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Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Next

DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA

TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI
BY

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS

PART I

London, H. Frowde, Oxford University Press

[1899]
{Scanned, proofread, and formatted by Chris Weimer, March 2002}

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{p. vii}

CONTENTS.
PREFACE PAGE ix

Note on the probable age of the Dialogue Note on this Version ABBREVIATIONS BRAHMA-GÂLA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION TEXT (The Sîlas, 3-26.) SÂMAÑÑA-PHALA 2. SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION. (Index to the paragraphs repeated in the other Suttantas, 57-59.) TEXT 3. AMBATTHA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (Caste) TEXT SONADANDA 4. SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (The Arhat and the true Brahman.) TEXT 5. K TADANTA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (The Irony in this text, 160; Doctrine of sacrifice, 164; Lokâyata, 166.) TEXT 1. {p. viii}

ix xx xxiv

xxv 1

56

65 96 108

137

144 160

173

PAGE 6. MAHÂLI SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (The Indeterminates; Buddhist Agnosticism, 186; The Sambodhi, 190; Names in the texts, 193.) TEXT 7. GÂLIYA SUTTANTA 186

197 205

KASSAPA-SÎHANÂDA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (Method of the Dialogues, 206; Tâpasa and Bhikshu, ascetic and wandering mendicant, 208; Indian religieux in the Buddha's time, 220.) TEXT POTTHAPÂDA 9. SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (The Soul) TEXT 10. SUBHA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION TEXT 11. KEVADDHA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (Iddhi, 272; Buddhist Idealism, 274.) TEXT 12. LOHIKKA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (Ethics of Teaching) TEXT 13. TEVIGGA SUTTANTA. INTRODUCTION (Union with God) TEXT INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND PROPER NAMES INDEX OF PALl WORDS Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the Buddhists 8. Return to top Next: Preface

206

223

241 244 265 267 272

276

285 288

298 300 321 328 331

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{p. ix}

PREFACE.
NOTE ON THE PROBABLE AGE OF THE DIALOGUES.
The Dialogues of the Buddha, constituting, in the Pâli ext, the Dîgha and Magghima Nikâyas, contain a full exposition of what the early Buddhists considered the teaching of the Buddha to have been. Incidentally they contain a large number of references to the social, political, and religious condition of India at the time when they were put together. We do not know for certain what that time exactly was. But every day is adding to the number of facts on which an approximate estimate of the date may be based. And the ascertained facts are already sufficient to give us a fair working hypothesis.

In the first place the numerous details and comparative tables given in the Introduction to my translation of the Milinda show without a doubt that practically the whole of the Pâli Pitakas were known, and regarded as final authority, at the time and place when that work was composed. The geographical details given on pp. xliii, xliv tend to show that the work was composed in the extreme North-West of India. There are two Chinese works, translations of Indian books taken to China from the North of India, which contain, in different recensions, the introduction

{p. x}

and the opening chapters of the Milinda{1}, For the reasons adduced (loco citato) it is evident that the work must have been composed at or about the time of the Christian era. Whether (as M. Sylvain Levy thinks) it is an enlarged work built up on the foundation of the Indian original of the Chinese books; or whether (as I am inclined to think) that original is derived from our Milinda, there is still one conclusion that must be drawn--the Nikâyas, nearly if not quite as we now ha ve them in the Pâli, were known at a very early date in the North of India.

Then again, the Kathâ Vatthu (according to the views prevalent, at the end of the fourth century A.D., at Kâñkipura in South India, and at Anurâdhapura in Ceylon; and recorded, therefore, in their commentaries, by Dhammapâla and Buddhaghosa) was composed, in the form in which we now have it, by Tissa, the son of Moggalî, in the middle of the third century B.C., at the court of Asoka, at Pâtaliputta, the modern Patna, in the North of India,

It is a recognised rule of evidence in the courts of law that, if an entry be found in the books kept by a

man in the ordinary course of his trade, which entry speaks against himself, then that entry is especially worthy of credence. Now at the time when they made this entry about Tissa's authorship of the Kathâ Vatthu the commentators believed, and it was an accepted tenet of those among whom they mixed--just as it was, mutatis mutandis, among the theologians in Europe, at the corresponding date in the history of their faith--that the whole of the canon was the word of the Buddha. They also held that it had been actually recited, at the Council of Râgagaha, immediately after his decease. It is, I venture to submit, absolutely impossible, under these circumstances, that the commentators can have invented this information

{1. See the authors quoted in the Introduction to vol. ii of my translation. Professor Takakusu, in an article in the J. R. A. S. for 1896, has added important details.}

{p. xi}

about Tissa and the Kathâ Vatthu. They found it in the records on which their works are based. They dared not alter it. The best they could do was to try to explain it away. And this they did by a story, evidently legendary, attributing the first scheming out of the book to the Buddha. But they felt compelled to hand on, as they found it, the record of Tissa's authorship. And this deserves, on the ground that it is evidence against themselves, to have great weight attached to it.

The text of the Kathâ Vatthu now lies before us in a scholarly edition, prepared for the Pâli Text Society by Mr. Arnold C. Taylor. It purports to be a refutation by Tissa of 250 erroneous opinions held by Buddhists belonging to schools of thought different from his own. We have, from other sources, a considerable number of data as regards the different schools of thought among Buddhists--often erroneously called 'the Eighteen Sects{1}.' We are beginning to know something about the historical development of Buddhism, and to be familiar with what sort of questions are likely to have arisen. We are beginning to know somethmg of the growth of the language, of the different Pâli styles. In all these respects the Kathâ Vatthu fits in with what we should expect as possible, and probable, in the time of Asoka, and in the North of India.

Now the discussions as carried on in the Kathâ Vatthu are for the most part, and on both sides, an appeal to authority. And to what authority? Without any exception as yet discovered, to the Pitakas, and as we now have them, in Pâli. Thus on p. 339 the appeal is to the passage translated below, on p. 278, § 6; and it is quite evident that the quotation is from our Suttanta, and not from any other passage where

{1. They are not 'sects' at all, in the modem European sense of the word. Some of the more important of these data are collected in two articles by the present writer in the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society' for 1891 and 1892.}

{p. xii}

the same words might occur, as the very name of the Suttanta, the Kevaddha (with a difference of reading found also in our MSS.), is given. The following are other instances of quotations:--

I. M. Dhp. Hultsch have called attention{1} to the fact that in inscriptions of the . M. at the time when the Kathâ Vatthu was composed. 72. I. 25-27. 227 = Kh. S. 156. 362. p. VI. Vim. A. 126. all the Five Nikâyas were extant. IV. 389. A. 169. A. 33. I. 84. II. P. D. VII. A. D. 94: D. 43. N. M. M. But this is enough to show that. S. pp. 447. 54. They must themselves. S. V. I. D. 141. 2. Dh. P. 9 591 597. II. I. therefore. Sutta. S. 344 345 345 347 348 351 369 404 413 426 440 457 457 459 481 483 484 494 505 506 513 522 525 528 549 554 554 565 588. 8 602 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = The Nikâyas. 393 (nearly). 50. 23). 6. II. and were considered to be final authorities to any question that was being discussed. M. be considerably older. 4. 84. P. 9. D. P. (M. There are many more quotations from the older Pitaka books in the Kathâ Vatthu. A. 197. I. IV. 164. 233. 485 = S. 83. I. 85. I. Thirdly. A. I. S. S. M.7. VIII. 6. 172.Kathâ Vatthu. II. Kh. I. I. S. A. P. M. Kh. I. Hofrath Bühler and Dr. C. I. P. P. I. &c. 71. 92. III. 496. I. 490. I. IV. M. 33. I. about three or four times as many as are contained in this list. 70. 206 = J. §§ 9-23. XXXIV. I.

in the sense of the Dhamma. but only of the Nikâyas. p. and 'Z.. D. which is an exposition. 105-108. the exact force of these technical designations is not. we find.} {p. Neumann thinks that Petakî does not mean 'knowing the Pitakas.' but 'knowing the Pitaka. the expressions dhammakathika. K.' that is. x. So again the Dialogues are the only parts or passages of the canonical books called. 2. and divided into Five Nikâyas.' II. Ariya-vâsâni from the Dîgha (Samgîti Suttanta). and the five Nikâyas must have existed for some time before the brethren and sisters could be described as preachers of the Dhamma.third century B.. pe takî. Ind. the terms are conclusive proof of the existence. xi. the Suttantas. Was then a suttantika one who knew precisely the Dialogues by heart? This was no doubt the earliest use of the term. M.C. G. 'Epigr.} . Simple as they seem. on Asoka's Bhabra Edict he recommends to the communities of the brethren and sisters of the Order. Muni-gâthâ from the Sutta Nipâta 206-220. of a Buddhist literature called either a Pitaka or the Pitakas. not of the three Pitakas. 'Reden des Gotamo. determined. and pañka-nekâyika. the title of the old work Petakopadesa. suttantas. xiii} The Dhamma. 58. However this may be. as descriptions of donors to the dâgabas. But it should be recollected that the Kathâ Vatthu.' xl. as yet. suttantakinî. {1. as reciters of the Pitaka. 3. As he points out. Dr. {1. These are as follows:-- 1. having been known before the expression 'the Pit akas' came into use{1}. Fourthly.' pp. and were only kept alive in the memory of living men and women). frequently to hear and to meditate upon seven selected passages. Anâgata-bhayâni from the Anguttara III. of about the same date.. uses the word suttanta also for passages from other parts of the scriptures. the Nikâyas--a single Pitaka. 93. some considerable time before the date of the inscriptions. and as guardians of the Suttantas or of the Nikâyas (which were not yet written. the Pitakas. suttantika. Vinaya-samukkamsa. in our MSS. and to the lay disciples of either sex. 4. supports his view. containing Suttantas.

probably a collection of books. The particular verses selected by M. probably. pp. There is great probability that such passages already existed. xiv} 5. vol. I. and supported by numerous details:--the very clear analogy between the general tone and the principal points of the moral teaching. include extracts from each of the Five. A number of them are found in each of the thirteen Suttantas translated in this volume. 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Five out of the seven having been found in the published portions of what we now call the Pitakas. 7. an anthology of edifying verses taken. We have no evidence that any other Buddhist literature was in existence at that date. p.} {p. for the reasons I have set out elsewhere{1}. Râhulovâda = Râhulovâda Suttanta (M. as being especially characteristic of Asoka's ideas.' 1898. 272.' II. Many of these are also found in the prose passages {1. but even before the Suttantas were put together. Moneyya Sutta from the Iti Vuttaka 67 = A. on the one hand of the Asoka edicts as a whole. not only before the Nikâyas were put together. Senart. 414-42O). xxxvii foll.' 1896. be identified. E. What is perhaps still more important is the point to which M. xv} of the various books collected together in the Fifth. the Khuddaka Nikâya.{p. 314-322. and in the portion of them called the Five Nikâyas. from the Five Nikâyas. B. the four great Nikâyas contain a number of stock passages. Of these passages Nos. No. 2. Upatissa-pasina. The others may be regarded as certain. I. Senart{2} has called attention. in great part. 6. as ethical sayings or teachings. 1 and 6 have not yet been satisfactorily identified. 'Inscriptions de Piyadasi.. Compare 'Milinda' (S. 639. and in which some ethical state is set out or described. 'Journal of the Pâli Text Society. and on the other of the Dhammapada. containing what was then believed to be the words of the Buddha: and that it comprised passages already known by the titles given in his Edict. xxxv). It is clear that in Asoka's time there was acknowledged to be an authoritative literature. 2 also occurs in the tenth book of the Anguttara. which are constantly recurring. raises the presumption that when the now unpublished portions are printed the other two will also. Fifthly. .

the very latest compositions in all the Five Nikâyas. These should be distinguished from the last. by name and chapter. and older in their present arrangement. not only the Sutta itself. or even a recension. but after the Buddha's death. and both the Sa myutta and the Anguttara Nikâyas quote. and are quoted as authorities. to have been composed by a thera of the time of King Bindusâra. or inferred. of whom nothing is otherwise known. There is a story in Peta Vatthu IV. come under one or other of these two divisions. of nearly 200 more{2}. And the catalogues in which the names occur give us a considerable amount of detailed information as to their contents. in his commentary. given in the MSS. although it is evidently only a round number. and seem to bear to the canonical books a relation similar. and some complete episodes. It follows that this poem. And this is just what. verses said. in identical terms. some whole poems. to be from older texts. numerous sentences in prose. from their contents. But though they do not reproduce any complete texts. owing to the enlightened liberality of the Academy of St. Seventhly. Most fortunately we may hope. {p. found in the Pâli books. Sixthly. informs us that this king. must be subsequent to that event. must therefore be older. but the date of the compilation of the Anguttara. they contain numerous verses. to have a considerable number of Buddhist Sanskrit Texts in the near future. several of the Dialogues purport to relate conversations that took place between people. and the zeal and scholarship of Professor d'Oldenbourg and his co-workers. king of Magadha. containing not only ethical teaching. 13) quotes one Suttanta in the Dialogues by name. Eighthly. in the present state of our knowledge of . One Sutta in the Anguttara is based on the death of the wife of Munda. lived two hundred years after the Buddha. There is no reason at all to suspect an interpolation. than the final settlement of the text of these two Nikâyas. certain poems now found only in a particular chapter of the Sutta Nipâta. who began to reign about forty years after the death of the Buddha. but names of persons and places and accounts of events.There are also entire episodes. of any one of the twenty-seven canonical books. It follows that. Petersburg. and to have been added to the collection at the time of Asoka's Council. Most of the parallel passages. They are independent works. And about half a dozen instances have been already found in which such passages are stated. in many respects. the Samyutta Nikâya (III. This Suttanta. and also the Peta Vatthu in which it is found. These books are evidently. No one of them is a translation. found in both Pâli and Sanskrit Buddhist texts. xvi} are later than the date of Pingalaka. And there is no reason to believe that the commentator's date. 1 about a King Pingalaka. at two or more places. and also the Vimâna Vatthu. Dhammapâla. by Dhammapâla the commentator{1}. which are found. several Sanskrit Buddhist texts have now been made accessible to scholars. with which the Peta Vatthu really forms one whole work. There is also included among the Thera Gâthâ. 3. But they are also probably older than our existing texts. to that borne by the works of the Christian Fathers to the Bible. is very far wrong. We know the real titles. cotemporaries with the Buddha. another book in the Fifth Nikâya. themselves. and these poems. the father of Asoka.

with so great a literary skill in expressing the ancient views. Hughes is preparing a complete alphabetical list of all these works for the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. The evidence drawn from the inscriptions may be put aside on the ground that they do not explicitly state that the Suttantas and Nikâyas to which they refer. and therefore so incredible. that not only did {p. as Asoka. 46 of his edition. and the passages they mention. a working hypothesis as to the history of the literature. and for the most part pre-Asokan--not only involves no such absurdity. with so delicate a discrimination between ideas current among themselves and those held centuries before.' 1899.the history of Buddhist writings. the literary incapacity. and a late one. But can that be said of a scepticism that involves belief in things far more incredible than those it rejects? In one breath we are reminded of the scholastic dulness. concocted by some Buddhist in Ceylon. It is also possible to object that the evidence drawn from the Milinda may be disregarded on the ground that there is nothing to show that that work. but European scholars have not been able to point out a single discrepancy in their work{1}. So the evidence drawn from the Kathâ Vatthu may be disregarded on the ground that there is nothing to show that that work is not an impudent forgery. And a healthy and reasonable scepticism is a valuable aid to historical criticism. . xviii} they deceive their contemporaries and opponents. is no proof that the rest are older. just what the history of similar literatures elsewhere would lead one to suppose likely. as North Indian{2}. It is not unreasonable to hesitate in adopting a scepticism which involves belief in so unique. The hesitation will seem the more reasonable if we consider that to accept this literature for what it purports to be--that is. Oldenberg at p.' Each of these propositions. as peculiar. and should be rightly called 'the Southern Recension' or 'the Simhalese Canon.} {p. is not an impudent forgery. the sectarian narrowness. xvii} It is possible to construct. And the fact that the commentators point out. that certain passages are nearly as late. and one whole book quite as late. but is really just what one would a priori expect. a performance. 2. even the senile imbecility of the Ceylon Buddhists. excepting only the elaborate and stately introduction and a few of the opening chapters. are the same as those we now have. and a late one. {1. is so great a desideratum. taken by itself. in accordance with these facts. concocted by some Buddhist in Ceylon. In the next we are asked to accept propositions implying that they were capable of forging extensive documents so well. It may even be maintained that the Pâli Pitakas are not therefore Indian books at all: that they are all Ceylon forgeries. with such historical accuracy. has the appearance of careful scruple. Miss C. Quoted by Prof.

But they all. as they were being taught. {1. And some of the Suttas. But the earliest records of any extent were the Asoka Edicts. into others. As is well known. these books. and in the Peta. were put into a supplementary Nikâya. No critical scholar will accept the proposition that because the commentary on the Kathâ Vatthu mentions the Vetulyakâ. In the books themselves the reference is to the Middle Country (Magghima Desa). and of the Suttas now extant. We know of slight additions made to this Nikâya as late as the time of Asoka. Each of these two schools broke up. Other sayings and verses. For a generation or two the books as originally put together were handed down by memory. are represented in Chinese translations of the fourth and . and of the separate books. on which he enlarged on different occasions in different ways. but in the ordinary conversational idiom of the day. most of them ascribed not to the Buddha himself. sûtras. among many others then extant. Even as late as the first century after the Christian Era. Very probably memoranda were used. like other Indian teachers of his time. so far as we know. And they were doubtless accompanied from the first.The Buddha. These particular ones were not in Sanskrit. Each of the two schools kept an arrangement of the canon--still in Pâli (or possibly spme allied dialect). at the Council of Kanishka. in the following centuries. And the developed doctrine found in certain short books in it--notably in the Buddhavamsa and Kariyâ Pitaka. xix} When the Buddha died these sayings were collected together by his disciples into the Four Great Nikâyas. differing also no doubt in minor details. A highly educated man (according to the education current at the time).and Vimâna-Vatthus--show that these are later than the four old Nikâyas. not of the Ceylon pandits. that is. speaking constantly to men of similar education. in a sort of Pâli. Of the stock passages of ethical statement. and several of them had their different arrangements of the canonical books. About 100 years after the Buddha's death there was a schism in the community. North Indian. and they had to be written on stone. used in the composition of them. from the modern European point of view. They cannot have reached their final form till about fifty years afterwards. that is to say. the single instance of such a discrepancy. as used in other schools. the lack of writing materials made any lengthy written books impossible{3}--such sûtras were the recognised form of preserving and communicating opinion. In the absence of books--for though writing was widely known. therefore the Kathâ Vatthu itself must be later than the rise of that school. Minayeff made so much of. and never used at all. The blunder is on the part of the European professor. which Prof. but to the disciples. remained the only authorities{1}. for the canonical books.} {p. have been lost in India. To them the country to the south of the Vindhyas simply did not come into the calculation. by a running commentary. taught by conversation. 2. How suggestive this is as to the real place of origin of these documents! 3. is a mare's nest. he followed the literary habit of his time by embodying his doctrines in set phrases. numerous fragments have been preserved in the Hînayâna Sanskrit texts. except only our present Pâli Nikâyas. and of early episodes. Sanskrit was not used for any Buddhist works till long afterwards.

These are often repeated with slight variations. That of course was not their object. to the able and lucid exposition of Prof. expressed the opinion that these books. again. Oldenberg in the Introduction to his edition of the text. as we have them in the Pâli. pp. in these slight and imperfect remarks. after the method adopted in Windisch's 'Mâra und Buddha. and on the method of composition. and aptly introduced. Bühler. as aids to memory--help the modern reader very much. probably for the sixth. Without such a comment they are often quite unintelligible.' cannot fail to throw much light on the history. These groups and lists. see my 'Milinda. They are not books in the modern sense. and religious life of India.D. to add a few words on the method followed in this version. of the canonical books. Subject to what has been said above. that will probably become. which in style and method. For the object they were intended {1. both translated below. by the teacher to his pupils. There is nothing to add. are good evidence. Hofrath Dr. century B. either directly or by implication. We talk of Pâli books. xv. ii. to the history of the Vinaya. A careful and detailed comparison of these remains with the Pâli Nikâyas. in language and contents and tone. and always difficult. It is necessary. are expressed in short phrases not intended to convey to a European reader the argument underlying them. for instance. and method of arrangement is entirely subordinated to this primary necessity. given. They are memorial sentences intended to be learnt by heart. and in the passage on the rejected forms of asceticism.{1. more and more. bear all the marks of so considerable an antiquity. On the often repeated error that a Sanskrit canon was established at Kanishka's Council. and lists were drawn up such as those found in the tract called the Sîlas. so great a value{1}. but in numbered groups. certainly for the fifth. of the social. Other expedients were adopted with a similar aim. in spite of the limitations of our space. xxi} to serve they are singularly well chosen. on that point. the accepted opinion. political. in the last work he published.} {p. and the whole style. not in logically co-ordinated sentences. in his own words. The leading ideas in any one of our Suttantas. No reference has been made. Ideas were formulated.} {p. But neither the repetitions nor the variations--introduced.' vol. and necessarily introduced. The inclusion of such memoria technica makes the Four Nikâyas strikingly different from modern . xvi.C. must have been accompanied from the first by a running verbal commentary. xx} fifth centuries A. And it is this which gives to all they tell us.

meet with the approval of my fellow workers. of course. without commentary. for which there can be no exact equivalent. and wherever he ventures to differ from tht Buddhist explanations. always historically valuable. There the matter is usually left. and inaccurate ideas. that a knowletige of the state of opinion on the particular point. I trust. as yet. In regard to technical terms. and even to the general reader they can only convey loose. the stage of opinion into which it fits. It is no doubt partly the result of the burden of such memoria technica. inadequate. are put forward. It would seem therefore most desirable that a scholar attempting to render these Suttantas into a European language--evolved in the process of expressing a very different. and. make a different choice as to the points he regarded most pressing to dwell upon in his commentary. These considerations will. where reasons were necessary. in considering the limitations of his space. in his opinion. but partly also owing to the methods of exposition then current in North India. in North India. each word in which is usually a crux. of the exact force of the technical terms used--so {p. as to the points he would leave to explain themselves. and especially that too many words or phrases have been left without comment. And in regard to the mnemonic lists and groups. the current views it supports or controverts. would quite fail to convey the meaning. be considered that my choice in these respects has not been happy. is necessary to remove the uncertainty. The statement of this is often so curt. or a comparison of other Nikâya passages on the subject. There is no elaborate logical argument. in the notes and introductions. re-stated with slight additions or variations. and to raise some of the most important of those historical questions which will have to be . to emphasise those points on which further elucidation is desirable. he usually accepts the proposition as maintained by the Buddha. and give his reasons. Bare versions are of no use to scholars. and placed as it were in contrast with the contrary proposition (often at first put forward by the interlocutor). of these curious old documents. and even--owing not seldom simply to our ignorance. by a single English word. He should explain the real significance of the thesis put forward by a statement of what. As they stand they were never intended to be read. I am afraid. set of conceptions--should give the reasons of the faith that is in him. should state the fact. xxii} ambiguous. often intrinsically interesting. repeating all the repetitions. was the point of view from which it was put forward. and often contradictory. that the leading theses of each Suttanta are not worked out in the way in which we should expect to find similar theses worked out now in Europe. It may. he should give cross-references. A proposition or two or three. The choice is offered to the hearer. as handed down in the schools. Each scholar would of course. at the time. But I have {p. rendering each item in the lists and groups as they stand. he should give the Pâli. xxiii} endeavoured. And a version in English.treatises on ethics or psychology. He should state why he holds such and such an expression to be the least inappropriate rendering: and quote parallel passages from other Nikâya texts in support of his reasons. enigmatic. It is only by such discussions that we can hope to make progress in the interpretation of the history of Buddhist and Indian thought.

xxiv} ABBREVIATIONS.' April. Udâna. A. BUDDHIST CANONICAL BOOKS. Buddha Vamsa. 2. Atharva Veda. Mahâparinibbâna Sutta. Kh. M. RHYS DAVIDS. Sutta Nipâta. Samyutta Nikâya. Magghima Nikâya. Pad. 1899. P. Khuddaka Pâtha. V. 1. . Ud. Abh. Attha Salinî. 'NÂLANDÂ. V. V. T. M. Vinaya. Dhammapada. N. OTHER BOOKS. Vim. B. Anguttara Nikâya. Dîgha Nikâya. Gâtaka. Gât. V. S.settled before these Suttantas can finally be considered as having been rightly understood. Vimâna Vatthu. S. W. Ath. Return to top Next: Abbreviations Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. Asl. D. S. Dhp. Abhidhâna Padîpikâ. P. or Vin.

Brihad. Dhp. Cy. Divy. Ep. Ind. J. P. T. S. J. R. A. S. Khând. Up. M. B. V. Mil. Par. Dîp. S. B. E. Sum. Sat. Br. Tait. Z. D. M. G.

Brihadâranyaka Upanishad. Dhammapada commentary. Divyâvadâna. Epigraphia Indica. Journal of the Pâli Text Society. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Khândogya Upanishad. Mahâ Bodhi Vamsa. Milinda Pañha. Paramattha Dîpanî. Sacred Books of the East. Sumangala Vilâsinî. Satapatha-Brâhmana. Taittirîya Upanishad. Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Brahma-gâla Sutta

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{p. xxv}

INTRODUCTION
TO THE

BRAHMA- GÂLA SUTTA.
THE phase of beliefs which this Suttanta is intended to meet, into which its argument fits, has been set out in some detail in the opening chapter of my 'American Lectures.' As there pointed out{1}, the discussion which thus opens this series of dialogues forms also the first question in the Kathâ Vatthu, and the first question in the Milinda, We cannot be far wrong if, in our endeavours to understand the real meaning of the original Buddhism, we attach as much weight to this question as did the author or authors of these ancient and authoritative Buddhist books.

The Suttanta sets out in sixty-two divisions{2} various speculations or theories in which the theorisers, going out always from various forms of the ancient view of a 'soul'--a sort of subtle manikin inside the body but separate from it, and continuing, after it leaves the body, as a separate entity--attempt to reconstruct the past, or to arrange the future. All such speculation is condemned. And necessarily so, since the Buddhist philosophy is put together without this ancient idea of 'soul.'

