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Mathematics

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Learner’s Module

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Unit 4

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educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities.

We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their

feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of

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Education at action@deped.gov.ph.

Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Mathematics – Grade 10

Learner’s Module

First Edition 2015

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work

of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or

office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.

Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of

royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,

trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders.

DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking

permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have

been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do

not represent nor claim ownership over them.

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Only institution and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and

only within the agreed framework may copy this Learner’s Module. Those who have not

entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publisher and

authors directly.

Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02)

439-2204, respectively.

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Published by the Department of Education

Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC

Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD

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Development Team of the Learner’s Module

Consultants: Soledad A. Ulep, PhD, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, PhD, and

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Rosemarievic Villena-Diaz, PhD

Authors: Melvin M. Callanta, Allan M. Canonigo, Arnaldo I. Chua, Jerry D. Cruz,

Mirla S. Esparrago, Elino S. Garcia, Aries N. Magnaye, Fernando B. Orines,

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Editor: Maxima J. Acelajado, PhD

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Arceo, PhD, Rene R. Belecina, PhD, Dolores P. Borja, Agnes D. Garciano, Phd,

Ma. Corazon P. Loja, Roger T. Nocom, Rowena S. Requidan, and Jones A.

Tudlong, PhD

Illustrator: Cyrell T. Navarro

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Management and Specialists: Jocelyn DR Andaya, Jose D. Tuguinayo Jr.,

Elizabeth G. Catao, Maribel S. Perez, and Nicanor M. San Gabriel Jr.

Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS)

Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Building, DepEd Complex

Meralco Avenue, Pasig City

Philippines 1600

Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072

E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Introduction

Program to ensure attainment of standards expected of students.

processes - development by writers composed of classroom teachers, school

heads, supervisors, specialists from the Department and other institutions;

validation by experts, academicians, and practitioners; revision; content

review and language editing by members of Quality Circle Reviewers; and

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finalization with the guidance of the consultants.

Module 1 – Sequences

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Module 2 – Polynomials and Polynomial Equations

Module 3 – Polynomial Functions

Module 4 – Circles

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Module 5 – Plane Coordinate Geometry

Module 6 – Permutations and Combinations

Module 7 – Probability of Compound Events

Module 8 – Measures of Position

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With the different activities provided in every module, may you find this

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problem-solving skills.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Table of Contents

Unit 4

Module 8: Measures of Position ............................................................ 355

Lessons and Coverage ........................................................................ 357

Module Map ......................................................................................... 357

Pre-Assessment .................................................................................. 358

Learning Goals and Targets ................................................................ 361

Lesson 1: Measures of Position for Ungrouped Data ................................ 362

Activity 1 .................................................................................... 362

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Activity 2 .................................................................................... 363

Activity 3 .................................................................................... 363

Activity 4 .................................................................................... 364

Activity 5 .................................................................................... 369

Activity 6 .................................................................................... 371

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Activity 7 .................................................................................... 371

Activity 8 .................................................................................... 372

Activity 9 .................................................................................... 372

Activity 10 .................................................................................. 375

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Activity 11 .................................................................................. 375

Activity 12 .................................................................................. 377

Activity 13 .................................................................................. 378

Activity 14 .................................................................................. 378

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Activity 15 .................................................................................. 379

Activity 16 .................................................................................. 379

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ........................................................... 382

Lesson 2: Measures of Position for Grouped Data .................................... 383

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Activity 2 .................................................................................... 384

Activity 3 .................................................................................... 394

Activity 4 .................................................................................... 395

Activity 5 .................................................................................... 396

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Activity 7 .................................................................................... 397

Activity 8 .................................................................................... 398

Activity 9 .................................................................................... 398

Activity 10 .................................................................................. 401

Activity 11 .................................................................................. 401

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ........................................................... 402

Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................... 403

References and Website Links Used in this Module ................................. 403

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

I. INTRODUCTION

Look at the pictures shown below. Do you recognize them? Did you

take the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) when you

were in Grade 9? If so, what was your score? Did you know your rank?

Have you thought of comparing your academic performance with

that of your classmates?

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Have you wondered what score you need for each subject area to

qualify for honors?

Whenever your teacher asks your class to form a line according to

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your height, what is your position in relation to your classmates?

Have you asked yourself why a certain examinee in any national

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examination gets higher rank than the other examinees? Some state

colleges and universities are offering scholarship programs for graduating

students who belong to the upper 5%, 10%, or even 25%. What does this

mean to you?

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

In this module, you will study about the measures of position.

Remember to look for the answers to the following questions:

2. What are the ways to determine the measure of position in a set of

data?

so far during your Grade 7 and Grade 8 classes was to gain more knowledge

and deeper understanding about the characteristics of a data set. Another

method to analyze a data set is by arranging all the observations in either

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ascending or descending order of their magnitude. Then, this ordered set is

divided into two equal parts by applying the concept of median. However, to

have more knowledge about the data set, we may divide it into more parts of

equal sizes. The measures of central tendency which are used for dividing the

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data into several equal parts are called partition values.

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and hundred parts of equal sizes and the corresponding partition values are

called quartiles, deciles, and percentiles. All these values can be determined

in the same way as the median. The only difference is in their location.

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Quantiles can be applied when:

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1. dealing with large amount of data, which includes the timely results for

standardized tests in schools, etc.

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distribution.

3. examining financial fields for academic as well as statistical studies.

Quantiles are very useful because they help the government to find

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how the income in a country is distributed, how much of the total income is

earned by low wage earning groups and by high wage earning groups. (If

both groups earn the same proportion of the income, then there is income

equality.)

356

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

II. LESSONS AND COVERAGE

Lesson 2 – Measures of Position for Grouped Data

illustrate the following measures of position: quartiles,

deciles, and percentiles.

