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A BUSINESS CASE OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT TITLED “DISASTER

PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE CITY


OF TUGUEGARAO”

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In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Subject
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (PA 215)
of the Degree
Master in Public Administration (MPA)

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By:

ABRAHAM M. MAGUIGAD, JR
1st Year MPA Student

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE..................................................................................... i

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................... ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 2

OBJECTIVES................................................................................... 4

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION ........................................................... 4

DEFINITION OF TERMS .................................................................. 5

METHODOLOGY .............................................................................. 7

BUSINESS PROBLEM .................................................................... 11

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS ........................................................... 18

School-on-the-Air ...................................................................... 18
Instructor-led Training ............................................................... 24

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTION ................................. 28

IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH ..................................................... 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................... 31

APPENDIX ................................................................................... 35

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The proposed project intends to further capacitate the barangays in

Tuguegarao City in terms of disaster preparedness and response. As

such, it is deemed necessary to establish the need for the implementation

of the proposed project by developing a business case.

Generally, this business case shows the background of the target

area which is the City of Tuguegarao that is highly characterized by a

geographical location that is vulnerable to disasters, especially to

typhoons/tropical cyclones and flooding.

In the course of project implementation, School-on-the-Air (SOA) is

identified as a feasible modality in the conduct of disaster preparedness

and response capacity-building project. As supported and discussed in

this business case, SOA is a modality that needs the presence of radio

units, radio system, a radio program and a crew together with the pool of

experts who shall serve as the speakers and resource persons. These

elements compose the machinery in the conduct of the learning process

integrated in the project.

Studies support that the use of the SOA has long been accepted and

the risks that come with it are manageable with the implementation of

proper interventions. Risks such as the absence of visuals and physical

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interaction can be addressed using the provision of manuals before the

start of the airing of modules. Also, questions coming from the students

will be entertained and gathered through the use of social media

messaging platforms and short messaging service (SMS) for interactive

purposes. Post-session questions will also be asked after the airing of

each module.

INTRODUCTION

The Philippines, as a country located in the Pacific Rim, is highly

vulnerable to dreadful disasters like typhoon and flood that often cause

high death rate and high economic loss in the agricultural sector and

other industry in which Filipinos engaged in. Livelihood and the safety of

communities, particularly in coastal areas and major river basins, are at

risk which leaves discomfort and frustration.

On the average, the Philippines is being struck by twenty (20)

tropical cyclones per year and forty per cent (40%) of which cross Region

2 where Tuguegarao City is located. Locally, Tuguegarao City serves as

the bustling centre of commerce and governance in Region 2. It serves as

one of the region’s primary growth centers and houses various regional

government offices of national line agencies, bureaus, other government

instrumentalities and various education institutions.

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Dubbed as the “Gateway to the Ilocandia and the Cordilleras”, the

City of Tuguegarao is traversed by the Pinacanauan River and Cagayan

River and is surrounded by three mountain ranges: Sierra Madre

Mountains to the east, Cordillera Mountains to the west, and the Caraballo

Mountains to the south.

The city’s location makes it vulnerable and exposed to calamities. In

2015, it was reported by Verisk Maplecroft that Tuguegarao City is

determined as the second among the ten most disaster prone cities in the

world. The high danger posed by the entrenching myriad of natural

hazards that the city is exposed to justify its rank among the world’s most

at risk cities.

In recent years, disasters like the infamous Super Typhoon Lawin

and Typhoon Ompong beset the City of Tuguegarao in the past. The

Super Typhoon Lawin alone affected 33, 244 families and made P14, 754,

944 worth of damage to agriculture and livestock. Also, a ravaging P1,

704, 600, 000 worth of damage to infrastructure was recorded by the City

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council of Tuguegarao in 2016.

As a result of the adverse effects caused by disasters, the capacity

of communities in Tuguegarao City to cope and address problems with

regards to preparedness and response is challenged. Thence, it is deemed

necessary that a capacity-building endeavor geared towards disaster

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preparedness and response be implemented to further community

resiliency.

OBJECTIVES

Generally, this business case endeavors to establish the necessity

for the implementation of disaster preparedness and response capacity

building project in the City of Tuguegarao.