The Buddhist scheme endeavours, in other words, to include all the truth which previous thinkers had grafted on to the old savage theories of a semi-material, subtle, permanent entity inside the body, while rejecting those theories themselves; it endeavours to retain all the philosophic truth which previous thinkers had grafted on to the theosophies--the corollaries of the soul theories--while rejecting those theosophies themselves. The reasons given for this position are threefold: firstly, that such speculators about ultimate things,

{1. 'American Lectures on Buddhism.' London, 1896, pp. 38-43.

2. Summed up below, pp. 52, 53; and set out more fully in the list in the 'American Lectures,' pp. 31-33.}

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either in the past or the future, have insufficient evidence. see only one side of the shield{1}; secondly, that such speculations do not lead to emancipation, to Arahatship{2}; and thirdly, that such theories are really derived from the hopes, the feelings, and the sensations arising from evanescent phenomena{3}--they belong, in other words, to the realm of hastily formed, empirical opinion (ditthi), not to that of the higher wisdom (paññâ). So that Buddhism, in the first place, holds a position somewhat similar to the modern Agnostic position. Secondly, while acknowledging the importance of feeling and of intellect, it lays special stress upon the regulation, the cultivation, of the will{4}. And thirdly, it distinguishes between a lower and a higher wisdom{5}.

Several scholars, and especially--with more knowledge and detail--Dr. Karl Neumann, have maintained that the position of Buddhism in the history of Indian philosophy is analogous to that of Schopenhauer in European philosophy. On the other hand, it is maintained by Professor Deussen that Schopenhauer's position is analogous to that of the Upanishads. The reconciliation will probably be found to be that what Buddhism took over, with more or less of modification, from the Upanishads, is about the same as that part of the Upanishad doctrine which is found, in European phraseology, in Schopenhauer; and what Buddhism rejected altogether is not to be found in Schopenhauer. He himself, who however knew both systems only from second-hand and inaccurate authorities, says, 'If I am to take the results of my own philosophy as the standard of truth, I should be obliged to concede to Buddhism the pre-eminence over other (systems of philosophy).'

However this question may be decided--and its discussion, at the necessary length, by a competent student of philosophy, is a very pressing want--it is certain from the details given in our Suttanta that

there were then current in Northern India many other philosophic and theosophic speculations besides those the priests found it expedient to adopt, and have preserved for us in the Upanishads. And who can doubt but that some, if not all of them, may also have had their influence on the new doctrine? There was always much philosophising in India outside the narrow and inexact limits

{1. See the fable quoted below, pp. 187, 188.

2. See below, pp. 44, 188.

3. See for instance below, pp. 53, 4.

4. See the paper on 'The Will in Buddhism,' J. R. A. S., 1898.

5. See below, p. 42, &c., of this Suttanta.}

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of the so-called six Darsanas; and we have to thank Buddhist scholars for preserving, in their Pâli and Sanskrit works, the evidences of such philosophy as the priests wished to exclude from notice{1}.

{1. Professor Cowell has been good enough to inform me that, in his opinion, the attempted restriction of all philosophy to the six Darsanas, and the very use of the term, is late mediaeval. The six are of course not mutually exclusive; and this, and the omissions in the classification of philosophy under these six heads, render it rather like a classification of animals into men, horses, birds, ghosts, beetles, and sparrows.}

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DIALOGUES OF THE BUDDHA.
DÎGHA NIKÂYA.
[COLLECTION OF LONG DIALOGUES.]

I. BRAHMA-GÂLA SUTTA{1}.
[THE PERFECT NET.]
I. 1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once going along the high road between Râgagaha and Nâlandâ{2} with a great company of the brethren, with about five hundred brethren. And Suppiya the mendicant{3} too was going along the high road between Râgagaha and Nâlandâ with his disciple the youth Brahmadatta. Now just then Suppiya the mendicant was speaking in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, in dispraise of the Doctrine, in dispraise of the Order. But young Brahmadatta, his pupil, gave utterance, in many ways, to praise of the Buddha, to praise of the Doctrine, to praise of the Order. Thus they two, teacher and pupil, holding opinions in direct contradiction one to the other, were following, step by

{1. The whole of this Sutta was translated into English by the Rev. Daniel Gogerly, Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon, in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1846 (reprinted by P. Grimblot in his 'Sept Suttas Pâlis,' Paris, 1876).

2. Nâlandâ, afterwards the seat of the famous Buddhist university, was about seven miles north of Râg agaha, the capital of Magadha, the modern Rag-gir (Sum. p. 35).

3. Suppiya was a follower of the celebrated teacher Sañgaya, whose views are set out and controverted in the next Sutta.}

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step, after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren.

2. Now the Blessed One put up at the royal rest-house in the Ambalatthikâ pleasance{l} to pass the night, and with him the company of the brethren. And so also did Suppiya the mendicant, and with him his young disciple Brahmadatta. And there, at the rest-house, these two carried on the same discussion as before.

[2] 3. And in the early dawn a number of the brethren assembled, as they rose up, in the pavilion; and this was the trend of the talk that sprang up among them, as they were seated there. 'How wonderful a thing is it, brethren, and how strange that the Blessed One, he who knows and sees, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme, should so clearly have perceived how various are the inclinations of men! For see how while Suppiya the mendicant speaks in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Order, his own disciple young Brahmadatta, speaks, in as many ways, in praise of them. So do these two, teacher and pupil, follow step by step after the Blessed One and the company of the brethren, giving utterance to views in direct contradiction one to the other.'

4. Now the Blessed One, on realising what was the drift of their talk, went to the pavilion, and took his seat on the mat spread out for him. And when he had sat down he said: 'What is the talk on which you are engaged sitting here, and what is the subject of the conversation between you?' And they told him all. And he said:

{1. Ambalatthikâ, 'the mango sapling.' It was, says Buddhaghosa (pp. 41, 42), a well-watered and shady park so called from a mango sapling by the gateway. It was surrounded with a rampart, and had in it a rest-house adorned with paintings for the king's amusement.

There was another garden so named at Anârddhapura in Ceylon, to the east of the Brazen Palace (Sum. I, 131). This was so named, no doubt, after the other which was famous as the scene of the 'Exhortation to Râhula starting with falsehood,' mentioned in Asoka's Bhabra Edict (see my 'Buddhism,' pp. 224, 225).}

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5. 'Brethren, if outsiders should speak against me, or against the Doctrine, [3] or against the Order, you should not on that account either bear malice, or suffer heart-burning, or feel illwill. If you, on that account, should be angry and hurt, that would stand in the way of your own self-conquest. If, when others speak against us, you feel angry at that, and displeased, would you then be able to judge how far that speech of theirs is well said or ill?'

'That would not be so, Sir.'

'But when outsiders speak in dispraise of me, or of the Doctrine, or of the Order, you should unravel what is false and point it out as wrong, saying: "For this or that reason this is not the fact, that is not so, such a thing is not found among us, is not in us."

6. 'But also, brethren, if outsiders should speak in praise of me, in praise of the Doctrine, in praise of the Order, you should not, on that account, be filled with pleasure or gladness, or be lifted up in heart. Were you to be so that also would stand in the way of your self-conquest. When outsiders speak in praise of me, or of the Doctrine, or of the Order, you should acknowledge what is right to be the fact, saying: "For this or that reason this is the fact, that is so, such a thing is found among us, is in us."

7. 'It is in respect only of trifling things, of matters of little value, of mere morality, that an unconverted man, when praising the Tathâgata, would speak. And what are such trifling, minor details of mere morality that he would praise?'

[4] [THE MORALITIES{1}. PART I.]
8. '"Putting away the killing of living things, Gotama the recluse holds aloof from the destruction

{1. These titles occur, in the MSS., at the end of the sections of the tract that now follows. It forms a part of each of the Suttas in the first division, the first third, of this collection of Suttas. The division is called therefore the Sîla Vagga or Section containing the Sîlas. The tract itself must almost certainly have existed as a separate work before the time when the discourses, in each of which it recurs, were first put together.

Certain paragraphs from this tract occur also elsewhere. So in Magghima I, 179 we have the whole of the short paragraphs; in Magghima, Nos. 76 and 77, and in Mahâvagga V, 8, 3, we have § 17; in Ma gghima II, 3 we have most of § 18; and so on. The whole of this tract has been translated into English by Gogerly (in Grimblot, see page 1, note), into French by Burnouf (also in Grimblot, pp. 212 foll.), and into German by Dr. Neumann (in his Buddhistische Anthologie, pp. 67 foll.).}

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of life. He has laid the cudgel and the sword aside, and ashamed of roughness, and full of mercy, he dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life." It is thus that the unconverted man, when speaking in praise of the Tathâgata, might speak{1}.

'Or he might say: "Putting away the taking of what has not been given, Gotama the recluse lived aloof from grasping what is not his own. He takes only what is given, and expecting that gifts will come{2}, he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart."

'Or he might say: "Putting away unchastity, Gotama the recluse is chaste. He holds himself aloof, far off, from the vulgar practice, from the sexual act{3}."

in accordance with the facts. urbane{1}. below. In season he speaks. from the context. in English. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from harsh language. He refrains from being a spectator at shows at fairs. and at the right time. See. a speaker of words that make for peace. This refrain is repeated at the end of each clause. clearly divided. 5} against the people here.' One might render the phrase by 'pagan' if that word had not acquired. a slightly different connotalion. he breaks not his word to the world. from the truth he never swerves. What he hears here he repeats not elsewhere to raise a quarrel {1. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from vain conversation.' The usual meaning of the word expresses just such a trifling matter as we have been led." 'Or he might say: "Putting away frivolous talk{2}. Neumann misses the point here. 'Or he might say: "Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from causing injury to seeds or plants{3}. with nautch dances. 'Or he might say: "Putting away lying words. on religion. words worthy to be laid up in one's heart.} {p. a peacemaker. It is the opposite of porî. Gâma-dhammâ. the only difference is in the refrain." 'Or he might say: "Putting away slander. Thus does he live as a binder together of those who are divided. to the point. and music. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from falsehood. 100 in the text. [5] fitly illustrated. but has 'höflich' below. to expect. Neumann has 'waiting for a gift' which is a possible rendering: but pâtikankhati has not yet been found elsewhere in the sense of 'waiting for. reaching to the heart. Dr. what he hears elsewhere he repeats not here to raise a quarrel against the people there. Whatsoever word is blameless. 3. He takes but one meal a day. urbane (applied to speech. the practice of country folk. § 9). singing. 'from the village habit. in each Sutta. an encourager of those who are friends.9. He speaks." 'Or he might say: "Putting away rudeness of speech. impassioned for peace. When the Sîlas recur below." 10. on the discipline of the Order. refraining from food after hours (after midday). He speaks truth. a lover of peace. the translation of p. the "pagan" way. pleasant to the ear. words full of meaning. faithful and trustworthy. lovely. Gotama the recluse holds himself aloof from calumny. for instance. . pleasing to the people. beloved of the people--such are words he speaks. not eating at night. 2.

. He abstains from accepting raw meat. II. and mares. 6} He abstains from accepting sheep or goats. Samârambhâ cannot mean 'planting' as Dr. Sampha occurs alone in the Hemavata Sutta. cattle. and unguents. {1. scents. and at Gât. 2. He abstains from accepting silver or gold. He abstains from buying and selling. horses. or ornamenting himself with garlands. VI. He abstains from the use of large and lofty beds. 295.} {p. He abstains from accepting women or girls. A. Porî. He abstains from the acting as a go-between or messenger. adorning. He abstains from accepting elephants. He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste.He abstains from wearing. Neumann renders it. Sampha-ppalâpa. He abstains from accepting fowls or swine. He abstains from accepting uncooked grain. He abstains from accepting bondmen or bondwomen. 3. See note above on § 8. 23.

He abstains from cheating with scales or bronzes{1} or measures." ." 'Such are the things. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. when speaking in praise of the Tathâgata. and violence. It may mean 'graftings. and fraud. Gogerly translates 'weights. perfumes. just as we say in English 'a copper. But it is only the fourth which is doubtful.' and Neumann has 'Maass. On the whole the coin explanation seems to me to be the simplest.' Buddhaghosa is obliged to take kamsa in the meaning of 'gold pot. cheating. brethren. while living on food provided by the faithful. which an unconverted man. were either of bronze or gold. stores. and curry-stuffs{1}--Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such use of things stored up. and there is no authority for kamsa meaning either weight or mass. He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery. [6] 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. The most ancient coins. murder." 12. to wit. putting in bonds. 2. dacoity. clothing. continue addicted to the injury of seedlings and growing plants whether propagated from roots or cuttings or joints or buddings or seeds{2}--Gotama the {1. might say. highway robbery. Buddhaghosa gives examples of each of these five classes of the vegetable kingdom without explaining the terms. Buddhaghosa (p. which were of private (not state) coinage.' which seems very forced. of foods. bedding. 11.' Here ends the Kûla Sîla [the Short Paragraphs on Conduct].' if the art of grafting was then known in the Ganges valley.' Childers sub voce has 'counterfeit metal. 79) explains the expression here used as meaning the passing off of bronze vessels as gold. He abstains from maiming. drinks. 7} recluse holds aloof from such injury to seedlings and growing plants. Kamsa-kûta. equipages.' and the word is actually so used in the 11th and 12th Bhikkhunî Nissaggiya Rules--the oldest reference in Indian books to coins. The context suggests that kamsa (bronze) may here refer to coins.} {p. continue addicted to the use of things stored up. while living on food provided by the faithful.

What was the meaning of this 'carrying on together'? Who were the people who took part? Were they confined to one village? or have we here a survival from old exogamic communistic dancings together? Later the word means simply 'fair. 319) seems to approve this. And it is no doubt this side of the festival which is here in the mind of the author. 3. 85. 192). (4) Shows at fairs (pekkham){4}. 665. that is to say.' This word. IV. The Sinhalese has 'rapid movement in dance-figures' (ranga-ma ndalu). But it is most unlikely that the theatre was already known in the fifth century B.C. and acrobatic shows. and he was followed by Gogerly. according to the Petersburg Dictionary. 'the puppet shows of heresy' (Magghima I. It must be ballet or nautch dancing. (1) Nautch dances (nakkam){3}. while living on food provided by the faithful. Âmisa. (2) Singing of songs (gîtam). 69). singing. Neumann (p. has always been rendered 'theatrical representations. and it is undoubtedly the same word as samâga in the first of the fourteen Edicts of Asoka.' Clough first translated it so in his Sinhalese Dictionary. 300. to wit. 394 may be compared. If he is right then Gogerly's 'raw grain' is too limited a translation. myself (in 'Buddhist Suttas. music. 107. continue addicted to visiting shows{2}. has only been found in modern dictionaries. p. and had special seats. The root ag ({Greek ágo}. a dainty. cannot mean here a dancing in which the persons referred to took part. p. Sigâlovada Sutta. 267 (both times in the very same context as it does here). (3) Instrumental music (vâditam). This word has only been found elsewhere in the phrase ditthi-visûkam. a relish. Now samaggo is a very interesting old word (at least in its Pâli form). IV. 8} (5) Ballad recitations (akkhânam){1}. The Sanskrit samagyâ. and means carrying on. Dancing. {1. pp.' 2. quite simply. 4. The Pâli occurs in other old texts such as Vinaya II. only found here. that high officials were invited. Literally 'shows. 84) explains it.} {p. but 'fair' is nevertheless a very inadequate rendering. pp.--and Weber (Indian Literature. 83) gives a long list of curry-stuffs included under this term. 8. 199.' with which Gâtaka I. ago. In the Sigâlovada there are said to be six dangers at such a samaggo.13. This last detail of 'high places' (that is sacred places) points to a religious motive as underlying the whole procedure.' p. dancing. Buddhaghosa (p. as nata-samaggâ. and Serissaka Vimâna LXXXIV. recitations. (6) Hand music (pânissaram){2}. 541: 'Many the bout I have played with quarterstaves at the fair. Burnouf. II. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. and Neumann's 'all sorts of articles to use' too extensive. and that it took place at the top of a hill. The Sinhalese renders it wiparîta-darsana. conjuring tricks. and Dr. .' as at Gâtaka III. In its secondary meaning the word means 'something nice. ibid. 150. 486. And in the Vinaya passages we learn that at a samaggo not only amusements but also food was provided. whence our 'act') belongs to the stock of common Aryan roots. Visûka-dassanam. And Buddhaghosa (p. 26).

506. buffaloes. in this ancient list. Dr. manreuvres. I. and means literally 'hand-sounds.' supposed to play pranks (as in the stories of the Vetâla-pañk a-vimsati) by reanimating corpses. a reference to beliefs which can only be traced in literature more than a thousand years later. Buddhaghosa has no explanation of the word. Buddhaghosa seems to understand by this term (literally 'of Sobha city ) the adornments or scenery used for a ballet-dance. rows of squares{7}." 14. The Sinhalese has 'striking a drum big enough to hold sixteen gallons. Gogerly's guess seems better than Burnouf's or Neumann's. wrestling{4}. 503. The negative anakkhânam occurs Magghima I.' . and hired mourners. But it does not agree so well with the context. (10) Acrobatic feats by Kandâlas(Kandâla-vamsa-dhopanam){2}. (2) The same games {1. 4. Buddhaghosa says 'deep music. and to show that he derives the word from vi+tâla. Neumann adopts it. horses. reviews{5}. These ballad recitations in prose and verse combined were the source from which epic poetry was afterwards gradually developed. 151. IV. 153) that Sobha is a city of the Gandharvas. II. 'royal bard.'} {p. And at Vinaya IV. and quails. 506 that this word means a sort of music. (Patibhâna-kittam at Vinaya II. (1) Games on boards with eight. while living on food provided by the faithful. But the Sinhalese has 'pouring water over the heads of dancers. (13-16) Sham-fights. and the derivation is quite uncertain. or with ten. cocks. 'a demon. 285 kumbhathûnikâ are mentioned in connection with dancers. I think. acrobats. Buddhaghosa is here obscure and probably corrupt. and adds that it is also called pânitâlam. It is quite likely that the name of a frequently used scene for a ballet became a proverbial phrase for all such scenery.' His own explanation is. or nude paintings.' which I previously followed. 38. goats. meant to be etymological. 9} (9) Fairy scenes (Sobhanagarakam){1}. (11) Combats of elephants. bulls. 298. III. 42 is the nude in art. roll-calls. but some say raising dead bodies to life by spells.) Weber has pointed out (Indische Studien. {1. 358. This would bring the word into connection with the Sanskrit vaitâlika. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. The word is only found here and at Gâtaka V. fairies much given to music and love-making. continue addicted to games and recreations{6}. Sum. It is clear from Gâtaka V. and it seems scarcely justifiable to see. boxing. 61.-Gotama the recluse holds aloof from visiting such shows. (8) Tam-tam playing (kumbhathûnam){4}. Gogerly's rendering 'funeral ceremonies. but gives as examples the Bhârata and the Râmâyana. seems to me now quite out of the question. that is to say.(7) The chanting of bards (vetâlam){3}. (12) Bouts at quarter-staff{3}.' 3. rams. 2. Buddhaghosa explains this as 'playing on cymbals'.' The other explanation connects the word with vetâla.

(9) Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves{8}. against the authority of the old commentator. or red dye. horses. {1. On the last compare Buddhaghosa on Mahâvagga V. (11) Turning summersaults{10}. (3) Keeping going over diagrams drawn on the ground so that one steps only where one ought to go{2}. 5. C. . How very like blindfold chess! 2. Buddhaghosa takes these three words separately. The verbal form nibbugghati occurs in the list at Vinaya III. or putting them into a heap. 180 (repeated at II. Âkâsam. All these terms recur at Vinaya III. 29. See Gâtaka III. 6. and that we have here one of the rare cases where we can correct our MSS. Our text cannot be taken as evidence of real chess in the fifth century B. 10} played by imagining such boards in the air{1}. in each case without shaking it. 180 (repeated at II.'} {p. (10) Ploughing with toy ploughs{9}. 7. (4) Either removing the pieces or men from a heap with one's nail. But I follow him in the general meaning he assigns to the strange expression 'Kand âla-bamboo-washings. and our word at Milinda 232. or flour-water. Parihâra-patham. 4. The worJ for pieces is poru (from purisa)--just our 'men. 10). and striking the wet hand on the ground or on a wall. He who shakes the heap. (7) Dipping the hand with the fingers stretched out in lac. and so do all the MSS. 10). (5) Throwing dice{4}. (12) Playing with toy windmills made of palm-leaves{11}.. &c.{6} (8) Games with balls{7}. but it certainly refers to games from which it and draughts must have been developed. 107).' 3. loses.' The Sinhalese says the steps must be made hopping. 541. Chess played originally on a board of eight times ten squares was afterwards played on one of eight times eight squares. All these recur in the introductory story to the 50th Pâkittiya (Vinaya IV. (6) Hitting a short stick with a long one{5}. and the Sinhalese version. calling out 'What shall it be?' and showing the form required--elephants. But I now think that the passage at Gâtaka IV. The Sinhalese Sanna says that each of these games was played with dice and pieces such as kings and so on. A kind of primitive 'hop-scotch. of the text.2. 1. 390 is really decisive. Nibbuddham.

. while living on food provided by the faithful. as children's . are mentioned in the Magghima. 7. Akkham. Something like 'tip-cat. 15.3. (1) Moveable settees. See Vinaya I. S. 106. (16) Guessing at letters traced in the air. Morris in J. Pl. 1889. Santikâ. 4. Unfortunately the method of playing is not stated. 2. from No. 220. XLV." 15. Spellicans. 15) Playing with toy carts or toy bows{1}. S. T. 10 inclusive. 49. The usual meaning is 'a die.. P. On flour-water as colouring matter. 5. p. In the gambling-scene on the Bharhut Tope (Cunningham. 206. see Gâtaka I. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. 6. Compare Eggeling's note as in his S atapatha-Brâhmana III. Salâka-hattham. p. Kingulikam. 8. The Sinhalese for this toy is 'pat-kulal. 9. but gives this also. 1889. Ghatikam. continue addicted to the use of high and large couches.' Sim-kelîmaya in Sinhalese. {1. S. [7] Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such games and recreations. P. (18) Mimicry of deformities. 275.} {p. 50. that is to say{3}. (2) Divans with animal figures carved on the supports (Pallanko){5}. and J. From Sanskrit vrika. 11. So the Sinhalese. P. T. 205. 11} (13) Playing with toy measures made of palm-leaves. Vankakam. vol. p. i. 9) there is a board marked out on the stone of six times five squares (not six by six). (14. See Morris in the J. who compares kingulâyitvâ at Anguttara III. T. high. (17) Guessing the playfellow's thoughts. 266. or on a playfellow's back{2}. and six little cubes with marks on the sides visible lie on the stone outside the board. 7. Mokkhakikâ. Khalikâ. 1885. See Journal of the Pâli Text Society. Pangakîram. All these six. p. and six feet long (Âsandi){4}.' But the Sinhalese translator agrees with Buddhaghosa. No. compares the Marathî pungî. pure and simple.. 1885. Buddhaghosa has an alternative explanation of turning over on a trapeze. 10. p. Neither gives any details.

27 and 'stuffed couch' at III. Compare the similar seat in Grünwedel.' and Neumann 'bequeme Lehnstuhl. 192 = II. 163 = Anguttara I. Âsandî. as at Vinaya IV. At Dîgha I. 55 = Magghima I.' vol. (6) Woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers (Patalikâ). p. by Vinaya II. 12} (3) Goats' hair coverlets with very long fleece (Gonako){1}. (10) Rugs with fur on one side (Ekantalomi). 137. and sîhâsana is used of Duttha Garnini's throne. It is there said to be made of common sorts of wood. is not a pallanko. 312). Mitra. The following list recurs Vinaya I. At Mahâvamsa 25 sîhâsana and pallanko are used of the same seat (Asoka's throne). in spite of the use of a divan with animals carved on its supports being here objected to. III. 169. 307 (where the reading must be corrected). but an actual stone lion. (4) Patchwork counterpanes of many colours (Kittakâ). 157. represented as sitting (Grünwedel.-Brâh.' At Gât. (7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool (Tûlikâ). so that Nigrodha's action in the passage just quoted (Mahâvamsa 25) was really a breach of the regulations. Sat. It is noteworthy that. And even the âsandî is allowed. (8) Coverlets embroidered with figures of lions. as the only rule as to measure in seats is the 87th Pâkittiya in which the height of beds or chairs is limited to eight 'great' inches (probably about eighteen inches). 105). . I.). 2. 170 (where the reading kh inditvâ seems preferable. Pallanko. 95). I. Gogerly translates 'large couch. 'Buddhistische kunst. 149. 35. the âsandî is used as a bier.' III. But the Lion throne of Nissanka Malla. 'Budh Gayâ. not lying on).' but that must refer to height. It is important evidence for the date at which writing was known in India that such a game should be known in the fifth century B. tigers. Akkharikâ. 4. By Vinaya II. 135. and perforated. 208 a man lies down on an âsandî so as to be able to look up and watch the stars. is allowed in the Buddhist Order by Vinaya II. found at Pollonnaruwa.' pp. 170 the possession of a pallanka was allowed to the Order if the animal figures were broken off (the translation in 'Vinaya Texts. 163 it is laid down that members of the Order were not to use a complete pallanko even in laymen's houses.games. 515 = Samyutta III.} {p.' Plates XI. larger than life size ('Indian Antiquary. 181. By Vinaya II.C. The âsandî is selected as the right sort of seat for the king in both the Vâgapeya and Inauguration ceremonies because of its height (Eggeling. 209. The Sinhalese Sanna adds 'a long chair for supporting the whole body. &c. &c. 3. i. in later sculptures.' Burnouf 'une chaise longue. &c. 209 must be accordingly corrected. The diminutive âsandiko. or Buddhist personages of distinction. must be altered accordingly. p. (5) White blankets (Patikâ).' II.' 5. with short legs and made square (for sitting. 111. 88). it is precisely the sort of seat on which the Buddha himself. which probably means that the frame was of wood and the seat was of interlaced cane or wickerwork. and is read in the quotation at Sum. Buddhaghosa merely says 'a seat beyond the allowed measure. if the tall legs be cut down. (9) Rugs with fur on both sides (Uddalomî). The renderings 'large cushion' at 'Vinaya Texts. reading vâle for vale. are often. (Vikatikâ). &c. 124. ibid. XX.

while living on food provided by the faithful. turbans. beds. necklaces. or places whence {1. while living on food provided by the faithful. 2. III. bracelets. 197). See Buddhaghosa here and at 'Vinaya Texts. Bathrooms. embroidered slippers. of ministers of state. and chariot rugs. and also kuttakam. whisks of the yak's tail. continue addicted to such low conversation as these: Tales of kings. garlands. bathing. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. (which repeats each sentence) has gonakam and uddalomim both times.' III. and halls attached to them. As there is a doubt about the spelling it may be noticed that the Sanna reads gonaka m and uddalomim: and the MS. The use of sunshades is permitted by 'Vinaya Texts. reed cases for drugs. equipages. horse. Sambâhanam. rouge. and long-fringed white robes-- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such means of adorning and beautifying the person{2}. of battles. tales of war. 13} above them (Sauttara-kkhadam). and practised by Gotama himself. and countries. Patting the limbs with clubs after the manner of wrestlers{1}. walking-sticks. and is referred to ibid. clothes. S. There are elaborate regulations for the provision of hot steam baths and the etiquette to be observed in them. the cotton wool of which might be utilised for pillows.} {p. rapiers. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. (17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together (Agina-paveni).(11) Coverlets embroidered with gems (Katthissam). 88. diadems.' III.' III. A. of robbers. talks about relationships. (18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope. in the R. shampooing it. are found only in this list. shampooing by ibid. and Buddhaghosa seems to be uncertain as to the exact meaning of some of them. eye-ointments. continue addicted to the use of means for adorning and beautifying themselves. Perhaps rubbing the limbs with flat pieces of wood. except again No. (14-16) Elephant. cosmetics. and the use of sunshades) were allowed in the Order. of terrors. and bathing it. sunshades. Out of the twenty items here objected to. are permitted by 'Vinaya Texts. (13) Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers (Kuttakam). 189. 274. 209). This is not quite accurate. town. and about heroes. 60. talk about foods and drinks. (12) Silk coverlets (Koseyyam). tales about women [8]. . III. All except No. three (shampooing. cities. villages. 68. perfumes. 7 might be used in laymen's houses ('Vinaya Texts: III. (19) Carpets with awnings {1. (20) Sofas with red pillows for the head and feet. 7. that is to say.--Rubbing in scented powders on one's body. gossip at street corners{3}. and instances of the use of the ordinary bath in streams or rivers are frequent. III. and all might be possessed by the Order if used only as floor-coverings (ibid. 132-3. garlands." 16. 297. The words from gonako down to katthissam inclusive. The use of mirrors." 17.