Lesson 1 calculate specified measure of position (e.g., 90th percentile)

of a set of data.

interpret measures of position.

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solve problems involving measures of position.

Lesson 2 formulate statistical mini-research.

use appropriate measures of position and other statistical

methods in analyzing and interpreting research data.

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Here is a simple map of the lessons in this entire module.

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Measures of Position

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Ungrouped Grouped

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Data Data

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Study Tips

To do well in this particular topic, you need to remember and do the following:

1. Study each part of the module carefully.

2. Take note of all the formulas given in each lesson.

3. Have your own scientific calculator. Make sure you are familiar with the

keys and functions of your calculator.

357

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

III. PRE-ASSESSMENT

Part I.

Find out how much you already know about this module. After taking and

checking this short test, take note of the items that you were not able to

answer correctly and look for the right answer as you go through this module.

A. 75th percentile C. 3rd decile

B. 5th decile D. 1st quartile

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2. When a distribution is divided into hundred equal parts, each score

point that describes the distribution is called a ___________.

A. percentile C. quartile

B. decile D. median

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3. The lower quartile is equal to ______________.

A. 50th percentile C. 2nd decile

B. 25th percentile

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D. 3rd quartile

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mathematics test. Which of the following is NOT true?

A. She scored above 70% of her classmates.

B. Thirty percent of the class got scores of 55 and above.

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C. If the passing mark is the first quartile, she passed the test.

D. Her score is below the 5th decile.

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5. In the set of scores: 14, 17, 10, 22, 19, 24, 8, 12, and 19, the median

score is _______.

A. 17 C. 15

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B. 16 D. 13

This means that:

A. she got the highest score.

B. her score is higher than 25% of her classmates.

C. she surpassed 75% of her classmates.

D. seventy-five percent of the class did not pass the test.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

7. The 1st quartile of the ages of 250 fourth year students is 16 years old.

Which of the following statements is true?

A. Most of the students are below 16 years old.

B. Seventy-five percent of the students are 16 years old and above.

C. Twenty-five percent of the students are 16 years old.

D. One hundred fifty students are younger than 16 years.

8. In a 100-item test, the passing mark is the 3rd quartile. What does it

imply?

A. The students should answer at least 75 items correctly to pass the

test.

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B. The students should answer at least 50 items correctly to pass the

test.

C. The students should answer at most 75 items correctly to pass the

test.

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D. The students should answer at most 50 items correctly to pass the

test. C

9. In a group of 55 examinees taking the 50-item test, Rachel obtained a

score of 38. This implies that her score is ______________.

A. below the 50th percentile C. the 55th percentile

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B. at the upper quartile D. below the 3rd decile

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83 72 87 79 82

77 80 73 86 81

79 82 79 74 74

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interpreted as ______.

B. seven students scored lower than 79.

C. seven students scored lower than 79 and seven students scored

higher than 79.

D. fourteen students scored lower than 79.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

For items 11 to 14, refer to table A below.

Table A

Cumulative Cumulative

Score Frequency

Frequency Percentage (%)

40-45 6 18 100.00

35-39 5 12 66.67

30-34 3 7 38.89

25-29 4 4 22.22

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11. In solving for the 60th percentile, the lower boundary is ___.

A. 34 C. 39

B. 34.5 D. 39.5

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12. What cumulative frequency should be used in solving for the 35th

percentile?

A. 4 C. 12

B. 7 D. 18

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13. The 45th percentile is ________.

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A. 33.4 C. 30.8

B. 32.7 D. 35.6

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A. 36.0 C. 36.5

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B. 37.0 D. 37.5

Part II.

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Read and understand the situation below, then answer or perform what is

asked. (6 points)

Cut-Cot, organized a Run for a Cause activity, titled FUN RUN. He informed

your school principal to motivate students to join the said FUN RUN.

performance on the number of minutes it took them to reach the finish line.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Teacher’s Rubric in Assessing Students’ Performance

(Group Task)

Standards 4 3 2 1

Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated

substantial understanding gaps in their little

understanding of the content understanding understanding

of the content, and task, even of the content of the content

Understanding processes, and though some and task

of Task demands of the supporting

task ideas or details

may have been

overlooked or

misunderstood

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Fully achieved Accomplished Completed Attempted to

the purpose of the task most of the task accomplish the

the task, task, but with

Completion of including little or no

Task thoughtful, success

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insightful

interpretations,

and conjectures C

Communicated Communicated Communicated Did not finish

their ideas and their findings their ideas and the research

findings effectively findings study and/or

effectively, were not able

raised to communicate

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Communication

interesting and ideas very well

of findings provocative

questions, and

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went beyond

what was

expected

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time together most together some very

productively of the time of the time productively as

Everyone was They usually Not everyone a group

Group Process involved and listened to each contributed Not everyone

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the group each other’s the task. the group effort.

process and ideas.

product.

After going through this module, you should be able to demonstrate

understanding of key concepts of measures of position. Moreover, you

should be able to conduct systematically a mini-research by applying the

different statistical methods.

361

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Let us start our study of this module by first reviewing the concept of

median, which is one of the concepts needed in the study of this module.

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Discuss the answers to the questions below with a partner.

Activity 1:

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x y

The midpoint between two numbers x and y on the real number line is .

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A B C

C

x y

x y

D

2

1. Find the coordinates of the midpoint (Q1) of AB in terms of x and y.

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A Q1 B

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x y

x

2

D

B Q2 C

x y

y

2

represent in the distribution?

362

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

The median divides the distribution into two equal parts. It is a point in

the distribution where one-half of the distribution lies below it and one-half

above it. One-half of the distribution lies below B and one-half lies above it.

Hence, B represents the median.

