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Paint is typically a mixture of a liquid and one or more colorants (pigments). The liquid is called
a vehicle or binder (adhesive) and may include a solvent or thinner along with the coating agent.
The fundamental purpose for painting is decorating, whereas the purpose for coating is for

1. Pigment
 also called colorants or colored powders which are used for the paint's color and opacity
e.g. TiO2 - has high refractive index producing white coloration
Finely divided CaCO3 - low refractive index, when mixed with TiO2 produces matt

2. Extenders/Fillers – larger pigment particles added to improve adhesion, strengthen films

and save binder (e.g. talc, china clay, gypsum, silica, barite, glass flakes, asbestos, anhydride)

3. Binder (Resin) – critical to performance of coatings which holds the pigments in place

3 Most Important Binders in Paints:

a. Acrylic Polymers (resins)
 used in water-borne emulsion paints

b. Alkyd Polymers (resins)

 used in decorative gloss paints

c. Epoxy Polymers (resins)

 used in industrial coatings

4. Vehicles – the liquid portion composed of natural/modified natural oils, resins and water

5. Diluent Or Thinner
 gives the paint its required viscosity
 increase fluidity, making paint more smooth, help penetration into porous surfaces

6. Additives
 used to modify the properties of the liquid paint or dry film

Additives may include:

 Dispersants: to separate and stabilize pigment particles
 Silicones: to improve weather resistance
 Thixotropic agents: to give paint a jelly-like consistency that breaks down to a
liquid when stirred or when a brush is dipped into it
 Driers: to accelerate drying time
 Anti-settling agents: to prevent pigment settling


1. Oil- Based Coatings

 Oil-based paints (oil paints) are among the oldest organic coating materials
 Oil paints consist of natural drying oils which undergo autoxidative polymerization in
the presence of catalytic driers and atmospheric oxygen.
 Oil paints are relatively environmentally friendly as long as harzardous solvent and
toxic pigments are not used.
 Coatings derived from oil paints are tough but not excessively hard, and exhibit
limited weather resistance

2. Cellulose-Based Coatings

3. Chlorinated Rubber Coating


1. Pre-Assembly And Premix

 In this step, the liquid raw materials (e.g. resins, solvents, oil, alcohol, and/or water) are
“assembled” and mixed in containers to form a viscous material to which pigments are
 At this stage, the particles are rather large (250 pm) and not consistenly mixed

2. Dispersion
 deagglomeration or grinding of aggregates of individual particles
 wetting of particles with solvent
 uniformly distributing particles in liquid phase

3. “Let-Down”/Thinning
 Material letdown, or thinning, is the process by which a completed mill base
dispersion is let down or reduced with solvent and binder to give a coating which is
designed to provide a durable and serviceable film that is easily apllied to the surface.
 The volume of the paint may increase significantly at this point depending on the final
product specifications

4. Tinting/Shading
 Adding color to white bases or adjusting the color of solid color bases that have been
formulated as complete products
 Various combinations of pigments, solvents, resins and pastes are added to the
material to meet the color requirements.

5. Filtering And Filling Operations

 After the desired paint quality is achieved, the paint is strained or filtered to remove
foreign materials.
 Fabric or metal screen filters, vibrating or variable-speed centrifugal clarifiers,
vibrating screens, and cartridge filters can be used.

6. Quality Control

Manufacture of Paint and Allied Coating Products. (1984, September). Retrieved May

08, 2018, from

C. (2017, April 03). Retrieved May 08, 2018, from




Nagar, V. (2017, January 16). Production & Operations of Paint. Retrieved May 08,

2018, from


Submitted by:

Andrada, Allen M.
Claveria, Camille S.
Cruz, Marianne V.
Sacanle, Kristine Angelica A.

9:00-10:30 TTh