" {1. literally 'difference-talk. and to these Digha I." "You are putting last what ought to come first. 90) takes this word (literally 'street-talk') in the sense of talk about streets. 3." 18. i. 151. desultory talk{2}.' vol.3. and whether the inhabitants are bold or poor. continue addicted to the use of wrangling phrases{5}: such as-- "You don't understand this doctrine and discipline. 2. See the note at 'Vinaya Texts. you are not{6}. Lokakkhâyikâ.} {p. p. may now be added. These are materialistic theorisers. I have collected other references to them in my 'Milinda. and first what ought to come last{7}. Nânatta-katham.' The expression seems somewhat forced." "I am speaking to the point. I do." "What you've excogitated so long. §§ . if taken as meaning 'desultory'." "How should you know about this doctrine and discipline?" "You have fallen into wrong views. of whose system very little is. known. 120. Buddhaghosa refers this specially to such speculations as are put forth according to the Lokakkhâyikâ system by the Vitandas (also called Lokâyatikas). but I see no better explanation. that's all quite upset. Pubba-peta-kathâ. whether ill or well situate. while living on food provided by the faithful. The commentator confines this to boasting talk about deceased relatives or ancestors. so far. They are probably referred to below in chap. iii of this Sutta. &c. and Attha Sâlinî. Visikhâ-kathâ. speculations about the creation of the land or sea{3}. iii.' vol. or about existence and non-existence{4}-- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low conversation. 11. Buddhaghosa (p. p. 14} water is fetched. 3. 114. p. ghost stories{1}. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. 7. It is I who am in the right.

while living on food provided by the faithful. {1. saying: 'Go there. ministers of state.10. 15} "Your challenge has been taken up{1}.' or merely 'that which is of use is on my side. and at Vinaya I.} {p.' &c." "Set to work to clear your views{3}.{4}"-- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such wrangling phrases." "Disentangle yourself if you can. Putting the cart before the horse. or 'the context is on my side. This list of foolish talks recurs in Suttas 76-78 in the Magghima. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. take this with you. On the use of this idiom compare the Commentary on the Theri Gâthâ." 20. Kshatriyas. These expressions all recur at Magghima II. while living on food provided by the faithful." 19. continue addicted to taking messages. 'Issue has been joined against you' would be a . aropito for âropito. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. Brahmans. are tricksters{5}. There is a misprint here in the text.' This last. Sahitam me. on kings. 101. going on errands. to wit. bring that from thence'-- Gotama the recluse abstains from such servile duties. p. literally 'the put together is to me. and acting as go-betweens. amounts to the same as the version adopted above. 5. come hither. or young men. Âropito te vâdo. 3. 7. and may mean either as rendered above." "You are proved to be wrong{2}. droners out (of holy words for pay){6}. The idiom is only found here. given by the Sanna. 4.' or 'the text (of the Scriptures) is on my side. 188. 6. 20.

by an opponent who takes up the challenge. Lapakâ. (or the reverse). So Buddhaghosa. from marks on a child's hands. 168. 30. Nippesikâ. 'Astonish the world with the three sorts of trickery. where it is said to be wrong to learn the Scriptures for the sake of the advantage of being freed from discussion or debate where texts are quoted against one. 'scarers away' (? of ghosts. 165. 'interpreters of signs and omens. 2. 2. But Gogerly renders. It is Magghima I. ever hungering to add gain to gain{3}--Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such deception and patter. These are also referred to without explanation at Gâtaka IV. ."' Here ends the Magghima Sîla [the Longer Paragraphs on Conduct]. by low arts. and also Milinda 228. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. No. [9] 21. 124. 31. &c.{4} (2) Divining by means of omens and signs{5}. It is literally 'you are censured.} {p. G âtaka V. such as these:-(1) palmistry-prophesying long life. Compare Milinda 299. {1. So the author of Milinda in making his hero Nâgasena use just such a phrase (Mil. It is the phrase used. 'Depart. But the Commentary and Sanna give no help. Gât. &c.' and the only parallel passage seems to support this view. 27) is making him commit a breach of propriety. IV. 133. and Mahâvamsa 158. 4. 99 = Anguttara I. Kuhakâ. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. but not in this connection. Niggahîto si. and exorcists{2}.possible rendering.' See the note on nimittam in the next paragraph. that you may be freed from this disputation. 349. (3) Auguries drawn from thunderbolts and other celestial portents{6}. read kuhana). Gâtaka III. Kara vâda-pamokkhâya. 16} diviners{1}. or bad omens). feet. while living on food provided by the faithful. 2. 6. I think. 10). Nemittakâ. 297 (where we should. p. Pamokkha occurs besides at Samyutta I. On this idiom compare the opening paragraphs of the Kathâ Vatthu and the Commentary on them (especially pp. when some one has offered to hold debate (maintain a thesis) against all comers. 5.' 3. 9.' says Buddhaghosa. Compare Itivuttaka. prosperity.

(7) Sacrificing to Agni{4}. 'the portents of the great ones. No. (15) Drawing blood from one's right knee as a sacrifice to the gods{8}. into the fire out of one's mouth{7}. p. 3. answered 'three.-veda VI. I think. At Gât. 16). 46. and so on. and the note to the last section on nemittikâ and the story at Mahâvamsa 82. and the Commentary (fol. literally 'limbs. &c. Childers should therefore have kept this word separate from the other uppâdo. di of the Tumour MS. moon. Buddhaghosa confines its meaning to that given above. of the red powder between the grain and the husk. and the one or two cases where Burmese scribes have (wrongly) corrected to uppâta is another instance to be added to those referred to in the Introduction to Sum. (8) Offering oblations from a spoon{5}. hearing a dog bark thrice. The diviner.. 2.' Buddhaghosa distinguishes this from lakkhanam (No. (9-13) Making offerings to gods of husks. On the theory of dreams compare Mil. The word corresponds to the Sanskrit Utpâta. (14) Sacrificing by spewing mustard seeds. But this is only another instance of a change not infrequent (as Ed.' or 'signs. 111. It is not found. Angam. The commentator on this word as used in the very same connection at Gât. gives no better help.' pp. but the context there is as undecisive as it is here. The word occurs in . 297-301. XVI.' says Buddhaghosa. Uppâdo. I.' Compare Mil. 5 in this list).' Buddhaghosa tells a story in illustration. Lakkhanam. pp. Comp. in this sense. All the five words in this list recur at A. III.. 'How many?' says the king. literally 'marks. The latter looked this way and that for a sign. The Great Ones here mean. Pâli Grammar. Supinam. 178. I of their habit of putting an easier reading where the more difficult one is really right. lxiii foll. (5) Fortune-telling from marks on the body{2}. and of oil{6}. took three pearls in his closed hand. they say (Pâ ndi in the Sanna). I. anywhere in the texts. Müller has shown. 5 and 6) are included in this 'low art. of ghee.and the word has only been found in this list. said at once 'pearls' (also muttâ in Pâli). that Childers was wrong in ascribing the Gâtaka Commentary to Buddhaghosa. King Pandu. This contradiction is another confirmation of the opinion expressed by me in 1880 in 'Buddhist Birth Stories.. Gât. {1.} {p. and asked a diviner what he had in it. 37). though the d is vouched for by overwhelming authority. Perhaps charms to avert bad dreams (Ath. 4. I. and seeing a fly which had been caught by a house-lizard (the Sanna says 'by a dog.' Gât. Nimittam.' perhaps the meaning is simply 'in sugar') getting free (muttâ). 77 mocks at the dream interpreters. 5. thunderbolts falling. 374 adds that it means also the knowledge of good and bad marks on such persons and things as are mentioned here in our next paragraph. though slightly different. and from anga-viggâ (No. the spirits or gods presiding over the sun. of husked grain ready for boiling. 6. 374. and planets (see the note on § 26). 17} (4) Prognostication by interpreting dreams{1}. (6) Auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice{3}. at the India Office). 374 the word is masculine.

114. (17) Determining whether the site. and 'Ritual-literatur' in Bühler's 'Grundriss. 171. Gât. 18} (16) Looking at the knuckles. 163. II. on the use of blood for sorcery. and. butter. Vatthu-viggâ. 18. 71. 87. 3. 458 it is by anga-viggâ that the Bodisat prophesies that a man will be cruel. The allied superstition of thinking it unlucky to wear clothes gnawed by mice is laughed out of court in the Mangala Gâtaka. 26. 'Neu und Vollmondsopfer.' pp. if offered in a fire of such and such a wood. will have such and such a result. 72. In one passage. in Bühler's 'Grundriss. 4.. correct the rare khatta into the familiar khetta. &c. I. (19) Laying demons in a cemetery{4}. Anga-viggâ.-veda VIII.Buddhaghosa's sense at D. 559) has 'pool' instead of 'house.. poured into the fire from such and such a sort of spoon. for a proposed house or pleasance. &c. Khetta-viggâ . 250 the knowledge is simply that of judging from a man's appearance that he is rough or bad. So at Gât.} {p. it is one's own blood that is to be used.. 3. Dabbi-homam. Buddhaghosa thus separates this from the angam of No. divining whether a man is well born or lucky or not{1}. Its success depended on the belief that the sites were haunted by spirits. V. 6. Aggi-homam. 120 = A. See Hillebrandt. No instance of this can be traced in the books of the Brahmans. Compare the passage in Hillebrandt. Childers (Dict. will have such and such a result. 18. 2. No. (21) Knowledge of the charms to be used when lodging in an earth house{6}. 56. 7. (20) Laying ghosts{5}. p. § 27. III. I. 1. and it is the good man in the story (in the second case the Bodisat himself) who is the anga-viggâ-pâth ako. after muttering a charm. 114. 176. 5. Musikâkkhinnam. Rig-vidh.' having misread sara for ghara (s and gh are nearly alike in Sinhalese). In both the passages Gât. Telling people that a sacrifice. 176. I. The craft is further explained by Buddhaghosa in his comment on the Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta I. 8. {1. or so on. 9. Telling people that an oblation of such and such grains. Khatta-viggâ. The Burmese MSS. is lucky or not{2}. See further below.' p. 3. But the specific interpretation given here by Buddhaghosa cannot be paralleled from the Brahmanical books. 200. The nine homas here objected to may also be compared with the seven at Ath. (18) Advising on customary law{3}. (22) Snake charming{7}.' pp. 31.

It is the same as bhûri-kammam. sheep{9}.indeed occurs at Ud. explained in the same way by Buddhaghosa on § 27 below.). earrings{10}. arithmetic. arrows. Buddhaghosa gives an alternative explanation as knowledge of the cries of jackals. I. staves. Mil. 7. 12. IV. (24) The scorpion craft{2}. mensuration. 457. III. fowls{9}. men{8}. 19} (23) The poison craft{1}. 13. horses. evidently understands the phrase in a sense similar to that of khatta-dhamma at Gât. 9. (30) The animal wheel{6}. goats{9}. It is the craft of government. tortoises. Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. 8. while living on food provided by the faithful. VI. and may just possibly there (in connection with writing. but it goes beyond it in looking upon them as a 'low' way. and other animals-- . VII. by low arts. 490. 88. for a Brahman. Siva-viggâ. swords. 2). iguanas{10}. other weapons. and his gloss nîti-sattham is probably nearer the mark than Sankara's (on Khând. cit. of gaining a livelihood. tables. bows. quails{9}. 164 (see also 178). 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. women{8}. girls{8}.) be correct in the meaning of 'land-survering. such as these-- Knowledge of the signs of good and bad qualities in the following things and of the marks in them denoting the health or luck of their owners:--to wit. It is clear that siva is used euphemistically. (28) Foretelling the number of years that a man has yet to live. One method is described at Gât. (26) The bird craft{3}. 56. Also in the Khândogya list (loc. VII. slave-girls. Bhûri-viggâ. balls. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. Bhûta-viggâ. (25) The mouse craft{2}. slaves. oxen. and we may here have an early reference to what afterwards developed into the cult of the god Siva. though his explanation is corrupt. garments. Perhaps such charms against snake bite as Ath. &c. The Sutta only follows the Upanishad in looking at all these crafts as minor matters. elephants. V. gems{7}. 489. (27) The crow craft{4}. which is dhanur-veda. 5." 22. 6. then lying in great part in adhering to custom. buffaloes. boys{8}. (29) Giving charms to ward off arrows{5}.} {p.-v. Ahi-viggâ. V. Up. are included. 4.' Buddhaghosa.

and takes the word in its ordinary senses. Miga-kakkam.-v. The art in these four cases is to determine whether the marks on them show they will bring good (or bad) luck to the houses in which they dwell. Understanding the language of all creatures. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses {1. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. 5. The whole of this 'low art' as applied to gems has been collected in a series of manuals now edited by L. to the effect that-- [10] The chiefs will march out. 7. 10. 93. This comes in here very oddly. 8. 90. not even as amulet. But the old commentator had the same reading. Buddhaghosa says curing or giving poison. These are explained to mean simply curing the bites of these creatures. 96 of the text. 9." 23. 4. Compare the Ambattha-viggâ at Sum. p. Finot in his 'Lapidaires Indiens. Understanding their language. § 23. The art in these five cases is to say whether it is unclean or not to eat them. 20} and Brahmans. or poison spells (compare Ath. 3.} {p.' Paris. . while living on food provided by the faithful. Divining by the appearance and the cawings of crows.Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. 2. VI. such as soothsaying. 1896. 6. 255 and below. The chiefs will march back. 100). by low arts.

(2) There will be an eclipse of the sun. The foreign chiefs will gain the victory. Patha-gamana and uppatha-gamana. and I know no other passage where the meaning of the word is confined to planets. It is curious that Buddhaghosa has not explained them. I think. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood.'} {p. Nakkhatta. the going away from one's proper path"." 24. defeat on that-- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. except Burnouf. (3) There will be an eclipse of a star (Nakshatra){2}. and ours will suffer defeat{1}-- Thus will there be victory on this side. Prof. (4) There will be aberration of the sun or the moon. ascension and declension. It is evident that we have to understand 'chiefs. translate by the singular--'the king will march out. Burnouf has 'constellation. translated by Gogerly and Neumann a 'planet.' &c.' and not the 'king': and that not absolute monarchies. but republican institutions of a more or less aristocratic type. and ours will retreat. were in the mind of the composer of the paragraph. (5) The sun or the moon will return to its usual path. (7) The stars will return to their usual course{3}. as the few great kings of that time are always spoken of in the singular. {1. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. by such low arts as foretelling-(1) There will be an eclipse of the moon. 21} . The home chiefs will gain the victory. This cannot be honorific. Yet all the previous translators. (6) There will be aberrations of the stars. Kielhorn says (in a note he has been kind enough to send me on this section): 'What the author means by these words I do not know.' but what can the eclipse of a constellation mean? 3.' This may apply to planets.' Buddhaghosa explains it by 'Mars and so on. Throughout these paragraphs the plural is used. But uppatha-gamana would be literally "aberration. 2. and patha-gamana therefore should be "following one's proper course. The enemies' chiefs will attack. while living on food provided by the faithful. and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat. and the enemies' retreat." I am sure the two words could not mean conjunction and opposition.The home chiefs will attack. nor. but also to stars in general.

Buddhaghosa seems to imply four.(8) There will be a fall of meteors{1}. Mil. Burnouf takes these four words to refer to four occurrences. 'fiery corruscations in the atmosphere. 'Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. or foretelling of each of these fifteen phenomena that they will betoken such and such a result" [11] 25. See Gât. Foretelling tranquillity. I.' according to Gogerly. 212. clearness and dimness. 'Thunder and lightning. {1. of the sun or the moon or the stars{3}. (9) There will be a jungle fire{2}. Gogerly and Neumann take them as only two. 374. such as these:-- Foretelling an abundant rainfall. (12-15) There will be rising and setting. There has been great diversity in the various guesses made at the meaning in this connection . (10) There will be an earthquake.' according to Neumann. 374. by low arts. 213. 4. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. But Buddhaghosa's words are only explicable of a jungle fire. Disâ-dâho. Foretelling disturbances. Foretelling a pestilence. 178. Fortelling a healthy season. Muddâ. while living on food provided by the faithful. Counting on the fingers{4}. Compare Gât. Foretelling a deficient rainfall. 2. I. Ukkâ-pâto. Foretelling a good harvest Foretelling scarcity of food. whom Burnouf follows. (11) The god will thunder. 3.

Burnouf skips this word. Gananâ. while living on food provided by the faithful. 22} Counting without using the fingers{1}. 91) shows that the art there was simply arithmetic. But muddâ is mentioned as a craft at Vin.' administrative services. but with a wrong reading. I.' Buddhaghosa enumerates. Hattha-muddâ is found elsewhere only at Gât. The accountant who uses this method is called ganako (D. Kâveyyam. 110 in the phrase kâveyya-matto. at M. akkhimtaka. IV. Samkhânam. literally 'counting up. (On hattha-vikâra compare Mil. 107. He may perhaps mean calculating masses by means of the rosary. in the words of A. He says only hattha-mudda ganana. in a bad sense. I. 163. It is evidently calculation not broken up by using the fingers. by low arts. II. Casuistry. which usually means 'seal' or 'seal-ring.) Both these passages are much later than our text. Burnouf takes this word and the next as one compound in the sense of foretelling the future 'by calculating diagrams'. . 547 = Vin. and Neumann has simply 'counting.' Gogerly has 'conveyancing. 2. But the first words of his comment are doubtful. and several times in the Milinda (pp. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. and Neumann has 'Verwaltungsdienste. I. I. 85. on looking at a tree. where it is said of the polite member of the Order that he makes no sign with his hand. at A.} {p. and the sense of beckoning is here impossible. Buddhaghosa's comment on the latter passage is given by Minayeff at Pat.' and so also Childers. I. 51 and Vin. where hattha-muddam karoti means 'to beckon. Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans.of muddâ. IV. 157 = Vin." 26. Summing up large totals{2}. The Sinhalese comment on this (quoted in my translation of the Milinda. 72 = III. And this is no doubt the meaning in our paragraph. I. mental arithmetic pure and simple. V. 7 (where it is called honourable). 78. and muddiko as the person who practises that craft at D. such as-- {1. 528. I. inspired. 84.' 3. The word recurs. II. 8).' and at Vin. IV. sophistry{4}-- Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. 2I6. using the joints or knuckles or the fingers as an aid to memory. 51. 207. III. 8. I. 178 of the Pâli text). 59. Buddhaghosa is very curt. and also at S.' He who has the faculty of doing this can. Buddhaghosa's comment on this is akkhiddakâ-gananâ. 'drunk with prophecy. Vin. poetizing{3}. nor beckons. Composing ballads. 3. say how many leaves it has. in contradistinction to the last. says Buddhaghosa.

{1. None of the four refer to sacrificial hymns. (4) Fixing a lucky time for the outbreak of hostilities [or using charms to make discord]{3}. 52. 3. and the composition of poems are meant. Samvadanam. The fact is all these expressions are technical terms for acts of astrology or sorcery. XVI. which (with the one exception mentioned in the notes to the next section) gives only the charms which are supposed to bring benefits. Many such charms are preserved in the Atharva-veda (for instance. Usually rendered 'materialism. (10) Incantations to bring on dumbness. compare VII. Impromptu rhyming. The general sense may be sufficiently clear. (3) Fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace [or using charms to procure harmony]{3}. 9). four kinds of poetry. 4. but for absolute certainty of interpretation we must wait till examples are found in Indian books of the actual use of the words. and the tradition preserved by Buddhaghosa may be at fault in those cases in which the use of the word had not survived to later times. (9) Using charms to procure abortion. for instances of these malevolent practices. they none of them occur elsewhere either in Pâli or Sanskrit. 3. Subhaga-karanam.' But it is quite clear that this meaning is impossible in this connection. as was indeed inevitable. and there are several charms in the Atharva-veda for success in gambling. (13) Incantations to bring on deafness{5}. (2) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is sent forth{2}. (11) Incantations to keep a man's jaws fixed. III. We have no words now in English to express this difference between marrying and giving in marriage. (7) Using charms to make people lucky{4}. ballad singing. But we have here direct evidence that black magic. X. 4. Lokâyatam. hut in a connection which shows the meaning. 5. Ath. 174. Compare the Sinhalese dîga marriage in which the bride is sent out to live in the bridegroom's family. 30 is a charm to secure concord in a family. following Burnouf who calls it sorcery. (12) Incantations to make a man throw up his hands. was . 23} (1) Arranging a lucky day for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom is brought home{1}. 5. (8) Using charms to make people unlucky. 4. and explains them in nearly the same words as found in the Manoratha Pûranî on that passage.230. Compare the Sinhalese bîna marriage in which the bridegroom is brought into the house of the bride's family. See Milinda. Childers calls this a magic art.} {p.-v. (6) Fixing a lucky time for the expenditure of money [or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent throwing dice]{3}. It would be useless to seek in the Atharva-veda. 2. (5) Fixing a lucky time for the calling in of debts [Or charms for success in throwing dice]{3}. Buddhaghosa explains it as astrology. not in mere lists.

It is at least odd to find Brahmâ introduced in this connection. 5.as fully trusted in the sixth century B. Moon. (16) Obtaining oracular answers from a god{3}. C. Also obtained through a girl. It is a later conception to discard the god.} {p. We may grant that the Buddhists might have put sun-worship into a list of sorceries. No. but there was no ceremonial cult of Brahma and little or none of Brahmâ. Moon.' and Neumann has 'practising sorcery. This seems to me very doubtful. Such sun-worship is ridiculed in the Gâtaka of the same name. the Earth. as the worship of the Mother Earth was closely associated in the popular mind with witchcraft. (18} The worship of the Great One{5}. and food are all identified by a word-play with Mahas (Sîksâ-vallî 4-7). 25} . Dîp. Earth. and make the mirror itself give pictures of the hidden events. that would scarcely explain their being ranked as privates in this regiment. 6. 24} (14) Obtaining oracular answers by means of the magic mirror{1}. Kumârî-pañho. and we possibly have here a sandhi for mahatî-upatthânam. Âdikkupatthânam. (19) Bringing forth flames from one's mouth. Buddhaghosa explains the Great One as Mahâ Brahmâ." {1. and Sun.C. Buddhaghosa says they made a god appear in the mirror and answer questions put. and Srî occur together in a set of mystic groups. Deva-pañho. And however much the new gospel might hold the spetulations of the dominant theosophy in contempt. 173. that men thought they could best have communications from the gods through the medium of a woman. See Milinda 191. The mirror is of metal (Par. A god or goddess is certainly meant. II. but this time a deva-dâsî or temple prostitute. 235). 4. Sun. the goddess of Luck{6}-Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts.' Neither of these guesses seems happy.} {p. 2. (17} The worship of the Sun{4}. and Gât. It is instructive to find. 3. even under the patriarchal regime of the sixth century B. We need not be surprised that the malevolent charms are not recorded. 410. Mahat in composition is elsewhere always mahâ in Pâli. in the sense of worship of the Great Mother. Âdâsa-pañho. (20) Invoking Sirî. in the valley of the Ganges as white. with covert allusion to mahî. Burnouf avoids this by rendering the phrase generally 'serving the great. It is perhaps worthy of note that in the oldest portion of the Taittirîya Upanishad. (15) Obtaining oracular answers through a girl possessed{2}. Brahma. Through a girl of good family and repute.. and one so associated would be best in place here. This would give excellent sense.

