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JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING VOL. 48, NO. 2, PP.

149–169 (2011)

Examining the Effect of Teachers’ Adaptations of a Middle School Science


Inquiry-Oriented Curriculum Unit on Student Learning
Jay Fogleman,1 Katherine L. McNeill,2 Joseph Krajcik3
1
School of Education, University of Rhode Island, 711 Chafee Building,
Kingston, Rhode Island 02881
2
Lynch School of Education, Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts
3
School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Received 30 January 2009; Accepted 21 October 2010

Abstract: Reform based curriculum offer a promising avenue to support greater student achievement in science. Yet
teachers frequently adapt innovative curriculum when they use them in their own classrooms. In this study, we examine how
19 teachers adapted an inquiry-oriented middle school science curriculum. Specifically, we investigate how teachers’
curricular adaptations (amount of time, level of completion, and activity structures), teacher self-efficacy (teacher comfort
and student understanding), and teacher experience enacting the unit influenced student learning. Data sources included
curriculum surveys, videotape observations of focal teachers, and pre- and post-tests from 1,234 students. Our analyses
using hierarchical linear modeling found that 38% of the variance in student gain scores occurred between teachers. Two
variables significantly predicted student learning: teacher experience and activity structure. Teachers who had previously
taught the inquiry-oriented curriculum had greater student gains. For activity structure, students who completed inves-
tigations themselves had greater learning gains compared to students in classrooms who observed their teacher completing
the investigations as demonstrations. These findings suggest that it can take time for teachers to effectively use innovative
science curriculum. Furthermore, this study provides evidence for the importance of having students actively engaging in
inquiry investigations to develop understandings of key science concepts. ß 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach
48: 149–169, 2011
Keywords: curriculum development; inquiry; teacher beliefs; science education

The science learning goals specified in national standards documents (American Association for the
Advancement of Science, 1993; National Research Council, 1996) have provided an opportunity for
researchers to focus their efforts to develop classroom resources that enhance student learning on key
learning goals. In addition to establishing a coherent framework for the science topics at the different grade
levels, these documents suggest that students should learn science by engaging in inquiry processes that allow
them an active role in their own learning and reflect how knowledge is constructed within the various
scientific communities.
Reviews of traditional textbooks have called into question the degree that these textbooks support
students developing deep understandings of the learning goals identified in the national standards (Kesidou &
Roseman, 2002). To provide more effective classroom materials, we have developed the Investigating and
Questioning Our World Through Science and Technology (IQWST) curriculum units (Krajcik, McNeill, &
Reiser, 2008). One of the first two units designed for IQWST is a middle school chemistry unit, ‘‘How Can
I Make New Stuff from Old Stuff?’’ or the Stuff unit.

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
Contract grant sponsor: National Science Foundation; Contract grant Numbers: ESI 0101780. ESI 0227557.
Correspondence to: J. Fogleman; E-mail: fogleman@mail.uri.edu
DOI 10.1002/tea.20399
Published online 3 December 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

ß 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


150 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

Early enactments of the Stuff unit in urban, suburban, and rural settings indicated that the curriculum
helped teachers address their target learning goals successfully and supported student learning (Krajcik et al.,
2008). During these enactments, we observed teachers choosing to enact the unit’s activities in different
ways. This process of teacher adaptation, or transformation, is a common occurrence when teachers use
innovative materials (Pinto, 2005), and an essential step if the materials are to be used long term in these
classrooms (Blumenfeld, Fishman, Krajcik, Marx, & Soloway, 2000; Brown & Edelson, 2001; Fullan, 1991).
Consequently, it is important to better understand how teachers’ curricular adaptations affect student
learning. In this study, we investigated how middle school teachers’ self-efficacy, their experience using
the curriculum materials, and curricular adaptations of an inquiry-oriented science curriculum impacted
student learning of key science learning goals.

Theoretical Framework

Designing Innovative Curriculum


Over the last decade, researchers have worked to incorporate what we currently know about teaching and
learning into curriculum materials they believe will prove effective. Effective curriculum materials must meet
the follow criteria: (1) Their content primarily focuses on a coherent set of important, age-appropriate student
learning goals (Roseman, Linn, & Koppal, 2008); (2) their instructional design effectively supports the
attainment of the specified student learning goals; and (3) the teacher’s guides support teachers in helping
students attain these goals (Kesidou & Roseman, 2002). The first requirement reflects the need to focus on key
learning goals that help students learn fundamental scientific concepts. The second requirement specifies that
the curriculum must provide support for instructional strategies that are consistent with what we know about
how people learn, such as helping students to make sense of new experiences in light of what they already
know, to share and refine their understandings, and to assume responsibility for their own learning (Bransford,
2000). The third requirement is that resources be provided for the teacher so that he or she can facilitate an
effective learning environment and develop knowledge of students’ commonly held ideas and expertise
in assessing students’ understanding and adapting instruction accordingly. Because of the deficiencies of
the texts used in most classrooms, there is a dire need for more supportive science curricula (Kesidou &
Roseman).

The Role of the Enacted Curriculum in Science Education Reform. Though curriculum materials
provide critical support for teachers implementing reforms in their classrooms, students’ experiences with
reform-based materials depend on how teachers choose to use these resources. A tension exists in how
researchers have conceptualized teachers’ use of innovative curriculum materials, ranging from acknowl-
edging teachers’ role in adapting curriculum materials to stressing the need for teachers to implement new
materials with fidelity to how they were designed (O’Donnell, 2008; Remillard, 2005).
In this study, we focus on understanding the teacher’s role in adapting curriculum materials to meet the
needs of her students and the conditions she perceives in her classroom. For Cohen and Ball (1999),
curriculum materials are one element of an instructional context that the teacher must mediate while
managing a learning environment. Remillard (2005) argues that while curriculum materials represent a
formal curriculum that expresses learning goals and activities sanctioned by school policies or textbooks,
teachers use available materials to design the enacted curriculum that is experienced by students. Teachers’
adaptations of available curriculum materials are a persistent element of the cultural systems that have been
used to explain the relative homogeneity of American classrooms (Squire, MaKinster, Barnett, Luehmann, &
Barab, 2003; Stigler & Hiebert, 2009).
National standards documents explicitly recognize the need for teachers to have the capacity to select
and adapt curriculum materials to tailor their instruction to meet their students’ needs (NRC, 1996). The
premise of providing curriculum materials that embody the teaching practices called for in the national
standards is grounded in the reality that many teachers can benefit from supports that help them enact
challenging new practices in their classrooms (Powell & Anderson, 2002; Schneider, Krajcik, & Blumenfeld,
2005). Teachers’ ability to adapt materials in ways that preserve their intent while at the same time meet their
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TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 151