Specifically, it aims to:

1. Lay down the facts that show the need for the implementation of

the proposed intervention;

2. Determine the appropriate modality in the implementation of the

proposed intervention;

3. Determine risks that may arise and affect the implementation of

the proposed intervention; and

4. Identify actions to to address the determined risks.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This Business Case focused in the determination of necessity for the

implementation of the project at hand. Data from the City Disaster Risk

Reduction and Management Office, results of related studies and other

data from respected resources are likewise utilized.

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Moreover, this business case focused on the employment of several

analysis methods such as document analysis, strengths-weaknesses-

opportunities-threats analysis, advantage analysis, and risk analysis.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Disaster Preparedness and Response Capacity-Building – an

endeavor geared towards the provision of trainings along preparedness

and response to target students aimed to capacitate them with

appropriate knowledge and skills in addressing challenges posed by

disasters such as typhoons or floods.

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management – refers to the systematic

process of using administrative directives, organization, and operational

skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and improved coping

capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the

possibility of disaster (RA 10121).

Instructor-led Seminar Training – one of the modalities or options to

be employed in the provision of the expected deliverables of the proposed

project that is primarily characterized by lecture sessions and personal

interaction wherein the participants are expected to come in a venue that

is conducive for learning.

Preparedness – refers to the pre-disaster measures and actions being

undertaken by barangays in advance to ensure effective response to the

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impact of hazards. This also included the development/enhancement of

the overall strategy, policy, institutional structure, warning and

forecasting capabilities and plans (RA 10121).

Response - refers to the provision of emergency services and public

assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives,

reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic

subsistence needs of the affected people. Disaster response is

predominantly focused on immediate and short-term needs and is

sometimes called “disaster relief” (UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk

Reduction).

School-on-the-Air – one of the modalities or options to be employed in

the provision of deliverables of the proposed project that is primarily

characterized by the use of radio as the medium in the conduct of class

and delivery of knowledge sharing.

Students – refers to the target beneficiaries of the proposed project. The

target beneficiaries of the proposed project are the members of the

BDRRMCs of the forty-nine (49) barangays of Tuguegarao City.

METHODOLOGY

Document analysis is one of the methods primarily used in this

business case. Other methods include the Strengths, Weaknesses,

Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis, advantage analysis, risk

Analysis are employed for further substantiation.

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Foregoing methods are further explained, to wit:

1. Document Analysis

This is a form of qualitative research in which documents are being

interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an

assessment topic (Bowen, 2009). In the course of employing this

method, various primary types of documents may be utilized which

include, but not limited to, public records, relevant researches

conducted and physical evidences.

Public records are official, on-going records of an organization’s

activities that include, but not limited to, annual reports, policies or

policy manuals. On the other hand, results of relevant researches

conducted in the recent years and physical evidences are used to

further corroboration.

2. SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is undertaken in order to assess the internal and

external factors that can have an impact on the viability of the

proposed project. Sub-analyses were executed in order to identify

strategies which are as follows:

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a. Strengths-Opportunities (SO) Strategies – Utilization

of strengths to take advantage of opportunities.

b. Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO) Strategies –

Overcome weaknesses by taking advantage of

opportunities.

c. Strengths-Threats (ST) Strategies – Use of strengths to

avoid threats.

d. Weaknesses-Threats (WT) Strategies – Minimize

weaknesses and avoid threats.

3. Advantage Analysis

This entail the comparison and analysis of advantages of both

identified options or modalities of implementing the capacity-

building project. Review of related literature is mainly employed in

this analysis tool.

4. Risk Analysis

Each identified option has its risks that may arise when employed

during the course of project implementation. A formulated Likert

Scale is being adopted for the measurement of likelihood and

determination of consequence and arbitrary value. Tables 1.0 and

2.0 below show the adopted Likert Scale.

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Table 1.0 Likelihood (L) Score of the Risk

Score Arbitral Value Description

This will probably


1 Rare
never happen or recur.

Do not expect it to
happen or recur but it
2 Unlikely
is possible as it may
do so.

