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• INTRODUCTION • EXCHANGE & IT’S REQUIREMENT -POWER PLANT -MDF SECTION • BSNL SERVICES -DATAONE
-ISDN -INTELLIGENT NETWORK
-DESINGH FEATURES OF 5ESS. -OPERATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE INTERFANCES. -OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE. -WIRELESS RESOURCE UTILIZATION. -COMMANDS USED FOR MANTENANCE AND SUPERVISION OF 5ESS.EXCHANGE.
• CELL ONE • WLL
• CONCLUSION • BIBLIOGRAPHY
The word communication means sharing the information and resource among different users. In generally for communication we use telephone system. The word “Telephone” is the combination of two Greek word “tele” and “phone”.”Tele” means far and “phone” means voice and sound. In 1874 Alexander Graham Bell invented the principal of telephone. The research of electronic telephone exchanges was ultimately perfected in 1960.The research on mobile telephone begins in 1946. The integrated service digital network (ISDN) id developed in 1976. In 1980 optics technology developed. In optics technology we use optical fibre cable. The optical fibre cables offer the potential carry greater volume of calls than satellite and microwave links. Now a days WLL technology become popular.WLL technology is the latest development in the field of communication. Wireless Local Loop (WLL) technology is based on CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) principle. WLL is the wireless network. The impact of telephone has been both positive and negative. On the positive side the invention of telephone has resulted in the rapid diffuse dissemination of the technology & scientific information, saves life through links to emergency services, made possible the modern city through telephone connections, increased the speed and ease with which information changes place and acceleration the rate of scientific and technological changes & growth in industries. On the other hand, wars are waged more easily, the scope of human conflict has been extended also telephone lines, and multigenerational household has been broken up, as living along is no longer an experiment in isolation possible.
New Digital Switches Inducted in Indian Telecom Network.
FETEX-150 EWSD AXE-10 OCB-283 5 ESS NEAX-61E SYSTEM X
SUPPLIER FUJITSU, JAPAN SIEMENS, GERMANY ERICSSON, SWEDEN ALCATEL, FRANCE LUCENT, USA NEC, JAPAN GPT, UK
VALIDATED AT MUMBAI CALCUTTA CHENNAI NEW DELHI AHMEDABAD PATNA HYDERABAD
A system that is responsible for switching the various subscribers. An exchange contains many cabinates, and one cabinate contains many pillars. Each pillar contains a distribution panel(D.P.). One D.P. contains many pairs and one pair makes connection for subscriber .So from a D.P. there are so many connections for the subscriber.
It also consist of armature and contacts .For special services the no.then it means the no. So we need many exchanges in a city for the communication & these exchanges are also interconnected.The communication is not possible from one exchange if the distance among the subscriber is more than 10 km because of various losses involved with the communication. corresponding to an out station. Switching on dialing a number. it attracts the armature due to this the contacts are displaced from their original position. The number varies according to the area of exchange . Electromechanical and electronic devices do switching. If the dialed number is busy then loop will not be completed & the busy tone is send by the exchange and if the number is not busy then a ringing is send by the exchange. 4 . the automatic connectivity of one subscriber to another is called switching. in other words a pulse like is transmitted & same procedure repeated for the other corresponding digits. When a subscriber dials a number 220600 then corresponding to first digit loop breaks in to two times .When current is passed though the coil then due to magnetic field developed. are also different as if subscriber dials starting digit 0. Electronic switching is done with the help of flip-flop & electromechanical switching is done using Relay. A Relay consist of a current carrying coil wound over a core.
MDF section & other parts of exchange.REQUIREMENT OF EXCHANGE POWER PLANT This plant consist of two unit i. Requirement o Power Supply:Any power supply arrangement for a communication system must have two basic characteristics:(1) Reliability of the component of the power plant & continuity of the power supply. Required power supply for EWSD exchange = 48v d.Generally two sets of generator sets are used one for current use & another as standby. The power plant of any telecommunication system is usually referred as the heart of the installation since the communication system can function only as long as power supply is available. The battery room too has two sets of batteries .C. • Battery room:This is the unit consisting of 24 batteries of 2 volts connected in series to makes 48 volts.c. (1) Engine room (2) Battery plant • Engine room:- This is the unit responsible for supplying power directly from electric supply board of alternate supply from generator . There KVA rating is according to the load of exchange. *:-In communication network D. The power developed is send through bus bars to the switch room. In EWSD it is of 380 KVA rating. power is widely used. These are been charged by direct supply or form generator sets & then supplied to various units through rectifiers. (2) The power fed to the exchange equipments should be free from noise or humidity & to telegraph equipment from large ripple harmonics. Failure of power supply system in any installation renders the communication facilities offered by it to be instantly paralyzed.e. which is the potential at which the exchange works. 5 .