students’ individual needs has been called pedagogical design capacity (Brown & Edelson, 2001) or
instructional capacity (Cohen & Ball).
Teachers’ decisions about how they will use curriculum materials can have both positive and negative
effects on how their students experience reforms as well as what their students learn. Squire et al. (2003)
found that teachers played a critical role in contextualizing an innovative science unit when students did not
find the unit’s central question relevant to their lives. Pinto (2005) found that teachers’ transformations of
reform-based innovations often demote the designers’ intentions. Songer and Gotwals (2005) found that
students’ ability to apply scientific concepts was enhanced in classes where teachers used more of their
reform-based curriculum materials. Schneider, Krajcik, and Blumenfeld (2005) found that with extensive
supports, teachers could use the materials to activate students’ understandings, conduct investigations, and
facilitate small group discussions.
We focus in this study on discerning the effects on student learning of teachers’ decisions about enacting
reform-rich curriculum materials. O’Donnell (2008) argues that in order to make valid judgments about the
effects of curricular innovations, researchers must be able to determine the fidelity of the teachers’ use of the
materials. Fidelity in this context has been defined as the extent to which a delivery of an intervention adheres
to the protocol or program model originally developed (Mowbray, Holter, Teague, & Bybee, 2003).
Schneider and coworkers noted that given the complexity of what was expected from teachers during
the enactment of inquiry-rich curriculum materials, it was more useful for them to focus on congruence of the
enactment with the designers’ intentions rather than the stricter standard of fidelity.
We acknowledge that the complexity of the classroom requires each teacher to adapt materials to their
setting, and are interested in discerning the effects of these decisions across several teachers. If curriculum
materials are to serve as tools that embody knowledge about science education reforms that have been
developed by researchers and designers to support teachers’ instruction (Putnam & Borko, 1997), then
enacting the materials serves a critical role in teachers deepening their understanding of reform-based
teaching (Kubitskey, 2006). One way researchers can support teachers during this process is to provide
evidence of the effects of their decisions on what their students learn (Fishman, Best, Marx, & Tal, 2001;
Pinto, 2005).

Factors Influencing How Teachers Utilize Classroom Innovation


Analysis of past reform efforts indicated that in order for innovations to be sustained, teachers had to
adapt them to meet local needs and conditions. In their review of past studies of teachers’ adaptations of
innovations, Pinto (2005) found that teachers’ adaptations to innovations were influenced by their knowledge
and beliefs about the subject they were teaching, their beliefs about their own identity and about teaching and
learning, and the degree that the innovation was supported within their local contexts.
Teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning influence their use of new curriculum materials.
Implementing classroom innovations often requires a teacher to change his or her practice and take on
the unpleasant role of ‘‘novice’’ again (Fullan, 1991). A strong predictor of whether teachers can successfully
meet this challenge is their sense of self-efficacy. Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, and Hoy (1998) define a teacher’s
self-efficacy as his or her belief in their ability to act in ways that successfully accomplish specific teaching
goals. In their review of the use of the teacher efficacy construct, they found that it has been correlated with
teachers’ willingness to implement innovations. In other words, teachers who believe they are able to achieve
specific teaching goals are more willing to try new innovations in their classroom.
Another factor that influences how innovations are enacted in classrooms is teachers’ experience with
the innovation. In past studies, we have seen that teachers continue to strengthen their use of reform-based
curriculum materials through their second and third years using the units (Geier, 2005). Each time a teacher
uses a particular innovation, we would expect an increase in both their understanding about how to use the
innovation in his or her class, as well the effectiveness of their use of the innovative materials.
In addition, the local context can also have a significant impact on teachers’ use of the curriculum.
Our work with teachers occurs predominately in urban schools. Impoverished urban schools have been
characterized as relying on a ‘‘pedagogy of poverty’’ in which students predominately engage in low level
tasks (Haberman, 1991). Instructional innovations aimed at supporting complex scientific inquiry can be
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152 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

difficult to implement in such impoverished settings due to inadequate resources, insufficient time, large class
sizes, teachers’ low levels of science and computer knowledge, lack of training opportunities, high levels of
teacher and student mobility, limited instructional freedom, lack of administration support, and unreliable
internet connectivity (Songer, Lee, & Kam, 2002). Consequently, these contextual challenges can also impact
the adaptations that teachers make to the curriculum.

Teachers’ Curricular Adaptations


Although we see adaptation as essential for enacting units, some adaptations can diminish the intended
function of the curricular unit. Pinto (2005) identified common themes from concurrent implementation
studies of four classroom innovations. Each team of researchers saw their innovations being transformed by
teachers. Sometimes these adaptations were benign and sometimes problematic. Teachers tended to adapt the
innovation so its use more closely resembled familiar classroom practices. In order to provide opportunities
for teachers to reflect on and refine their uses of innovations in subsequent professional development
workshops, it is important to be able to share with them how specific transformations affect student learning.
The transformations we are concerned with in this study include how much time teachers spend on the unit,
the level of completion of the unit’s activities, and whether the teachers had students actively experience the
unit’s investigations first hand or presented them as whole-class demonstrations.
When implementing a new curriculum or other classroom innovation, the teacher must decide how
much time can be spent on the new unit. There has been considerable research on how time is spent in
classrooms, and the effect of these practices on student learning. When using curriculum units designed to
facilitate deep conceptual understanding, students need sufficient instructional time, that is, time spent
actively engaged in learning activities, to integrate their understandings. Reducing the amount of instruc-
tional time originally called for by the unit can reduce students’ depth of understanding (Clark & Linn, 2003).
However, previous research on the effects of the amount of time that teachers allocate for particular classroom
activities on student learning has produced mixed results. Allocated time is not always spent on learning
activities. Consequently, some studies suggested that while allocating more time for particular activities may
have a small positive effect for low ability students, there is no overall effect on what students learn (Cotton,
1989). We are interested in whether the quantity of time teachers’ spent on the Stuff unit affected student
learning.
Teachers have to continually seek a balance between ‘‘covering’’ the topics they feel are important and
ensuring that students’ experiences are sufficient to develop deep understanding (Van den Akker, 1998).
Teachers sometimes scale back student investigations, or decide to omit particular activities or portions of
activities in the unit because of a lack of time, resources, because they are unsure of how to enact the activity,
or because they do not see an activity’s value. Adaptations such as this might limit students’ opportunities to
engage in inquiry practices, such as asking questions and talking with classmates to solve problems, or affect
the coherence of unit overall (Shwartz, Weizman, Fortus, Krajcik, & Reiser, 2008). Previous research has
shown that teachers who frequently use inquiry-oriented teaching practices have a positive impact on
students’science achievement (Kahle, Meece, & Scantlebury, 2000). Kahle and her coworkers found teachers
who had their students solve problems with their peers, learn from their classmates, and repeat experiments to
check results saw greater science achievement from their students. Consequently, we are interested in how the
level of completion of a unit by a teacher influences student learning. Though this measure aligns with
traditional measures of fidelity, we asked teachers how long they spent on each activity as an indication of how
they alotted time to topics across the unit in comparison to the times suggested by the curriculum materials.
In addition to considering how much of the curriculum they complete, it is also important to consider how
they use the curriculum materials.
The tendency for teachers to transform innovative curriculum so that they resemble more traditional
classroom practices suggests that how teachers choose to enact the unit might affect what students learn. The
different ways that teachers manage classroom discourse have been called participation structures (Cazden,
1986) or activity structures (Fuson & Smith, 1998). These patterns of classroom discourse can vary in time
scale and purpose, ranging from simple routines such as ‘‘initiation-reply-evaluation’’ (I-R-E) (Mehan, 1978,
1979) exchanges where students answer questions and receive immediate feedback to a sequence of project
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TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 153

