holds this credential, the
crane owner can be assured the inspector
has at least the number of years experience
required by the Certification Agency.
• The Certification of a Crane Inspector, just
like the Certification of a Crane Operator,
should not be the only thing that is looked at
when considering whether a crane inspector
is qualified.
• An inspectors experience, background, what
types of cranes their experience is in along
with a professional Crane Inspector
Certification must be considered.

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Qualified Crane Inspectors

• When selecting an – Does the inspection


inspection company, company have a continuing
consider the following: training program for their
– Does the inspector have inspectors.
experience with the type of – How will the inspection be
crane(s) that I need documented.
inspected. – Is the inspection company
– Does the inspector hold a insured to provide
Crane Inspector Certification professional services
from a reputable Certification (professional liability) such
Agency. as crane inspections.
– Does the Certification
Agency that credentialed the
inspector require a pre-
requisite amount of
experience.

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Required Documentation

• OSHA requires: – that the last annual


– that the last three comprehensive
monthly inspection inspection report be
reports be readily readily available and
available and must be must be provided to
provided to any person any person performing
performing inspections inspections on the
on the crane. crane.

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QUESTIONS????????

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