Maintenance of Secondary Cells:Value regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries ensures a reliable effective and user friendly source of power.Source Of Power:Power for the communication system is divided from various sources of which the important ones utilized in development are detailed below:(A) Commercial AC Power Supply: .AC mains of 220/230 v 1 phase or 440v 3 phase at a frequency of 50 Hz. Normally two sets of batteries are used for medium capacity telephone exchanges. (C) Prime Mover Generating Sets:. (B) Primary Cells: . leak proof & explosion resistant and there is no need to add water or to clean terminals.In electronic exchanges.Battery of secondary cells is used to provide reserve power for telecom systems in the exchanges. ringing supply and tones are derived from printing circuit board (PCB). (E) Static Rectifier Unit: . Under typical charging conditions 6 .It is used in small magneto exchange telegraph offices. provided which requires connection to DC by means of converting equipments. It has low self-discharge rate which eliminates the need for equalizing charge. It is spill proof. It is necessary t provide a stand by power supply as an alternative source of power plant installation feeding power to the communication system as interruption may occurs in the power supply.It is an AC to DC to conversion set utilizing the AC power mains as the primary source of power & delivering DC O/P at the required voltage & current for charging of secondary cells or for feeding telecommunication equipment. As the battery is discharged the lead di-oxide +ve active material & the spongy lead – ve active material react with the sulpheruic acid electrolyte to from lead sulphate & water during charge that process is reversed. (D) Secondary Cells: .It is comprised of petrol/Diesel fired engine. which is coupled to alternator . (F) Ringers: .Prime mover generating sets is generally used as stand by source of power & also as a regular source of power in areas where commercial power mains are not available.
This is what known as the oxygen Recombination principle.D. instead of bubbling upwards is transported in gas phase through the separators medium to the –ve plate.E. towards the pillar & further to the subscriber.S. The N.E. This feature is utilized in the design of VRLA batteries. The L.F. The N. It is connected to the corrs’ terminals with the help of jumper wire. 20 rows of each cols. Section:This is a link in between the subscriber and the switch room lying within the exchange. The absence of fuse shows that the no. In VRLA batteries the oxygen gas evolved at the +ve plate. side (line of subscriber). 7 . M. side in a bunch of 1200 pairs of jellyfish wire. It consists of terminal points. of equipments) and L.oxygen at the +ve plate occurs before hydrogen evolution at the –ve plate.S. which has color coding and has a standard.e.E. side is connected to the switch room with permanent writing. which contain 128 terminal points (0 to 127) in each module. side is on its backside and is the side connected to line side i. This unit where the jumper wire as terminated is consist of 100 points (1 to 200. Each) In each terminals are inserted with fuse consisting OD to GD tubes. The separator is highly absorbent glass matrix type with very high porosity due to which the oxygen gas finds an unimpeded path to the –ve plate. side is connected to I. is not been allotted or is out of order. They are divided in to modules. which are designated as N. side (no.S. which are arranged in systematic order. After this unit wires are led to the pillar in bunch of pairs of copper wire. The oxygen gas reduced by reaction with the spongy lead at the –ve plate turning a part of it in to partially discharged condition there by effectively suppressing the hydrogen gas evolution at the –ve plate.