milestones used to facilitate open-ended classroom inquiry (Polman, 2004). The tendency toward trans-
missive classroom routines despite accepted evidence for the need for students to take a more active role in
their learning is well known (Bean, 2001). In other words, whole class teacher-centered instruction often
dominates classroom practice. We are interested in the relationship between teacher adaptations of the
activity structures, such as completing the activities as teacher-centered demonstrations versus student-
centered investigations, on student learning.
When teachers try to implement innovations such as standards-based curriculum units, there are many
challenges. Teacher support structures are necessary for teachers as they implement reforms and refine their
understandings (Fullan, 1991). Our own efforts at supporting systemic reform acknowledge and support
teachers adapting innovative curriculum materials as they address the needs of their students, time con-
straints, and limitations in resources (Blumenfeld et al., 2000). One way that designers can support the
adaptation process is by providing teachers with feedback on the effect their adaptations have on student
learning and to provide opportunities in subsequent professional development efforts to reflect upon their
practice and discuss enactment issues with coworkers and designers (Pinto, 2005). To do this, we need ways
of determining how teachers’ curricular adaptations influence what their students learn. In this study, we ask
the following research questions:

1. How do teachers’ responses on a post-enactment survey align with their enactment of curriculum
materials?
2. How do teachers’ curricular adaptations (the amount of time on the unit, the level of completion of
the unit, and the activity structures), teacher self-efficacy, and teacher experience enacting the unit
influence student learning of target science learning goals?

Method
In order to address our research questions, we used data from the enactment of the Stuff unit during the
2003–2004 school year. In this section, we begin by describing the Stuff unit in more detail and the
professional development the teachers received who enacted the curriculum. Then we discuss the participants
and data sources that we used to address our research questions. Finally, we describe our procedure for
analyzing the videotapes, test data, and teacher survey data.

Description of Stuff Unit


The IQWST curriculum units were designed to address the need for curriculum materials that support
learning goals expressed in the national standards documents and to support classroom inquiry (Krajcik
et al., 2008; McNeill et al., 2003). The units’ activities engage students in inquiry activities with relevant
phenomena and support teachers in facilitating discussions that allow students opportunities to understand
how their experiences relate to the units’ learning goals. Each unit also includes supports for inquiry practices
such as using evidence to construct scientific explanations and creating representations or models of
phenomena.
The Stuff unit introduces students to the concepts of characteristic properties, substances, chemical
reactions, the conservation of mass, as well as how the particulate nature of matter explains these macroscopic
phenomena (McNeill, Harris, Heitzman, Lizotte, & Sutherland, 2004). The unit consists of 16 lessons, some
of which contain several different activities. Each lesson includes activities designed to engage students,
including investigations, using models to explore concepts, and teacher-led class discussions. Some of the
activities are identified as ‘‘optional,’’ in order to provide teachers guidance in their adaptations of the
completion of the unit. We felt that if teachers did need to cut activities in the unit because of time limitations
that the optional activities could be removed and the students would still have opportunities to adequately
support their learning of each of the target learning goals. For example, Lesson 13, ‘‘Does mass change in a
chemical reaction?’’, includes three activities. Activity 13A is an optional activity that has students
investigate whether the mass changes when they create ‘‘gloop.’’ Activity 13.1 has students observing
the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water in open and closed systems. Activity 13.2 has student redesign the
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154 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

13.1 experiments so that mass will stay the same during the reaction. If all the ‘‘optional’’ activities are used,
the unit is designed to take 33–35 school days, but if only the ‘‘core’’ activities are used, the unit should take
only 26–28 school days.

The IQWST Approach to Professional Development


The IQWST approach to providing professional development has evolved over working with teachers
for an extended time period on a variety of curriculum units. At the heart of these experiences are
opportunities for discussion between teachers enacting the units and researchers. We call the conceptual
framework that guides these activities (Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, & Soloway, 1994): Collaborative
construction of understanding; Enactment of new practices in classrooms; Reflection on practice;
and Adaptation of materials and practices. The professional development activities for the Stuff unit include
a 1-week summer institute and monthly Saturday workshops during teachers’ enactment of the unit.
Researchers used a design approach (Simon, 1996) to plan workshop activities based on feedback on
teachers’ enactments and student assessments (Fishman, Best, Foster, & Marx, 2000). Efforts to document
how these professional development strategies influence teachers’ enactments of the previous units and
subsequent student learning have been described elsewhere (Fishman, Marx, Best, Stephen, & Tal, 2003;
Kubitskey, 2006; Kubitskey, Fishman, & Marx, 2003; Margerum-Leys, Fishman, & Peek-Brown, 2004).

Participants
The 2003–2004 enactment of the Stuff unit included five school districts and 24 teachers from different
areas of the country. We only included those teachers in the study from whom we received data from the
required sources, student pre- and post-test data and the teacher curriculum survey. This limited our analysis
to 19 teachers (see Table 1). Four of the teachers who we were unable to obtain complete data sets were
located in other states. Because of the distance, we were unable to drive to the schools to obtain the requisite
data and the teachers never mailed the data to us. The fifth teacher was located in the same state as the authors.
This teacher changed schools at the end of the school year and because of communication difficulties we
were unable to receive her curriculum survey.
Eight of the teachers were in public middle schools in a large urban area in the Midwest (Urban A). The
majority of students in this school district were African American and come from lower to lower-middle
income families. Three of the teachers taught in an independent school in a large college town in the Midwest
(Town B). The majority of these students were Caucasian and from middle to upper-middle income families.
Two of the teachers taught in a second large urban area in the Midwest (Urban C). The student population in
this school district was 49.8% African American, 38% Hispanic, 8.8% Caucasian, and 3.2% Asian. Three of
the teachers taught in a suburb of the second large urban area (Suburb D). The student population in this
school district was ethnically diverse (42% Caucasian, 44% African American, 10% Hispanic, and 4%
Asian). Finally the last three teachers taught in a rural area in the south (Rural E). These schools had diverse
populations each with a majority of African American students.1

Measures
To answer our research questions, we needed to examine both teachers’ enactment as well as their
responses to our survey. To determine how teachers’ survey responses might relate to classroom practice, we
examined a selection of videotaped lessons from a subset of the respondents. To determine how teachers’

Table 1
Participants from the 2003 to 2004 school year
Site Urban A Town B Urban C Suburb D Rural E Total

Schools 7 1 2 2 3 15
Teachers 8 3 2 3 3 19
Classrooms 30 5 4 13 13 65
Students 983 79 105 280 269 1,716

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TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 155

practices might influence student learning, we measured student learning using pre-/post-tests and related
these results to their teachers’ responses to a survey about their enactment. In this section, we describe our use
of video to characterize teachers’ use of curriculum materials, our conceptual model, and our measures of
each of the variables included in our model.