Activity 2:

Below is the RG2 worksheet which will determine your prior knowledge about

the topic.

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Answer the main question: What are the ways to determine the position in a

set of data? Write your answer in the Ready part of the RG2 Worksheet.

RG2 Worksheet

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Ready : C

Get set :

Go :

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Activity 3:

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My Definition Table

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Quartile

Decile

Percentile

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

This part of the module enables you to understand quantiles in a set

of ungrouped data. The activities in this section will help you answer the

question, What are the ways to determine the measure of position in a

given set of data?

The understanding that you will gain in doing these activities will

help you understand measures of position.

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Activity 4:

If you are the 4th tallest student, therefore 6 students are shorter than

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you.

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It also means that 60% of the students are shorter than you. If you

are the 8th tallest student in a group of 10, how many percent of the

students are shorter than you? _________________________________

quiz:

8,2,5,4,8,5,7,1,3,6,9

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

First, arrange the scores in ascending order:

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 8 , 9

Q1 Q2 Q3

Lower Middle Upper

quartile quartile quartile

Middle Quartile is

also the_______

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Observe how the lower quartile (Q1), middle quartile (Q2), and

upper quartile (Q3) of the scores are obtained. Complete the

statements below:

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The first quartile 3 is obtained by ____________________________.

(observe the position of 3 from 1 to 5)

C

The second quartile 5 is obtained by _________________________ .

(observe the position of 5 from 1 to 9)

D

The third quartile 8 is obtained by ___________________________ .

(observe the position of 8 from 6 to 9).

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7,4,8,9,3,6,7,4,5,8

3 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 7 , 8 , 8 , 9

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Q1 Q2 Q3

Lower 67 Upper

6.5 quartile

quartile 2

a. your observations about the quartile.

b. how each value was obtained.

c. your generalizations regarding your observations.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Let us take a closer look at the quartiles.

The quartiles are the score points which divide a distribution into four

equal parts. Twenty-five percent (25%) of the distribution are below the first

quartile, fifty percent (50%) are below the second quartile, and seventy-five

percent (75%) are below the third quartile. Q1 is called the lower quartile and

Q 3 is the upper quartile. Q1 < Q 2 < Q 3 , where Q 2 is nothing but the median.

The difference between Q 3 andQ1 is the interquartile range.

Since the second quartile is equal to the median, the steps in the

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computation of median by identifying the median class is the same as the

steps in identifying the Q1 class and the Q3 class.

Q1

O Q2 Q3

C

a. 25% of the data has a value ≤ Q1

b. 50% of the data has a value ≤ X or Q2

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c. 75% of the data has a value ≤ Q3

Example 1.

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came into his café each hour in a day. The results were 14, 10, 12, 9, 17, 5,

8, 9, 14, 10, and 11. Find the lower quartile and upper quartile of the data.

Solution:

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5, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 11, 12, 14, 14, 17

The least value in the data is 5 and the greatest value in the

data is 17.

The middle value in the data is 10.

The lower quartile is the value that is between the middle value

and the least value in the data set.

So, the lower quartile is 9.

The upper quartile is the value that is between the middle value

and the greatest value in the data set.

So, the upper quartile is 14.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Example 2.

Find the average of the lower quartile and the upper quartile of the

data.

Component Quantity

hard disk 290

monitors 370

keyboards 260

mouse 180

speakers 430

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Solution:

In increasing order, the data are 180, 260, 290, 370, 430.

The least value of the data is 180 and the greatest value of the

data is 430.

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The middle value of the data is 290.

The lower quartile is the value that is between the least value

and the middle value.

C

So, the lower quartile is 260.

The upper quartile is the value that is between the greatest

value and the middle value.

D

So, the upper quartile is 370.

The average of the lower quartile and the higher quartile

is equal to 315.

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Example 3.

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The lower quartile of a data set is the 8th data value. How many

data values are there in the data set?

Solution:

D

The lower quartile is the median data value of the lower half of

the data set.

So, there are 7 data values before and after the lower quartile.

So, the number of data values in the lower half is equal to

7+7+1.

The number of values in the data set is equal to lower half +

upper half + 1.

The number of values in the lower and upper halves are equal.

Formula:

15+15+1=31

So, the data set contains 31 data values.

367

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Another solution:

1

(n + 1) = 8

4

n+1 = 32

n = 31

Example 4.

and the Sciences, define a different method of finding quartile values. To

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apply their method on a data set with n elements, first calculate:

1

Lower Quartile (L) = Position of Q1 n 1

4

and round to the nearest integer. If L falls halfway between two integers,

round up. The Lth element is the lower quartile value (Q1).

Next calculate:

3

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Upper Quartile (U) = Position of Q3

4

n 1

C

and round to the nearest integer. If U falls halfway between two integers,

round down. The Uth element is the upper quartile value (Q3).

D

So for our example data set:

E

1

To find Q1, locate its position using the formula n 1 and round off

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4

to the nearest integer.

1

Position of Q1

4

n 1

D

1

(9 + 1)

4

1

(10)

4

2.5

368

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The computed value 2.5 becomes 3 after rounding up. The lower quartile

value (Q1) is the 3rd data element, so Q1 = 7. Similarly:

3

Q3

Position of

4

n 1

3

4

9 1

3

10

4

= 7.5

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The computed value 7.5 becomes 7 after rounding down. The upper quartile

value (Q3) is the 7th data element, so Q3 = 27.

Using this method, the upper quartile (Q3) and lower quartile (Q1)

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values are always two of the data elements.

Activity 5:

C

Find the first quartile (Q1), second quartile (Q2), and the third quartile

D

(Q3), given the scores of 10 students in their Mathematics activity using

Mendenhall and Sincich Method.