[12] 27. (20) Giving medical ointment for the eyes. 26} (24) Administering roots and drugs. (6) Fixing on lucky sites for dwellings{3}. (3) Repeating charms while lodging in an earth house{1}. VII. Morris discusses the etymology of these words. 4. Is this a place sacred to Mother Earth? The ceremony referred to is the carrying out of the viggâ or craft mentioned in the list at § 21. {1. The idea of the second is not. (18) Administering drugs through the nose{5}. 113 to cause impotence). (16) Oiling people's ears (either to make them grow or to heal sores on them). (2) Paying such vows.and vossa-kammam. Vassa. P. 4. VI. Several such are preserved in the Atharva (IV. I. 5. (15) Purging people to relieve the head (that is by giving drugs to make people sneeze). only found in this list. Vatthu-kammam and -parikiranam. (21) Practising as an oculist. See Mil. of course. Bhûri-kammam. (7) Consecrating sites{3}. while living on food provided by the faithful. (8) Ceremonial rinsings of the mouth. in the J.} {p.. 'Or he might say: "Whereas some recluses and Brahmans. (9) Ceremonial bathings{4}. Bathings. S. 511 and the rules laid down in 'Vinaya Texts. 1889. (25) Administering medicines in rotation{1}-Gotama the recluse holds aloof from such low arts. by low arts. 53-55. earn their living by wrong means of livelihood. castration. that is. These constitute the vatthu-viggâ of § 21. but making a man's desire to fail by a spell. (22) Practising as a surgeon. (17) Satisfying people's eyes (soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them).' II. such as these:-(1) Vowing gifts to a god if a certain benefit be granted. (19) Applying collyrium to the eyes." . of other people. (11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives. VI. (10) Offering sacrifices. 208. 138. (5) Making a man impotent{2}. 2. (4) Causing virility{2}. 3. p. T. 101 to give virility. (23) Practising as a doctor for children.

who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. not to be grasped by mere logic. The use of patimokkha in No. comprehensible only by the wise{2}. It is when. N.' Here end the Long Paragraphs on Conduct. sweet. pp. Compare Gât. 41-144). when praising the Tathâgata. S. 1886. [13] And about what. 3. It is sufficiently clear from the numerous examples in the Vinaya (see especially 'Vinaya Texts. p. and Morris in the J. a purgative is first given and then a tonic to counteract the other. 28. 352. 2. whose speculations are concerned with the ultimate past{3}. and from the high praise accorded to Gîvaka and other physicians.'These. are the trifling matters. 'There are. difficult to realise. 'And what are they? 29. and laymen might do so for gain. of mere morality. do those venerable ones do so? . 492.. The corresponding Sanskrit terms occur at Divyâvadâna. No doubt the reading there ought to be nipuno. P. 160. These phrases recur S. that the objection was to recluses and Brahmans practising medicine as a means of livelihood. 'There are recluses and Brahmans. for instance. brethren.' ditthi almost always. They might do so gratis for themselves or for their coreligionists. have a connotation of contempt--a mere view. the minor details. of which the unconverted man. should speak. with reference to what. and dogma or speculation is a better rendering than view or belief. V. might speak. and it is of them that they. 45. As in our colloquial expression a 'viewy man. S. and anuditthi in all the seven passages where it occurs. 1119. 25 is curious. an offhand ill-considered opinion. 11-25 must not be mistaken. who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of things. tranquillising. 113. a delusion. having himself realised them and seen them face to face. 133. to set free from its effect. hath set forth. profound. On anudditthi see also Gogerly in the 'Ceylon Friend. T. hard to understand. subtle. other things. brethren. Ill. p. These things the Tathâgata.' II. brethren.' 1875. The Greek {Greek dóksa} has had a similar history. 25. p. 27} assertions regarding it. The Buddhist view of Nos.} {p. and who on eighteen grounds put forward various {1. and compare attânudditthi at Mil. 146.

literally 'cow-stall. And why must that be so? Because I. or three. And when I fell from thence I was reborn in such and such a place under such and such a name. and maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal. 2. fall from one state of existence and spring up in another. as a pillar firmly fixed. of exertion. Vanna. 1897. some recluse or Brahman by means of ardour. or fifty. brethren. R. or ten. Vessas. yet they are for ever and ever. some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists. [14] And he says to himself: "Eternal is the soul. his various dwelling-places {1. with such and such a span of years." Thus does he recollect. and the world. brethren. or five. or four.} {p. It probably meant at the time this Sutta was written a family or lineage traced through the father. yet they are for ever and ever. rapt in heart. giving birth to nothing new. giving birth to nothing new. 'There are. or a hundred. starting from which. had such and such a span of years. or twenty. but four divisions of the people. by means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. 171. and that the world. 3.' and Neumann 'Beruf.' I have chosen caste (though it is not caste in its strictest sense) because it no doubt refers to the kattâro vannâ mentioned so often in the Suttas. experienced such and such pains and pleasures. brethren. and though these living creatures transmigrate and pass away. in full detail both of condition and of custom. is stedfast as a mountain peak. on four grounds.. See J. And about what. or a thousand. I can call to mind. lived on such and such food. pp. Sassata-vâdâ. is stedfast as a mountain peak.' Gogerly renders it 'appearance. or in two. A. experiencing such and such pains and pleasures. of application. proclaim that both the soul and the world are eternal. or forty. some recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists{1}. and that though these living creatures transmigrate and pass away. 180-190. or thirty. of earnestness. literally 'colour. do those venerable ones do so? 31. S.' p. And when I fell from thence I was reborn here. and in full detail both of condition and of custom. and Suddas--were not castes.' The history of this word has yet to be written. On the meaning of gotraga (the gentiles of Roman Law) in the later law-books see West and Bühler. can reach up to such rapture of heart that.30. in such and such a lineage and caste. 28} in times gone by. 'In the first place. or in several hundreds or thousands or laks of births--to the effect that "There I had such and such a name. rapt in heart. as a pillar firmly fixed. reaches up to such rapture of heart that. of careful thought. is the first state of things on account of which. my various dwelling-places in times gone by--by that is it that I know this--that the soul is eternal. and who. he calls to mind his various dwelling-places in times gone by--in one birth. with reference to what. 'Hindu Law of Inheritance. . fall from one state of existence and spring up in another. living on such and such food. It is true that these--Khattiyas. Gotra. Brahmans. each consisting of many subdivisions (by customs as to connubium and commensality) which afterwards hardened into castes. was of such and such a lineage{2} and caste{3}." 'This.

36. are those recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists. as they really are. realised the way of escape from them{4}. some recluses and Brahmans are Eternalists. and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived at. brethren. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations){2}. Samvatta-vivattam (rolling up and evolution. 29} is addicted to logic and reasoning. is the fourth state of things on the ground of which. brethren. [16] 'And in the fourth place. the rising up and . and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal. starting from what. some recluse or Brahman {1. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this. they do so in these four ways. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them.} {p. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at.32. brethren. [17] That does he know. 'In this case. 'These. to turn). and the world. brethren. thus insisted on. or in one or other of the same. beaten out by his argumentations and based on his sophistry{1}. and in four ways maintain that both the soul and the world are eternal. on what ground is it. brethren. though they transmigrate and pass away.] 34. and these living creatures. giving birth to nothing new. yet they are for ever and ever. "Eternal is the soul. has understood. But both are Indian rather than Buddhist. 'Now of these. in his own heart{3}. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his own. It is the period of the gradual disintegration and conformation of a world. will have such and such a result. is stedfast as a mountain peak." 'This. fall from one state of existence and spring up in another. 35.] 33. starting from which. and thus untarnished he has. Needless to add that the length of this period cannot be expressed in figures. and maintain that the soul and the world are eternal. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. that those venerable ones are Eternalists. and the later Sânkhya notion of pralaya is closely allied. [15] [The third case put is in all respects the same save that the previous birth: "thus called to mind extend over a still longer period up to forty world aeons. as a pillar firmly fixed. from vatt. [The second case put is in all respects the same save that the previous births thus called to mind extend over a still longer period up to ten world aeons{1}. Neither the idea nor the word occurs in books known to be before the Buddha. Samvarta is found in the Mahâ Bhârata and the Râmâyana.

and S. 'And what is it that these venerable ones depend upon. 9. M. I. Nirvâna. Sum. 4. are those other things. 347. subtle. himself by himself.passing away of sensations. II. and samâdhi. brethren. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. some recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists with regard to some things. 252 = S. having himself realised and seen face to face. for instance. p. profound. III. 182. 54. says Buddhaghosa. and in regard to others Non-Eternalists. iii. 906. This phrase recurs below. I. 'Without depending on any one else. 198 = S. their sweet taste. difficult to realise. when. this . who on four grounds maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not. 2. chap.' says Buddhaghosa. what is it that they start from. 'There are. 10. tranquillising. brethren. 'These{2}. and not grasping after any (of {1. in arriving at this conclusion? 2. 188 = 422. the Tathâgata.. 96. is quite set free{1}. 61 I. sweet. Sîla. 3. 20. how they cannot be relied on. 30} those things men are eager for) he. See the common phrases A. which the Tathâgata. 1. &c. sooner or later. §§ 14.} {p. I. and all the other things known to a Buddha. not to be grasped by mere logic. 37. should speak. says Buddhaghosa. Mil. 251. their danger. brethren. comprehensible only by the wise. M.' Here ends the First Portion for Recitation. CHAPTER II. after the lapse of a long long period. hard to understand. 'Now there comes a time. N. Pakkattam. 117. hath set forth. 108.

falls from that World of Radiance. continuing in glory. continuing in glory. 77. when. the Mighty. 2. the Ruler. Gogerly (pp. the Chief of all. I. the Chief of all. 327 in the course of the story of the Brahmâ. radiating light from himself. The omission in the Dialogue of all reference to the Kesava Birth Story may be a sign of greater age or it . the Creator. 31} sooner or later. [18] 5. brethren.} {p. either because his span of years has passed or his merit is exhausted. Mr. this world-system begins to re-evolve. the Lord of all. traversing the air. radiating light from themselves. the Lord of all. the Ancient of days. and thus they remain for a long long period of time. feeding on joy. the Ancient of days. who is represented as coming to the very conclusion set out in our section. 'Now there arises in him. And there also he lives made of mind. named Baka. S. 3. the Mighty. too. appointing to each his place. No. the one who was first reborn thinks thus to himself: "I am Brahmâ. the Supreme One. 'On this. Not of course the four speculations. and comes to life in the Palace of Brahmâ. 'Now there comes also a time. and misinterpreting parâmasati in the second. the Father of all that are and are to be{1}." 'And those beings themselves. think thus: "This must be Brahmâ. misunderstanding the grammatical construction of the first clause. 405). 78 in Grimblot) has made a sad mess of this paragraph. the Great Brahmâ. the All-seeing. but the higher knowledge which has led him to reject them. and in all respects like him. brethren. from his dwelling there so long alone. 4. And why is that so? A while ago I thought. 326-331. and thus does he remain for a long long period of time.world-system passes away. 'Would that they might come!' And on my mental aspiration. behold the beings came. And when this happens beings have mostly been reborn in the World of Radiance. the Maker. but it is empty. The story was a favourite one. And some being or other. and there they dwell made of mind. either because their span of years had passed or their merit was exhausted. and nissaranam in the third. the Creator. feeding on joy. other beings fall from the World of Radiance. traversing the air. These other beings are of my creation. the Maker. appointing to each his place. When this happens the Palace of Brahmâ appears. the Great Brahmâ. the Ruler. Crow evidently considered himself the Mahâ Brahmâ of the period. This string of epithets recurs at M. a dissatisfaction and a longing: "O! would that other beings might come to join me in this place!" And just then. the Supreme. I. the All-seeing. and three recensions of it have been preserved (M. 142-144. the Father of all that are {1. and Gât. {1. I. and appear in the Palace of Brahmâ as companions to him.

Buddhaghosa on this has a curious note. He says to himself: "That illustrious Brahmâ. 'Now it might well be." For ages they pass their time in the pursuit of the laughter and sport of sensual lusts. being Eternalists as to some things. 'And what is the second? 'There are.may be due simply to the fact that it is not required for the argument there. And having come hither he might go forth from the household life into the homeless state. should come hither. 32} and are to be. the one who first came into existence there is of longer life. And why? Because. the Ancient of days. {1." 6. certain gods called the "Debauched by Pleasure{1}. he is stedfast immutable eternal. In consequence thereof their self-possession is corrupted. And it might well be. 7. the Mighty. the Great Brahmâ. he by whom we were created. But the gods can't play tricks with themselves. that some being. starting out from which. rapt in heart. and more glorious. appointing to each his place. But we who were created by him have come hither as being impermanent mutable limited in duration of life. is the first state of things on account of which. The poor gods! Whether this be really implied in the text or not. on his falling from that state. brethren. A man. [19] 'This. . the Chief of all.} {p. And we must have been created by him. they die--pass away from that state. reaches up to such rapture of heart that. the Ruler. as we see. the Lord of all. and more powerful than those who appeared after him. and he will remain so for ever and ever. Khiddâ-padosikâ. and Non-eternalists as to others. it is at least in harmony with the irony of the Buddha's talk. The gods. are delicate in body. 33} 8. may restore his strength by the use of clear broth and so on. but not the previous ones. having gone without food for seven days even. that some being on his falling from that state. the All-seeing. brethren. brethren. the Supreme One.} {p. maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not. the Maker. the Father of all that are and are to be. by reason of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. 287). and we came after that. brethren. should come hither. They are not mentioned elsewhere except in the list of gods in the Mahâ Samaya (p. 2. the Creator. And having thus become a recluse he. 'On this. though of great glory. and it they lose their heads and forget their meal-times. brethren. of a nature that knows no change. it was he who was here first. he calls to mind his last dwelling-place. and through the loss of their self-control they fall from that state:{2}. some recluses and Brahmans.

I And he would say to himself: "Those gods who are not debauched in mind do not continually burn with envy against each other. eternal. so their hearts do not become evil disposed one towards another. too long to quote. and we fell from that state. of a nature that knows no change. brethren. as in the last case. having lost our self-control through being debauched by pleasure--we have come hither as being impermanent. Mano-padosikâ. and have come hither as being impermanent. 'Now it might well be. mutable. nor their bodies feeble and their minds imbecile. to show the quarrelsome nature of these gods. immutable. II. acquire the power of recollecting his last birth. being constantly excited by envy against one another. III. and having become a recluse should. in irony. and they will remain so for ever and ever. [21] But we were corrupted in mind. so that ours got to mean 'to consider in such a way as to be excited. their bodies become feeble. 12. in all which passages it has the connotation of 'covet. certain gods called "the Debauched in Mind{1}. of a nature that knows no change. Even there it is almost certainly merely taken from this passage. but only his last one. and acquire the power of recollecting his last birth.And having come hither he should. And being thus envious and corrupt our bodies became feeble. And those gods fall from that state. 193. 'And what is the third? 'There are. 9. and tells a tale. Upanigghâyanti. and they will remain so for ever and ever. 34} being. 118. brethren. from ghâyati. become a recluse. they are stedfast. on his falling from that state. and being thus debauched. to burn. lust after. [20] But we--who fell from that state. that some {1. Therefore they fall not from that state. and being thus irritated. p. Buddhaghosa identifies this class with the retinue of the Four Great Kings--that is the regents of the four quarters. I.. There may have been confusion between the two homonyms. eternal. 2. limited in duration of life. 143. as in the other cases. and our minds imbecile. for the sake of the argument. Elsewhere found only at Vin. to think) the word has only been found at S." They burn continually with envy{2} one against another. their hearts become ill-disposed towards each other. 'And he would say to himself: "Those gods who are not debauched by pleasure are stedfast. 269.'} {p. but only his last one." . 11. and their minds imbecile.' Buddhaghosa takes it here in the sense of envy. limited in duration of life. N. In the sense of 'consider' (from ghâyati. should come hither. Only found here and in the list in the Samaya Sutta." 10. so that it looks very much as if both these classes or titles of gods were simply invented. immutable. to burn. mutable.

on the ground of which. are those other things. when this individuality is broken up. they do so in these four ways or in one or other of the same.} {p. and thus untarnished he has. [22] 15. thus insisted on. hath set forth. the rising up and passing away of sensations. and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are eternal in some cases and not in others. 35} and Brahmans are Semi-eternalists. some recluses {1. difficult to realise. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such and maintain this. in his own heart. brethren. their sweet taste. brethren. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his own. or consciousness is a self which is permanent. 14. comprehensible only by the wise. since no sooner has each mental impression given rise to the succeeding one than it passes away. their danger. brethren. But this which is called heart. having himself realised and seen face to face. brethren. hard to understand. starting from which. subtle. is the fourth state of things. eternal. brethren." 'This. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. stedfast. realised the way of escape from them. unstable. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. which the Tathâgata. is quite set free. brethren. tranquillising. should speak. 'And what is the fourth? 'In this case. will have such and such a result. Not perceiving that. how they cannot be relied on. 'These. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. and in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are in some respects eternal. or mind. who fly away from one tree only to alight on another. and it will remain for ever and ever{1}. goes (as a unity) elsewhere. profound. not to be grasped by mere logic. are those recluses and Brahmans who are Semi-eternalists.' . the Tathâgata. but they fail to see that the same thing holds even more strongly in the case of thoughts. and in some not. 'These. Buddhaghosa explains that these speculators perceive how the organs of sense break up (and sense impressions pass away). subject to change. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. not eternal. he is not puffed up. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations).'This. they conclude that the mind. and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived at. That does he know. sweet. beaten out by his argumentations and based on his sophistry: "This which is called eye and ear and nose and tongue and body is a self which is impermanent. 'Now of these. 13. and having that knowledge. and knows no change. is the third case. as they really are. has understood. and depending on the analogy of birds.

[24] Neither is the world finite. rapt in heart. nor is it infinite. brethren. is the first case. brethren. brethren. only that the conclusion is: [23] "Infinite is the world without a limit.16. but infinite across. are wrong. only that the conclusion is that he imagines the world limited in the upward and downward directions. some recluse or Brahman. Antânantikâ.} {p. 'The second case is similar. so that a path could be traced round it{1}. According to Buddhaghosa (Ats. Those recluses and Brahmans who maintain either the first. starting out from what. And he says thus to himself: "Finite is the world." 'This. some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. 'There are. certain recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists{1}. or the second. 'In the fourth case. rapt in heart. dwells in the world imagining it finite. Parivatumo. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his own. brethren. Those recluses and Brahmans who say it is finite. 36} on what ground. by means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. and the wisdom of a Buddha. 20. or the third conclusion." 'This. so that a path could be traced round it. can reach up to such rapture of heart that." 19. 2. the number of world-systems. is the fourth case. brethren. Only found here. beaten out by his argumentations and based on his sophistry: "This world is neither finite nor yet infinite. the number of living creatures. 160) there are four things that are infinite--space. he declares both the former conclusions to be wrong. do these venerable ones maintain this? 17. 'The third case is similar. Buddhaghosa says nothing. And {1. 'In the first case. I dwell in the world perceiving it to be finite--by that I know this. by means of ardour of exertion of application of earnestness of careful thought. {1. And why is this so? Since I. Had this doctrine formed . 18. and who in four ways set forth the infinity or finiteness of the world. are wrong{2}. reaches up to such rapture of heart that he.

they do so in these four ways or in one or other of the same. some recluse or Brahman does not understand the good in its real nature. and maintain this. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. and when a question is put to them on this or that they resort to equivocation. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. and outside these there is no way in which this opinion is arrived at. nor the evil. hard to understand. 'Now on what ground. he resorts to eel-wriggling. by illwill or resentment. nor to be bad. starting out from what. to equivocation. but I do not find them there. I might be influenced therein by my feelings or desires. and in four ways maintain that the world is finite or infinite. and thus untarnished he has. But I advance no different opinion. 37} 21. 'There are. as they really are. are those other things. And under these circumstances I might be wrong. brethren. sweet. should speak: 23. such and such an effect on the future condition: of those who trust in them. subtle. tranquillising. he will neither declare anything to be good. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. in his own heart." Thus fearing and abhorring the being wrong in an expressed opinion.part of the original Buddhism we should expect to find these kattâri anantâni in the chapter on the 'Fours' in the Anguttara. not to be grasped by mere logic. [25] That being so. but on a question being put to him on this or that. difficult to realise. to eel-wriggling. I don't take it the other way. For whosoever of the recluses and Brahmans are such. 22. thus insisted on. some recluses and Brahmans who wriggle like eels. brethren. comprehensible only by the wise. 'These. their sweet taste. 'Now of these." . and this in four ways. has understood. profound. were I to pronounce this to be good or that to be evil. the Tathâgata. as it really is. That does he know. and says: "I don't take it thus. and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me{1}. their danger. and my having been wrong might cause me the pain of remorse. brethren. are those recluses and Brahmans who are Extensionists. do those venerable ones do so? 24. is quite set free. brethren. brethren. nor the evil. hath set forth. 'These. how they cannot be relied on. the rising up and passing away of sensations. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. having himself realised and seen face to face. nor the other{2}.} {p. which the Tathâgata. will have such and such a result. And he thinks: "I neither know {p. And I don't deny your position. 38} the good. And I don't say it is neither the one. 'In the first place. realised the way of escape from them.

declare the good to be good. reading] '. subtle.'} {p.'This is the first case. Either of these states of mind will be the fuel to keep. breaking to pieces by their wisdom {1. But if he should blunder. Now there are recluses and Brahmans who are clever. [27] 'And what is the fourth? . 2. [The same. 'This is the second case. . in his ignorance. he will neither declare (&c. experienced in controversy. he will be puffed up by the approval of the wise. he should. Were I to pronounce this to be good. the state technically called Upâdâna. Buddhaghosa explains that if. he will be filled with vexation and illwill when his error is pointed out. . 115). "Under these circumstances I might fall into that grasping condition of heart which causes rebirth. 'grasping. [The same. call upon me for my reasons. as it really is. 3. And that might cause me the pain of remorse. I might be unable to explain{1}. and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me. as in § 24). as in § 24). reading] 'And he thinks: "I neither know the good. 'And what is the second? 25. hair-splitters.. the fire burning. 'This is the third case. methinks. And on their doing so. who go about.' says Buddhaghosa (p." [26] Thus fearing and abhorring the falling into that state{3}. by chance. 'And what is the third? 26. 39} the speculations of others. point out my errors. nor the evil. and the sense of remorse might become a hindrance to me." Thus fearing and abhorring the joinder of issue.. Buddhaghosa gives examples of these five equivocations. 'Either in self-training or in the attainment of bliss in heaven. or that to be evil. he will neither declare (&c. these men might join issue with me. and my so falling might cause me the pain of remorse.

And I don't think it is otherwise. such beings. when a question is put to them on this or that. (2) He does not. there is no other way in which they do so. (3) There both is. to wriggling like an eel--"If you ask me whether there is another world. (3) There both are.} {p. (4) He neither does. And I don't think it is thus or thus. But I don't say so. his stupidity. 317. are those recluses and Brahmans who wriggle like eels. another world. 96. if I thought there were. (3) He both does.--well. And it is by reason of his dullness. (1) A man who has penetrated to the truth{1} continues to exist after death. and compare M. (2) There is not another world. another world. b. and is not. {1. (2) There are no such beings. (3) There both is. And I don't say there neither is. result. Sampâyati." Thus does he equivocate. is the fourth case{2}. nor is not. to eel-wriggling. Such questions are called elsewhere the common basis of discussions among Brahmans. 472. and does not. they do so in these four ways. and who.27. For whosoever do so. another world. (4) There neither is. and that in four ways. resort to equivocation. c. I. brethren. brethren. 40} (2) There is not. (4) There neither are. he resorts to equivocation. and is not. This. of good and bad actions. (4) There neither is. and are not. brethren. or in one or other of the same. And I don't deny it. such beings. . d. (1) There is fruit. either here or in another world. 'In this case. nor is not. [28] 28. that when a question on this or that is put to him. I would say so. (1) There are Chance Beings (so called because they spring into existence. nor is not. and seem therefore to come without a cause). III. without the intervention of parents. 2. 85. nor does not. stupid. See the note at 'Vinaya Texts. 'These. and in like manner about each of such propositions as the following{2}:-a. nor are not.'. some recluse or Brahman is dull.

hath set forths and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. N. 'There are. should speak. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). and who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arise without a cause. their sweet taste. brethren. and compare S. how they cannot be relied on. And on what ground. is quite set free. where it is opposed in the sense of 'occasional' to abhinha at M.29. 57. brethren. I. He says to himself: "Fortuitous {1. III. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. comprehensible only by the wise. The word here used is Tathâgata. 118) as 'springing up without a cause. on the whole. which the Tathâgata. do they do so? 31. some recluses and Brahmans who are Fortuitous-Originists{1}.' See Chalmers in the J. subtle. I. III. and thus untarnished he has. on falling from that state. starting out from what. &c. 'he who has gone. I. 2. clear enough. A. as they really are. rapt in heart. And having thus become a recluse he. I. I. difficult to realise. M. 442 in the sense of 'habitual.' 30. . The exact derivation and history of the word Tathâgata may be doubtful. S. 55. I. 'There are.' It is explained by Buddhaghosa on our passage (Sum. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. to the truth. That does he know. 57 of the text) into the mouth of Sañgaya Belatthaputta.) shows that gata was used elliptically in the sense of 'gone to the furthest point aimed at' among the followers of the other sects that arose at the same time as Buddhism. S. that a being. occurring at Gât. certain gods called Unconscious Beings{2}. 218 = IV.} {p. As soon as an idea occurs to them they fall from that state. {1. nor created by others. 467. 301) recurs at M. tranquillising. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. The use of sammaggato (D. Adhikka-samuppannikâ. or perhaps come. Now it may well be. Jan. 116-118. will have such and such a result. are those other things.. has understood. 443. derived from adhîyati. realised the way of escape from them. 1898. the rising up and passing away of sensations. their danger.) and of gatatto (D. &c. 171. 'Now of these. by reason of ardour and so on (as in the other cases) reaches up to such rapture of heart that. hard to understand. but not more than that. 5 throws light on its use here. 111. thus insisted on. brethren. in his own heart. having himself realised and seen face to face. brethren. It is there associated with words meaning 'neither self-originated. 'These. brethren. profound. 41} sweet. and having come hither he might go forth from the household life into the homeless state. he calls to mind how that idea occurred to him. R. This is the identical answer put below (p. the Tathâgata. 140.' Udâna VI. not to be grasped by mere logic. This adhikka (which must be distinguished from the other adhikka. but its meaning is. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. 486.' The derivation is doubtful.. should come hither.