Might happen or recur


3 Possible
occasionally

Will probably happen


or recur, but is not a
4 Likely
persisting
issue/circumstances

Will undoubtedly
5 Almost Certain happen or recur
possibly frequently

Table 2.0 Consequence (C) Score of the Risk

Score Description

1 Negligible

2 Minor

3 Moderate

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4 Major

5 Catastrophic

To determine the risk score, the following formula is used:

Risk Score (R) = Likelihood Score (L) x Consequence Score (C)

Derived Risk Scores is being translated using the Likert Scale shown

in Table 3.0.

Table 3.0 Risk Score and Category

Risk Score Category

Unacceptable/High Risk
17-25 (Stop activity and make immediate
improvements.)

Tolerable/Moderate
10-16
(Look to improve within specified
time scale)

Adequate/Low Risk
5-9
(Look to improve at next review)

Acceptable/Very Low Risk


1-4 (No further actions required but
ensure controls are maintained)

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BUSINESS PROBLEM

Document Analysis

The City of Tuguegarao had undergone and experienced several

disasters for the recent years. Various strong typhoons in the history of

the Philippines had their way up north ravaging the city and left notable

damages against infrastructure and agriculture.

Terminal reports from year 2015 to 2018 acquired from the City

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office of Tuguegarao show the

damages incurred by known typhoons that hit the city for the past five

years as shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Recorded damages caused by typhoons or tropical


cyclones for the past five years.
Typhoon/Tropical Damages
Year
Cyclone Name Infrastructure Agriculture
2018 None None
Rosita

Ompong 2018 Php149,398,700 Php26,000,000

Odette 2017 None None

Lawin 2016 Php14,754,944 Php1,734,600,000

Carina 2016 Php3,021,393.56 None

2015 Php36,433,948.00 None

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Lando

TOTAL Php203,608,985.56 Php1,760,600,000


Source: Tuguegarao City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Terminal Reports from 2015 to 2016.

Table 5. Number of Affected Families for the past five years.

Typhoon/Tropical Number of Number of


Year
Cyclone Families Persons

Rosita 2018 16 78

Ompong 2018 19,866 69,748

Odette 2017 0 0

Lawin 2016 33,244 111,296

Carina 2016 19 87

Lando 2015 7,541 37,337

TOTAL 60,686 218,546


Source: Tuguegarao City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Terminal Reports from 2015 to 2016.

As seen in the tables above, billions of pesos of damages and

thousands of affected families where recorded which pose the fact of

danger caused by natural calamities such as typhoons and tropical

cyclones that hit the city for the past five years.

It can also be inferred that the strength of typhoons and tropical

cyclones that hit the city for the past five years varies from time to time.

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Thus, there is a huge possibility that stronger calamities might hit the city

for the next years to come. This contributes to the fact that capacity

building interventions have to be implemented in order to arm the citizens

for any disaster that might occur in the future.

Findings of Related Studies

A study of Balubal, et al. (2016) that delved into the assessment of

disaster preparedness of flood prone barangays in Tuguegarao City shows

that they are prepared in terms of Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and

Management Plan (BDRRMP), contingency plan, early warning system,

evacuation management system and relief system which in turn made

them prepared for any eventuality of flooding. However, the population at

risk have different perceptions with regards to their respective barangays’

preparedness.

Also, in the study of Balubal, et al. (2016), it was found out that the

population at risk respondents were confronted with problems along

disaster response that include unresponsive delivery of relief goods,

inadequate funding for support for affected families, unresponsive rescue

operation, and inexistence of evacuation procedure.

In 2017, a study conducted by Galera, et al. which assessed the

level of preparedness and response of barangays in Tuguegarao City that

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were heavily struck by Super Typhoon Lawin showed that the common

problems encountered were insufficiency of funding for disaster

preparedness, lack of seminars and trainings pertaining to disaster risk

reduction and management, and lack of manpower and manpower

incompetency. Furthermore, their study concluded that affected families

encountered unfair and discriminatory distribution of relief goods and

other relief assistances which caused their dissatisfaction.

The local studies cited above that are conducted in the past show

that there is a coherence of findings regarding the level of disaster

preparedness and response of barangays in the City of Tuguegarao.

SWOT Analysis

Below is the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT)

Analysis of barangays of Tuguegarao City.