E

4 9 7 14 10 8 12 15 6 11

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Example 5.

Find the first quartile (Q1) and the third quartile (Q3), given the scores

of 10 students in their Mathematics activity using Linear Interpolation.

D

1 27 16 7 31 7 30 3 21

Solution:

1 3 7 7 16 21 27 30 31

369

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b. Second, locate the position of the score in the distribution.

1

Position of Q1

4

n 1

1

9 1

4

1

10

4

= 2.5

Since the result is a decimal number, interpolation is needed.

c. Third, interpolate the value to obtain the 1st quartile.

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Steps of Interpolation

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7–3=4

Step 2: Multiply the result by the decimal part obtained in the second

step (Position of Q1).

C

4(0.5) = 2

Step 3: Add the result in step 2, to the 2nd or smaller number.

D

3+2=5

E

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Solution:

a. First, arrange the scores in ascending order.

1 3 7 7 16 21 27 30 31

b. Second, locate the position of the score in the distribution.

D

3

Position of Q3

4

n 1

3

9 1

4

3

10

4

= 7.5

370

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

c. Third, interpolate the value to obtain the 3rd quartile.

Steps of Interpolation

30 - 27 = 3

Step 2: Multiply the result by the decimal part obtained in the third

step (Position of Q3).

3(0.5) = 1.5

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Step 3: Add the result in step 2, (1.5), to the 7th or smaller number.

27 + 1.5 = 28.5

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Note: As we can see, these methods sometimes (but not always)

produce the same results.

C

Activity 6:

D

Find the first quartile (Q1), second quartile (Q2), and the third quartile

E

(Q3), given the scores of 10 students in their Mathematics activity using Linear

Interpolation.

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4 9 7 14 10

8 12 15 6 11

Activity 7:

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their ages. The data are given in the table below.

Ana 10 Tony 11

Ira 13 Lito 14

Susan 14 Christian 13

Antonette 13 Michael 15

Gladys 15 Dennis 12

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

1. What is Q1, Q2, and Q3 of their ages?

2. How many students belong to Q1, Q2, and Q3 in terms of their ages?

3. Have you realized the process of finding quartiles while doing the

activity?

Activity 8:

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Aqua Running has been promoted as a method for cardiovascular

conditioning for the injured athlete as well as for others who desire a low

impact aerobic workout. A study reported in the Journal of Sports Medicine

investigated the relationship between exercise cadence and heart rate by

O

measuring the heart rates of 20 healthy volunteers at a cadence of 48 cycles

per minute (a cycle consisted of two steps). C

The data are listed here:

87 109 79 80 96 95 90 92 96 98

D

101 91 78 112 94 98 94 107 81 96

E

Activity 9:

EP

D

372

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The Deciles for Ungrouped Data

The deciles are the nine score points which divide a distribution into

ten equal parts. They are deciles and are denoted as D1, D2, D3,…, D9. They

are computed in the same way that the quartiles are calculated.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9

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Example 6.

sample of ten students:

35 , 42 , 40 , 28 , 15 , 23 , 33 , 20 , 18 and 28.

Solution:

O

C

First, arrange the scores in ascending order.

15 18 20 23 28 28 33 35 40 42

D

E

3

To find its D3 position, use the formula n 1 and round off to the

EP

10

nearest integer.

3

Position of D3

10

10 1

D

3

10

11

33

10

= 3.3 ≈ 3

Therefore, D3 = 20.

373

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Example 7

finished their test in 35 minutes. This time is the 2.5th decile of the

allotted time. What does this mean?

D2.5

35

minutes

PY

O

Explanation:

This means that 25% of the learners finished the test. A low

C

quartile considered good, because it means the students finished the

test in a short period of time.

D

2. Anthony is a secretary in one big company in Metro Manila. His salary

is in the 7th decile. Should Anthony be glad about his salary or not?

E

EP

Solution:

to his salary and 30% of the employees receive a salary that is greater

than his salary. Anthony should be pleased with his salary.

D

374

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Activity 10:

to record the service time for 15 customers.

20, 35, 55, 28, 46, 32, 25, 56, 55, 28, 37, 60, 47, 52, 17

Find the value of the 2nd decile, 6th decile, and 8th decile.

PY

O

After studying several discussions, examples, and activities, it will be good

C

for you to look back and check if there are still aspects which you find confusing

and hard. You are now ready to answer questions like: How can the position of a

certain value in a given set of data be described and used in solving real-life

problems?

E D

Activity 11:

EP

scores of 30 students are the following:

23 38 28 46 22 20 18 34 36 35

D

45 48 16 22 27 25 29 31 30 25

44 21 18 43 21 26 37 29 13 37

1. Q1 4. D2

2. Q2 5. D3

3. Q3

375

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The Percentile for Ungrouped Data

distribution into one hundred equal parts, so that each part represents the

data set. It is used to characterize values according to the percentage below

them. For example, the first percentile (P1) separates the lowest 1% from the

other 99%, the second percentile (P2) separates the lowest 2% from the other

98%, and so on.

PY

Q1 Q2 Q3

P25 P50 P75

O

P10 P20 P30 P40 P50 P60 P70 P80 P90

D1 D2 D3 D4 C D5 D6 D7 D8 D9

The percentiles determine the value for 1%, 2%,…, and 99% of the

D

data. P30 or 30th percentile of the data means 30% of the data have values

less than or equal to P30.

E

The 1st decile is the 10th percentile (P10). It means 10% of the data is

EP

Example 8

D

Find the 30th percentile or P30 of the following test scores of a random

sample of ten students: 35, 42, 40, 28, 15, 23, 33, 20, 18, and 28.