the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. not to be grasped by mere logic. hard to understand.' [30] 35. 34. brethren. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. some recluse or Brahman is addicted to logic and reasoning. should speak. beaten out by his argumentations. is the second case. which the Tathâgata. how they cannot be relied on. but now am. brethren. their sweet taste. brethren. 33. as they really are. starting out from which. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. and thus untarnished he has. tranquillising. 'These. That does he know." [29] 'This. brethren. the rising up and passing away of sensations. I have come to be. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. comprehensible only by the wise. some recluses and Brahmans become Fortuitous-Originists. 32." 'This. He gives utterance to the following conclusion of his own. Having not been. their danger. is the first state of things on account of which. Have done with this thinking. thus insisted on. the Tathâgata. has understood. who have form only. Asañña-sattâ. They spring into being in this wise.} {p. will have such and such a result. An existence without it were better. subtle. brethren. having himself realised and seen face to face. is quite set free. profound. So long as the power of the Ghâna lasts. 'And what is the second? 'In this case.' And dying in this belief he is reborn among the Unconscious Ones. 42} in origin are the soul and the world.2. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. difficult to realise. so long do they last. And why so? Because formerly I was not. are those other things. sweet. hath set forth. are the recluses and Brahmans who reconstruct the ultimate beginnings of . sees the disadvantage attached to thinking. Some one of the Brahman ascetics having practised continual meditation and arrived at the Fourth Ghâna. and based on his sophistry: "The soul and the world arose without a cause. realised the way of escape from them. 'These. in his own heart. and says to himself: 'It is by dwelling on it in thought that physical pain and all sorts of mental terrors arise. Then an idea occurs to them--the idea of rebirth in this world--and they straightway die. 'Now of these. and neither sensations nor ideas nor predispositions nor consciousness. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). brethren. and maintain that the soul and the world arise without a cause.

but âghâtana (so read in the text). and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). brethren. the rising up and passing away of sensations. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. 1. realised the way of escape from them. tranquillising. whose speculations are concerned with the {p. comprehensible only by the wise. 'There are. in his own heart. It is not the usual word. And on account of what. and who maintain in sixteen ways that {1. do they do so? 38. sweet. is quite set free. 43} ultimate past. Conscious-maintainers. 'There are. recluses and Brahmans who [31] hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death{2}. . should speak. 12 of the text). Literally 'who are After-deathers. their danger. recluses and Brahmans who arrange the future.' 37. as they really are. 36. do so in one or other of these eighteen ways. 'These. And those who do so. all of them. are those other things. subtle. not to be grasped by mere logic. 44} the soul after death is conscious.things. 'Now of these. brethren. There is none beside. meaning literally 'shambles. and who on forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future. place of execution. not subject to decay. 29 (p. starting out from what. See I. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. thus insisted on. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. their sweet taste. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. how they cannot be relied on. has understood.' These summary epithets are meant to be contemptuous. difficult to realise. And how do they do so? 'They say of the soul: "The soul after death. profound. 2. having himself realised and seen face to face. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. hard to understand. and conscious. and who on eighteen grounds put forward various assertions regarding the past{1}. hath set forth. which the Tathâgata. whose speculations are concerned with the future.' The ordinary phrase would have been param-maranikâ. brethren.} {p. brethren. will have such and such a result. the Tathâgata. That does he know. and thus untarnished he has. and the word chosen for death adds to the force of the phrase.

their sweet taste. 'Now of these. (10) has various modes of consciousness. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. says Buddhaghosa. (14) is altogether miserable. are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death. That does he know. (12) has infinite consciousness. (15) is both. form. {1. sweet. (8) is neither. hath set forth. (6) is infinite.} {p. how they cannot be relied on. tranquillising. will have such and such a result. [32] . So the Agîvakas. brethren. realised the way of escape from them. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. should speak. 2. which the Tathâgata. difficult to realise. brethren. thus insisted on. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). (7) is both.' Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation. do so in one or other of these sixteen ways. as they really are. in his own heart. (16) is neither. says Buddhaghosa.(1) has form{1}. 'These. subtle. not to be grasped by mere logic. are those other things. There is none beside. (4) neither has. brethren. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth. their danger." 39. 45} 'These. So the Niganthas. profound. (2) is formless{2}. 40. the Tathâgata. and thus untarnished he has. nor has not. comprehensible only by the wise. has understood. And those who do so. and who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious. (11) has limited consciousness. and has not. (13) is altogether happy. the rising up and passing away of sensations. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. hard to understand. (5) is finite. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. having himself realised and seen face to face. form. is quite set free. all of them. (9) has one mode of consciousness. (3) has.

all of them. and not grasping after any (of those things men are eager for) he. realised the {p. and has not. form (5) is finite. and it is concerning these that they who would rightly praise the Tathâgata in accordance with the truth should speak. recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. subtle.] . and thus untarnished he has. (1) has form. such and such an effect on the future condition of those who trust in them. profound. difficult to realise. 5-8. having himself realised and seen face to face hath set forth. form. will have such and such a result. and having that knowledge he is not puffed up. brethren. not to be grasped by mere logic. That does he know. has understood. thus insisted on. the Tathâgata. 4. brethren. and who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. and who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious. as they really are. 'There are. and he knows also other things far beyond (far better than those speculations). and unconscious. (7) is both. is quite set free. in his own heart. which the Tathâgata. do so in one or other of those eight ways. comprehensible only by the wise.CHAPTER III. brethren. (4) neither has. 46} way of escape from them. brethren. the rising up and passing away of sensations. hard to understand. (8) is neither. And how do they do so? 2. There is none beside. 1. 'These. sweet. their sweet taste. 'These. are those recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. 'Now of these. how they cannot be relied on. (6) is infinite. [33] [Similar sections for those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious. the Tathâgata knows that these speculations thus arrived at. are those other things. nor has not." 3. (3) has. And those who do so. tranquillising. their danger. (2) is formless. not subject to decay. 'They say of the soul: "The soul after death.

do they do so? 10. such a soul as you describe.' p. 19. Sir. by paying no heed to ideas of difference. conscious that space is infinite. does not continue after death. that the soul is completely annihilated. is cut off and destroyed. on the dissolution of the body. the destruction. 47} and have experienced it. And since this soul." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. This you neither know of nor perceive. the destruction. Sir. made of mind. on the dissolution of the body. 'To him another says: "There is." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. For there is a further soul-divine. Jacobi. and then. then is it. [34] 'There are. Comp. such a soul as you describe. Sir. the soul is completely annihilated." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. destroyed. [35] But I know and have experienced it. But the whole soul. the destruction. is not then completely annihilated. with all its major and minor parts complete. 'To him another says: "There is. But the whole soul. the annihilation of a living being. starting out from what. 47. . having form. this soul has form. on the dissolution of the body. 2. brethren. recluses and Brahmans who are Annihilationists. But I know and have experienced it.} {p. 236. who in seven ways maintain the cutting off. 339. 42). and is the offspring of father and mother. 'In the first place. This you neither know of nor perceive. it is cut off. by the dying out of ideas of resistance. is cut off and destroyed. belonging to the sensuous plane. some recluse or Brahman puts forth the following opinion. brethren. the destruction. But the whole soul. Sir. which by passing beyond ideas of form. not deficient in any organ. is built up of the four elements. Sir. such a soul as you describe. Sir. 13. is not then completely annihilated.{1}9. 41. the annihilation of a living being{2}. Sato sattassa. That I do not deny. Insert the word sato in the text (as in §§ 17. and does not continue after death. Sir. That I do not deny. And since this soul.' II. reaches up to the plane of the infinity of space{1}. feeding on solid food. having form. the destruction. the annihilation of a living being. 'To him another says: "There is. on the dissolution of the body. is not then completely annihilated. the following view: "Since. Sir. 11. §§ 9-18 are discussed by James D'Alwis in 'Buddhist Nirvâna." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. Sir. that the soul is completely annihilated. the annihilation of a living being. That you neither know of nor perceive. 12. But I know {1. the annihilation of a living being. For there is a further soul. 'Jaina Sûtras. The Katha Upanishad I. that the soul is completely annihilated. That I do not deny. is cut off and destroyed. And since this soul. Sir. then is it. does not continue after death. does not continue after death. For there is a further soul--divine. then is it. 20 alludes to such belief. And on account of what. Sir.

See Rh. reaches up to the plane of the infinity of consciousness{1}. consciousness. For there is a further soul. The Buddhist modification of these theories omits the souls. Sir. It appears from M. But I know and have experienced it. leads to rebirth in corresponding worlds. Sir. Compare the 5th Vimokha. {1. That I do not deny. is not then completely annihilated. 164 that this was pretty much the view put forth by Gotama's first teacher Âlâra Kâlâma. does not continue after death. This seems from M.14. or planes of existence. on the dissolution of the body. this is excellent. 16. knowing that consciousness is infinite. is not then completely annihilated. reaches up to the plane of no obstruction{2}. during this life. then is it. of opposition to muscular effort. the annihilation of a living being. the destruction. that the soul is completely annihilated. Uddaka. pat igha. the annihilation of a living being. breath. manas. made respectively of anna. But the oldest Pitaka texts say very little about it. is cut off and destroyed." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. Sir. That I do not deny. the destruction. knowing that there is nothing." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. named after those stages of meditations. Sir. is here not ethical. is cut off and destroyed. such a soul as you describe. One may compare the five souls each more subtle than the last. Sir. And since this soul. 15. this last of these seven theorisers is no doubt to be considered as believing in all the sorts of soul held by the others. which by passing quite beyond the plane of no obstruction. 'To him another says: "There is. so that he believes in seven. The idea of resistance. Sir. is not then completely annihilated. vigñâna. D. prâna. I. Sir. But the whole soul. described in the Taittirîya Upanishad II. This you neither know of nor perceive. . and treats instead of various states of mind (produced by stages of meditation). on the dissolution of the body. This you neither know of nor perceive. And since this soul. realises 'This is good.' and reaches up to the plane of neither ideas nor the absence of ideas{3}. I. whose son and pupil. such a soul as you describe. the attainment of which. but refers to the senses. 1-5.} {p. then is it. That I do not deny. 213. that the soul is completely annihilated. mind. and ânanda (food. But the whole soul. 2. 'Buddhist Suttas. 3. Sir. does not continue after death. 'To him another says: "There is. This you {1. and the history of Buddhist speculation on the matter has yet to be formulated. 52.' pp. Compare the 6th Vimokha. which having passed beyond the plane of the infinity of space. 'To him another says: "There is. But the whole soul. Compare the 4th Vimokha. and joy). which by passing quite beyond the plane of the infinity of consciousness. Having no sense of reaction to touch. was Gotama's second teacher. 48} For there is a further soul. But I know and have experienced it. 165 to have been much the same as the view held by Râma. For there is a further soul. Though it is not explicitly so stated. such a soul as you describe.

brethren. And relying on what. Sir. does not continue after death. above p. and the later Vedânta has a similar series. brethren. and âtman). some recluse or Brahman may have the following opinion. 'There are. the annihilation of a living being. recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. and expressed in almost identical phraseology. 21. Sir. 'Hereon. then. do they do so? 20. And why not? Sensuous delights. setting forth that other. . to the highest Nirvâna{1}. That I do not deny. such a soul as you describe. 49} neither know of.] 19. on the dissolution of the body. the destruction. indriya. the destruction. the following view: "Whensoever the soul. buddhi. There is none beside." Thus is it that some maintain the cutting off. all of them. [Repetition of § 40. starting out from what. indulges all its functions. Sir. 44. in full enjoyment and possession {p. linga-sarîra. [36] And whosoever do so they. brethren. There is sufficient truth in the idea or the series of seven set out in our text to explain the persistence of the general idea in all the Indian systems.} {p. then is it. older than Buddhism. set out in the Sânkhya texts.Centuries afterwards we find a somewhat analogous conception in the gradually ascending series of seven. 17. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvâna. but the details and the application are strikingly different. each more subtle than the last (Sthûla-sarira. are transitory. The text shows that the four Arûpa Vimokhas of the Buddhist theory were regarded by the early Buddhists as derived from closely allied speculations. But I know and have experienced it. nor perceive. 50} of the five pleasures of sense. the soul has attained. of a living being. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation. 'These. of a living being. in the visible world. is cut off. ahankara. the annihilation of a living being. manas. in this visible world. And since this soul. that the soul is completely annihilated." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. higher. destroyed. 18. 'To him another says: "There is. Sir. are the recluses and Brahmans who are Annihilationists and in seven ways maintain the cutting off. for which alone he can be rightly praised. knowledge of a Tathâgata. in this visible world. do so in one or other of these seven ways.

to the highest Nirvâna. mindful and self-possessed. enjoyed himself. 24. by absence of the longing after joy remains in equanimity. then. are the recluses and Brahmans who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. accompanied by investigation. suppressing both reasoning and investigation. That I do not deny.they involve pain. in the visible world. of a living being. it is stamped as being gross. their very nature is to fluctuate. such a soul as you describe. enters into and abides in the Second Ghâna. That I do not deny. pain. by putting away pain. of exhilaration of heart. Sir. putting away sensuous delights and evil dispositions. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvâna. of a living being. But whensoever. in this visible world. pain." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. And those who do ." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. to the highest Nirvâna. Sir. in the visible world. in the garden. such a soul as you describe. of a living being. the state of joy and ease. I. 290 râgâ uyyâne parikâresi. and loathing arise out of their inconstancy and change. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation. 'To him another says: "There is. sorrow. 'To him another says: "There is. the soul. Sir. Buddhaghosa here (Sum. 'the king indulged himself. {1. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvâna. lamentation. Sir. such a soul as you describe. has the soul attained. [37] But whensoever the soul. in this visible world. And why not? Because inasmuch as that state involves reasoning and investigation it is stamped as being gross. as opposed to domanassa. II. in this visible world. has the soul attained. Sir.} {p. the soul. by the previous dying away both of joys and griefs has entered into and abides in the Fourth Ghâna{1}--a state made pure by self-possession and equanimity. then. enters into and abides in the First Ghâna. to the highest Nirvâna. And grief. the state of joy and ease. Sir. 'To him another says: "There is. Sir. of a living being. dukha. 25. without reflection or investigation. by putting away ease. brethren. a state of elevation of mind. Sir. in this visible world." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. without pain arid without ease--then. the soul. But whensoever. mental. Sir. On parikâreti compare V.' and so enters into and abides in the Third Ghâna--then. And why not? Because inasmuch as that state involves a constant dwelling of the mind on the ease it has enjoyed it is stamped as gross. born of seclusion. 'In this visible world' means in whatever world the particular soul happens to be at the time. 12') explains Nirvâna as the suppression of pain. and experiences in the body that ease of which the Arahats speak (when they say) 'the man serene and thoughtful dwells at ease. has the soul attained. 51} 23. has the soul attained. internal calm of heart. in this visible world. That I do not deny. accompanied by reflection. And why not? Because inasmuch as that state involves the sense of joy. in the visible world.' 'All its functions' is added from the Commentary. But the soul does not by that alone attain to the highest Nirvâna. 'These. 22." Thus do some maintain the complete happiness. to the highest Nirvâna. [38] But whensoever. in the visible world. being bodily. Sir. born of serenity. of a living being.

knowledge of a Tathâgata.] [40] 32. setting forth that other. 44. setting forth that other. for which alone he can be rightly praised. There is none beside. above p. who when a question is put to them on this or that resort.] [39] 29. 'These. brethren.{1. above p. all of them.' These four. whose speculations are concerned with the future. 'Of these. the only modification introduced in Buddhism being the omission of the 'souls. are the recluses and Brahmans who arrange the future. and who in sixty-two ways put forward propositions with regard to the past and to the future. and who on forty-four grounds put forward various assertions regarding the future. setting forth that other. [Repetition of § 40. and arrange the future. The very words used are identical. knowledge of a Tathâgata. are the recluses and Brahmans who reconstruct the past. all of them. make up the right Attainments (Samâpattiyo). whose speculations are concerned with both. 44. And those who do so. knowledge of a Tathâgata. 44. brethren. do so in one or other of these forty-four ways. 30. often mentioned in the Gâtaka commentary as practised by pre-Buddhistic recluses. The text shows that the four Ghânas were regarded by the early Buddhists as older than Buddhism. who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are partly eternal and partly not: (3) those who are Extensionists.] 27. and those who do so. 'These. There is none beside. 26.} {p. together with the four Arûpa Vimokhas (see note on § 19). who in four ways maintain that the soul and the world are eternal: (2) those who are Semi-eternalists. There is none beside. brethren. for which alone he can be rightly praised. higher. 28. [Repetition of § 40. those recluses and Brahmans who are Eternalists. higher. do so in one or other of these sixty-two ways. [Repetition of § 40. for which alone he ean be rightly praised. who in four ways maintain the infinity or the finiteness of the world: (4) those who are Eel-wrigglers. all of them. or who do both. above p. 52} so. higher. in four . do so in one or other of these five ways.

in this visible world. sorrow. and from rebirth comes death. from the tendency to become arises rebirth. on the worry and writhing consequent thereon{1}. lamentation. It is. [41. receive those sensations through continual contact in the spheres of touch. pain. on account of the craving arises the fuel (that is. [44] 'They. who maintain in seven ways the cutting off. all of them. to equivocation. the annihilation of a living being: (11) those who hold the doctrine of happiness in this life. the basis. of those venerable recluses and Brahmans. who in two ways maintain that the soul and the world arose without a cause: {p. from the fuel results becoming. the food. who in five ways maintain the complete salvation. neither perceive. 42] 'Those opinions of theirs are therefore based upon contact (through the senses). the necessary condition. of a living being-- That opinion of theirs is based only on the personal sensations. [43] 'That they should experience those sensations without such contact. to wriggling like eels: (5) those who are Fortuitous-Originists. who know not. 58 foll. who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is unconscious: (9) those who maintain in eight ways that the soul after death is neither conscious nor unconscious: (10) those who are Annihilationists. 53} (6) those who in any of these eighteen ways reconstruct the past: (7) those who hold the doctrine of a conscious existence after death. of future lives). and grief. 71.ways. who maintain in sixteen ways that the soul after death is conscious: (8) those who hold the doctrine of an unconscious existence after death. . the destruction. To them on account of the sensations arises craving. brethren. and despair. when a brother understands. and are subject to all kinds of craving: 45 foll. such a condition of things could not be.

and wonderful! And what name has this exposition of the truth?' . but they are included in it. stands before you. [46] 73. that which binds it to rebirth has been cut in twain. to avoid repetition. as when a skilful fisherman or fisherlad should drag a tiny pool of water with a fine-meshed net he might fairly think: "Whatever fish of size may be in this pond. 253). 136. they will be included in it. is this. 15-19. I. so long do gods and men behold him. caught in it. the origin and the end. the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: 'Strange. S. 'Just. IV. brethren. 'The outward form. The fourth is put in the form which. beyond the end of his life. brethren. they.' at M. Tathâgata.} {p. brethren. S. 400. flounder about as they may. they are included and caught. 55} 74. brethren. 486. them all{1}. this way and that they plunge about. 381 (Asl. On paritasita compare M. but that which binds it to rebirth is cut in twain. 72. are entrapped in the net of these sixty-two modes.{1. as when the stalk of a bunch of mangoes has been cut. brethren. just so. the Buddha. though the outward form of him who has won the truth stands before you. but they are in it. I have adopted for all the four. [45] 'For whosoever. in this net.'fidgetiness' or 'worry. all the mangoes that were hanging on that stalk go with it. Gât. and the way of escape from the six realms of contact. 495. On the dissolution of the body. III. flounder as they may. neither gods nor men shall see him. 36 na asati paritassati. whether recluses or Brahmans. 54} as they really are. or who are both. I. beyond the end of his life. the danger. 'is not worried at what is not': paritassanâ. beyond. M. When he had thus spoken. the attraction. 'Just. so long do gods and men behold him. On vipphandita. and Mil. of him who has won the truth{2}. everyone will be in this net. 253.' {1. that is the speaker himself. neither gods nor men shall see him. this way and that they may flounder. Dh. and caught"--just so is it with these speculators about the past and the future. Lord. So long as his body shall last. On the dissolution of the body. who put forward various propositions with regard to the past and to the future.} {p. whose speculations are concerned with both. I. 8. are thus reconstructors of the past or arrangers of the future. 2. all of them. In the text the first three of these four propositions are repeated. that he gets to know what is above. So long as his body shall last. of each of the eleven classes of theorisers.

Return to top Next: Introduction to the Sâmañña-phala Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. his Dharma. It is as to the advantage. The question is a larger and wider one than the desirability of any particular injunction. and as the Supreme Net. 56} INTRODUCTION TO THE SÂMAÑÑA-PHALA SUTTA. and as the Net of Theories. Here ends the Brahma-gâla Sutta. from theirs. his ethical and philosophical view of life--the second puts forth his justification for the foundation of the Order. after pointing out the advantages derived from their occupations by a long list of ordinary people in the world. King Agâtasattu of Magadha. derive any corresponding advantage. and glad at heart the brethren exalted his word. The answer is a list of such advantages. visible in this life. asks whether the members of the Order.'Ananda. remember it even as the Glorious Victory in the day of battle!' Thus spake the Blessed One. the practical rules of canon law by which life in the Order is regulated. The Rules themselves are not discussed. each one mentioned being said to be better and sweeter than the one just before described. as to the use. THE first Dialogue deals with the most fundamental conceptions that lay at the root of the Buddha's doctrine. and as the Net of Truth. arranged in an ascending scale of importance. you may remember this exposition as the Net of Advantage. who have given up the world. . It is only certain ethical precepts that are referred to in so many words. And on the delivery of this discourse the thousandfold world-system shook. for the enunciation of the Vinaya. of having any Order at all.

would. be treated with equal respect and courtesy. or the association he had joined. 'The very man whom. whatever the views or opinions he held. in accordance with the remarkable tolerance of that age and country. and gives the six replies he received. The Buddha shows the advantages of the 'life of a recluse. pointed out by the king. especially as compared with the later lists of a similar kind referred to in the notes. visible in this life. And these are not the only instances of the preservation in the Pitakas of ancient dialectical varieties. It is taken for granted. And the introductory story. you would treat as slave or servant--what treatment would you mete out to him after he had joined an Order?' The king confesses that he would treat him as a person worthy of honour and respect. The honour and respect shown to a member of a religious order. The following. The training in all those lower kinds of mere morality set out in the very ancient document called 'The Sîlas. The six paragraphs are short and obscure. in the Introduction to the . which he claims for such a recluse:-- 1. in his turn. And it would be premature to discuss our six paragraphs until the whole of the available evidence is made accessible to scholars. the versions of these six sets of belief are neither adequate nor clear. of social conditions in the Ganges valley at the time when this Dialogue was composed. And neither in question nor answer is there any reference specially to the Buddhist Order.' not necessarily of a follower of his own. is interesting evidence of the views held by the authors of the Dialogue as to beliefs current at the time. But as the works.The list of ordinary occupations given in the question is interesting evidence. both in the Buddhist and in the G ain records. But a number of other references to these six theories are found. takes (as is so often the case) the form of a counter-question. 2. As is the case with the accounts given by early Catholic writers of opinions they held to be heretical. It is noteworthy that in at least two of these answers some of the expressions used seem to be in a Prâkrit differing in dialect from the Pâli of the Pitakas. as pointed out in the notes. And most of what he says would apply as much to his strongest opponents as to the members of his own Order. are the advantages. that any one who had devoted himself to the religious life. The replies are no less interesting from the fact. And the same note runs all through the Dialogue. if any. The answer which the Buddha is represented to have given. 57} speculation they favoured. under ordinary circumstances. that they are not to the point. alike by the Buddha and the king.' The importance of this document has been discussed above. and this is just what we should expect. to the question raised by the king. of all these teachers save one--Nigantha Nâta-putta--have been irretrievably lost. Each of the six teachers goes off into a general statement of his theory instead of answering the question put. in which the king explains how he had put a similar question to the founders of six other orders. the summary here given of their doctrines is of great importance as evidence of the sort of {p. in a constantly ascending order of merit.

Details a-d (though the fact is not referred to here) are the opposites of the three bad acts of the body. Chastity. peacefulness. Abstinence from luxury of twelve different kinds. foretelling famine or plague or the reverse (§ 60). § 63. § 53. § 44. j. Not practising trickery and mystery under the guise.and vakî-dukkaritâni. e. Honesty. § 46. § 64. of twenty-six specified kinds. of which twenty-two are specified. are omitted here because they belong to the higher morality. p. of seven kinds. c. Not frequenting shows.§51. Not using luxurious rugs. and freedom from trickery and violence. The details of it may be summarised here as follows:-a. n. Not playing games. resulting from the consciousness of right doing. of which twenty-seven instances are given. Not laying up treasure. of twenty different kinds. various sorts of medical trickery (§ 62). i. m. advising as to the best sorts of various things (§ 57). § 49. § 43{1}. 4. kâya. or worshipping gods (§ 61). § 48. § 45. and good sense in speech. § 47. . courtesy. and in the Abhidhamma. of religion. prophesying as to war and its results (§ 58). § 54. arranging marriages. such as auguries (§ 56). The three others (of the mind). d. using spells. 58} b. Not gaining a living by low arts. absence of fear. astrology (§ 59). The habit of keeping guarded the door of his senses. so often referred to in the Suttas. h. &c. Not using toilet luxuries.} {p. {1. Not acting as go-between. p. 142. Mercy and kindness to all living things. o. § 52. f. l. and the four bad acts of speech.Brahma-gâla.. 3. The confidence of heart. § 55. Not using sophistical and rude phrases when talking of higher things. Truthfulness. g. § 50. eighteen being mentioned by name. Not talking vain things. Not injuring plants. k. making up the ten given in my manual.