Description of Video. To understand how teachers’ survey responses corresponded to their actual
classroom practice, we compared teacher responses with our own observations for a subset of lessons and
teachers where video recordings were available. Due to the limited number of videotaped lessons available,
our selection of teachers was neither representative of the larger group nor a random sample of the larger
group. The four teachers we videotaped taught in three different schools in the Urban A school district. These
four teachers were selected to be observed, because of their proximity to the researchers and their willingness
to be videotaped. We reviewed their enactments of five Stuff activities to determine the duration, activity
structure, and level of completion, and compared our observations with the teachers’ survey responses.
Table 2 summarizes the number of hours of videotape reviewed for the four teachers.

Our Conceptual Model. To investigate the influence of teachers’ adaptations on students’ learning
during the Stuff unit, we compared measures of student learning with factors that may influence teachers’
adaptations of the materials and the adaptation practices themselves. A conceptual model of our study
including all of the measures that we investigated is shown in Figure 1. We describe each of these measures in
more detail below.

Description of Pre-/Post-Test. To measure student learning for all teachers, the same test was admin-
istered to students before and after the Stuff unit. The test consisted of 15 multiple-choice items and 4 open-
ended items for a total of 30 points. See Figure S1 for example test items. The test items were aligned with the
unit’s learning goals and learning tasks (Krajcik et al., 2008). All open-ended items were scored using specific
rubrics created to address the particular inquiry practice and content area (see McNeill & Krajcik, 2007 for a
description of rubrics and coding). One rater scored the students’ open-ended responses. We then randomly
sampled 20% of the tests, which were scored by a second independent rater. Our estimates of inter-rater

Table 2
Hours of video examined for each activity
Teacher D Teacher B Teacher H Teacher E
Activity Description (hours) (hours) (hours) (hours)

Lesson 8 Does acid rain make new substances?


8.1 After reading about the discoloration of the 1 2 2 2
Statue of Liberty, students see a demonstration
of burning magnesium and use the properties
of the reactants and products to explain
whether a chemical reaction has occurred
8.2 Students study a model of the Statue of Liberty by 2 1 3 1
investigating the effect of vinegar vapor on
pennies
Lesson 10 Do I always make new substances?
10.1 After hypothesizing whether or not the bubbles 2 2 1 1
always indicate that a chemical reaction is
occurring, students investigate whether boiling
and condensing water is a chemical reaction
10.2 Students investigate whether creating a mixture 2 1 0 0
such as ‘‘Kool-Aid’’ involves a chemical
reaction
Lesson 12 How can I make soap from fat?
12.1 Students return to materials they described in 3 2 2 1
the first learning set to create soap from fat.
After they create their cake of soap, they read
about the history of soap making to discuss the
following day

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156 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

Figure 1. Conceptual model.

reliability were calculated by percent agreements. Our inter-rater agreement was above 96% for each of the
four open-ended test items.
Only students who completed both the pre-test and post-test were included in our analysis, because we
were interested in how students’ science achievement changed over time. Due to the high absenteeism in
the urban schools, only 1,234 students completed both the pre- and post-test. In order to examine whether the
students who only completed the pretest or only completed the post-test were different than the students who
completed both the pre- and post-test, we conducted a missing data analysis. We compared the students’
pretest scores for those students who also completed the post-test to those students who did not complete the
post-test for each of the 19 teachers. Sixteen of the 19 teachers did not have a significant difference for the two
groups. For the three teachers that did have a significant difference (Teachers B, O, and P), their students who
were not missing the post-test had significantly higher pretest scores than those students who were missing the
post-test. We also compared the students’ post-test scores for those students who completed the pretest to
those students who did not complete the pretest for each of the 19 teachers. Fifteen of the 19 teachers did not
have a significant difference for the two groups. For the four teachers who did have a significant difference
(Teachers N, R, P, and Q), the students who were not missing the pretest had higher post-test scores than those
students who were missing the pretest. This suggests that the students who were in school for both the pre- and
the post-test were higher science achievers than those students who were absent on one of the test
administration days for some of the teachers. Yet for the majority of the teachers those students who were
absent one test day were not significantly different. Nonetheless, one limitation of this study is that we were
unable to collect pre- and post-test data from all of the students.
In order to assess student learning over the unit, we used students’ gain scores. We calculated the gain
scores by subtracting the pretest score from the post-test score. We used this measure as the outcome for our
model. On the test, students also indicated their gender, which we also included in the model. Unfortunately,
our agreement with the schools did not allow us to collect other demography data from the students so were
not able to include race or other measures in our study.

Description of Survey. To gauge how teachers assessed and adapted the Stuff unit, each teacher was
asked to complete a survey after they finished their enactment. The survey consisted of 16 pages, one for each
of the unit’s lessons, which could include more than one activity (for a sample survey page, see Figure S2).
Since we were interested in the teachers’ appraisals of their efficacy using the unit, they were asked to indicate
their comfort-level with each activity and their students’ understanding of each activity. To get feedback on
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TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 157

their adaptation strategies, teachers were asked to indicate whether each activity was done by students or as a
teacher demonstration, its level of completion, and how many days were spent on each lesson. We asked
teachers about how they enacted each activity to determine whether students were provided with oppor-
tunities to engage in inquiry and experience phenomena as suggested by the Stuff materials. We asked about
teachers’ level of completion and the length of time they spent on each lesson to gauge how they allotted
time across the unit. To determine each teacher’s experience with the unit, we used our records of previous
enactments.
To analyze the survey responses, we first converted each teacher’s checkmarks on the survey form to
numerical codes and transferred them to a cumulative table. Table 3 summarizes how numbers were assigned
to the teachers’ responses.
After tabulating teachers’ responses, we reduced each teacher’s responses to a single number for each of
the six variables listed above. For the teachers’ self-efficacy, we calculated two variables. We averaged their
responses for their own comfort level and their responses for students’ understanding for each activity across
the entire unit. Each teacher’s experience with the unit was coded as either the first or second use of the
materials. For teacher adaptations, we calculated three variables: activity structure, level of completion and
days spent on curriculum. We view level of completion as a measure of fidelity, because we were specifically
interested in alignment with the intended curriculum. We view activity structure and days spent on the
curriculum as other adaptations. These two measures do not specifically measure fidelity, because we did not
compare the teachers’ reports to the recommendations in the curriculum. Rather, we were interested in more
generally how teachers’ decisions around time and activity structure (regardless of the intent of the
curriculum) impacted student learning. First, in order to summarize the activity structures teachers used
during the unit, we averaged their scores across all of the activities in the unit. For their level of activity
completion, we totaled their scores across the unit and divided this total by the number of ‘‘core’’ or not
optional activities so that teachers who enacted the core activities along with one or more optional activities
would have a score greater than one. The total number of days each teacher allocated to the unit was found by
adding the days he or she indicated were spent on each lesson.