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and HDBH loads. the traffic loads used for engineering are. as follows: The percent of demands for service that fail to receive service The percent of demands for service that are delayed. respectively. The basic building-block of the switch is the SM/SM-2000. respectively. Unit quantities are then used to define the office size in SMs/SM-2000s (switching module/switching module-2000). memory requirements. calculate the time slots required Given the number of time slots required. There are generally two types of service criteria: blocking and delay. ABSBH. Engineering methods closely follow the modular architecture of the system. Service levels of these two criteria are expressed. The number of SMs/SM-2000s then determines the engineering for the CM (communication module). Traffic parameters are used to determine the number of interface units required. calculate the number of SMs/SM-2000s required. and HD (or HDBH) engineering. The general algorithm for sizing a switch and accommodating individual variabilities is as follows: Given the traffic characteristics. to the time frame used. and so forth] up to the SM time-slot capacity of 512 time slots or 30K (in 3K slices) time slots for an SM2000. number of trunks. ABS engineering is used for components with low to moderate utilization rate. An SM/SM-2000 can serve varying numbers and types of interface units [line units. In general. calculate the interface units required Given the interface units required. They are ABS (or ABSBH) engineering. 9 . trunk units. THD (or THDBH) engineering. THDBH. and usage. HD engineering or THD engineering is used for components sensitive to traffic peaks. or the length of delay. and so forth.5ESS SWITCHING SYSTEM The equipment for the 5ESS® switch is provided using the following traditional traffic engineering practices: number of lines.
QUICKER HARDWARE EXTENSION 2. which should be of interest to the switch administrator. The facilities include a peripheral controller in the IOP (input/output processor) of the AM and cabling. SMOOTHER. Interface Architecture Specific types of interface facilities provide the transmission paths from the AM (administrative module) to the various interfaces. The functions of the interface devices are also described. Operations and Administrative Interfaces This section identifies and describes the various I/O (input/output) channel interfaces of the switch. WORKING REGIONAL PROCESSOR: PERFORM TASKS OF SIMPLE BUT REPETITIVE NATURE. ONE SYSTEM FOR ALL TYPE OF APPLICATIONS. These interfaces allow administrative and maintenance personnel to communicate with the switch. SYSTEM UPGRADATION IS EASIER 3.DESIGN FEATURES OF 5ESS. 10 . NEW FUNCTIONS EASILY INCORPORATED. FUNCTIONAL MODULARITY: ADVANTAGES 1. The I/O devices. SPC PCM PRINCIPLES TIME DIVISION SWITCHING (DIGITAL SWITCHING) DUPLICATED CENTRAL SYNCHRONOUSLY PROCESSOR. Data sets and telephone line facilities are required for remote terminal devices. HIGHEST DEGREE OF BACKWARD COMPATIBILITY.
11 . . Equipment alarms are those alarms that identify equipment problems. and so forth). There is a subset of fixed interfaces that are required for all switches. The fixed assignments plus the required interfaces.. Alarms The switch alarms are separated into equipment and building alarms. Building alarms are associated with building functions that may have an effect on the switching equipment (for example. These facilities include the following: Magnetic tape and disk drive facilities Master control center Alarms. The fixed interfaces must be assigned to specific IOP slots. open doors.. power. Magnetic Tape and Disk Drive Facilities A single tape/disk cabinet is needed to house the required minimum of four fixed-media disk drives (two pairs) and one magnetic tape drive.Fixed Input/Output Interfaces The fixed I/O interfaces consist of the equipment necessary for the switch to perform properly and to provide the required administrative and maintenance functions. air conditioning. An additional cabinet is needed for other disk drives and tape units.
SM/SM-2000. and operator position sizes. when used alone. The modular design allows switching capacity. This goal is accomplished through the development of an interconnected network of microprocessor-controlled SMs/SM-2000s. Those resources that apply and their utilization are described in the subjects covered in this part. The ability to host remote modules provides additional growth flexibility. and STP (signaling transfer point) network services. the term SM. Through the use of remotely located modules [not available for a VCDX (very compact digital exchange) office]. wireless. operator services. The architecture of the switch emphasizes flexibility through the use of distributed processing and a modular growth plan. and call processing capacity to be added incrementally. Voice and data services may be provided by building both software and hardware incrementally on the SM (switching module)/SM-2000. The switch can also support ISDN (integrated services digital network). system interfaces. The term SM as used in this subject will refer to switching modules other than the SM2000.1 provides a basic diagram of the components that make up the switch resources. Figure 4. 12 . The major characteristics of the switch are as follows: Provides high-capacity optical links for calls between different SMs/SM-2000s Provides virtually nonblocking access between nonconcentrated switch terminations Provides integration of voice and digital data services into a single switch Provides direct digital interfacing with digital facility terminations Provides host capability for remotely located modules Uses distributed control Provides signaling and transmission treatment by an interface unit Provides testing access to modular metallic facilities as an integral part of the interface units.Overview of System Architecture The 5ESS® switch is designed for application as a local. or local tandem digital electronic switching system. should be defined as SM (not valid for SM-2000). gateway. combined local/toll. the information provided is common to both. IN (intelligent network). toll. When used together. Hardware A major design goal of the switch is to remain economically competitive over a wide range of line. trunk. Unless otherwise stated. the features of the switch may be economically extended to small switching offices located nearby. The components shown in this figure depict those that are available for many applications and some may not be required for the application described in this manual.