Strengths Weaknesses

 Supportive Local Government  Questionable barangay


Unit; disaster preparedness and
response; and
 Located near Higher
Education Institutions that  Disaster preparedness and
may help them be response trainings are not
capacitated; and
cascaded or shared with the
 Located at the capital of the citizens of barangays.
Province.

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Opportunities Threats

 Available technologies and  Conflict of schedule; and


resources for capacity-
building implementation;  Force Majeure that may occur
and that could hamper the
 Proximity of Cagayan State
University and viable facilities execution of activities.
for capacity-building
intervention; and

 Support from leading line


government agencies in the
advancement of Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management.

Table 6. Strengths to Opportunities (SO) Strategy(ies)

Strengths Opportunities Strategies

 Supportive Local  Available  Implement and


Government technologies and establish a
Unit; resources for training/capacity-
capacity-building building activity
 Located near implementation; along disaster
Higher Education preparedness
Institutions that  Proximity of and response
may help them
Cagayan State using available
be capacitated;
and University and resources.
viable facilities
 Located at the for capacity-  Initiation of the
capital of the building academe in the
Province. intervention; and implementation
of a
 Support from training/capacity-
leading line building along
government disaster
agencies in the preparedness
advancement of and response
disaster certain modalities

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preparedness such as the
and response. School-on-the-Air
(SOA) or
Instructor-led
Instruction (ILT).

 Connecting with
the leading
agencies along
disaster
preparedness
and response.

Table 7. Weaknesses to Opportunities (WO) Strategy(ies)

Weaknesses Opportunities Strategies/Actions

 Questionable  Available  Implementation of


Barangay Local technologies and a capacity-building
Governments resources for project along
disaster
Units’ (BLGUs) capacity-building
preparedness and
disaster implementation; response to
preparedness further capacitate
and response;  Proximity of the members of
and Cagayan State the Barangay
University and Disaster Risk
 Disaster viable facilities Reduction and
Management
preparedness for capacity-
Committee
and response building (BDRRMC) and
trainings are not intervention; conduct a post-
cascaded or and assessment to
shared with the examine the
citizens of  Support from increase of
leading line disaster
barangays.
preparedness and
government
response
agencies in the competencies and
advancement of examine if the
Disaster Risk knowledge along
Reduction and disaster
preparedness and

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Management. response are
being shared with
the immediate
community; and

 Sustain a disaster
preparedness and
response
knowledge
dissemination in
partnership with
the academe and
leading agencies.

Table 8. Strengths to Threats (ST) Strategy(ies)

Strengths Threats Strategies/Actions

 Supportive Local  Conflict of  Design and


Government schedule; and formulate a
Unit; schedule that will
 Force Majeure successfully
that may occur contribute in the
 Located near
and that could implementation
Higher Education
hamper the of the capacity-
Institutions that
execution of building that
may help them
activities. through the
be capacitated;
collaboration of
and
the academe,
leading agencies
 Located at the
and the local
capital of the
government units
Province.
concerned.

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ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

Option 1. School-on-the-Air (SOA)

School-on-the-Air (SOA) is a modality of knowledge sharing that is

highly characterized by the use of radio as a medium. Preparedness and

response modules/topics will be discussed in a radio program in which

experts or resource speakers shall have their talk that is going to be

moderated by the crew of the partner radio broadcasting station.

Members of the respective BDRRMCs of the forty-nine (49)

barangays of Tuguegarao City will be enlisted as the students or expected

listeners of the SOA. Evaluative questions in the end of each talk will be

asked and answered by the students through Short Message Service

(SMS). Answers and names of listeners who would respond to the

questions will be recorded. Queries of students will also be received and

answered during sessions.

A. Advantage

Radio has been part of the community for a long time

and served as platform in the furtherance of education and

sharing of knowledge worldwide. Although often

overshadowed as educational medium vis-à-vis other

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technologies such as television, radio remains a viable

medium that has proven educational worth in terms of

both pedagogical importance and geographical reach

(Chandar, et al., 2003). Radio is capable of delivering high

quality educational programming to highly diversified

audiences located across broad geographical expanses – all

at a low per unit production cost (Couch, 1997).