Analytic Method
We analyzed both the videos teachers’ enactments to determine how the their practice related to their
reports of their practice on our survey as well as how their survey results related to their students’
achievement. Each of these steps is described below.

Enactment Analysis. To answer how teachers’ survey responses represented how they enacted the Stuff
materials, a small sample of videotaped lessons were reviewed. Teachers’ survey responses for activity
structure and level of completion were compared with their videotaped enactments for the four teachers
where videotape data were available.

HLM Analysis. Determining the impact of teacher adaptations on student learning is a complex issue.
Because each teacher’s efforts affect each of his or her students, learning by individual students in the
same class is not independent. On the other hand, considering the class mean as the outcome variable loses the

Table 3
Numerical assignments for teachers’ survey responses
Categories Variables Numerical assignment

Self-efficacy Teacher comfort level 1, low; 2, medium; 3, high


Self-efficacy Student understanding 1, low; 2, medium; 3, high
Experience Experience 0, first use of unit; 1, second use of unit
Teacher adaptation Activity structure 1, teacher demo; 2, student investigation; 3, both
Teacher adaptation Level completion 0, not used; 0.5, partially completed; 1, completed
Teacher adaptation Days spent on lesson Total number of days spent teaching the unit

Journal of Research in Science Teaching


158 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

individual variability of student learning. Neither approach would allow us to disentangle individual and
group effects on student learning. In our analysis of the survey and test data, we needed to consider this
grouping or nesting of students and any differential effects across teachers. Multi-level modeling recognizes
the dependence and grouping of data leading to more correct estimation of effects and variance. We used
Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) in a two-level format to investigate the effect of factors that affect
teachers’ adaptations and teachers’ adaptation strategies on student learning (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2001).
Our use of HLM consisted of three steps. First, we created a fully unconditional model (FUM), then we
created a level 1 or within-teacher model to examine the effect of student level variables, and finally we
created a level 2 or between-teacher model to examine the effect of teacher level variables.

Fully Unconditional Model. HLM analysis begins with a fully unconditional model, which consists
only of the outcome variable and no independent variables. The fully unconditional model provides the
results of partitioning the outcome variance into within-group (s2) and between-group (t00) components,
testing whether the between group component is significantly different from zero. In our model we used
student gain scores, to determine whether there were differences in student learning across the 19 teachers.
From these measures we computed the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), r, which is the proportion of
variation in the student gain scores that is due to differences between teachers.

Within-Teacher Model. Next, we investigated the student-level measures that could account for the
variation within teachers. We entered gender as a fixed effect. This meant that the effect of gender did not vary
depending on what teacher a student had. The following is the equation for our level-1 model:

Gain Scoreij ¼ b0j þ b1j ðGenderij Gender. . .Þ þ rij

In this equation, b0j represents the intercept or the gain score when all other variables equal zero, b1j
represents the effect of gender on student gain scores and, and rij represents the error term. After running the
within-teacher model, we determined how much of the total unexplained individual-level variance for student
gain scores was explained by the addition of our level-1 variable.

Between-Teacher Model. Lastly, we ran a between-teacher model. This allowed us to model student
learning with our teacher-level measures to explain the between-teacher variation in our outcome variable.
More specifically, we determined if student learning was impacted by teacher self-efficacy, experience, and
curricular adaptations. We tested the six teacher level variables that we described above: teacher comfort
level, teacher evaluation of student understanding, teacher experience enacting the unit, the number of days
allocated to the unit, the level of completion of the unit’s activities, and the teachers’ activity structure
(i.e., whole-class demonstration vs. student investigation). We removed any variables that were not signifi-
cant. We report the final model below in the results section. As with the within-teacher model, we can
determine how much of the total unexplained individual-level and teacher-level variance of our outcome has
been explained by the addition of our level-2 variables.

Results
In this section, we begin by presenting the descriptive statistics for the results of the teacher survey and
the results from the students’ pre- and post-test to provide an overview of the data. Then we present the results
from comparing the teacher survey data with the video analysis. Finally, we present the results from the HLM
model.

Descriptive Statistics
Before creating our HLM model, we first examined whether there were differences in student learning
and teacher adaptations across the 19 teachers. Table 4 displays the descriptive statistics for all of the variables
included in our study.
Fifty percent of the students in the sample are male and 50% are female. On average, students gained
7.49 points from the pre- to post-test though the gain scores ranged from 13.36 to 22.80.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 159

Table 4
Descriptive statistics (n ¼ 1,234)
Mean % (standard deviation)

Student variables
Gendera 50.00
Test gain score 7.49 (5.23)
Teacher variables
Self-efficacy—teacher comfort level 2.55 (0.34)
Self-efficacy—student understanding 2.39 (0.44)
Experienceb 27.00
Teacher adaptation—days 31.17 (6.97)
Teacher adaptation—activity structure 1.93 (0.14)
Teacher adaptation—level completion 0.94 (0.16)
a
Percentage of female compared to males.
b
Percentage of teachers who have done the unit before compared to those who have not.

For the teacher variables, we see a range of scores for both the teacher adaptation variables and the
efficacy variables. Teachers’ average comfort level was a 2.55, which is between medium and high. Teachers’
perception of student understanding was 2.39, which is also between medium and high. Twenty-seven percent
of the teachers previously enacted the unit. On average, teachers spent 31.17 days on the unit. For teachers’
activity structure the average score was 1.93. Remember a score of 1 means that a teacher completed all
activities as a demonstration, a score of 2 means that students completed all activities, and a score of 3 means
that all activities were both demonstrated by the teacher and completed by the students. This suggests that for
most lessons teachers had students complete the activities, but some were on average only completed as
demonstrations. The average level of completion was 0.94 suggesting that typically teachers were completing
a little less than the recommended core activities within the unit. Remember that we coded teachers’
completion as 0 for not using the activity, 0.5 for partially completing the activity, and 1 for fully completion
of the activity.

Student Assessment Data


Since we are interested in whether there is differential learning by teacher, we examined the effect size of
student learning by teacher.2 Figure 2 shows the effect sizes for the 19 teachers.
Across the 19 teachers, there is a wide range of effect sizes from 0.47 to 5.27. We tested whether there
was a significant teacher effect by performing an ANCOVA on students’ post-test scores with the pretest
scores as the covariate. There was a significant teacher effect with the learning gains of some teachers being
greater than other teachers, F(18, 1215) ¼ 9.062, p < 0.001. There was also a significant interaction
between the teacher and students’ pretest scores, F(18, 1215) ¼ 2.868, p < 0.001, suggesting that the
effect of a students’ pretest on their post-test varied by teacher.
This analysis suggests that something is occurring in each of these classrooms that is influencing student
learning. These differences could be caused by a variety of factors such as the school culture, parental
influence, or different resources. We also believe that the differences in teachers’ enactments are influencing
student learning based on prior research on teacher practices (Kahle et al., 2000). Our hypothesis is that some
of this difference in student learning is the result of teacher adaptations, experience using the materials, and
efficacy.