5E-AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service wireless applications of the 5ESS Switch) The GSM. Modular partitions in hardware and software. The 5ESS Switch supports the wireless applications for the following standards: GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) JDC (Japan Digital Cellular). homing on a host central office only for centralized facilities. JDC. Wireless Resource Utilization One of the uses of the 5ESS® Switch is to provide cellular telephone service by providing custom interfaces to wireless equipment provided by both Lucent Technologies and other vendors. Software is distributed among modules and has the following characteristics: Well-defined stable interfaces between major system components. overload containment. 13 . Remotely-located line/trunk interfaces capable of extensive stand-alone localized processing. A distributed architecture with functions partitioned to allow smooth growth. Advanced software characteristics as follows: ·High-level language for better understanding and easier changes ·An operating system providing a stable high-level interface between most software and the underlying processor hardware ·Software designs oriented toward improved productivity ·Portability of software from circuit processor types to possible future processors ·A data base management system to provide controlled high-level interfaces to office data. Distributed processing allows the processing power of the office to grow as the office load grows through the addition of SMs/SM-2000s. and so forth. enhanced fault isolation. An advanced software development system working within the operating system environment. and 5E-AMPS applications are described in the following sections.Software The software architecture of the switch follows the distributed nature of the hardware design.
The MSC interconnects the cellular network with the land network. each of which serves a coverage area called a cell. The figure shows the 5ESS Switch as the MSC and shows the MSC (mobile-services switching center) external interfaces: BSS (base station system). As a mobile travels from cell to cell. it provides the functions of the VLR (Visitor Location Register). The GSM wireless architecture is shown in Figure 17. the MSC will switch the call from one base station to another in what is called a "handover" or "handoff". In addition to the MSC functionality. OMC (operation maintenance center). Typically. the HLR (Home Location Register). In a typical cellular system. Billing Center. Voice Messaging System. For the GSM system. Each base station is assigned a set of radios and radio channels.1.GSM Architecture The three major components of a cellular system are the MSC (Mobile-services Switching Center). and the MS (Mobile Station). 14 . the BS (Base Station). the EIR (Equipment Identity Register). one base station can serve several mobile stations located within its cell area simultaneously. the 5ESS Switch serves as the MSC (Mobile Switching Center). an MSC will serve a number of base stations. and trunks to the PSTN (public switching telephone network). and the AUC (Authentication Center).
however. Europe has seen a rather more rapid growth than the US. Cable laying for intercontinental use is an expensive operation that. The only other way to affect some permanent data is by means of subscriber procedures or by changing the program and data by means of a so called “function Change”. Commands used in 5ESS are called Man-Machine-Language (MML). The syntax of the command language is as shown: DTSTP: Command Code DIP = Parameter Name 32UPD3. Microwave and satellite systems retain an advantage in the ease with which they may be extended to include additional users. Each command in the system is described in a so called Command Description. some commands only a few and some commands contain a large number of parameters. reflecting the increased investment by government. can be justified only if the additional bandwidth is fully used. like satellites. Some commands do not contain any parameters. There is one Command Description for each command in the system. The rate of growth has depended on the communication policy of various nations. there are many cable TV companies in the US that are laying fibre based networks. Optical fibre links now connect 15 . The MML is made up of commands and parameters.COMMANDS USED EXCHANGE FOR MAINTENANCE AND SUPERVISION OF 5ESS Commands and parameters are used to change all type of data in the 5ESS system. Parameter Value Optical fibre cables The tremendous growth of optical fibre technology and its bandwidth capacity has led to a gradual replacement of microwave links with optical fibre cable for point-to-point communication. The primary disadvantage of optical cable is that it is largely restricted to point-to-point communications.