According to the Agency for International Development,

radio is a more cost-effective and capable of exerting

greater learning effects than textbooks or teacher

education (Tripp and Roby, 1996). Moreover, “extensive

research around the world has shown that many IRI

projects have had a positive impact on learning

outcomes and on educational equity, and with its

economies of scale, it has proven to be a cost-effective

strategy relative to other interventions”.

Coherently, Jaminson and McAnany (1978) report some

main advantages of radio which are (1) lowered per

student educational costs; and (2) improved access to

education, particularly for disadvantaged groups. It has

also been regarded as an extension of personal

communication which engulfs an effective communication

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with individual as well as the groups. The utilization of this

technology can arrest the attention of a large pool of

students or participants irrespective of various educational

attainment.

Studies confirm that radio has an advantageous role to

play in the field of education due to the following reasons:

a. Radio extends the area of acquaintance

The utilization of radio in conducting an educational

activity widens the scope of learning. This is due to

the fact that various formats are used in knowledge

conveying or delivering which include description,

narration, dramatization and story-telling.

b. Wide Coverage

Radio may cover a very wide geographical area. Even

citizens of barangays at the periphery of the town or

city can listen which eliminates geographical

constraints. It can extend education to a greater

student-population at one time which ultimately

saves time, energy, money and manpower.

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As viewed by Nath (1978), “Educational Broadcasting

has immense possibility in developing country where

constraints of finance, equipment, qualified teachers

and other inputs operate adversely. Large coverage

is an important point in its favour” (p. 9).

c. Affordable Medium

In comparison with other technologies which are in

vogue in the field of mass education, radio is

regarded as the cheapest medium now-a-days

(www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in).

As supported by Jamison and McAnany (1978),

"Radio broadcasting is one medium of mass

communication that is proving to be essential for

rural development. It has been used in both formal

and non-formal education. 9 Evidence appears to

show that radio broadcasting is more popular than

other mass communication media such as television

broadcasting because of its cheapness " (p. 334).

d. Infrastructure and experience

Over the years, radio systems have got a well-

developed infrastructure for production of

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programmes as well as transmission of the same.

The development of this medium is due to its well-

organized system.

The use of this medium is also backed by long

experience in the field manned by trained personnel.

Among the newer technologies, radio ranks first in

respect to its use in education. As such, experiences

in this regard have been accumulated over the years

which assist in the smooth running of the medium.

B. Risks

There are risks that may arise in the employment of SOA.

Assumed risks that may occur are as follows;

1. Some students might not have their own radio unit;

2. Broadcast schedules (time-slots) tend to be

inconvenient;

3. Students have no control over the pace and time of

broadcasts and the lack of visuals can be problematic;

and

4. Educational radio is essentially a one-way medium with

no or limited interactivity.

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Table 9. Risks in adopting SOA in the implementation of the
project and the corresponding scores and actions to address the
risks.
Score Actions to
No. Risks Address
Likelihood Consequence Total
the Risks
Some Provision
participants of Radio to
1 may not 1 2 2 those who
have a radio don’t
unit. have.
Determine
a timeslot
based on
Broadcast the result
schedules of
(time-slots) consultatio
2 3 2 6
tend to be n with the
inconvenient students
. so as to
ensure
convenienc
e.
Students
Provision
have no
of Manuals
control over
containing
the pace and
the
time of
3. 3 2 6 content of
broadcasts
topics to
and the lack
be
of visuals
aired/deliv
can be
ered.
problematic.
Integration
of a
mechanis
m in the
Educational
acceptance
radio is
and
essentially a
answering
4. one-way 5 3 15
of queries
medium with
through
no or limited
social
interactivity.
media
messaging
platforms/
application

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and SMS.

Post-
evaluation
questions
will be
asked to
assess the
students
that would
also
contribute
in the
establishm
ent of an
interactive
session.

Based on the result above, almost all of the risks are considered low

risks.

Option 2. Instructor-led Training (ILT)

Instructor-led Training is a common and a traditional modality in

the transference of knowledge which require the presence of a conducive

room for training such as a classroom or a conference room, instructors

who are expert in a certain field, and a group of participants who are

taught through lectures, presentations, demonstrations, and discussions.