Enactment Analysis
In order to evaluate the validity of the self-report survey data, teachers’ adaptations of lessons 8, 10, and
12 were reviewed from videotapes. The results, sorted by each teacher’s effect size, are summarized in
Table 5. For each activity, an objective measure of the degree that the activity was completed was computed
by dividing the number of activity elements observed (AEsOB) divided by the total number called for in the
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
160 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

4
Effect Size

0
I
H

P
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T
E

U
J

L
F

M
r

r
r

r
r
r

r
r

r
r
r
r

r
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r
he

he
he

he

he
he
he

he

he
he

he

he
he
he
he

he

he
he
ac

ac

ac
ac

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ac

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ac
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Te

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Te
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Te
Te
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Te

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Figure 2. Effect size by teacher.

Stuff teacher’s guide (AEsTG). The teachers’ activity structure for each activity (Demonstration, Student
Investigation, or Both) observed in the videotapes was also recorded, along with teachers’ survey responses
for how they adapted each activity.
To determine how teachers’ responses on the survey might represent their enactment of the Stuff
curriculum materials, we compared the fraction of AEs observed to the level of completion indicated by each
teacher on the survey. To compare the activity structures observed and the activity structures indicated by
teachers on the survey, we averaged the values for each teacher across the reviewed activities. Table 5
illustrates that teachers reported their activity structure in different ways. For example, Teach B reported a
combination of 2s and 3s, while Teacher E reported a combination of 1s and 2s. We used these averages for the
observed enactment to characterize each teacher’s adaptation preferences, or teaching style across the lessons
we reviewed. Figure 3 compares four teachers’ activity structures observed in videotapes of selected activities
with their survey responses about how they enacted the same lessons.
These comparisons are arranged in order of effect sizes, with the leftmost teacher having a lowest effect
size (1.10), the middle two teachers having similar effect sizes (1.77, 1.81), and the rightmost teacher having a
higher effect size (2.43). The graph shows that the survey responses belonging to the three teachers with the
highest effect sizes were very similar to the assessments of their enactments from the videotapes. These
teachers’ average activity structure scores were between 1.75 and 2.00, suggesting they generally provided
students opportunities to conduct the investigations called for in the unit. Though the fourth teacher’s survey
suggested that students also had these opportunities, examination of the videotaped activities indicated that
the teacher relied more on demonstration and direct instruction to address the unit’s topics. This suggests that
the majority of the teachers’ self report did align with their enactment, though for one teacher there was
clearly a difference.
Figure 4 compares the proportion of the activity elements observed in the video compared to the
proportion of the activity the teacher reported completing on the survey. As in the previous graph, the
comparisons are arranged from lowest to highest effect size. All four teachers overestimated their completion
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 161

Table 5
Observed activity elements
Observed activity elements (AE) Teacher B Teacher H Teacher D Teacher E

Teacher effect sizes 1.10 1.77 1.81 2.43


Lesson 8: Does acid rain make new substances?
Activity 8.1: Students observe a demonstration of burning magnesium and use the properties of the reactants and
products to explain whether a chemical reaction has occurred
Level of completion from video (AEOB/AETG)a 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
Level of completion from survey (1 ¼ fully completed, 1 1 1 1
0.5 ¼ partially used, 0 ¼ not used)
Activity structure from video (1 ¼ teacher demo, 1 2 2 1
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Activity structure from survey (1 ¼ teacher demo, 3 3 2 2
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Activity 8.2: Students study acid rain by investigating the effect of vinegar vapor on pennies
Level of completion from video (AEOB/AETG) 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.4
Level of completion from survey (1 ¼ fully completed, 0.5 1 1 1
0.5 ¼ partially used, 0 ¼ not used)
Activity structure from video (1 ¼ teacher demo, 1 3 2 3
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Activity structure from survey (1 ¼ teacher demo, 2 3 2 2
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Lesson 10: Do I always make new substances?
Activity 10.1: Students investigate whether boiling and condensing water is a chemical reaction
Level of completion from video (AEOB/AETG) 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6
Level of completion from survey (1 ¼ fully completed, 0.5 0.5 1 0.5
0.5 ¼ partially used, 0 ¼ not used)
Activity structure from video (1 ¼ teacher demo, 1 1 2 1
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Activity structure from survey (1 ¼ teacher demo, 3 1 2 1
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Lesson 12: How can I make soap from fat?
Activity 12.1: Students return to materials they described in the first learning set to create soap from fat
Level of completion from video (AEOB/AETG) 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.6
Level of completion from survey (1 ¼ fully completed, 1 1 1 1
0.5 ¼ partially used, 0 ¼ not used)
Activity structure from video (1 ¼ teacher demo, 3 2 3 2
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
Activity structure from survey (1 ¼ teacher demo, 3 2 2 2
2 ¼ student investigation, 3 ¼ both)
a
AEsOB is the number of activity elements observed. AEsTG is the total number called for in the teacher guide.

of the unit. Yet teachers who completed more of the unit did report completing more (Teachers D and E),
while those teachers completing less of the unit also reported completing less (Teacher B and H).

HLM Analysis

Fully Unconditional Model. We began our HLM analysis by examining the fully unconditional model,
which partitions the total variance in students’ gain scores into its within- and between-teacher components.
Table 6 provides the results from the unconditional model.
Lambda is the pooled reliability estimate across all the teachers for estimating our outcome variable,
student gain scores. Since the reliability estimate is high, 0.967, we are comfortable using the adjusted
intraclass correlation (ICC). The adjusted ICC tells us that 38% of the variance in student gain scores lies
between teachers. There was a significant difference in student gains between teachers, x2 ¼ 693.85,
df ¼ 18, p < 0.001. This means that 38% of the variance in student learning can be attributed to the role
of the teacher. Because the results of the fully unconditional model were significant, this supports our decision
to use multilevel methods.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
162 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

Figure 3. Activity structures.

Within-Teacher Model. The within-teacher model explores whether student gender is associated with
student learning. We included gender as fixed effect, which means that the effect of gender did not vary
depending on the teacher. Table 7 provides the results from our within-teacher model.
A student’s gender does significantly influence their gain scores. On average, a female’s gain score
increases 0.104 standard deviations more than a male. Although adding gender does significantly influence
student learning, it explains a very small percentage of the individual-level variance in student learning, less
than 1%.3 Unfortunately, we do not have access to other student level variables to include in the model. The
intercept variance at the bottom of Table 7 suggests that there is still significant between-teacher variability.
This provides support that there are contextual factors or characteristics of the teachers that influence student
learning. In order to further unpack the role of teacher characteristics, we need to add level 2 predictors to our
HLM model.