i. Fibres have been fabricated with losses as low as . and the development of an optical circuit technology that can match the potential data-rates of the cables. Security. however. However. The speed of these circuits. In addition. the replacement of microwave systems by optical fibre is well advanced. The fibre (in its simplest form) consists of a core of glass of one refractive index. radio interference. In addition to the potential bandwidth. It is extremely difficult to tap into an optical line unnoticed. It is difficult to tap into an optical line. if only because they are already paid for. is usually the limiting factor on the bit-rate. There is considerable current debate as to whether optics will ever completely replace electronic technology. Optical fibres have very small diameters. Optical carriers are in the region of Hz to Hz. weight. Optical fibres are almost completely immune from external fields. microwave links retain a considerable cost advantage in sparsely populated areas. Optical fibre waveguide For many years it has been appreciated that the use of optical (light) waves as a carrier wave provides an enormous potential bandwidth. Modern optical fibre now has better loss characteristics than coaxial cable. which are electronically controlled. and areas of Japan. Within the national network in Britain. The primary disadvantage of optical fibre are the technical difficulties associated with reliable and cheap connections. Typical fibre dimensions are diameter. The difficulty of connection and high-cost of associated circuitry result in optical fibres being used only in very high bit-rate communication. to 16 . especially in heavily populated areas of the country.e. Optical fibre is a waveguide. optical fibre communication offers a number of benefits: • • • • Size. flexibility. and a cladding of a slightly lower refractive index (Figure ). Low transmission loss. They do not suffer from cross-talk. Electrical isolation. etc. Optical communication only became a widespread option with the development of low-loss dielectric waveguide. Optical communications are forced to use the comparatively crude method of ASK modulation. good phase control of an optical signal is extremely difficult. the atmosphere is a poor transmission medium for light waves. The fibre is then surrounded by a refractive sheath. three to six orders of magnitude higher than microwave frequencies. Microwave systems will continue for some time to come.Britain and the US. In addition. A very large number of fibres can be carried in a cable the thickness of a coaxial cable.
These rays are called modes. For any particular frequency. In this manner it travels along the length of the fibre. there is a different ray. this view is too simple to explain all features of waveguide behaviour. The modal action of a waveguide is a consequence of the wave nature of the radiation. It is also possible for the wave to follow a helical path down the guide. or is totally internally reflected at the core/cladding boundary. it is not possible for the wave to take any ray down the guide. Figure: Waveguide action of an optical fibre However. the action of a waveguide can be partially understood by considering the rays down the fibre. In fact. A 17 .Figure: The basic structure of a fibre optic waveguide In simple terms. Only certain rays can be taken. A light-wave entering the fibre is either refracted into the cladding. and attenuated. These rays are called skew-rays. The maximum angle at which it may enter the guide and travel by total internal reflection is termed the acceptance angle (Figure ).
optical waveguides also suffer from dispersion. It is these wavelengths that are used for transmission. Absorption of light occurs in the glass and this decreases with frequency. is the material dispersion. The dispersion has two sources. Waveguide imperfections account for low-level loss that is approximately constant with wavelength. A combination of these effects results in a minimum absorption of about to in the to wavelength region. Put simply. Scattering of light from internal imperfections within the glass -. (See Figure . In addition to the waveguide dispersion. however. The attenuation of light in the guide has a number of sources.Rayleigh scattering -. Bending the waveguide changes the local angle of total internal reflection and loss increases through the walls. Glass 18 . Due to the modal behaviour. A multi-mode fibre has a number of possible rays that light of a particular frequency may take.increases with frequency. a waveguide is an intrinsically dispersive device. rays of different frequency travel on different paths having different lengths.) Figure: Sketch graph showing contributions to net spectral loss is a glass core In addition to attenuation. Because the different frequencies travel different lengths they take different times.mono-mode fibre is a fibre that only has one acceptable ray-path per frequency.
Graded-index fibre. The bandwidth of optical fibres is dominated by the dispersion. Stepped-index fibre.is an intrinsically dispersive media. This is a multi-mode fibre. Fibre optic cable is available in three basic forms: 1. This is a Figure: Stepped-index fibre 2. the core has a uniform refractive index throughout. has not in practise been realised. However.) to . very large bandwidth. In fact. It is ironic that the principle justification for optical communication. (Figure . the bandwidth of individual fibres is actually much the same as high quality co-axial cable.) 19 . the core has a refractive index that gradually decreases as the distance from the centre of the fibre increases. This generally has a core diameter of multi-mode fibre. In single mode fibres the material dispersion dominates the waveguide dispersion. it is possible to lay many hundreds of optical fibres in the same cable cross-section as a single co-axial cable. In this type of fibre. In this type of fibre. This generally has a core diameter of . (Figure .