Solution:

15 18 20 23 28 28 33 35 40 42

376

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Steps to find percentile value on a data with n elements:

k n 1

To find its P30 position use the formula and round off to the

100

nearest integer.

30 10 1

Position of P30

100

30 11

100

300

PY

100

= 3.3

= 3.3 ≈ 3

O

P30 is the 3rd element.

Therefore, P30 = 20. C

Activity 12:

D

The scores of Miss World candidates from seven judges were

recorded as follows:

E

EP

D

2. What is the P35 of the judges’ scores?

377

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Activity 13:

What does it mean? What is its measure of position in relation to the other

data?

Activity 14:

PY

Complete the Cross Quantile Puzzle by finding the specified measures of

position. Use linear interpolation. (In filling the boxes, disregard the decimal

1 4 3

point. For example, 14.3 should be written as .

Given:

O

Scores 5, 7, 12, 14, 15, 22, 25, 30, 36, 42, 53, 65

C

1 2 3 Across

2. D7

65 n 1

D

4 4.

100

90 n 1

E

8.

100

9. P9

EP

5 6

Down

7 8

1. Q2

90 n 1

9 3.

D

100

5. P40

6. P52

7. P54

378

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This section of the module will test your understanding of the different

measures of position by applying it to real-life situations. To demonstrate and

apply your knowledge, you will be given a practical task specifically in the field of

business and social sciences.

PY

Activity 15:

Write each step in finding the position / location in the given set of data using

the cloud below. Add or delete clouds, if necessary.

O

C

D

Activity 16:

E

EP

Time

People

(hours)

2 450 A total of 8000 people visited a shopping

4 1500 mall over 12 hours.

6 2300

D

8 5700

10 6850

12 8000

Estimate the third quartile (when 75% of the visitors had arrived).

Estimate the 40th percentile (when 40% of the visitors had arrived).

379

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Activity 17:

PY

O

C

Goal: Make your own criteria in choosing the Cleanest Classroom

D

Role: Students by Section

E

Officers

EP

who will rank 1st based on the given standards.

D

findings, group process

380

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Teacher’s Rubric for Assessing Students’ Performance

(Group Task)

Standards 4 3 2 1

Understanding Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated Demonstrated

of Task a substantial understanding gaps in their minimal

understanding of the content understanding understanding

of the content, and task, even of the content of the content

processes, though some and task

and demands supporting

of the task ideas or details

may have

been

PY

overlooked or

misunderstood

Completion of Fully achieved Accomplished Completed Attempted to

Task the purpose of the task most of the accomplish the

the task, task task, but with

including little or no

O

thoughtful, success

insightful,

interpretations

and

C

conjectures

Communication Communicated Communicated Communicated Did not finish

of findings their ideas and their findings their ideas and the

D

findings effectively findings investigation

effectively, and/or were

raised not able to

E

provocative ideas very well

EP

questions, and

went beyond

what was

expected

Group Process Used all their Worked well Worked Did not work

time together most together some very

D

a group

Everyone was They usually Not everyone

involved and listened to contributed Not everyone

contributed to each other and equal efforts to contributed to

the group used each the task. the group

process and other’s ideas. effort.

product.

381

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SUMMARY/SYNTHESIS/GENERALIZATION

This lesson was about measures of position for ungrouped data. The

lesson provided you with opportunities to illustrate and compute for quartiles,

deciles, and percentiles of ungrouped data. You were also given the

opportunity to formulate and solve real-life problems involving measures of

position.

PY

k

Position of Qk

4

n 1

O

Decile for Ungrouped Data

k

Position of Dk n 1

C

10

D

Percentile for Ungrouped Data

k

Position of Pk n 1

E

100

EP

D

382

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To check your readiness for the next topic, review the previous lessons.

PY

These will help you in the study of measure of position for grouped data. As you

study the module, you may answer the question: How are measures of position

for grouped data used in real-life situations? Do and accomplish the activities

with your partner.

Activity 1:

O

C

The following are scores of ten students in their 40-item quiz.

D

34 23 15 27 36 21 20 13 33 25

E

1. What are the scores of the students which are less than or equal to

25% of the data?

EP

______________________________________________________

2. What are the scores of the students which are less than or equal to

65% of the data?

______________________________________________________

D

3. What are the scores of the students which are less than or equal to 8%

of the data?

______________________________________________________

383

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Activity 2:

questions. Do this activity as fast as you can.

1. The bank manager observes the bank deposits in one specific day are

as follows:

PY

9000 1200 1750 1100 4500

750 1500 1600 11 000 12 500

7000 9500 1200 13 500 1400

O

2. The weights of the students in a class are the following: 69, 70, 75, 66,

C

83, 88, 66, 63, 61, 68, 73, 57, 52, 58, and 77.

D

40 sales staff members who visit college professors all over the

E

him a report. This report includes, among other things, the number of

EP

from smallest to largest, are the number of professors visited last

week.

38 40 41 45 48 48 50 50 51 51 52

D

52 53 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 59 59

59 62 62 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 67

69 69 71 77 78 79 79

a. 3rd quartile

b. 9th decile

c. 33rd percentile

384

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Did you find the previous activities easy? Were you able to answer

it? Are you now ready to get the measures of position in a grouped data?

To help you understand the next topic, notes with illustrative examples

are provided.

PY

Recall that quartiles divide the distribution into four equal parts.

The steps in computing the median are similar to that of Q1 and Q3. In

finding the median, we first need to determine the median class. In the same

manner, the Q1 and the Q3 class must be determined first before computing

O

for the value of Q1 and Q3. The Q1 class is the class interval where the

N 3N

th score is contained, while the class interval that contains the th

4

C 4

score is the Q3 class.