Between-Teacher Model. Table 8 presents the results from our complete HLM model including Level 1,
student level predictors, and Level 2, teacher level predictors. Although we tested numerous teacher level
characteristics in our model, we only kept in the model those measurements that were significant. The
relatively small number of teachers in the study limited our model. As a general rule, you need 10 cases at a
level (either level 1 or level 2) for each significant variable included in a model (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2001).
Since we only had 19 teachers in our study to include in the level 2 model, it was not surprising that we ended

Figure 4. Level of completion.


Journal of Research in Science Teaching
TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 163

Table 6
Unconditional model of student learning (n ¼ 1,234 students, N ¼ 19 teachers)
Student gain scores

Tau (t) 0.384


Sigma-squared (s2) 0.646
Lambda-reliability (l) 0.967
Intraclass correlation (ICC)a 0.373
Adjusted-ICCb 0.380

ICC ¼ t/(t þ s2).


a

Adjusted ICC ¼ t/(t þ (ls2)).


b

Table 7
Within-teacher model of student gain scores (n ¼ 1,234 students, N ¼ 19 teachers)
Student gain scores

Random effects
Intercept (b0) 0.012
Fixed effects
Gendera 0.104
Variance components for random effects
Intercept variance (b0) 0.383

p < 0.1.

p < 0.05.

p < 0.001.
a
Females compared to males.

up with a model that included only two significant teacher practices. In our testing of the various models, we
found two models that each included two significant variables. One model included teacher experience and
level of completion and the second model included teacher experience and activity structure. Since the second
model including teacher experience and activity structure had lower significant levels, we used it as our final
model. We hypothesize that if we had a larger sample of teachers, all three variables, teacher experience, level
of completion and activity structure, would significantly influence student learning. The following is our

Table 8
Between-teacher model of student learning (n ¼ 1,234 students, N ¼ 19 teachers)
Student gain scores

Random effects
Intercept (b0)
Base 0.234
Activity structure 1.869
Experience with unit 0.715
Fixed effects
Gendera 0.105
Variance components for random effects
Intercept variance (b0) 0.258

p < 0.1.

p < 0.05.

p < 0.01.

p < 0.001.
a
Females compared to males.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
164 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

equation for the level-2 model for student gain scores:


b0j ¼ g 00 þ g 01 ðActivity structureÞ þ g 02 ðTeacher ExperienceÞ þ m0j

In this equation, g00 represents the intercept, g01 represents the effect of activity structure, g02 represents
the effect of teacher experience, and m0j represents the error term. Teachers’ activity structures (i.e., whole-
class demonstration versus student investigation) and level of experience were used to model the intercept.
None of the other teacher-level measures, days spent on the unit, student understanding, teacher comfort level
or level of completion, were significant. Consequently, we removed them from our final level-2 models.
The first set of results under intercept in Table 8 is for our model in terms of the intercept as the outcome.
These results tell us whether any of the teacher characteristics influence student learning. Teachers’ activity
structures (i.e., demo vs. student investigation) have a marginally significant effect and a teacher’s experience
with the unit has a significant effect on student learning. Holding all other variables constant, as a teacher’s
activity structure increases by 1 point (i.e., goes from all lessons completed as demonstrations to all lessons
completed by students), students gain scores increase by 1.869 standard deviations.
This is a very large increase in students’ gain scores and suggests that having students actively complete
the activities is important for students understanding of the key learning goals. On average, a teacher with
experience teaching the unit has student gain scores of 0.715 standard deviations higher than a teacher who is
completing the unit for the first time. This suggests the importance of having experience with reform based
curriculum units. Consequently, the results of the HLM model suggest that (1) Teachers who had previously
taught the inquiry-oriented curriculum had greater student gains and (2) Students who completed investi-
gations themselves had greater learning gains compared to students in classrooms who observed their teacher
completing the investigations as demonstrations.
Neither the number of days spent on the unit, teacher comfort level, teachers’ report of their students
understanding, nor level of completion significantly influenced student learning. As we mentioned before,
since our data includes only 19 teachers we would expect to only have at most two significant variables in our
model. Our model is not powerful enough to detect significant effects of more variables. Other variables,
particularly level of completion, which was significant by itself or in combination with teacher experience,
could be important predictors of student learning if we had a more powerful model. Our model does not
suggest that these other variables are not important; rather it provides support that both teacher experience and
activity structure are particularly important for student learning.
For average student learning between teachers, our model explains 33% of the variance between teachers.4
This suggests that 33% of impact of the role of the teacher can be attributed to activity structure and the role of
the teacher. By including only two variables in our model about teacher adaptations and experience, we
explained a considerable percentage of the between teacher variation. Furthermore, we obtained the measure
of teacher adaptation through a simple teacher survey of how they enacted the curriculum. Yet the variance
component at the bottom of Table 8 shows that the between teacher variances is still significant. This means
that we have not explained away all of the between teacher variance for student learning.

Discussion
Despite the numerous limitations of existing science curriculum (Kesidou & Roseman, 2002), teachers
often rely heavily on them in their science instruction. Reform oriented science curricula provide a potential
avenue for changing classroom practice. Teachers often need to adapt these materials to meet their students’
needs as well as their own teaching style (Davis & Varma, 2008) and these adaptations can have either a
positive or negative effect on what students experience in the classroom. Consequently, in this research we were
interested in how middle school science teachers’ adaptations of science curriculum impacted student learning.

Alignment of Teachers’ Survey Responses With Enactment


In addition to modeling the effect of teachers’ adaptations on what students learned during the Stuff unit,
we were also interested in how teachers’ responses to a survey about their enactments compared to our
observations of videotapes of their lessons. We examined two teacher adaptations that were addressed in the
survey, activity structure and level of lesson completion, and found mixed results.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 165

In the past, teacher self-reports of curriculum enactment have been questioned (Snyder, Bolin, &
Zumwalt, 1992). Mayer (1999) conducted a study with math teachers in which he found that survey data was a
reliable and valid method to measure whether or not teachers were engaging in reform based instructional
practices, but that the surveys were less effective in measuring either the quality of the instructional practice
or the amount of time teachers spent using one practice or another. Our results comparing the video
enactments to teacher surveys are similar to this previous work. We found that our survey had some validity
in measuring the type of activity structure that occurred in the classroom. Most of the teachers’ identification
aligned with our own interpretation of whether the activity was a teacher demonstration, student led activity
or both teacher and student directed. In terms of level of completion of the activities, teachers responded that
they completed more of the activities than our interpretation from analyzing the video indicated. Level of
completion is actually a more abstract construct than activity structure. The teachers may have felt that they
completed the entire activity if they had students conduct the investigation, while we were also looking for the
teacher to engage students in discussion before and after the investigation. This may be one reason why the
teachers were more likely to over estimate their completion. This suggests that surveys may be more
appropriate for asking teachers concrete questions about curriculum enactment, like activity structure
and number of days, while more abstract ideas, such as level of completion and quality of teacher
instructional practices, may be more difficult to validly measure through surveys. Consequently, the survey
item measuring level of completion may not have been as accurate a representation of what occurred in the
teachers’ classrooms. If this item had been more reliable, it could have influenced the results from the HLM
analysis.