(Figure . we will see an increased use of this type of optical fibre. 1 to 3. Mono-mode fibre. 20 . As the name suggests.Figure: Graded-index fibre 3. the distinguishing characteristic of this fibre is that allows only a single ray path. The radius of the core of this type of fibre is much less than that of the other two. we find that the cost of production increases. however it does have a uniform refractive index. while the dispersion decreases. the complexity of transmitter and receiver increases. This latter property change means that the mono-fibre also has the potential to provide greater bandwidth.) Figure: Mono-mode fibre From. As it becomes cheaper to produce mono-mode fibre technology. Figure gives typical operational information for a mono-mode fibre.
Figure: Operational information for a mono-mode fibre 21 .
8. Hence no electric shocks. Immunity to RFI: Fibre has excellent rejection of radio frequency interference (RFI). glass or plastic . 6. A typical fibre will attenuate an optical signal by 0. 1. are insulators. Immunity to EMI: Fibres have excellent rejection of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This is the crucial operating difference between a fibre optic communication and other systems. 10. 22 . a single fibre can propagate data at 565 Mbps rate which contains 7680 voice channels. 7. none leaks out during transmission to interfere with signals in other fibres. Some optic fibres are made of transparent plastic. Small size and Light Weight: Fibres are smaller and lighter. 5. EMI includes those sources of radiation caused by natural phenomena such as lighting or caused unintentionally such as sparking. A typical cable design will have a fibre of diameter 125µm enclosed in a plastic sheath with an outer diameter of 2. The ability of a fibre to isolate itself from its environment allows us to pack numerous fibres in a cable to transmit many channels of information along a single path. Resource Plentiful: the basic material for glass fibre is silicon dioxide which is plentiful. Due to this main difference fibre optic communication has some advantages over other conventional systems. Higher Security: Fibres offer higher degree of security and privacy .ADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATION In Fibre Optic Communication system signals are transmitted as light. No cross talk: The optic wave within the fibre is trapped. High Information carrying capacity: Fibre is able to carry large amount o information . either owing to the transmitted signaler owing to the transmitted signal or owing to external radiation striking the fibre. Less Attenuation: Attenuation is the reduction of signal magnitude as it travels along the transmission path.e. radar and other signals originating from electronic equipment. 2. 9.3 db/km.5 mm. RFI refers to interference caused by radio and television stations. light can not couple in to the fibre from its side. Greater Safety:: Optic fibres . where as conventional electronic communication system relies on electrons passing through the wires. because fibres don’t radiate the energy within them. Conversely.Very long communication links can be constructed because of the availability of low loss fibre . No electric current flow through them.Repeaters needed to amplify weak signals can be located at large intervals. 3.g. The weight of this cable is 6 kg/km. Low Cost :: For long paths fibre cables are cheaper to transport and easier to install than metal cables 4. It is difficult for an intruder to detect the signal being transmitted without the knowledge of users. another readily available material.
5. datalinks for satellite earth stations and transmission lines 23 . 2. A variety of network topologies are available for local area networks by using fibre transmission. between cpu and memory. command and control links on ships and aircrafts . or live directly to studio. 4. 3. signals traveling through fibres laid along the railway track do not degrade. 7. cable television (CATV). 8. 6. Fibre systems are particularly suited for transmission of digital data such as that generated by computers. and between CPUs. studio to transmitter or live event to equipment van. all the stations are within the building). A local area network (LAN) can be use fibre to distribute information to several stations within a limited region (e. Fibre in the loop(RTL): The small size and large information carrying capacity of optic fibres make them attractive as an alternative to conventional copper twisted pair cables in subscriber loop. Video Transmission: Applications that are primarily video include television broadcast. home study courses. Optic communications are compatible with electrified railways. and the security resulting rom a non radiating transmission line make fibres attractive for data transfer over any distance. Broadband Services: Fibre can be used for provisioning of broadband services such as video request service where the subscriber can request that a particular video cassette be played from a central storage location. if the load can be tolerated. High EMI areas: Because of fibre rejection of EMI. medical facilities.g. They too have technical and economic limitations . A few fibre applications are described in this section . For selection of any system their relative merits and demerits must be evaluated. Optic cables can be suspended directly from power line towers.APPLICATIONS OF FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS Fibre systems are not perfect . Computer data communications: Low weight. Military Applications: It include communications . The list is not exhaustive and is merely indicative of areas in which fibre optics is successful. Long distance telecommunications: Telecommunication systems on land and at sea can use fibre to carry many simultaneous telephone calls or other signals. 1. train time table etc. or poles . these services requiring large bandwidths can be mad available by using broadband transmission systems and fibre provides the needed bandwidths. Inter exchange junctions: fibre can be used in inter exchange junction to carry many simultaneous telephone conversations between to exchanges. small size. remote monitoring and surveillance. The broadcast television industry uses fibre transmission for short links e. Similarly fibres can pass unaffected through areas where electrical power is generated or through power substations . Interconnections can be made between the central processing unit (CPU) and peripherals.g.