D

In computing the quartiles of grouped data, the following formula is

used:

E

kN

4 cf b

Q LB i

EP

fQk

k

N = total frequency

D

class

f Q1 = frequency of the Qk class

i = size of class interval

k = nth quartile, where n = 1, 2, and 3

385

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Example 1.

Calculate the Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the Mathematics test scores of 50 students.

Scores Frequency

46-50 4

41-45 8

36-40 11

31-35 9

26-30 12

21-25 6

PY

Solution:

Interval (f) Boundaries Cumulative

Scores (LB) Frequency (<cf)

O

46-50 4 45.5 50

41-45 8 40.5 46

36-40 11 35.5

C 38

(28th-38th score) Q3 class

31-35 9 30.5 27 (19th-27th score) Q2 class

26-30 12 25.5 18 (7th-18th score) Q1 class

D

21-25 6 20.5 6

N = 50

E

N 50 LB 25.5

Q1 class:

4 4 N 50

EP

12.5 cf b 6

fQ 12

This means we need to find 2

D

score is contained. N

Note that the 7th-18th scores 4 cf b

Q

LB i

belong to the class interval: 26-30. 1

f Q1

So, the 12.5th score is also within the

class interval.

12.5 6

The Q1 class is class interval Q1 25.5

5

26-30. 12

Q1 28.21

Therefore, 25% of the students have a score less than or equal to 28.21.

386

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2N 2 50 LB 30.5

Q2 class:

4 4 N 50

100 cf b 18

4

25 fQ 9

2

class interval where the 25th score is

contained. 2N

4 cf b

Note that the 19th-27th scores Q2 LB i

f

belong to the class interval: 31-35. So, Q2

interval. 25 18

PY

Q2 30.5 5

The Q2 class is the class 9

interval 31-35. Q2 34.39

O

Therefore, 50% of the students have a score less than or equal to 34.39

C LB 35.5

3N 3 50

Q3 class: N 50

4 4

cf b 27

150

D

fQ 11

4 2

37.5 i 5

E

class interval where the 37.5th score is 4 cf b

EP

Q3 LB i

contained. f Q3

Note that the 28th-38th scores

belong to the class interval: 36-40. So, 37.5 27

Q3 35.5 5

the 37.5th score is also within the 11

D

class interval.

Q3 40.27

The Q3 class is class interval

36-40.

Therefore, 75% of the students have a score less than or equal to

40.27. The third quartile 40.27 falls within the class boundaries of 36-40 which

is (35.5-40.5)

387

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The Deciles for Grouped Data

Deciles are those values that divide the total frequency into 10 equal

parts. The kth decile denoted by Dk is computed as follows:

kN

10 cf b

Dk LB i

f Dk

N = total frequency

PY

cf b = cumulative frequency before the Dk class

f Dk = frequency of the Dk class

i = size of class interval

k = nth decile where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

O

6, 7, 8, and 9

Example 2.

C

Calculate the 7th decile of the Mathematics test scores of 50 students.

D

Scores Frequency

46-50 4

E

41-45 8

36-40 11

EP

31-35 9

26-30 12

21-25 6

D

388

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Solution:

Less than

Lower

Class Interval Frequency Cumulative

Boundaries

Scores (f) Frequency

(LB)

(<cf)

46-50 4 45.5 50

41-45 8 40.5 46

36-40 11 35.5 38 (28th-38th score)

31-35 9 30.5 27 D7 class

26-30 12 25.5 18

PY

21-25 6 20.5 6

N = 50

O

7N

7N 10 cf b

D7 class: = D7 LB i

10

f D7

350

C

=

10 35 27

= 35 D7 35.5 5

11

D

This means we need to find the

class interval where the 35th score is

D7 39.14

E

contained.

Note that the 28th-38th scores

EP

the 35th score is also within the class

interval.

The D7 class is the class

interval 36-40.

D

70% of the students got a score less than or equal to 39.14.

389

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The Percentile for Grouped Data

the percentage below them.

Early on, you have already learned that kth quartile denoted by Qk and

the kth deciles denoted by Dk are computed, respectively, as follows:

kN kN

4 cf b 10 cf b

Qk LB i and Dk LB i

f Qk f Dk

PY

Finding percentiles of a grouped data is similar to that of finding

quartiles and deciles of a grouped data.

O

kN

cf b

Pk LB 100 i

C f Pk

where:

D

LB = lower boundary of the kth percentile class

N = total frequency

cf b = cumulative frequency before the percentile class

E

k

EP

i

k = nth percentile where n = 1, 2, 3,…, 97, 98, and 99

Example 3.

Calculate the 65th percentile and 32nd percentile of the Mathematics

D

Scores Frequency

46-50 4

41-45 8

36-40 11

31-35 9

26-30 12

21-25 6

390

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Solution:

Less than

Lower

Class Interval Frequency Cumulative

Boundaries

Scores (f) Frequency

(LB)

(<cf)

46-50 4 45.5 50

41-45 8 40.5 46

36-40 11 35.5 38 (28th-38th score)

31-35 9 30.5 27 P65 class

26-30 12 25.5 18 (7th-18th score)

21-25 6 20.5 6 Q1 class

PY

65N LB 35.5

P65 class : =

O

100 N 50

3250 Cf b 27

=

100 f P 11

= 32.5

C 65

i =5

This means we need to find the

class interval where the 32.5th score is 65N

D

contained. 100 cf b

P65 LB i

Note that the 28th-38th scores f P65

E

the 32.5th score is also within the 32.5 27

class interval. P65 35.5 5

EP

11

The P65 class is the class

interval 36-40. P65 38

D

Therefore, 65% of the students got a score less than or equal to 36-40.