Effect of Teachers’ Curricular Adaptations on Student Learning


Across all of the teachers, the use of the inquiry-oriented middle school science curriculum resulted in
considerable student learning, with effect sizes ranging from 0.47 to 5.27. Yet this incredible variation in
effect size suggests that it is not just the quality of the curriculum that is important, but also the way the
curriculum is used by teachers in the science classroom. Thirty-eight percent of the variation in students’ gain
scores occurred between teachers, suggesting the role of the teacher is incredibly important. Understanding
what factors impacted this difference can offer important insights for future curriculum development and
associated professional development. We examined two teacher characteristics and four ways that they could
adapt the materials during their enactment to look for their effect on student learning. We found that one
teacher characteristic, teachers’ experience with the materials, and one adaptation, teachers’ choice of
activity structure, were found to be significant.
In terms of activity structure, we found that students who completed the activities themselves had greater
student gains than students in classrooms where the teacher completed the activities as demonstrations. The
recent National Research Council publication Taking Science To School (Duschl, Schweingruber, & Shouse,
2007) argues for the importance of actively engaging students in science practice where ‘‘. . .students carry
out investigations and talk and write their observations of phenomena, their emerging understanding of
scientific ideas, and ways to test them’’ (p. 6). This image of science instruction aligns with the scientific
inquiry approach advocated by the National Science Education Standards (1996), which argues that
‘‘Students at all grade levels and in every domain of science should have the opportunity to use scientific
inquiry and develop the ability to think and act in ways associated with inquiry, including asking questions,
planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, thinking
critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing
alternative explanations, and communicating scientific arguments.’’ (p. 105). Although this importance of
actively engaging students in science is prevalent throughout the literature, there is little empirical support
that shows that having students complete investigations themselves results in greater student learning than
students observing their teachers conduct the same experiment. The results from this study suggest that
having the students conduct the activities and investigations themselves is a key factor in determining the
successful implementation of the inquiry-oriented curriculum. This is an important finding to let teachers
know how this adaptation (to change student-directed activities to become teacher-directed activities) can
have a negative impact on student learning.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
166 FOGLEMAN ET AL.

We also found that teacher experience with the curriculum materials significantly impacted student
learning. Teachers who had previously enacted the reform based curriculum had larger student test gains than
teachers who were using the curriculum for the first time. Our finding is consistent with previous work
documenting the importance of teacher experience in enacting reform-based curriculum (Geier, 2005). This
is important to keep in mind particularly because the implementation of science inquiry in classrooms can
present significant challenges for teachers such as having sufficient science background knowledge and
managing extended activities (Edelson, Gordin, & Pea, 1999). The first time teachers enact an inquiry-
oriented curriculum they may become frustrated using the materials. By letting teachers know that usually
teachers are more effective using the curriculum a second and third time, may encourage teachers to try using
the innovative curriculum for more than 1 year. This is also an important finding in terms of evaluating the
effectiveness of a new curriculum or other instructional tool. The first year teachers enact a reform the
students’ learning gains may under-represent the potential of the curriculum. Teachers may need to enact a
curriculum multiple times before they are able to effectively use it in their own classroom.
There are limitations to our study. First, we were unable to obtain complete data sets from all of the
teachers that participated and consequently this lowered our sample size by five teachers. Including these
other teachers may have impacted the results of our analysis. Furthermore, the relatively low number of
teachers in our study for HLM limited the power of our model. We would expect other measures to be strong
predictors of student learning, but their effects were not significant here. Specifically, we would expect that
the level of completion of the unit and measures of teacher efficacy to influence student learning. Our model
does not suggest that these measures are unimportant; rather it just suggests that teacher experience with the
curriculum materials and activity structure have a greater impact on student learning. In terms of level of
completion, as we mentioned earlier, there were limitations in our use of survey data to measure the level of
completion and observational data may have provided a more accurate measure of this construct. In terms of
self-efficacy, we define self-efficacy as a teacher’s belief in his or her ability to act in ways that successfully
accomplish specific teaching goals (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). The teachers in our study were all using
the inquiry curriculum for either the first or second time. Our measure of self-efficacy, specifically asked them
about their comfort level around the curriculum. Consequently, it is not surprising that teachers’ experience
with the curriculum materials had a significant impact on student learning while teachers’ self-efficacy did
not. Since our study only looked at teachers during their first or second enactments of the materials, it may be
too soon for a reliable sense of efficacy to take shape. In order to more effectively examine the role of self-
efficacy, future studies should include teachers with a wider range of experiences with curriculum as well as
include a more diverse measure of self-efficacy beyond curriculum comfort level.
Furthermore, as we discussed previously there are limitations in using survey data to measure teacher
enactment. The survey did not provide a variety of details about the enactments such as a measure of the
quality of instructional practices being used in the classroom and teachers struggled with estimating their
level of completion of the curriculum. Observational or videotape analyses for all of the teachers in the study
would provide a more detailed measure of teachers’ enactments and instructional practices. Future research
needs to continue to explore what other characteristics in teachers’ enactment cause the significant variation
in student learning between teachers.
Yet the importance of both activity structure and teacher experience are essential fundamental findings
from this study that should be kept in mind during future curriculum development and professional
development support of teachers. Actively engaging students in science investigation is important for
students to successfully learn key science concepts. Furthermore, teachers need experience using reform
oriented curriculum in order to reap the benefits in terms of greater student learning.

Notes
1
For this study we were not able to directly collect ethnicity data from the students. Instead, we used the
information available online for the school or district in terms of self report of student ethnicity data.
Unfortunately, at the time (2003–2004) the data were reported in different ways by the respective schools and
districts. We included the most specific data that we had available to us, which did not include the specific
percentages for Urban A, Town B, and Rural C.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
TEACHERS’ ADAPTATIONS 167

2
Effect Size: Calculated by dividing the difference between post-test and pre-test mean scores by the
pre-test standard deviation.
3
From the Fully Unconditional Model, we found that the amount of variance at the individual level was
0.64575. After taking into account our predictor variables in our within-teacher model, the within teacher
variance is 0.64359. Therefore, the proportion of the individual-level variance that has been explained by our
individual-level predictors is (0.64575  0.64359)/0.64575, which equals 0.0033. This means that our
within teacher model explains 0.33% of the variance in student learning.
4
To calculate the proportion of the between-level variance that we explained in our model we used
the following equation: (twithinmodel  tbetweenmodel)/twithinmodel. In this case (0.38257  0.25814)/
0.38257 ¼ 0.3252.

This research was conducted as part of the Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and
Technology (IQWST) project and the Center for Curriculum Materials in Science (CCMS), supported in
part by the National Science Foundation grants ESI 0101780 and ESI 0227557 respectively. Any
opinions expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent either those of
the funding agency, the University of Rhode Island, Boston College or the University of Michigan.
We would like to thank all of the researchers involved with IQWST and CCMS, especially Brian Reiser,
and Jonathan Singer.

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