Knowledge of other people's previous births (the Heavenly Eye). ill-temper. 13. The realisation of the Four Truths. or groups of propositions. §§ 83. The practice of Iddhi. or nearly the whole. The five modes of mystic Insight (abhiññâ). §§ 87-96-a. And further. and perplexity. . 84. No. 59} 9. The practice of the Four Ghânas. The emancipation of heart from the Five Hindrances to self-mastery--covetousness. 86. §§ 75-82{1}. Memory of his own previous births. 98. § 75. as a result of the sense of this emancipation. Knowledge of others' thoughts. and attainment of Arahatship. The power of being content with little. of it repeated (with direct reference by name to our Sutta as the oldest and most complete enumeration of it) not only in all the subsequent dialogues translated in this volume. But the things omitted. the way in which they are treated as so many steps of a ladder whose chief value depends on the fact that it leads up to the culminating point of Nirvâna in Arahatship--all this is also distinctively Buddhist. 8. e. must have soaked very thoroughly into the minds of the early Buddhists. it is only the last. The Heavenly Ear-hearing heavenly sounds. the destruction of the Âsavas.5. For we find the whole. §§ 97. the details of it. §§ 85. which is exclusively Buddhist. 7. d. the union of the whole of those included into one system. §§ 68-74. fills his whole being. Now it is perfectly true that of these thirteen consecutive propositions. the order in which the ideas are arranged. 13. 12. worry and flurry. b. The power of projecting mental images. c. the whole statement. {p. § 65. The Insight arising from knowledge (ñâna-dassana). the order of it. 10. The joy and peace that. The constant self-possession he thus gains. § 66. 11. laziness. but also in many others. with simplicity of life. 6.

and the training should be first in morals (our groups 2 and 3) then in the things mentioned in our groups 4-9. Buddhaghosa (p. . 'No. and then in the Four Arûpa Vimokkhas. 183. After rejecting animal sacrifice we have generosity (of various kinds. if they were really implied.} {p. 60} wisdom? The conduct (karana) is all the above paragraphs from 2-9 inclusive. 184. 219) says that though the Four Arûpa Vimokkhas are not explicitly mentioned they are to be understood (thus making up the Eight Samâpattis). the wisdom (viggâ) is the rest. set forth as each of them abetter sacrifice than the last. The Buddha's answer is that it is by training. The answer is a counter-question. In the Kûtadanta the question is as to the right sort of sacrifice. faith. but wisdom and conduct are higher still. In the Sonadanda the question is: 'What is the true Brahman?' After. This may be so: but it looks like a later writer reading his own opinion into the older text. In the Gâliya the question is whether the soul is the same as. In the Potthapâda the question is as to the way in which various recluses attain to mystic trance. They are put into the text at Potthapada. what the right {1. of course. the body. or is other than. omitting our groups 10-13. they are enumerated in support. and the details (so far as they occur) are the same. Kut one or other of the thirteen groups is often omitted. training in the precepts. The Dialogue then takes up other questions. What then is the right conduct. 10-13{1}. and it is difficult to see why they should not have been also inserted here. The Kshatriya caste is the most honourable. pp. these last are explained as above (2-9 and 10-13). or in illustration.' rejoins that neither does he. at the end of each subdivision. of a different proposition. Repeating our sections 2-13 (omitting 11 and 12) the Buddha asks. In the Ambattha the point is as to caste. A comparison of some of these other applications of the list is full of suggestion as to its real meaning here. leading Sonadanda to acknowledge that the only two essential requisites are goodness and intelligence. by his usual Socratic method. and 2-13. and the application of those of them that remain is always different--that is to say. whether men who do that would be likely to trouble themselves as to speculations about the soul? And the answer being.In these repetitions the order is always the same. each better than the last).

disparaging all others. The texts always jump from the last words of 10 to the last words of 13. then omitting groups 1O and 11. 10 and 13 are meant. 11 and 12 are meant. 4. In the Tevigga the question is as to the way by which one can attain to union with God (Brahmâ-sahavyatâ). apparently means to include them (he could not otherwise get eight). after a summary in different words of most of the contents of our group 2. both here and in all the other Suttas. then repeats our groups 6. 7. In the Lohikka the question is as to who is the right sort of teacher. No. But the argument of the Mahâli seems to exclude them. 9. 7. the longer of the Assapuras. and in the Ma . and concludes with group 13 in full. And the Buddha. 38 in the Magghima). and 9. the last two (omitting the first three){2} of the five Abhiññâs in group 12. it is clear that at least there only Nos. and then adds the Four Brahma-vihâras. In the shorter of the two Hatthipadopama Suttas {1. the question discussed between a Brahman and an ascetic is as to the ascendancy of the Buddha over the other teachers of the time. Buddhaghosa. 5. 8. the true samana. and above all for the sake of the attainment of Arahatship. The answer gives our groups 1-8. And there is no difference between tile phraseology in the Mahâli and that used in the other Suttas. 3. and the last two only out of group 12. 27 in the Magghima). and the answer is that it is the one whose pupil carries out our groups 2-13. In the next Sutta. The rest is omitted. to be omitted. then our groups 5. 4. 61} (No. of the two last of the Abhiññâs. 268) of Nos. The wording is ambiguous. Then again in the Sakuludâyi. Besides the differences pointed out above between the Suttas preserved in the Digha. In the Mahâ Tanhâ-sankhaya Sutta (No.} {p. 5.In the Kevaddha the talk is on miracles. who talks here (see p. repeats our group 2 (omitting however clauses f to p inclusive{1}). 7. Possibly Nos. but for the sake of those matters set forth in our groups 2-9 inclusive 3. 9. it is declared to be not for the sake of realising happiness that recluses take up the celibate life in the Order under the Buddha. then 6. quotes two only. 8. calls attention to our groups 2-13. 79 of the Magghima. 3. 8. Now as in the Mahâli No. we have our group 4. mystic powers. and then (as a climax) our group 13--all enumerated to show what is the true Brahman. 10-13 as the Eightfold paññâ. we have the same sequence--our group 2 (omitting f to p). The Buddha himself giving afterwards the full reason. 12 is excluded. then two paragraphs not in our Sutta.

to the divergent traditions of the Digha-bhânakâ and the Magghima-bhânakâ (the students and repeaters of the two collections in which the Dialogues are handed down to us). or in any other Dialogue yet published. previous births. 3. I have called these last three. of hearing heavenly sounds. the power of projecting a mental image (apparently of oneself. are all omitted. the power of hearing heavenly sounds (something like hearing the music of the spheres). that is. 165){2}. And this is in accord with the passages on which Childers's article sub voce is based. as respects those matters. In the abstract given above. and other peoples'. it is clear that the sum and the sequence of the paragraphs in our Sutta is regarded as of {1. 2. From which we may infer that. However this may be. And further that the statement has to be slightly modified and shortened when the question is the narrower one of life in the particular community which we call the Buddhist Order. Magghima II. In the oldest portions of the Pitakas the word is always used in the general sense of insight. amounting to scarcely more than 'various readings. 99. The difference is interesting--in the scheme for the Buddhist Order the ñâna-dassana. The use of the word abhiññâ in this technical sense would seem therefore (to judge from the published texts) to be a sign of the later date of the book in which it occurs{1}. The Eightfold Path is not mentioned in our Sutta. or of Buddhist philosophy. and the power of knowing the thoughts of others. not only the Buddhist. 37. and if any special limitation is hinted at. They are included in our Sutta because they are supposed to be part of the advantage of life in an Order--in any Order. he saw no difference between himself and the other teachers.gghima. the powers of Iddhi. the Five Abhiññâs. No. I think. 38. and is quoted also at Anguttara I. it is simply the insight of Arahatship that is emphasised (as in Dhammapada 423. or of the Buddhist religion. respectively--differences due. which seems like the earliest germ of the modern Yoga ideas about the astral body). however. are apparently supposed to be common ground between the Buddhists and the other sects. Perhaps the pe is meant to be supplied from the twenty-seventh Sutta just quoted--the difference. not as a statement of Buddliist ethics. and of knowing other people's thoughts. So that the power of Iddhi. solely to the difference in the subjects under discussion--there are also a few verbal differences. together with the power of calling to mind one's own. as we have seen. is not of great importance. 62} great importance.' due.} {p. which is a quotation from Iti-Vuttaka. or Intuitions. but as a statement of the advantages that may be looked for as the result of life in an Order. perhaps. But these powers are not so called either in our text. This is not merely because it is not possible always to .

to bear in mind that there are (and must be in such a system) several different lines along which both speculation and edifying teaching run. §§ 6-11) in the same words as in the Âkan kheyya Sutta.} {p. to walk along it. 2.) In the first of these Buddhism goes very little beyond the current ethics of the day. is not peculiar to members of the Order. both . 348).mention {1. in order to understand Buddhist ethics. 3. IV. And this is the more instructive as what were afterwards called the Six Abhiññâs are actually given in full (IV. II. 277. 451. III. The oldest case of the technical use of the word. But they are not called Abhiññâs. open also to laymen{1}. Of this our present Sutta is a striking example. These are: 1. 277. Neither the Five nor the Six Abhiññâs are given as groups among the groups of Fives and Sixes in the An guttara. The word Abhiññâ is used in the divisions containing the Fives and Sixes exclusively in its ordinary sense (III. (No. The rules as to the outward conduct of the members of the Order. and very nearly as in our Sutta. (The Four Truths. 3. than the Pâtimokkha itself. I. of course. and the Âsavas. A bhikshu might reach the goal either along that path. comp. 4. The course of conduct laid down for the ordinary Buddhist layman. 6 of the Magghima. and this again is later. This is later than the Old Commentary on the Pâtimokkha. They are two quite distinct methods of training. III. is in the introductory story of the Mahâ Vibhanga on the fourth Pârâgika (Vin. from which it incorporates many passages. 100. 2. so far as I know. the Eightfold Path. Compare also A. laid down in the Pâtimokkha and in the Khandhakas{3}. or by the process set out in our Sutta. To enter upon the Path to Arahatship. 63} everything. contained in the Gahapati-vaggas found in the various nikâyas{2}. The Path does not come within the special advantages of life in the Order. 87). 17-19. 249. The method of self-training laid down for those who have entered upon the Path to Arahatship. of which our Sutta deals only with one It is essential. The system of self-training in higher things prescribed for members of the Order. 9. In the second a very great deal has been simply incorporated from the rules found expedient by previous recluses. here under discussion. translated in my 'Buddhist Suttas').

And further on in the same book (IV. 272) the object is stated to be for the sake of getting rid of five particular sorts of envy.Brahman and non-Brahman. Again. 6. than it would be to sum up in a similar way the aim of Christianity. if such were needed. {1. 51) the Buddha himself is represented as explaining that the celibate life (the brahma-kariyâ){1} is led by his followers for the sake of the complete understanding of pain (dukkha-pariññâ). of the various things set out in our Sutta (groups 2-9. with the suggestive addition that there is one way to this. that it is no more possible to sum up in a single phrase (as some writers have tried to do) the aim of Buddhism. pp. in the Anguttara (IV. Even the third. cannot be considered. 2. some because they were harassed by debt. 12 and 13). E. or the object of life in the Order. 3. the relation of its various parts has to be kept constantly in view. 143 foll. as exclusively Buddhist. or the object for which men enter a Christian Order. But to understand the whole. B. The argument on pp. 64} Now in other passages other things are stated to be the aim. And Nâgasena does not hesitate to add--and to add in speaking to a king--that some had joined the Order in terror at the tyranny of kings. both of the positive regulations included. Thus in the Samyutta (IV. 253 = V.). The aims are necessarily as various as the character and circumstances of the various individuals who take them up. All four have. For a list of twenty-one laymen Arahats see A. and there are other instances recorded. 88. as we have seen. to wit. 451. It is in the fourth that the essential doctrines of Buddhism are to be found. some in fear of robbers. 7) the higher life is said to be for the sake of getting rid of. The last Sutta quoted.} {p. of cutting through. is the attainment. an abstract of which is given in my Manual. They are not really inconsistent with the other aim that our Sutta sets out. And they are only additional proof. though there are numerous differences. and in another place that it is to the end that sorrow may pass away{3}. This will explain an apparent contradiction. All these explanations belong to the Path. Further on in the same book (VI. and also of things deliberately omitted. except in a very limited sense. 99 (though the word brahma-kariyâ does not occur) comes to much the same thing. states that the aim of the religious or celibate life as led in the Buddha's Order. the Sakuludâyi. seven Bonds which prevent one from attaining Arahatship. 27) this is three times repeated. in order. the Noble Eightfold Path. III. A good summary of this is in the Sigâlovada Sutta. not to the rules of the Order. Translated in 'Vinaya Texts' (S. Nâgasena is therefore quite right when he says that the object of renouncing the world to live in the Order is for the sake of righteousness and peace{2}. become welded together into a more or less consistent whole. and some . no doubt.

] [47] I. 'the best course of life' with the connotation of celibacy. Agâtasattu. The German 'Wandel' is a good rendering of Kariyâ. of course. on the Uposatha day. 31 (of my translation). compare I. with a great company of the brethren. I. That is. and of . 2. 17. 101. are full of mistakes which the since-published editions of the Commentary. and Burnouf's translation of the whole of it. of remarkable merit for the time when they were made. 3. Gogerly's translation of the first part of this Sutta. See Samyutta V. Ibid.' These versions.perhaps merely to gain a livelihood. This also would apply to other Orders both in India and elsewhere. the son of the Videha princess{3}. {1. We have no expression so good. which only purports to set forth the advantages the early Buddhists held to be the likely results of joining. The Blessed One was once dwelling at Râgagaha in the Mango Grove of G îvaka the children's physician{2}. 65} II. SÂMAÑÑA-PHALA SUTTA. with twelve hundred and fifty of the brethren. on Komudi (white {1. from whatever motive. have been reprinted in Grimblot's 'Sept Suttas Palis. 16.} Return to top Next: II. Now at that time the king of Magadha. held on the fifteenth. and is quite consistent with our Sutta. such an Order as their own. Thus have I heard. Sâmañña-phala Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. Milinda I. [THE FRUITS OF THE LIFE OF A RECLUSE{1}. 51.

friends. shall be able to satisfy our hearts{2}?' 2. in which the present translation differs from theirs. Buddhaghosa (Sum. who has long been a recluse. Several cures. Sire. Let . of a following. occurring indeed in nearly every sentence. 139) says she was the daughter of the king of Kosala. when we call upon him.numerous allied texts. a man of experience. a religieux.' p. saying: 'How pleasant. Buddhaghosa (p. 133) naturally follows the compilers of the Khandakas (V. 3. 66} water-lily). 1. the teacher of a school. who.} {p.' But see the note at 'Vinaya Texts. friends.' 2. I. He renders it throughout as meaning 'foreseen and general fruit' which is grammatically impossible as regards sanditthikam. There is no other reference at all to his being a child-doctor. gave utterance to a hymn of joy. is the moonlight night! How lovely.' II. however. and the patients are always adults. being a samana. was seated on the upper terrace roof of his palace surrounded by his ministers. a certain minister said to the king: 'There is. when the moon was full. the full moon day of the fourth month{1}. enable us now to avoid. 'samanaship. This last word means. old and well stricken in years. however. living as a samana. is the moonlight night! How soothing. 269) in interpreting the adjective as 'brought up by the Prince. It should be mentioned here. And the king. wrought by him are recorded. friends. is the moonlight night! How beautiful. the head of an order. I. Pûrana Kassapa. well known and of repute as a sophist. friends. which shows that the more likely meaning is 'the bringer-up of children' (child-doctor). Gîvakassa komârabhakkassa. is the moonlight night! How grand a sign. at night. a recluse. revered by the people. and rests on a false derivation as regards sâmañña. When he had thus spoken. 174. on that sacred day. See the note in my 'Buddhist Suttas. friends. of course. I have not thought it necessary to point out the numerous passages. is the moonlight night! 'Who is the recluse or Brahman whom we may call upon to-night. that Burnouf has missed the whole point of the dialogue by misunderstanding the constantly repeated phrase sanditthikam sâmañña-phalam from which this title is taken. and the Khandaka which gives the other interpretation is a very ancient document.

105. Sire!' said Gîvaka the physician in assent to the words of the king. with twelve hundred and fifty brethren. the etymology of which puzzled Childers and also Buddhaghosa (p.' but compare D. your heart. on calling upon him. that is. Both Gogerly and Burnouf take this to mean 'to a certainty. II. and he went forth. but in a different order.' Then the king had five hundred of his women mounted on the she-elephants.your Majesty pay a visit to him. not far from Agâtasattu the king. 179. friend Gîvaka. 14th. shall find peace. of Pakudha Kakkâyana. 3-7. Sire. friend Gîvaka. for the compilers of our Sutta.' 'Then. is gyotsnâ. with the rainy season. 3. and himself mounted the state elephant. 10. to each. V. the attendants bearing torches. from Râgagaha to G îvaka the physician's Mango Grove. abounding In wisdom and goodness. 85. And this is the good report that has been noised abroad as to Gotama the Blessed One: "An Arahat. of Sañgaya of the Belattha clan. and had word brought to the king: 'The elephants. with knowledge of the worlds. on calling upon him. I. The same lines recur. in royal pomp. is the exalted One. Sire. 67} 8. 262. and the state elephant the king was wont to ride. your heart. Dosinâ. [48] of Agita of the garment of hair. the all-awakened-one. with a great company of the brethren. Sire. the teacher of gods and men. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. 205. Appeva nâma. The full moon night of Kattika (middle of October to middle of Novemher) is called Komudi (from Kumuda. It may well be{3} that. 'Very good. Sire. and of the Nigantha of the Nâta clan. I. have the riding-elephants made ready. was seized with a sudden fear and .' But when he had thus spoken Agâtasattu the king kept silence. a blessed Buddha. began in Sâvana (middle of July to middle of August). in silence. why do you say nothing?' 'The Blessed One.'-- 9. on the 7th. and 15th day of the month. This is interesting. one on each. shall find peace. a white water-lily)." Let your Majesty pay a visit to him. Do now what seemeth to you meet. There were three Uposatha days in each month. 141). Burnouf is wrong in translating Komudi as the name of the month. because that flower is supposed to bloom then. are caparisoned. And the king. And still. And he had five hundred she-elephants made ready. when close upon the Mango Grove. {1. the Arahat. [49] Now at that time Gîvaka the physician was seated. It may well be that. 2. And the king said to him: 'But you. fully awakened. at Gât. happy. Then other five ministers spake in the same terms of Makkhali of the cow-pen.} {p. Agâtasattu the king kept silence. as it shows that the year. is now lodging in our Mango Grove.

to the door of the pavilion. arithmeticians. And as he stood there and looked on the assembly. basket-makers. Then the king went up. warriors in buckskin. camp followers.' 12. bath attendants. and stretching forth his joined palms in salutation to the Order took his seat aside. and the hairs on his body stood erect. champions. Then the king bowed to the Blessed One. cooks. 'There are. he said to Gîvaka: [50] 'You are playing me no tricks. the lamps are burning. O king. Sir. 68} go straight on! There. he broke out: 'Would that my son. seated in perfect silence. and then said to Gîvaka: 'But where. barbers. garland-makers. among twelve hundred and fifty of the brethren?' 'Fear not. heroes.' 11. calm as a clear lake. is the Blessed One?' 'That is he. and facing the East. confectioners. washermen.' 14. men brave as elephants. accountants. might have such calm as this assembly of the brethren now has!' 'Do your thoughts then go where love guides them?' 'I love the boy. Then the king went on. and whatsoever others of like kind there may be. in so large an assembly of the brethren. and then on foot. if he give me opportunity to set forth the question. Gîvaka? You are not deceiving me? You are not betraying me to my foes? How can it be that there should be no sound at all. Go on. Gîvaka. All . in the pavilion hall. sitting against the middle pillar. standard bearers. horsemen. and wish that he. O king. with the brethren around him. Udâyi Bhadda. {p. Udâyi Bhadda. And anxious and excited. home-born slaves. and stood respectfully on one side. [51] and said to the Blessed One: 'I would fain question the Blessed One on a certain matter.' 13. O king. O king. on his elephant as far as the path was passable for elephants. high military officers of royal birth. neither deceive you. camp marshalls. not a sneeze nor a cough. whatsoever you desire. I play no trick.consternation. archers. nor would I betray you to the foe. might enjoy such calm as this assembly has. weavers.' 'Ask. military scouts{1}. charioteers. potters. a number of ordinary crafts:--mahouts.

If with a discus with an edge sharp as {1. or highway robbery.' 16. to him who mutilates or causes another to mutilate. if you do not mind. Sir. to him who trembles or causes others to tremble. "Once I went to Pûrana Kassapa{2}. They maintain themselves. the object of which is gain on high. in happiness and comfort. declare to me any such immediate fruit. in a later and much longer list). to the craftsmen just mentioned) in this world. O king. 69} these enjoy. to him thus acting there is no guilt. They all recur. 331. Can you. I seated myself beside him. to him who punishes or causes another to punish. .} {p. 'rushers forth. are. who commits dacoity. or others like him. such a result (of their actions) as foreseen and as the general fruit of their conduct?' But the king asks the Buddha to tell him (the king himself) whether the members of the Order derive from their lire any benefit corresponding to that which the craftsmen derive from theirs. in the Milinda (p. in this very world. and their parents and children and friends. that redound to happiness. or causes another to act. or who speaks lies. of the life of a recluse{1}?' 15. or adultery. with some differences of reading. 107). and also in the Anguttara (IV. and put to him the same question as I have now put. visible in this very world. He has 'Is it then possible. the visible fruits of their craft. and have bliss as their result. who breaks into houses. Pakkhandino. Burnouf has made a sad mess of this important and constantly repeated clause. Sir. 'Then Pûrana Kassapa said to me: "To him who acts. And after exchanging with him the greetings and compliments of friendship and courtesy. that one should declare to them (that is. to him who causes grief or torment. and was apparently uncertain to Buddhaghosa. O king.--gifts that lead to rebirth in heaven.' 'Then tell us how they answered it. 17. or robbery. to him who kills a living creature. that you have put the same question to other recluses or to Brahmans?' 'I do. Lord.' 'I have no objection where the Blessed One. to you.' The exact meaning of some of these military terms is still uncertain.' [52] 'Then speak.{1. O king. 'Do you admit to us. who takes what is not given. to recluses and Brahmans. They keep up gifts. as the names of the constituent elements of a standing army. Lord.

' Burnouf has simply 'm'a donné une réponse vaine. when asked what a mango was. expound his theory of non-action{1}. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. 235. for the depravity of beings. in speaking truth there is neither merit. Just. I arose from my seat. or more senses). by the necessary . There is no such thing as power or energy.} {p. did Pûrana Kassapa. does not depend either on one's own acts.' But the corresponding word in the subsequent sections summarises the theory of the teacher questioned. Lord. Akiriyam vyâkâsi. either proximate or remote. Lord. should explain what a bread fruit is. of any character. and ordering gifts to be given. The attainment of any given condition. I. it occurred to me: "How should such a one as I think of giving dissatisfaction to any recluse or Brahman in my realm?" So I neither applauded nor blamed what he said. nor increase of merit. 'When one day I had thus asked Makkhali of the cow-pen{1}. On this theory compare A. 62. Were he to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving alms. no increase of guilt would ensue. [53] In generosity. 2. ['In the same manner I went to five other teachers. there would be no merit thence resulting. expound his theory of non-action. and though dissatisfied I gave utterance to no expression of dissatisfaction. All animals. and neither accepting nor rejecting that answer of his. According to Buddhaghosa (p. they become pure without reason and without cause. 142) he was one of the teachers who went about naked. as if a man. mutilating and having men mutilated. one mass. in control of the senses. two. 513 foll. all beings (produced from eggs or in a womb).} {p. Were he to go along the south bank of the Ganges striking and slaying. of the life of a recluse. of flesh. no increase of merit. oppressing and having men oppressed. in self-mastery. they become depraved without reason and without cause. O king. And the answers of the five were thus:]{2} {1. and receiving to this same question put an answer not to the point. They are bent this way and that by their fate. Lord. 71} 20. V. all souls (in plants){2} are without force and power and energy of their own.2. just so did Pûrana Kassapa." Thus. I. Only the answers differ. and departed thence. offering sacrifices or causing them to be offered. I behaved in each case as just set forth. 70} a razor he should make all the living creatures on the earth one heap. 19. he said: "There is. There is no cause. when asked what was the fruit. all creatures (with one. or on the acts of another. there would be no guilt thence resulting. Then. The answers all recur in the Magghima I. or on human effort. either ultimate or remote. in this present state of being. for the rectitude of beings. Gogerly interprets this 'he replied by affirming that there are no future rewards and punishments. In the text the framework of the interview is repeated each time in the same words as above. there would be no guilt thence resulting. no increase of guilt would ensue. no cause. or human strength or human vigour.