391

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32N 32 50 32N

P32 class: = 100 cf b

100 100 P32 LB i

1600 f P32

=

100

= 16 16 6

P32 25.5 5

This means we need to find the 12

class interval where the 16th score is

contained. P32 29.67

Note that the 7th-18th scores

belong to the class interval: 26-30. So,

the 16th score is also within the class

PY

interval.

The P32 class is class interval

26-30.

O

Therefore, 32% of the students got a score less than or equal to 29-67.

Percentile Rank

C

Percentile ranks are particularly useful in relating individual scores to

their positions in the entire group. A percentile rank is typically defined as the

D

proportion of scores in a distribution that a specific score is greater than or

equal to. For instance, if you received a score of 95 on a mathematics test

and this score was greater than or equal to the scores of 88% of the students

E

EP

given to Grade 9 students. The scores of students are represented by their

percentile ranks.

100 P LB f P

D

PPR cf P

N i

cf P = cumulative frequency of all the values below the

critical value

P = raw score or value for which one wants to find a percentile

rank

LB = lower boundary of the kth percentile class

N = total frequency

i = size of the class interval

392

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Example 4.

Find how many percent of the scores are greater than the cumulative

frequency of 38 in the previous table.

Solution:

Scores Frequency cf

46-50 4 50

41-45 8 46

36-40 11 38

(28th – 38th score)

31-35 9 27

26-30 12 18

PY

21-25 6 6

LB = 35.5 PPR cf P

N i

O

P = 38

N = 50

f P = 11 100 38 35.5 27

PPR

cf P = 27

C

50 5

27

I =5

PPR 65

D

Therefore, 65% of the scores are less than the cumulative frequency of

E

38, while 35% of the scores are greater than the cumulative frequency of 38.

Example 5.

EP

consultants who made Php5,400 or more per day.

Consultant

D

Number of Cumulative

Fees

Consultants Frequency

(in Php)

6400 – 7599 24 120

5200 – 6399 36 96

4000 – 5199 19 60

2800 – 3999 26 41

1600 – 2799 15 15

393

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100 P LB f P

Php 5,400 is within 5200-6399 PPR cf P

LB = 5199.5 N i

N = 120

100 5400 5199.5 36

P = 5,400.00 PR 60

cf = 60 120 1200

P

fP = 36 PPR 55.01

i = 1200

Therefore, 55% of consultants make Php 5,400.00 or less per day and

PY

45% of consultants make Php 5,400.00 or more per day.

O

Activity 3:

C

Class Interval f <cf

D

81-90 7 60

71-80 10 53

E

61-70 15 43

51-60 4 28

EP

41-50 12 24

31-40 6 12

21-30 3 6

D

11-20 2 3

1-10 1 1

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

394

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Given the frequency distribution, compute for each quantile and match

it with the letter code of its corresponding value to complete the phrase in the

preceding page:

Q1 T. 43

Q2 I. 61.83

Q3 N. 72.5

P15 Y. 35.5

P35 L. 48

P70 A. 69.83

D6 M. 65.83

PY

D4 C. 50/5

D8 O. 75.5

R. 34

O

Activity 4: C

The following is a distribution for the number of employees in 45 companies

belonging to a certain industry. Calculate the third quartile, 85th percentile,

and 4th decile of the number of employees given the number of companies.

D

Number of Number of

Employees Companies

E

41 – 45 11

EP

36 – 40 6

31 – 35 9

26 – 30 7

21 – 25 8

D

16 – 20 4

395

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Activity 5:

Find the 1st quartile, 7th decile, 35th percentile, and percentile rank of 115

and 155 for the following distribution.

151 – 160 8

141 – 150 12

131 – 140 6

121 – 130 10

111 – 120 7

PY

101 – 110 11

91 – 100 13

81 – 90 9

71 – 80 4

O

C

After having several discussions, examples, and activities, you need to have

D

a closer look once again if there are still aspects which you find confusing and

hard. You are now ready to answer questions like: How can the position of data

be described and used in solving real-life problems?

E

EP

Activity 6:

Career Assessment Examination (NCAE). The determining factor for a

D

college scholarship is that a student’s score should be in the top 10% of the

scores of his/her graduating class. The students in the graduating class

obtained the following scores in the NCAE.

39 – 41 6

36 – 38 7

33 – 35 9

30 – 32 13

27 – 29 22

396

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NCAE Scores f LB <cf

24 – 26 10

21 – 23 9

18 – 20 7

15 – 17 8

12 – 14 4

9 – 11 2

6–8 1

3–5 1

PY

<cf (less than cumulative frequency). Explain how you arrived at your

answers.

2. Find the 3rd quartile, 72nd percentile, and the 8th decile of the set of

data.

O

3. What is the percentile rank of Dennis and Christine?

C

4. Based on their percentile and percentile ranks, will Dennis and

Christine receive a scholarship? Explain your answer.

D

Activity 7:

E

In this activity, you will be asked to complete the 1 – 4 – 3 chart. Write down

what is being asked regarding the different measures of position.

EP

1 – 4 – 3 LIST

One thing I really love about this topic

1.

Four important reasons why I love this topic

1.

D

2.

3.

4.

Three things I still need to understand about this topic

1.

2.

3.

397

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You have already learned and identified the measures of position and the

process of computing and interpreting results. You will now take a closer look at

some aspects of the topic and check if you still have misconceptions about

measures of position.

Activity 8:

PY

I. Things Learned and Insights

II. Concept Map

III. Difficulties

IV. Unforgettable Experiences / Activities

Activity 9:

O

C

Conduct a mini-research on students’ performance in the final

examination in Mathematics. Apply the knowledge and skills you have

learned in this lesson to evaluate and interpret test results and to

D

make/formulate meaningful decisions based on the results to resolve the

difficulties of the students.

