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Population Growth Model

A population model is a type of mathematical model that is applied to

the study of population dynamics. The equation for the population
growth rate (change in number of individuals in a population over

dN/dT = rN

In this equation, dN/dT is the growth rate of the population in a given

instant, N is population size, T is time, and r is the per capita rate of
increase –that is, how quickly the population grows per
individual already in the population.

There are two different kinds of growth models: exponential and


• When the per capita rate of increase (r) takes the same positive value
regardless of the population size, then we get exponential growth.

• When the per capita rate of increase (r) decreases as the population
increases towards a maximum limit, then we get logistic growth.
Waste Management ( 3R’s) and Disposal Methods

Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage

waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection,
transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and
regulation of the waste management process.

The concept of this first rule is to only use what is essential. It’s
simple; if we consume less, then the solid wastes will be lesser as well.
Here, we need to focus on the source of the waste and where it really
came from, we need to know that some materials that are used in
manufacturing can’t decompose on their own.
Hence, the goal of the first R ( Reduce ) is to lessen the overall amount
of waste and rubbish that humans use and consume.
This certainly is understood by all – in this case, moreover, when we
say ‘reuse’, it simply means using the item again for another purpose
or ‘use’. In other words, you use them in a different way, compared to
what it is intended for.
If you don’t know how to reuse some of your items, you can just
donate them to others who know how.
Now, this might involve complex procedures. This is the process of
transforming an item into a new product that is more purposeful and
usable. Recycling involves things that we use daily, and with the right
procedure, these can generate energy or any beneficial items for the

Disposal Methods

Throwing daily waste/garbage in the landfills is the most popularly
used method of waste disposal used today. This process of waste
disposal focuses attention on burying the waste in the land. There is a
process used that eliminates the odors and dangers of waste before it
is placed into the ground.
Incineration or combustion is a type disposal method in which
municipal solid wastes are burned at high temperatures so as as
to convert them into residue and gaseous products. The biggest
advantage of this type of method is that it can reduce the volume
of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume.

Recovery and Recycling

Resource recovery is the process of taking useful discarded items
for a specific next use. These discarded items are then processed
to extract or recover materials and resources or convert them to
energy in the form of useable heat, electricity or fuel.


Composting is a easy and natural bio-degradation process that

takes organic wastes i.e. remains of plants and garden and kitchen
waste and turns into nutrient rich food for your plants.
Composting, normally used for organic farming, occurs by
allowing organic materials to sit in one place for months until
microbes decompose it.

Plasma gasification
With this method of waste disposal, a vessel uses characteristic
plasma torches operating at extremely high temperature creating a
gasification for the conversion of solid or liquid wastes into a syngas.
Thanks to this process, destruction of waste and dangerous materials
is found. This form of waste disposal provides renewable energy and
an assortment of other fantastic benefits.
Global warming

Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the

Earth's climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by
temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.
This effect is caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide,
chlorofluorocarbons and other gases in the air, many of them released
by human activity.

Greenhouse effect
The warming of Earth’s atmosphere due to the buildup of heat-
trapping gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane. Scientists refer to
these pollutants as greenhouse gases.

Since the Industrial Revolution, there has been an excessive increase

in the green house effect and the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)
concentration has increased by about 40%.

Effects of Greenhouse Effects

The increase in the average temperature on Earth is changing living
conditions on the planet.

• Thawing of glacial masses

Glacial retreat leads to global rise in sea level and the release of large
methane columns which can have dramatic effects for the planet.
• Flooding of islands and coastal cities
The intensification of the greenhouse effect does not cause these
extreme climatic events, but it does increase there intensity.
• Migration of species
Many animal species will be forced to migrate in order to survive the
changes in the main climatic patterns altered by the progressive
increase in temperatures.
• Desertification of fertile areas
Global warming is having a profound impact on the processes of soil
degradation and is contributing to the desertification of the most arid
areas on the planet. Desertification destroys all the biological potential
of affected regions, turning them into barren and unproductive land.
• Impact on agriculture and livestock
Global warming has already altered the length of the growing season
in large parts of the planet. The same is happening with livestock:
climatic changes are directly affecting important species in multiple


Reducing emissions of the so-called greenhouse gases, such as CO2 or
CH4 is not the only solution to curb the greenhouse effect.
1. Use renewable energy.
2. Use public transport and other non-polluting means, such as
electric vehicles or bicycles.
3. Promote ecological awareness among citizens and different
4. Commit to recycling and the circular economy.
5. Reduce the consumption of meat.
6. Consume organic products.
Difference between London smog and Los Angles smog