With this modality, the students are expected to attend scheduled

sessions in which speakers who are experts in the different identified

disaster preparedness and response related topics will render their

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lectures. Knowledge sharing from the resource speakers will also be

integrated for augmentation and clarification purposes. Questions will be

asked after the sessions as part of post-activity evaluation.

A. Advantage

According to an article of Growth Engineering, Instructor-

Led Training (ILT) involves a speaker or a lecturer who

leads a class of students or participants and delivers the

content directly in real time. Sessions composing the

instructor-led training take place at a specific time in a

classroom setting that can last from an hour to several

days.

ILT can be delivered in a lecture format, where the

instructor will speak to a large group. It can also be

delivered as classroom training, where the instructor can

interact more with the class and answer questions. It can

even be delivered in workshops, where learners get much

more hands-on and the instructor plays more of a

supervisory role, stepping in where they’re needed.

There are several advantages of ILT according to Growth

Engineering which are as follows:

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a. Easier to adapt

ILT can be applied to a great extent of various fields

since it is characterized by teacher-student

interaction. Instructors leading the session may be

flexible since they can react to questions and judge

the general reception of the training.

b. Involves social interaction

This modality uses a social learning platform which is

a viable way in fostering collaborative learning and

harness intellectual capital. Instructors can help the

students generate and share ideas during a

workshop which allows them to improve their

working relationships and understanding of the topic

with social interaction.

B. Risks

There are risks that may arise in the employment of

DRRM-ILT. Assumed risks that may occur are as follows;

1. This modality can be expensive and time-consuming;

2. Schedule of sessions may not be convenient with

that of the instructors and may be in conflict with the

availability of venue; and

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3. Once a Learner steps out of the classroom, returning

to it for clarification is gone.

Table 10. Risks in adopting ILT in the implementation of the


project and the corresponding scores and actions to address the
risks.
Score Actions to
No. Risks Address
Likelihood Consequence Total
the Risks
Formulatio
n and
submission
of highly
justified
budget
proposal
Expensive and for project
1 time- 5 3 15 financing
consuming. and setting
definite
time-
schedules
for
activities
or
sessions.
Schedule of Consultatio
sessions may n with the
not be instructors
convenient with and
that of the formulate
2. 4 3 12
instructors and and
may be in develop a
conflict with the schedule
availability of of
venue. activities.
Once a student Provision
steps out of the of manual
classroom, to serve as
3. 3 3 9
returning to it guide for
for clarification the
is gone. students.

All the risks are Tolerable or Moderate base on their risk score.

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SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTION

As stated above, there are two (2) options or modalities that can be

resorted to in the implementation of the capacity-building project. Both

modalities have their respective advantages that will strongly contribute

in the success of the proposed project’s implementation and risks that

may occur and may cause hampering events in the future.

Analysis of the different options reveals that the common risk that

would occur is the conflict of schedule of sessions with the availability of

the students which is considered manageable and can be addressed with

the application of proper action. Other identified risks shown in Tables 9

and 10 are also manageable and can be addressed with the

implementation of proper interventions.

As shown in the risk analysis of both modalities, the financial

aspect draws the line between the two. ILT is considered to be more

expensive than SOA since it will involve the renting of training venue and

procurement of food for the sessions which will require huge financial

expense. SOA is way cheaper due to the fact that it eliminates the the

requirement that students have to be accommodated in a venue that

must suit the standards for training or learning sessions since it will just

require the presence of a radio unit and a room of students’ choice. As

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stated in the advantage analysis, the use of radio for educational

purposes has long been considered as a viable modality.

With the foregoing discussion, it is highly recommended that the

SOA be utilized in the conduct of the project since it will lead to the

attainment of the intended project goals without incurring too much

financial expense. Moreover, the risks, such as the absence of physical

interaction and absence of visuals, in the conduct of SOA are considered

moderate risks that can be addressed using the identified proper actions.

IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH

In accordance with the recommended modality, the project will be

composed of five main activities, namely: a) Pre-Assessment/Baseline

Data Gathering; b) Topics/Modules Formulation; c) Forging of MOA with

Partner Agencies; c) Airing of Modules; d) Mass Graduation and

Recognition; and e) Conduct of Post-Assessment.

Below is the context of foregoing activities;

a. Pre-Assessment/Baseline Data Gathering.