E

EP

D

398

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Teacher’s Scoring Rubric in Assessing Students’ Performance

(Group Task)

Approaching

Criteria Proficient Developing Beginning

Proficient

The paper The paper The paper The paper did

demonstrated demonstrated demonstrated not

that the that the that the demonstrate

student fully student, for the student, to a that the

understands most part, certain extent, student has

and has understands understands fully

applied and has applied and has understood

PY

concepts concepts applied and applied

learned in the learned in the concepts concepts

INTEGRATION course. course. Some learned in the learned in the

OF Concepts are of the course. course.

KNOWLEDGE integrated into conclusions,

O

the writer’s however, are

own insights. not supported

The writer

provides

C in the body of

the paper.

concluding

remarks that

D

show analysis

and synthesis

E

of ideas.

The topic is The topic is The topic is The topic is

focused focused but too broad for not clearly

EP

enough for the The paper is this

scope of this about a specific assignment.

assignment. topic but the

D

FOCUS study provides established a

direction for position.

the paper,

either by

statement of a

position or

hypothesis.

In-depth In-depth The student The paper

DEPTH OF

discussion is discussion is has omitted lacks in-depth

DISCUSSION

evident in all evident in most pertinent discussion as

399

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Approaching

Criteria Proficient Developing Beginning

Proficient

sections of the sections of the content or

evidenced by

paper paper content run-

cursory

ons discussion

excessively.

(with limited

supporting

points) in all

sections of

the paper.

Ties together For the most Sometimes Does not tie

information part, ties ties together together

PY

from all together information information

sources information from all Paper does

Paper flows from all sources sources not have a

from one issue Paper flows Paper did not good flow and

to the next with only some flow - appears to be

O

without the disjointedness. disjointedness created from

need for Student's is apparent. disparate

headings.

C

writing Student's issues.

COHESIVENESS Student's demonstrates writing does Headings are

writing an not necessary to

demonstrates understanding demonstrate link concepts.

D

an of the an Writing does

understanding relationship understanding not

E

relationship materials relationship understanding

among obtained from among of any

EP

obtained from obtained from

all sources. all sources.

No spelling Minimal spelling Noticeable Unacceptable

D

SPELLING & grammar mistakes grammar spelling

GRAMMAR mistakes mistakes and/or

grammar

mistakes

400

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Activity 10:

Ask your classmates about their Science, English, and Mathematics grades.

Gather all the data from your classmates by listing. Then, construct a

frequency distribution of a grouped data. (use i = 5).

a. 1st quartile

b. 2nd quartile

c. 3rd quartile

d. 7th decile

e. 4th decile

PY

f. 60th percentile

g. 85th percentile

h. percentile rank of 75

i. percentile rank of 82

O

Interpret each result.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

C

______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________ .

D

Activity 11:

E

My Definition Table

EP

Quartile

D

Decile

Percentile

401

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

SUMMARY/SYNTHESIS/GENERALIZATION

grouped data: quartiles, deciles, and percentiles, calculate a specified

measure of position (e.g., 90th percentile) of a set of data, interpret measures

of position, and solve problems involving measures of position. More

importantly, you were given the chance to formulate and solve real-life

problems, and demonstrate your understanding of the lesson by doing some

practical tasks.

PY

Quartile for Grouped Data

kN

cf b

Qk LB 4 i

fQk

O

C

Decile for Grouped Data

kN

D

cf b

Dk LB 10 i

f Dk

E

EP

kN

100 cf b

Pk LB i

D

f Pk

Percentile Rank

100 P LB f P

PPR cf P

N i

402

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Deciles - the nine score points which divide a distribution into ten equal parts.

These deciles are denoted as D1, D2, D3,… D9.

Percentiles - the ninety-nine score points which divide a distribution into one

1

hundred equal parts so that each part represents of the data set. They

100

are used to characterize values according to the percentage below them.

Quantiles - measures of positions that divide a distribution into four, ten, and

hundred equal parts. Such measures of positions are quartiles, deciles, and

PY

percentiles.

Quartiles - the score points which divide a distribution into four equal parts.

Twenty-five percent (25%) of the distribution fall below the first quartile, fifty

percent (50%) fall below the second quartile, and seventy-five percent (75%)

O

fall below the third quartile.

C

REFERENCES AND WEBSITE LINKS USED IN THIS MODULE

References:

D

De Guzman-Santos, R., De Guzman, T., Ungriano, A., Yabut, E. (2006).

Statistics. Manila, Philippines. Centro Escolar University Publishing

E

House.

EP

Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

D

Thomson Learning Asia.

Oronce, O., Mendoza, M. (2010). E-math IV. Quezon City, Philippines. Rex

Book Store, Inc.

403

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Website Links as References and Sources of Learning Activities:

http://www.slideshare.net/maggiev/the-interpretation-of-quartiles-and-

percentiles-july-2009

This site provides formula, examples, and exercises of quartile, percentile,

and decile.

http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/quartiles.html

This site provides examples of quartile.

www.mathsisfun.com/data/percentiles.html

This site provides examples and exercises of percentile.

PY

www.harding.edu/sbreezeel/460%20files/statbook/chapter5.pdf

This site provides formula, examples, and exercises of percentile and

percentile ranks.

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/quartile.html

O

This site provides problems for the cross-quantile problem.

C

https://www.google.com.ph

The following sites provide pictures that made the module more attractive and

interesting especially to students.

D

http://books.google.com.ph//

International Business Research By Neelankavil

This provides exercise for business in calculator drill.

E

http://alstatr.blogspot.com/2013/06/quartiles-deciles-and-percentiles.html

EP

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100630123126AA7lZZa

This provides exercise for business in calculator drill.

D

http://www.icoachmath.com/problems/problemslink.aspx

This site provides examples and exercises of quartile.

404

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

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