fire and spark hazards are significant assets. It has got coverage in all national &state highways & train routes.SMS both national & international.You can use cell one in over 160 countries worldwide & in 270 cellular networks & over 1000 cities/towns across India.for tactical commandpost communication.GPRS. pressure. Non-communication fibre optics: fibre sensors still represent an important fibre optics application.E-Mail. voice-Mail. rotary and linear position. On aircraft and ships the reduced . TARANG TARANG (WLL) This is a communication system that connects customer to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitute for Conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers & telephone exchange. unified messaging service(send & receive E-Mails) etc. Fibre sensors have been use to measure temperature . Cell One CELLONE BSNL’s GSM cellular mobile service cell one has a customer base of over 5.2 million. shock. 24 . 9.Cellone provides all the services like MMS. Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network Helping relieve congestion of connection in the normal cable/wire-based network in urban areas Connecting the remote & scattered rural areas Limited mobility without any air time charge.Cellone offers all India roaming facility to both prepaid & postpaid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi).
fax. offices or even boats connect with a wireless system in a manner similar to that of CDMA cell phones. The difference is that WLL phones usually stay in a relatively in a fixed location. but the following points are given as • • • • Low maintenance cost Less manpower required for operation Ease in installations No need for Expensive Copper Wires 25 . WLL is rapidly gaining in popularity in developing nations. and data connections. WLL phones often connect to AC current rather than using batteries. WLL can establish telephone service with 1/10 th the infrastructure cost of developing a wired network.As a result: • • There are over 4 billion people in the world without access to a telephone. REASON FOR GOING WIRELESS Here the main stress is not mobility. WLL phones in homes.Wireless Local Loop Wire less Local Loop is a cost effective. Yet demand for telephone service continuous to grow . wireless alternative to fixed wire line service. They can be used to provide voice. There are approximately 50 million people on waiting list for phones. It if often very difficult to get telephone service in developing nations due to the cost and time necessary to provide a wired network.
Working of WLL • • Caller with frequency f1 Hz can communicate with the other in his home network. All this direction of calls are controlled by the BSM. caller is directed through his home network. When out his home network. 26 .
The PSTN is often represented as a cloud becomes the exact routing sequence used to connect individual phone calls & vary & can’t be determined in advance. A city may have more than one CO. which handles routing of incoming & outgoing calls for all telephones in its area.PSTN: The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is a network of switches and connections between switches. FUNCTION OF MTSO? The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) provides controls & commands to the mobile telephones. 27 . These switches are distributed across various switching centers. It also provides connectivity to the PSTN. A telephone connects to the PSTN through a local central office (CO).
caller directed to Delhi zone.WHAT IS ROLE OF TELEPHONE NUMBER? Suppose a number entered by consumer is shown below: +91-11-2543340 Now the first two number indicate the country code (91 stands for India. 51 for USA etc. 28 . After that next batch stands for city code (11 for Delhi). from that points the local exchange directs the caller to required destination.) hence caller is directed to India’s gateway.
RajNagar. GZB. center. This entire exercise has taught us the importance of team-work & co-operation without which training would not have completed successfully. our training in 5ESS. We have carried out an extensive study of this field by not only consulting various books & study materials but also visiting places like BSNL.Conclusion This vocational training has a very crucial role in our engineering carrier. We have put in our entire engineering knowledge to realize this project. 30 . assumes great significance. The present is being information technology age.
P.TANENBAUM DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORKING- FOROUZAN • • COMMUNICATION SYSTEM-R.SINGH HAND OUTS ON OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATIONPREPARED BY BSNL CENTER.BIBLIOGRAPHY • • COMPUTER NETWORKS. 31 .
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