The barangays in the City of Tuguegarao are initially capacitated

with knowledge and skills along disaster preparedness and

response. This cannot be denied considering the efforts of lead

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government agencies concerned about disaster risk reduction and

management mainstreaming and the findings of prior studies.

Hence, it can be inferred that the barangay officials have prior

knowledge on disaster preparedness and response which must be

assessed and be taken into account for the identification and

formulation of training topics and modules.

The baseline data that will be established will also be used in the

determination of change in the level of knowledge of the students in

disaster preparedness and response.

b. Topics/Modules Formulation

After the pre-assessment activity, topics/modules along disaster

preparedness and response will be formulated based on the pre-

assessment’s result. The topics/modules will be presented

thoroughly in a manual that is going to be reproduced and

distributed to the duly enrolled barangay officials who are regarded

as students. In this manner, the manual will serve as the students’

guide throughout the course and the absence of visuals during the

airing of modules will be addressed.

c. Forging of Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with Partner Agencies

Forging of MOA is vital in the implementation of the project in order

to legally clothe the cooperative relationship with Partnership

30
Agencies and to assure the achievement of agreed project goals and

objectives.

d. Airing of Modules

In this activity, modules will be discussed during on-air sessions.

The discussion will be participated by identified experts and

resource speakers. Radio drama will also be conducted in order to

convey situations and solutions that would enrich the delivery of

identified topics.

Students will be allowed to ask questions during sessions. Also, a

set of post-session questions will be asked in order to monitor the

number of active students. Through this, interaction between the

speakers and students will be practiced and set in place amidst the

absence of physical interaction.

e. Mass Graduation and Recognition

The mass graduation and recognition will serve as the rewarding

event before the project concludes. This will appraise those

performing students and those who were able to conscientiously

listen and finish the course. Moreover, this will be an avenue in the

recognition of partner agencies and personnel who will put great

effort in the success of the project.

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f. Conduct of Post-Assessment

Post-assessment is considered as a must in the implementation of

the project since this will show if there is a change in the level of

knowledge of students along disaster preparedness and response.

Also, this will gauge if the knowledge being imparted in the course

of SOA is being utilized in the strengthening of the students’

communities’ disaster preparedness and response.

Aside from the main activities, there are other activities that are

vital in the implementation of the project. These are: 1) Pre-

implementation Meeting; 3) BOR Approval of the Project; 2) Procurement

and Distribution of Supplies; 3) Coordination Meeting and Finalization of

MOA; 4) Packaging and Dubbing of Modules; 5) Masterlisting of Enrollees;

6) MOA Signing; and 7) Monitoring.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Studies:

Balubal, et al. (2016). Disaster Preparedness of Barangay Disaster Risk

Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) among Flood Prone

Barangays in Tuguegarao City.

Galera, et al. (2017). Emergency Management: The Case of Most Affected

Barangays By Super Typhoon Lawin in Tuguegarao City

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Policies:

Republic Act 10121. Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

Act of 2010

Joint Memorandum Circular No. 2014-1. Implementing Guidelines for the

Establishment of Local DRRM Offices (LDRRMOs) or Barangay DRRM

Committees (BDRRMCs) in Local Government Units (LGUs)

Internet links:

http://www.dpwh.gov.ph/dpwh/references/guidelines_manuals/flood_haz

ard_maps/Tuguegarao_Flood_Map_MGB?fbclid=IwAR1qVvPbxDheYZWlNQ

98JQHc_nada4yWdl_5sCT62V57qYPGk6HVKiR31Yg

http://www.comminit.com/content/how-have-radio-and-tv-broadcasting-

been-used-education

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/118/198?fbclid=IwAR

1gjabxfOKw7ktT7mOsQ9a2sYnHz_a0JMUgLdIuy5f5IGDXl1VOD8-dHdc

https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/188573/4/05_chapter

%201.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2Ejykz1F1EfIZyPwgrqcw4pmC1noyCfrBQlfzvWZny1

d4tbjEPyL_ZevQ

33
https://lddailyadvisor.blr.com/2013/05/advantages-and-disadvantages-

of-classroom-training/

https://www.growthengineering.co.uk/what-is-instructor-led-training/

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APPENDIX

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