: and in the Appendixes. forty-nine hundred sorts of occupation{3}. The explanation is very confused. IV. There are five hundred sorts of Karma. with a measure. wandering in transmigration. 33. The ease and pain. See also Gât. 291. This is much better. S. there . {1. and of great lakes. 2. every living thing. 'There is a good deal in both the Buddhist and the Gain texts about this Makkhali Gosâla. 8. As the sect is thrice mentioned in the Asoka Edicts as receiving royal gifts it is certain that it retained an important position for several centuries at least. 82. in our version. 68. but we have. 398. and there is a whole Karma and a half Karma (the whole being a Karma of act or word. Though the wise should hope: 'By this virtue or this performance of duty. showing how they are meant to include all that has life. the half a Karma of thought). V. 209. Buddhaghosa gives details of these four classes of living beings. by their individual nature: and it is according to their position in one or other of the six classes that they experience ease or pain. sabbe gîvâ. 74. every insect. '"There are eighty-four hundred thousand periods during which both fools and wise alike. 68.' II. III. from the Buddhist point of view. cannot be altered in the course of transmigration. III. V. on this earth. 516. seven sorts of animate and seven of inanimate production. mature'--though the fool should hope. and Professor Jacobi renders them accordingly 'Every sentient being. as the worst of the sophists. I. seven sorts of gods. Sabbe sattâ. and again six thousand others. and again five (according to the five senses). III.' pp. forty-nine hundred sorts of wandering mendicants. 'Inscriptions de Piyadasi. 72} [54] '"There are fourteen hundred thousands of the principal sorts of birth. two thousand faculties. The principal Pitaka passages are M. and who was regarded. See Senart. and makes the terms by no means mutually exclusive. I. six classes (or distinctions among men){1}. 198. whose followers were called Âgîvakas. IV. 'Uvâsaka dasâo. by the same means. and again six hundred. and seven of production by grafting. to give the sense in whjch the Buddhists supposed Gosâla to have taken the words.' II. 211. or this righteousness will I make the Karma (I have inherited). p. 165. thirty-six places where dust accumulates. sixty-two periods. sabbe bhûtâ. 238. They are frequently used in the same order in the Gaina-Sûtras. II. 250. and again three (according to act. shall at last make an end of pain.conditions of the class to which they belong. that is not yet mature. as it were. and also Buddhaghosa here. and of dreams. '"There are sixty-two paths (or modes of conduct). to get gradually rid of Karma that has matured--neither of them can do it. 524. three thousand purgatories. 211. and of devils. 31. forty-nine hundred regions dwelt in by Nâgas. 483.} {p. and the first part of the answer is ascribed at ibid. from men down to plants. 384. 130. and of men. 66. are referred to by Hoernle. A. 286. word. 108 foll. From the beginning of the answer down to the end of p. Some of the Gaina passages. I. and seven principal and again seven hundred minor sorts of Pakutas{4} of precipices. I. xxv. measured out. 53 recurs at S. 276. or this penance. 69. 284. 212. I. 69 to Pûrana Kassapa. and the rest of it at ibid.' 'Gaina-Sutras. and thought). 493 and G. whether animal or vegetable. eight stages of a prophet's existence{2}. sabbe pânâ. 111.

and in vigg . who walk perfectly. but the Gâtaka Commentary on Gât. Arahatship. but there his bones are bleached. 'When. When he dies the earthy in him returns and relapses to the earth. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. 213: and that of Pûrana Kassapa quoted in Anguttara III. 2. 1215. than it can unwind. vol. '"A human being is built up of the four elements. make an end of pain. O king. erect time. M. and his faculties{3} pass into space. 305 says it means the man who has attained the highest fruit. I. trial time. 73} can be neither increase nor decrease thereof. 383. There is no such thing as this world or the next. {1. the heat to the fire. and prostrate time' with (very necessary) comments on each. and no farther. I had thus asked Agita of the garment of hair. expound his theory of purification through transmigration. Buddhaghosa gives the details 'babyhood. The Siamese edition reads âgîvaka. he said{1}: "There is no such thing. learning time. Gato is used here in the same sense as it has in Tathâgato. as alms or sacrifice or offering. as the view of a typical sophist. Buddhaghosa gives here no explanation of this word. make their wisdom known to others. playtime. and only then. 515 (compare Dh. by themselves alone. but don't know what it means. ascetic time. 1362. neither excess nor deficiency. 2. Just as when a ball of string is cast forth it will spread out just as far. III. I think this is the right reading. Sammag-gato. There are in the world no recluses or Brahmans who have reached the highest point{2}. ii. the windy to the air. shall then. 307. and who having understood and realised. till they reach the burning-ground men utter forth eulogies. The four bearers. on the bier as a fifth. III.{1. both this world and the next. 4. Lord. There is neither father nor mother.} {p. S. did Makkhali of the cow-pen. nor beings springing into life without them. take his dead body away. 1364). This answer recurs S. [55] 23.' 3." 'Thus. Âgîva. the fluid to the water. wandering in transmigration exactly for the allotted term. There is neither fruit nor result of good or evil deeds. Compare the corresponding theory of the Gains as given in the Uttarâdhyâyana Sûtra in Jacobi's G aina-Sûtras. that is. p. prophet time. one day. in gatatto (in the Nigantha paragraph below). One may compare Shakepere's 'Seven Ages of Man. just so both fools and wise alike.

one day. I had thus asked Pakudha Kakkâyana. It is an empty lie. [56] 26." 'Thus. neither created nor caused to be created. 3. 733. of his aim) Yatatto (whose heart is kept down. but has actually reached. one day. a sword has only penetrated into the interval between seven elementary substances. 'When. 743).} {p. the Nigantho (free from bonds). are neither made nor commanded to be made. called Gatatto (whose heart has gone. all evil has he washed away. See Buddhavamsa XXVII. Fools and wise alike. who has not only attempted to go to. Such is his fourfold self-restraint. The phrase is omitted in the parallel passage in the Gaina 'Sûtrakriânga' pointed out by Jacobi. did Pakudha Kakkâyana. did Agita of the garment of hair. and the soul as a seventh. he said: "The following seven things. 'Gaina-Sûtras. mere idle talk.' II. Lord. no one thereby deprives any one of life." . the five senses. they trench not one upon another. therefore is he. thinkers and recluses) of the conquest over ignorance. and pain. dissenting. nor avail aught as to ease or pain or both. and he lives suffused with the sense of evil held at bay. hearer or speaker. and after death they are not. to the attainment.} {p. When one with a sharp sword cleaves a head in twain. Kathâ Vatthu 550. expound the matter by expounding something else. 'When. are cut off. [57] 28. 74} and his offerings{1} end in ashes. I had thus asked the Nigantha of the Nâta clan. And what are the seven? The four elements--earth. he said: "A Nigantha. that is. they are barren (so that nothing is produced out of them). and Thitatto (whose heart is fixed){1}.â-gato (S. So there is neither slayer nor causer of slaying. when men say there is profit therein." 'Thus. Indriyâni. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. is restrained with a fourfold self-restraint. annihilated. xxiv. 10. O king (a man free from bonds}. Lord. water. neither do they vary. 730. expound his theory of annihilation. is under command). that is. restrained as regards all evil. knower or explainer. the aim (common alike to the orthodox Vedântist Brahmans and to each of the various schools of independent. stedfast as a mountain peak. 75} bond. Âhutiyo. and the mind as a sixth. They move not. of the grasp of truth. and air-and ease. N. that is. O king. fire. as a pillar firmly fixed. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. on the dissolution of the body. It is a doctrine of fools. to the summit. He lives restrained as regards all water. this talk of gifts. And since he is thus tied with this fourfold {1.

34. [58] 31. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. such as those who follow each of the occupations I have mentioned are. as to all the others. Professor Jacobi ('Gaina-Sûtras. [60] 35. and departed thence{1}. if I thought there were. 'Thus. 'When. The first of the 'Four Restraints' is the well-known rule of the Gains not to drink cold water. but neither accepting nor {1. of the life of a recluse. for these vows were quite different. O king. See the discussion in the Milinda (II. did Sañgaya of the Belattha clan. O king. I had thus asked Sañgaya of the Belattha clan. And I don't think it is otherwise. and it gives no idea of the oracular form in which the original is couched. Burnouf's rendering is quite wide of the mark. but his version is very free. But this surely cannot be so. 'Now what do you think.} {p. I expressed neither approval nor dissatisfaction. But I don't say so. xxiii) thinks the 'Four Restraints' are intended to represent the four vows kept by the followers of Parsva. expound his theory of the fourfold bond. And I don't say there neither is. of good or bad actions. Suppose among the people of your household there were a slave who does work for you. And I don't deny it. The series of riddles in this difficult passage is probably intended to be an ironical imitation of the Nigantha's way of talking. able tO show?' 'I can. 27 of the text) into the mouth of the Eel-wriggler.'Thus. 2. on the ground that there are 'souls' in it. And I don't think it is thus or thus.' II. Answer it as you may think most fit. and wrong as to two of the words. rises up in the morning before you do and retires later to rest. Gogerly has caught the general sense fairly enough. Can you show me any immediate fruit. 85-91 of my translation). did the Nigantha of the Nâta clan. I would say so. any result. when asked what was the immediate advantage in the life of a recluse. 76} rejecting what was said. nor is not. he said: "If you ask me whether there is another world--well. Lord. or not." [59] 33. another world. who is keen . The text repeats the whole paragraph put above (p. And if you ask me about the beings produced by chance. each of them. Lord. 'And now. after death--to each or any of these questions do I give the same reply{2}. Lord. And to hint. or whether a man who has won the truth continues. And to that end I would fain put a question to you. one day. I arose from my seat. I put the same question to the Blessed One. or whether there is any fruit. show his manner of prevarication. in this world.

anxious to make himself agreeable in what. content with mere food and shelter. and a lodging place. And we should order watch and ward and guard to be kept for him according to the law. Lord. And we should have robes and a bowl. saying: "If it please your majesty. But the king lives in the full enjoyment and possession of the five pleasures of sense--a very god. who worked for you. or set it out in a manner intelligible to Western readers. visible in this world. O king. 'Nay. "Strange is it and wonderful. Suppose he should think. The theory of Pakudha seems to exclude responsibility. which I maintained to arise from the . or is there not. working for him. and Sañgaya gives no answer at all. Agita.' 'This then. and work for me"?' 36. in preaching annihilation at death. visible in this world. after a time. the Nigantha simply begs the question. is the first kind of the fruit. rather should we greet him with reverence [61].to carry out your pleasure. that is so. and dwells restrained. But no attempt has yet been made to summarise it. watching his very looks. this issue of meritorious deeds. delighting in solitude. a man who watches your every look. the son of the Videha princess--he is a man. Of these six teachers Pûrana denies the evil Karma in a bad act and vice versa. The only one of these six theories of life on which independent evidence is at present accessible is that of the Nigantha (the Gain theory). rising before him and retiring later to rest. content with mere food and shelter. Why should not I have my hair and beard shaved off.} {p. and so on (all as before) has now donned the yellow robes. methinks--and here am I a slave. of the life of a recluse?' 'Certainly. and beg him to accept of them. let him become a slave again. Agâtasattu. and going forth from the household state. by asserting that a Nigantha has attained the end. Would that I were like him. and press him to be seated. is there. formerly your slave. should dwell restrained in act and word and thought. renounce the world?" And suppose. It is very much to be hoped that this want may soon be supplied by one or other of the excellent scholars familiar with the texts. anxious to make myself agreeable in deed and word. Lord. do you know that such a one. shuts out the possibility of any effect to be worked by Karma. he does and says. That being so.' 'But what do you think. he should do so. delighting in solitude?" Would you then say: "Let the man come back. keen to carry out his pleasure. this result of merit! Here is this king of Magadha. And suppose your people should tell you of this. {1. and Makkhali rejects both Karma and its effect. 77} and don the yellow robes. and rise up from our seat out of deference towards him. And having been admitted into an Order. that I too might earn merit. and has been admitted into an Order. O king. some fruit. and medicine for the sick--all the requisites of a recluse--made ready. and so am I.

in all its purity. 'Can you. 'A householder{2} or one of his children. O king.--including the worlds above of the gods. forsaking his portion of wealth. But it seems more in accord with the next paragraph to refer them to the life. Lord. O king. Give ear therefore. and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans. Free as the air is the life of him who has renounced all worldly things.]' [62] 39. to the end of § 36. a fully awakened one. a teacher for gods and men. face to face this universe. 'Can you. be it great or small. The truth. of the life of a reclase. or a man of inferior birth in any class listens to that truth. by himself. &c. [as before. and the Maras. happy.--and having known it. and let me go forth from the household life into the homeless state. visible in this world. a Blessed One. 'Suppose. a householder. the case now put being that of a free man who cultivates his land. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. lovely in its progress. of the life of a recluse?' 'I can. . O king. thoroughly knows and sees. he considers thus within himself: '"Full of hindrances is household life. he cuts off his hair and beard. He. who knows all worlds. abounding in wisdom and goodness. lovely in its consummation. Buddhaghosa applies these last two adjectives to the truth. be they many or be they few. both in the spirit and in the letter. who pays taxes and thus increases the king's wealth. show me any other fruit. as it were. doth he proclaim. he makes his knowledge known to others. {1. And to that end I would fain put a question. he clothes himself in the orange-coloured robes. and give good heed. Lord. visible in this world. the Brahmas. 78} 'I can. 41. lovely in its origin. a path for the dust of passion. but gives up his little property and his position in his clan. the higher life doth he make known. let me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes. there appears in the world one who has won the truth. How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home to live the higher life in all its fullness." 'Then. a fruit higher and sweeter than these?' {p.life of a recluse. show me any other fruit.' 37. O king. and when he is possessed of that faith. its princes and peoples. and I will speak. before long. in all its bright perfection! Let me then cut off my hair and beard. a Buddha. and on hearing it he has faith in the Tathâgata (the one who has found the truth). 40. not to the life. an Arahat. forsaking his circle of relatives. and enters an Order. in all its fullness and in all its purity{1}.

and ashamed of roughness. a sense of ease without alloy. whose enemies have been beaten down. that the Bhikshu becomes righteous. 424-6. and full of mercy. holds aloof from the destruction of life. O king. that the Bhikshu. O king. I think. And endowed with this body of morals. he dwells compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life. Just. [70] that is.] [69] 63.' 2. so is the Bhikshu confident. 64. and trains himself in. 'And how. is the Bhikshu guarded as to the doors of his senses{2}?' {1. being thus master of the minor moralities. that is. duly crowned. 463-4. ryot. I. putting away the killing of living things. so far as concerns his self-restraint in conduct. good is his conduct. O king. within himself. O king. 180. and he sees danger in the least of those things he should avoid. Pure are his means of livelihood. sees no danger from any side. §§ 8 to 27. On the following important and constantly repeated paragraph compare M. 43. 79} and he goes forth from the household life into the homeless state. 'And how. 'When he has thus become a recluse he lives self-restrained by that restraint that should be binding on a recluse{1}.} . 367. 268. Uprightness is his delight. so worthy of honour. guarded the door of his senses. sees no danger from any side. Pâtimokkha-samvara-samvuto. the precepts. O king. Thus is it. [Here follow the whole of the Sîlas (the paragraphs on minor morality).2. V. so far as enemies are concerned. He encompasses himself with good deeds in act and word. which Buddhaghosa takes here in the sense of peasant.. he experiences. Gahapati. Only for 'Gotama the recluse' one should read 'the Bhikshu'. as a sovereign. 'And then that Bhikshu.} {p. and alter in each case the words of the refrain accordingly. 42. The cudgel and the sword he has laid aside. Mil. 400. He adopts. &c. Buddhaghosa. in the words already translated above in the Brahma-gâla Sutta. Asl. is his conduct good? 'In this. Mindful and self-possessed he is altogether happy. O king. 'This is part of the goodness that he has. takes this to mean 'restrained according to the rules of the Pâtimokkha. K.

so worthy of honour. in obeying the calls of nature. in masticating or swallowing. 'And how. he keeps himself aware of all it really means{1}. whether or not it is conducive to the high aim set before him. And endowed with this self-restraint. that the Bhikshu becomes mindful and self-possessed. the perception of the detail that he or she is smiling. Thus is it. O king. and he attains to mastery over it. He keeps watch upon his faculty of sight. or when he cognises a phenomenon with his mind he is not entranced in the general appearance or the details of it. or in drawing it in again. III. 65. O king. and Buddhaghosa's note on it given in the 'Vinaya Texts. Avyâseka. in like manner. And so also in looking forward. [71] 66. And when the object is a person of the other sex this phrase is the idiom used for our 'falling in love with. or feels a touch with his body. I. talking. O king. is the Bhikshu mindful and self-possessed?' 'In this matter. He sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for evil states. in sleeping or waking. he experiences. O king. O king. and the real facts underlying the mere phenomenon of the outward act). &c. says Buddhaghosa). as regards the senses. Thus is it.' II. O king. covetousness and dejection. in stretching forth his arm. a sense of ease into which no evil state can enter{2}. to flow in over him so long as he dwells unrestrained as to his mental (representative) faculty. &c. and he attains to mastery over it. to flow in over him so long as he dwells unrestrained as to his sense of sight. 80} 'When. is a man or woman. of the anuvyañgana. covetousness and dejection. literally 'with no besprinkling' (of evil. He sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for evil states. or smells an odour with his nose. the Bhikshu in going forth or in coming back keeps clearly before his mind's eye (all that is wrapt up therein--the immediate object of {1. that the Bhikshu becomes guarded as to the doors of his senses. Na nimittaggâhî hoti nânuvyañganaggâhî. 9). for instance. in speaking or in being still. in going or standing or sitting. in eating or drinking. the general conclusion that the object seen. he sees an object with his eye he is not entranced in the general appearance or the details of it{1}. is the Bhikshu content? . Vin. 81} the act itself.} {p. And so. He keeps watch upon his representative faculty. or to seize upon the outward sign of anything so keenly as to recognise what it is the mark of (Vin. heard. within himself. 17). its ethical significance. 183. 2. when he hears a sound with his ear. The phrase nimittam ganhâti means either to seize upon anything as the object of one's thought to the exclusion of everything else (see. as an instance of the nimitta.{p.. 'And how. or tastes a flavour with his tongue.' Buddhaghosa gives. or in looking round.

endowed with this so excellent mindfulness and self-possession. seeing. 26). he purifies himself of irritability and vexation of spirit. 2. whithersoever he may fly. and his intelligence alert. when his meal is done.--the Buddhist analogue to St. the Bhikshu is satisfied with sufficient robes to cherish his body. 168. he remains with a heart that hankers not. behind the action (going. he remains with a heart free from ill-temper. gifted with this so excellent self-restraint as to the senses. he purifies his mind of weakness and of sloth. O king. keeping his ideas alight{3}. in this famous passage. with sufficient food to keep his stomach going. {1. &c. vi.) And see the context in my 'American Lectures. and purifies his mind of lusts. No man can call me servant. Several whole Dialogues are devoted to it. So let the rain pour down now. or on a heap of straw in the open field. and with heart serene within. on a hill side. Putting away torpor of heart and mind{2}.). 'Putting away the hankering after the world{1}. &c. or of gain. in a rocky cave. and I wander-So said the Exalted One-At will. to-night.} {p.) there is no ego. 68. in the Buddhist theory. Putting away flurry and worry. carries his wings with him as he flies. in a mountain glen. at the foot of a tree. if it likes. x. Thus is it. and deals with it also at length in the Visuddhi Magga and elsewhere. By the real fact underlying any action is meant that. Paul's: 'Whether therefore ye eat or drink. or whatsoever ye do. no actor (goer. but that there is a psychological explanation sufficient. on what I find I feel no need of wages. that the Bhikshu becomes content{2}. and various Suttas in others of the oldest texts. Buddhaghosa has many pages upon it here. and no longer in suspense as to what is good. 'Consider the fowls of the air. Putting away wavering. 'O king. 'Then. do all to the glory of God' (I Cor. he remains as one passed beyond perplexity. 31). filled with this so excellent content. mindful and self-possessed. according to the Pitakas. o'er all the earth. he chooses some lonely spot to rest at on his way--in the woods. cross-legged. And returning thither after his round for alms he seats himself. without the soul-theory. Whithersoever he may go forth. (Dhaniya Sutta 8. and purifies his mind of malevolence. these he takes with him as he goes--just as a bird with his wings. keeping his body erect. master of this so excellent body of moral precepts. he remains free from fretfulness. intent. 82} 67. O king. of itself. A small volume might be written on the various expansions of this text in the Pitakas. . What is above added in brackets explains the principal points of what is implied. that can be called a 'soul' (Abbhantare attâ nâma âloketâ vâ viloketâ vâ n' atthi). he purifies his mind of doubt. (Matt.' &c. Putting away the corruption of the wish to injure. in a charnel place. seer.'In this matter.' p.

as if a man were bound in a prison house. then. O king. subject to another. and have a surplus over to maintain a wife.' leaving out loke altogether. he would be of good cheer at that. he would be of good cheer at that. after contracting a loan{4}. and without any confiscation of his goods. 'Then just.' I. and his food should digest. 4. were to find himself on a long road. 3. 434. V. and he should not only be able to pay off the old debt he had incurred. and very ill." And he would be of good cheer at that. when he realised his former and his present state. 'Then just. as if a man were a slave. in pain. and his food would not digest. 211). literally 'whose ideas are light. which is certainly wrong. he would be glad of heart at that:-- 72. as if a man. rich and prosperous. O king.} {p. free to go whither he would. he would be glad of heart at that:-- 71. 212) says 'taking goods on interest'. safe and sound.' which may be the right connotation.' 2. he would be glad of heart at that:-- [73] 73. IV. when he realised his former and his present state. and there were no strength left in him. 83} business should succeed. Gogerly renders 'banishes desire from him.) translates 'loving the light. in a . So Buddhaghosa here (p. unable to go whither he would. and after a time he should be set free from his bonds. Inam âdâya. 256. 'Then just. But the Dhamma Sangani 1156. as if a man were a prey to disease. not subject to others. and rendering abhiggha in defiance both of the derivation and of the traditional explanation of the word. &c. would be glad of heart at that:-- 70. O king. Then would he realise [72]: "I used to have to carry on my business by getting into debt. Even Burnouf (who frequently uses 'desire' for words in the Pâli meaning 'lusts' or 'excitement') has here 'cupidité. and this is confirmed by Gât. 'Then just.' Neumann ('Reden des Gotamo. and his {1. he would be of good cheer at that. O king. Neumann has 'oppressed by debt. a free man. 1157 explains it as torpor of mind and body. on realising his former and his present state. and his strength come back to him. Âloka-saññî.69. 436. and after a time he were to recover from that disease. not his own master. O king. should set a business on foot. Abhiggham loke pahâya. 'Then just. and after a time he should be emancipated from that slavery. Burnouf has 'being aware of his visual sensation' (de son regard). but there should be a surplus over to maintain a wife. as when a man.' but Buddhaghosa (p. but it has gone so well with me that I have paid off what I owed. become his own master. then.

Mil. 'discrimination'.' We have no word in English suggesting these three. 'And gladness springs up within him on his realising that. Buddhaghosa has nothing here. he would be of good cheer at that.desert. in slavery. he looks upon himself as freed from debt. and joy arises to him thus gladdened. permeate. 84} five Hindrances are not put away within him looks upon himself as in debt. is a favourite passage recurring M. and there is no leakage possible. he would be glad of heart at that:-- 74. Vin. and M. The five similes are to be taken. O king. pervaded by it. 71. 'seclusion'. 2.} {p. is drenched with it. drop by drop. but compare Asl. intellectually. reasoning and investigation going on the while. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. and then besprinkling it with water. taking 'world' in the sense of all the hindrances to spiritual progress. ethically. 75. Viveka. and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease. lost on a desert road. he enters into and remains in the First Rapture--a state of joy and ease born of detachment{2}. then. From the beginning of § 68 the text. O king. and in that peace his heart is stayed{1}. out of jail. and after a time were to find himself out of the desert. on realising his former and his present state. so long as these {p. and secure. and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace. 84. taking up the unctuous moisture. 'Then estranged from lusts. 75 A. but much danger. 'separation'--physically of the body. and suffuse with the joy and ease born of detachment. in order. permeated by it within and without. and the peroration. arrived safe. I. 360-3 gives eight. as referring to the Five Hindrances (Nîvaranâ) given in § 68. the Bhikshu. 'Just. leading on to the Ghânas. 294. [74] 76. is really one long sentence or paragraph of much eloquence and force in the Pâli. 'His very body does he so pervade. 166. 'being separate from the world. of the objects of thought. aloof from evil dispositions. will so knead it together that the ball of lather. I. a free man. on the borders of his village. The Dhamma Sangani 1152 gives six hindrances. {1. drench. 85} . in prison. of the heart. I. diseased. The stress is upon separation from the world. But when these five Hindrances have been put away within him. as a skilful bathman or his apprentice will scatter perfumed soap powder in a metal basin. and especially of the five chief Hindrances (Nîvaranâ) just above set out. 'Just so. though here split up into paragraphs for the convenience of the reader. where no food was. all of which are implied. in security and peace. rid of disease.

Senart in Mahâvastu I. [75] 'This. and mindful and self-possessed he experiences in his body that ease which the Arahats talk of when they say: "The man serene and self-possessed is well at ease. unsusceptible. 'Then further. stoical. "Just. and suffuse the pool with cool waters." and so he enters into and abides in the Third Ghâna. Upekhako. O king.--a state of elevation{1} of mind. composed.' translated into English from Sinhalese by Spence Hardy (Manual. O king. P. higher and sweeter than the last. 80. permeate. and higher and sweeter than the last. tolerant. 77. T. p. drench. the Bhikshu. a tranquillisation of the heart within. 'Then further.. becomes equable{2}.' that is. 79. Imperturbable. 86} permeate. visible in this world. and suffuse with the joy and ease born of concentration. Compare Asl. born of the serenity of concentration.} {p.'This. 554. and all unsatisfactory. fill. a state of joy and ease. born in the . {1. The ten kinds of Upekkhâ 'equanimity. 'And his very body does he so pervade. impartial. 'Just. permeate. visible in this world. 'And his very body does he so pervade. as if there were a deep pool. Still the current of cool waters rising up from that spring would pervade. and with no inlet from the east or west. 505). O king. 172. as when in a lotus tank the several lotus flowers. and there would be no part or portion of the pool unsuffused therewith. O king. looking on rival mental states with equal mind. O king. Ekodibhâva. 78. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. can now be corrected from the Pâli at Asl. S. O king. 1884. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. drench. 32 foll. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. and suffuse with that ease that has no joy with it. with water welling up into it from a spring beneath. the Bhikshu suppressing all reasoning and investigation enters into and abides in the Second Ghâna. from the north or south. red or white or blue. 169. and the god should not from time to time send down showers of rain upon it. when no reasoning or investigation goes on. and the notes in J. holding aloof from joy. 2. p. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. literally 'looking on. are all possible renderings.

O king. of heart. excellent in every way. without pain and without ease. drawing up nourishment from the depths of the water. enters into and abides in the Fourth Gh âna. 87} and mother. whether of the red lotus. O king. does the Bhikshu sit there. translucent. by the putting away alike of ease and of pain. made pure. and therein is this consciousness{2} of mine. permeated. O king. a state of pure self-possession and equanimity. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. of translucence. and higher and sweeter than the last. or orange-coloured. bright. are so pervaded. by the passing away alike of any elation. not rising up above the surface of the water. he applies and bends down his mind to that insight that comes from knowledge. with eight facets. or white. that there is no spot in the whole plant. and suffused from their very tips down to their roots with the cool moisture thereof. and higher and sweeter than the last. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. who had eyes to see. 82. too. of translucence. dissolution. If a man. excellently cut. were to take it into his hand. 81. 'Then further. O king. devoid of evil. and disintegration{1}. so suffusing even his body with that sense of purification. visible in this world. And through it a string. grown up in the water. visible in this world. or of the blue. not suffused therewith. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. [76] 'And he sits there so suffusing even his body with that sense of purification. or red. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. and higher and sweeter than the last. He grasps the fact: "This body of mine has form. clear. on that does it depend. O king. 83. ready to act. its very nature is impermanence. as if a man were sitting so wrapt from head to foot in a clean white robe. any dejection." 84. firm. O king. he would clearly perceive how the one is bound up with the other{3}. that there were no spot in his whole frame not in contact with the clean white robe--just so. the Bhikshu. or yellow should be threaded. supple. it springs from father {p. of heart. as if there were a Veluriya gem. blue. drenched. [77] 'This. he had previously felt. of the purest water. and imperturbable. . it is built up of the four elements. without a flaw. it is subject to erasion. cultured. that there is no spot in his whole frame not suffused therewith. translucent. 'This. 'Just. or of the white.water. 'Just. bound up. O king. it is continually renewed by so much boiled rice and juicy foods. 'With his heart thus serene. 'This. abrasion.

7.' says Buddhaghosa (p. Viññâna. abrasion.)." And similarly were he to take a snake out of its slough. feeling no obstruction. the sheath another. 17. supple. O king. ready to act. have meant that the Viññâna did not really depend upon. IV. he walks on water without breaking . Even an admirer of the Buddha (one Sâti. In spite of this and similar passages the adherents of the soul theory (having nothing else to fasten on) were apt to fasten on to the Buddhist Viññâna as a possible point of reconciliation with their own theory. parimaddana). the body. he applies and bends down his mind to the calling up of a mental image. firm and imperturbable.} {p. 'With his heart thus serene. sensations arising from objects. 'With his heart thus serene. 87. as he admitted transmigration. devoid of evil. and higher and sweeter than the last. translucent. not deprived of any organ{1}. The double meaning must have been clearly present to the Indian hearer. to the further side of a wall or rampart or hill. as if through water. 88} made of mind. &c. he goes. having all (his own body's) limbs and parts. 'Just. but that it formed the link in transmigration. (See M. and are so used above (p. [78] He enjoys the Wondrous Gift in its various modes--being one he becomes many. visible in this life. as if a man were to pull out a reed from its sheath. 146. In perhaps the most earnest and emphatic of all the Dialogues (M. I know two living writers on Buddhism who (in blissful ignorance of the Dialogue in question) still fasten upon Buddha the opinion he so expressly refused to accept. really untranslatable. he applies and bends down his mind to the modes of the Wondrous Gift{4}. devoid of evil. was not really bound up with. 'This. and imperturbable. cultured. and all emotions and intellectual processes. II. I. S. having form. the Buddha meets and refutes at length this erroneous representation of his view. and the words are. are cunningly chosen (ukkhâdana. he penetrates up and down through solid ground. Gât. 83. 221). as if through air. firm. § 16 of the text). cultured. It is from the sheath that the reed has been drawn forth{2}. {1. translucent. this the sheath. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. therefore. The reed is one thing. he becomes visible or invisible. or draw a sword from its scabbard{3}. a member of the Order) went so far as to tell the Buddha himself that he must. But it still survives. This is a favourite description of the body. or having become many becomes one again.85. He would know: "This is the reed. I. 'The five senses. made pure. 2. 500. I. 86.) The words for erasion. He calls up from this body another body. ready to act. supple. 256 foll. They are also familiar technical terms of the Indian shampooer. 3. made pure. O king.

Sutta in my 'Buddhist Suttas. 93. supple. Buddhaghosa explains that the Karanda is not a basket (as Burnouf renders it). 'Just. 'Just. Iddhi. 259-261). this is the sound of a tabor. or a goldsmith out of gold. like the birds on wing. 289. devoid of evil. The point is the similarity. so will the image. as a boy. Worldly Iddhi is distinguished from spiritual at A. Sud. whatever the sword's shape. and compare 237. III. This old simile occurs already in the Satapatha-Brâhmana IV. O king. O king. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. 3. 145). could succeed in getting out of properly prepared clay any shape of vessel he wanted to have--or an ivory carver out of ivory. length of life. and good food (A. There are no examples in the Pitakas of concrete instances of any of these except the last. translucent. as if a man were on the high road and were to hear the sound of a kettledrum or a tabor or the sound of chank horns and small drums he would know: "This is the sound of a kettledrum. and higher and sweeter than the last. O king. Buddhaghosa explains that. A. strong health. and popularity (M. O king. comfortable lodging. 3. but see S. 290. were the possession of a beautiful garden. at Asl. The Iddhis of Gotama when at home. whether far or near. cultured. Buddhaghosa gives nine sorts of Iddhi.{1. soft clothing. 4. I. this of chank horns and of drums{1}. 2. 91. and that the scabbard is like the sword. but the skin which the snake sloughs off.' pp. so mighty though they be. if the Bhikshu have his ears unpierced. visible in this life. S. he reaches in the body even up to the heaven of Brahmâ. literally 'well-being. he travels cross-legged in the sky. even the Moon and the Sun. made pure. 90. P. and higher and sweeter than the last. 89} through as if on solid ground. 89. . 341. as a clever potter or his apprentice could make. so potent. 3. 16. pleasant music. mostly intellectual. and so on." 'This. 340. ready to act. firm and imperturbable. I. does he touch and feel with his hand. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. M. 'With his heart thus serene.} {p. he applies and bends down his mind to the Heavenly Ear. With that clear Heavenly Ear surpassing the ear of men he hears sounds both human and celestial. 43. He is supposed in the simile to do so in imagination.' The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty. IV. 88. [79] 'This. prosperity. He adds that of course a man could not take a snake out of its slough with his hand.

O king. such my experience of discomfort or of ease.91. visible in this world. 90} The attentive mind to be attentive. 'With his heart thus serene (&c. He recalls to mind his various temporary states in days gone by--one birth. and the enslaved mind enslaved. of other men. and the wandering mind wandering. and the lofty mind lofty{1}. 'Just. young and smart. would know it had not. know that it had. as a woman or a man or a lad. Penetrating with his own heart the hearts of other beings. [80] The angry mind to be angry. and if not. through many an aeon of dissolution. The stedfast mind to be stedfast. on considering attentively the image of his own face in a bright and brilliant mirror or in a vessel of clear water would. he knows them. such my caste{3}. The broad mind to be broad. O king. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge which penetrates the heart. "In such a place such was my name. says Buddhaghosa (223). is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. and the wavering mind to be wavering. such my food. many an aeon of evolution. or two or three or four or five births. The dull mind to be dull. if it had a mole on it.} {p. and the alert mind alert. The mean mind to be mean. 92. and such . as before). 'With his heart thus serene (&c. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the memory of his previous temporary states. 93. is that if he is in trouble and has lost his way he might be in doubt. and the narrow mind narrow. as before). and the calm mind calm. But if calm and secure he can tell the difference. The free mind to be free. He discerns-- The passionate mind to be passionate. and the peaceful mind peaceful. such my family. [81] 'This. or ten or twenty or thirty or forty or fifty or a hundred or a thousand or a hundred thousand births. and higher and sweeter than the last. {1. The point of the comparison. many an aeon of both dissolution and evolution{2}.

95. When I passed away from that state. 91} such and such a name and family and caste and food and experience of discomfort or of ease. are reborn in some unhappy state of suffering or woe.'} {p. well doers in act and word and thought. Vanna. 1596. Visible in this world. after death. 'colour. and in all their modes. spake thus.} . and occupied with Arahatship') reveals a change in the use of terms. is put first. 2. {1. With the pure Heavenly Eye{2}. holding to wrong views. and held my peace thus. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. and Arûpa Lokas). acquiring for themselves that Karma which results from wrong views. Rûpa. the well favoured and the ill favoured. The three villages correspond to the three stages of being. and from that one should return home. in this case only. the happy and the wretched. Dibba-kakkhu. Then he would know: "From my own village I came to that other one.the limits of my life. the evil disposition. he sees beings as they pass away from one form of existence and take shape in another. 1597 ('occupied with rebirth in heaven. from that other village. the world of form. 1293. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the fall and rise of beings. Unless the interpretation given in the Dhamma Sangani 1292. revilers of the noble ones. evil in act and word and thought. each of which takes countless years to accomplish. spake thus. as before). 'With his heart thus serene (&c. and higher and sweeter than the last. O king. This is based on the Indian theory of the periodic destruction and renovation of the universe. 2. Sa-uttara and anuttara.--the world of lust. There I stood in such and such a way. Thence I came to that other village. and the formless worlds (the Kâma. 3. holding to right views. brethren. 'Just. 94. not revilers of the noble ones. the three Bhûmis. But such and such beings. as if a man were to go from his own to another village. passing away according to their deeds: "Such and such beings. they." [82] 'This. I have returned back again home{1}. and held my peace thus. sat thus. sat thus. such was the limit of my life. See the note below on § 102 at the end of this Sutta. And now. When I passed away from that state I took form again here"--thus does he call to mind his temporary state in days gone by in all their details. and there I stood in such and such a way. There I had {1. on the dissolution of the body. I took form again in such a place. surpassing that of men. he recognises the mean and the noble. O king. my brethren. and from that one to another.

primary. the happy and the wretched. I. I. he recognises the mean and the noble. and not of flood or taint or ooze. Subhûti in quoting the above passage from Buddhaghosa (in the Abhidhâna Padîpikâ Sûki. Burnouf has defilement (souillures). S. 110. and those are seated in the square in the midst.' see below. but speculation. Deadly Floods. 3. [83] he sees beings as they pass away from one state of existence. theorising (Ditthi) is added as a fourlh in the M. Unfortunately. and walking hither and thither along the street{2}. 250). and coming forth out of it. after death. 224) that the sphere of vision of the Heavenly Eye did not extend to the Formless Worlds. &c. This paragraph forms the subject of the discussion in the Kathâ Vatthu III. 155. and elsewhere. but not the Heavenly Eye. and the instance of Sâriputta is quoted. who had that knowledge. 279. surpassing that of men. on the dissolution of the body. The Siamese has Vithim. should watch men entering a house. P. 256. As he was an Arahat it follows that the possession of the Heavenly Eye was not a necessary consequence of Arahatship. and a man standing thereon. I. Perhaps after all it is the idea of overwhelming intoxication. the Heavenly Eye. and with eyes to see." 'This. § 21 of the text. and seated in the square in the midst. as before). The mere knowledge of the general fact of the action of Karma is there distinguished from the Dibba-kakkhu. 2. It is therefore impossible to be sure what is the simile that underlies the use of the word in its secondary. Neumann has Illusion (Wahn). 167. 43) reads pärivas° throughout for pârivâs°. A. 97. IV. and take form in another. p. Then he would know: "Those men are entering a house. sense. 'With his heart thus serene (&c. ethical sense. and those are walking to and fro in the street. they. Buddhaghosa adds (p. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the Deadly Floods{3}. Âsavas. Vîtisañkarante is Buddhaghosa's reading. and higher and sweeter than the last. the well favoured and the ill favoured. and those are leaving it. 96. passing away according to their deeds{1}. unless indeed Buddhaghosa's statement (at Asl. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. 'the Eye for the Truth. p. that we ought to consider." Thus with the pure Heavenly Eye. O king. He knows {1. as if there were a house with an upper terrace on it in the midst of a place where four roads meet. 48) that well-seasoned spirituous liquors were called âsavâ be taken literally.} . They are sometimes the three here mentioned (M. 'Just. another untranslatable term. S. 9 (p. 23.{p. the word has not been yet found in its concrete. O king. visible in this world. Compare M. are reborn in some happy state in heaven. On the Dhamma-kakkhu.). 92} acquiring for themselves that Karma that results from right views.

just above summarised. that is. And now I betake myself. 93} as it really is: "This is pain. should perceive the oysters and the shells." He knows as it really is: "This is the cessation of pain. O king. from this day forth. Lord. The higher life has been fulfilled. May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple. the heart is set free from the Deadly Taint of Lusts{1}. Bhavâsavâ. in heaven. and a man. there arises the knowledge of his emancipation. Aviggâsavâ. and higher and sweeter than the last. and with eyes to see." He knows as it really is: "This is the origin of the Deadly Floods." [84] He knows as it really is: "This is the origin of pain. or were to bring a lamp into the darkness so that those who have eyes could see external forms--just even so. In him. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance{3}. has taken his . O king. 2. to the Blessed One as my refuge. as they move about or lie within it: he would know: "This {1. with special reference to ignorance of the Four Great Truths. Kamâsavâ. or were to reveal that which is hidden away. in the world. and to the Order. What had to be done has been accomplished. visible in this world. has the truth been made known to me." He knows as it really is: "This is the Path that leads to the cessation of pain. with special reference to the taint of hankering after a future life in the sensuous plane (Kâma Loka). and serene. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. 'Just. with special reference to the taint of hankering after a future life in the plane of form and the formless plane (the Rûpa and Arûpa Lokas)." He knows as it really is: "This is the cessation of the Deadly Floods." [85] 'This. clear. transparent. Lord. as one who. And there is no fruit of the life of a recluse. 3. as long as life endures. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings{2}. and the sand and gravel. translucent." He knows as they really are: "These are the Deadly Floods.{p. and there within it are the oysters and the shells. and serene. Lord. that is. thus set free. and the shoals of fish are moving about or lying still{1}. by the Blessed One. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. the gravel and the pebbles and the shoals of fish.' 99. standing on the bank. thus knowing. thus seeing." He knows as it really is: "This is the Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods." To him. After this present life there will be no beyond!" 98. And when he had thus spoken. is an immediate fruit of the life of a recluse. as if in a mountain fastness there were a pool of water.} {p. Agâtasattu the king said to the Blessed One: 'Most excellent. that is higher and sweeter than this{2}. in many a figure. and he knows: "Rebirth has been destroyed. 94} pool is clear. visible in this world. to the Truth.

as Buddhaghosa points out. Agâtasattu the king said to the Blessed One: 'Now. Now the Blessed One. weak and foolish and wrong that I am. it was sin that overcame you in acting thus. Lord.' Thus spake the Blessed One. and keeping him on the right hand as he passed him. addressed the brethren. O king. A. is custom in the discipline of the noble ones{3}. O king.' p. That is. and righteous king.' 'Do. For that. Here ends the Discourse on the Fruits of the Life of a Recluse. Ariyânam. either of previous Buddhas. Nirvâna. and there is much to do. III. Compare for the words sippi-sambuka Gât. or perhaps of the Arahats. 2. that all the rest led up. We are busy. I put to death my father. 60. and bowed to the Blessed One. departed thence.' 101. and it was to this. was deeply affected. 197. the king had not put his father to death.refuge in them. even as he sat there{1}. V. . 102. then would the clear and spotless eye for the truth have arisen in him. he was touched in heart.' 100. shall attain to self-restraint in future. 279. I. to Arahatship. The brethren were pleased and delighted at his words. O king. Trenckner. that righteous man. we accept your confession as to that. to the end that in future I may restrain myself. and confess it according to what is right. arose from his seat. A. If. brethren. and said: 'This king. brethren. Lord. But inasmuch as you look upon it as sin. 'Verily. Lord. in that. not long after Agâtasattu the king had gone. When he had thus spoken. 'Pâli Miscellany. 395. pleased and delighted with the words of the Blessed One. whatever seemeth to thee fit. I. that whosoever {1. 9. and rightfully confesses it. Because. this is really Arahatship.} {p. 95} looks upon his fault as a fault. 3.' Then Agâtasattu the king. we would fain go. Sin has overcome me. that do so acknowledge it as a sin. that righteous man. that righteous king! May the Blessed One accept it of me. for the sake of sovranty. The simile recurs M.

and as having gone far to abolish caste. though real. 96} INTRODUCTION TO THE AMBATTH A SUTTA. p. has been gravely misunderstood. THIS is one of several Suttas (mentioned in the notes to the celebrated verse quoted at the end of Chapter I) which deal with the subject of caste. and Brahmans would not be so often represented as expressing astonishment or indignation at the position taken up regarding it by the early Buddhists unless there had really been a serious difference on the subject between the two schools.} Return to top Next: Introduction to the Ambattha Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. 82 of the text. § 95) which sees other people's previous births. above. Other writers gird at the Buddha because most of the leaders of this Order were drawn from the ranks of the respectable and the well-to-do. by representing him as having fought for the poor and despised against the rich and privileged classes. 52. No other social problem is referred to so often. Some writers on Buddhism do not hesitate to ascribe to Gotama the rôle of a successful political reformer. {1. for entering on the Path that ends in Arahatship. and below the Eye of Wisdom (paññâ-kakkhu) which is the wisdom of the Arahat (Itivuttaka. § 61). with an .Sâmañña-phala Sutta is ended. The Dhamma-kakkhu (Eye for the Truth) is a technical term for conversion. But the difference. It is sufficiently evident from the comparative frequency of the discussions on the matter of Brahman pretensions that this was a burning question at the time when the Dialogues were composed. It is higher than the Heavenly Eye (dibba-kakkhu. p.

at the time of Gotama. and as to the right of eating together. from the ethical. but in constantly varying degrees. and so on. As a matter of fact they are never quite the same in successive centuries. 97} system ignored. Each such 'caste' has also a councilor committee by which it is governed. now. and political points of view. and disparage him for neglecting the humble and the wretched. or to mitigate. The theories put forward to explain the facts are loose and irreconcilable. social. and the benefits of the {p. At any moment in the history of a nation such customs seem. government. Even without the fact of the existence. Evidence has been yearly accumulating on the existence of restrictions as to intermarriage. A man's visible frame. and so on. restricted to certain classes. and no doubt universal. of such restrictions among the modern successors of the ancient Aryans in India. for not using his influence to abolish. to have been in existence also at the time when Buddhism arose in the valley of the Ganges. though no change is at any moment perceptible. But it is always tending to vary as to the degree of importance attached to some particular one of . It is quite a mistake to look upon all these tribes as far below the Aryans in culture. That opinion seems stable. taxation. The disastrous effects. And an accurate statement of the corresponding facts. even as it now exists. among other Aryan tribes--Greeks. of modern Indian caste usages. and which settles all disputes regarding the caste. may have differed from those of the Aryans. their ideas as to purity and the reverse. and to a large degree the actual details. Russians. especially in matters relating to land tenure.education in keeping with their social position. have been often grossly exaggerated. Both the Kolarians and the Dravidians were probably quite the equals of the Aryans in social organisation. And we are entirely unwarranted in supposing the system. and the result of constant minute variations becomes clear after the lapse of time. or even generations. are not only Indian or Aryan. and of caste as a whole. are identical with these ancient. and also. but world-wide phenomena. the harshness of caste rules. if any. to be fixed and immutable. village community. it would have been almost certain that they also were addicted to similar customs. has yet to be drawn up. customs. but were similar in kind. It is well known that the population of India is now divided into a number of sections (we call them 'castes'). Their custom of endogamy and exogamy. of eating together. We have long known that the connubium was the cause of a long and determined struggle between the patricians and the plebeians in Rome. The numerous and complicated details which we sum up under the convenient (but often misleading) single name of caste are solely dependent for their sanction on public opinion. from the right of eating together (of commensality) with the members of other sections. as it now exists. the members of which are debarred from the right of intermarriage (from the connubium) with those outside their caste. is really never the same for two consecutive moments. Both views are equally unhistorical. It is certain that the notion of such usages was familiar enough to some at least of the tribes that preceded the Aryans in India. Both the spirit. Our knowledge of the actual facts of caste. Rules of endogamy and exogamy. privileges. is still confused and inaccurate. to a superficial observer. And the Aryans probably adopted much from them. It is in them that we have the key to the origin of caste. of these restrictions. Germans.

And the caste survives though the members of it are now no longer exclusively. All these factors. on restrictions of a more or less defined kind. 98} the details. still some Chaliyas left. What had happened in this case was. The gardens were carried on. the gradual extension of the institution to the families of people engaged in certain trades. By the time that the families of Chaliyas were numerous enough to afford mates for the male or female coolies. belonging to the same sect or tribe. became averse to giving their daughters in marriage to such coolies. however. and it became a mark of superiority not to have a relative married to a worker in the cinnamon gardens. the caste of the Chaliyas. But public opinion still insists in considerable circles. no doubt. But all did not succeed in returning. but a long series of slight changes in public opinion. . the size of one group had been diminished by the very considerable number of persons engaged in a new and despised trade. In other words. as to the size and complexity of the particular groups in which each detail ought to be observed. not explanations of the origin. what we call a new caste had arisen. found the pressure of poverty too strong for them. 99} Owing to the fact that the particular set of people who worked their way to the top based its claims on religious grounds. as they gradually returned to ordinary peasant work. in ever lessening numbers. and there are. When the English took Ceylon they gave up the government cultivation of cinnamon. The peasantry. the Goigamas. they wanted labourers. and others besides. would be found to cover. This last statement may be illustrated by the case of the Chaliyas. When the Dutch started cinnamon cultivation in Ceylon on a large scale. not two separate and striking revolutions. not on political power or wealth. and through its wide territory. if we had only access to the necessary evidence. Who can doubt but that the history of ancient India. employed in cinnamon gardens. no doubt quite imperceptible at the time to the very people among whom the changes were taking place. This was an instance of a change precisely contrary to that which happened when the caste gradually arose. in the struggle of motives. and that similar variations are recurring still to-day. lasted longer in India than in Europe. a constant succession of similar variations. Three or four generations were enough to cover the whole series with the consequent results. under the very eyes of Europeans. became reabsorbed among the Goigammas. in its two thousand five hundred years. The others. Some of them. the system has. {p. by private individuals.{p. both as to marriage and as to eating together. therefore. And after all the changes were not so very slow. even in Europe. These feelings were naturally stronger at first among the Goigamas of good social position. and accepted service as coolies. And such workers were called Chaliyas. thinking this bad form. And in India the problem still remains to trace in the literature the gradual growth of the system--the gradual formation of new sections among the people. And thus. The number of the Chaliyas consequently declined. who belonged almost exclusively to one caste. the Chaliyas found it impossible to find wives elsewhere. and many of them have become wealthy and honoured. Numbers of them. But they are phases of the extension and growth. tracing their ancestry (whether rightly or wrongly) to the same source. are real factors. of the system. regarded it as unworthy of a free man to work for hire. or even largely.

And though in a general rough way the classification corresponded to the actual facts of life. which divided all the world into four vannâ (colours or complexions)--the nobles. There was neither connubium nor commensality between all the members of one vannâ. 100} social position. there were insensible gradations within the four classes. . for they are called hîna-gâtiyo. and the strong. Other old texts{2} insert between these two three further names--the Venas. active. well-trained mind should be selected as donee--without reference to the fact of his belonging to any one of the four classes of society (vannâ). the priests. between the peoples dwelling in the valley of the Ganges and their contemporaries dwelling on the shores of the Mediterranean. the Nesâdas. resembling in many points the modern low castes. They no doubt formed castes in the modern sense. outside the towns in which ordinary people dwelt. probably. in the modern sense. But of castes. It is plain that this passage distinguishes the last two from the four vannâ and therefore from the Sûdras. when presenting gifts. to what would now be called caste-divisions. low tribes. of the priests--was still being hotly debated. the argument is that just as there is no real difference in oxen. bird-catchers. There was a common phrase current among the people. as regards the barriers in question. so also. well-trained ox is selected by preference.) there was any substantial difference. and had a theological legend in support of their contention. The remaining three were distinguished from each other by {p. The fourth was distinguished from the others by race. the other Aryan people. active. and cart-makers. in the sixth century B. and always when mentioned in the Pitakas following after the above four. In a few instances. and formed evidently a numerically insignificant portion of the populace. And it is also clear that no one of these divisions was a caste. without regard to his colour (vanna). and Suddâ). the man of strong. The point of greatest weight in the establishment of the great difference in the subsequent development--the supremacy. these amounted. the workers in rushes{3}. Outside these classes there were others. though we have no information as to their marriage customs. and the Rathakâras. But it is clear from the Pitakas that this was not admitted by the nobles. The priests put themselves first. Thus in Anguttara I. endogamous and exogamous groups. 162{1}. nor was there a governing council for each. or of his being a K andâla or a Pukkusa. in spite of the fact that they can be arranged in classes by difference of colour (vanna). And all our evidence tends to show that at least in the wide extent of territory covered by the Pitakas--countries close upon a hundred thousand square miles in area--the struggle was being decided rather against the Brahmans than for them. There were distinctions as to marriage. all among the lower classes of the people. They are represented in the Gâtaka book as living in villages of their own. and the non-Aryan Sûdras (Khattiyâ.C. By these are meant aboriginal tribesmen who were hereditary craftsmen in these three crafts. Vessâ. that is to say. and the boundary between them was both variable and undefined.There is no evidence to show that at the time when the conversations recorded in the Dialogues took place (that is to say. Brâhmanâ. And this enumeration of the populace was not complete. among the preponderating majority there is little or no conclusive evidence. in India.

Children born to such slaves were also slaves. 2. At the other end of the scale Brahmans by birth (not necessarily sacrificial priests. Anguttara II. 4. more exactly upon the gotta rather than upon the gâti). We only hear of them quite occasionally. And there was a social code. and they were then on the border line. it is implied that there was no hard and fast line. leather-workers. weavers. assâroha-putto. Individuals had been captured in predatory raids. The great mass of the people were distinguished quite roughly into four classes--social strata--of which the boundary lines were vague and uncertain. no usages which cannot be amply paralleled in . P. 6. We find. Sum. determined by birth. as to intermarriage of people admittedly belonging to the same vanna. IV. not seldom broken through. and not badly treated. based on the idea of impurity. 220). or had been deprived of their freedom as a judicial punishment (Gât. 200). 19. in the houses of the very rich. and barbers. castes. Assalâyana (No. {1.} {p. What we find then. and their numbers seem to have been insignificant{1}. sometimes as makers of sunshades. Compare Petavatthu II. As they are excluded from the list of those distinguished by birth (gâti). which raised barriers. 6-10. or had submitted to slavery of their own accord ('Vinaya Texts. 3. nata-putto. But they were not castes as yet. 12. and rendered disgraceful the use of certain foods. and a fortiori of others. Further exemplified by the number of people described as kevatta-putto. and reduced to slavery (Gât. were already. There would be a natural tendency for the son to follow the father's craft{4}. I. I. sometimes as basket-makers. probably.' I. scenes of misery and oppression. sûda-putto. which prevented familiar intercourse (such as commensality) between people of different rank. 93.In the last passage quoted in the previous note there are mentioned. &c. &c. potters. There were social customs about the details of which we know very little (and dependent probably. in the Buddha's time. as distinct from these low tribes (the hîna-gâtiyo). and the emancipation of slaves is often referred to. IV. there were also slaves. as domestic servants. 191. Sometimes explained as carpenters. For the most part the slaves were household servants. or the plantations of some Christian slave-owners. certain low occupations (hîna-sippâni)--mat-makers. Samyutta I. 85 = P. But we hear nothing of such later developments of slavery as rendered the Roman latifundia . Besides the above. 101} centuries afterwards they had become castes. Vinaya IV. 93 in the Magghima). 168). however. for they followed all sorts of occupations) were putting forward caste claims that were not yet universally admitted. who were all freemen. and certain hereditary crafts of a dirty or despised kind. is caste in the making. At the one end of the scale certain outlying tribes. for those who gained their living by these trades.

Vin. of whom five are mentioned above--that is. 343. 60. The facts speak for themselves. one of the brethren whose verses are chosen for insertion in the Thera Gâthâ. was a Pukkusa. and others will become known when more texts are published. it is true. 238. One of the most distinguished members of his Order. on account of its cruelty. there should be no allusion . took up {1. particularly abhorred. More instances could doubtless be quoted already. in two phases. 36. I. The key-stone of the arch of the peculiarly Indian caste organisation--the absolute supremacy of the Brahmans--had not yet been put in position.the history of other peoples throughout the world in similar stages of social evolution. after Gotama himself. they were actually outcasts). The two Panthakas were born out of wedlock. one of the low tribes. 102} a distinct position. over which alone he had complete control. III. and Subhâ was the daughter of a smith. &c. and even then an occupation. in fact. was Upâli. Gât. 141 (translated above). and sweeps away all barriers and disabilities arising from the arbitrary rules of mere ceremonial or social impurity. Kâpâ was the daughter of a deer-stalker. 93. been yet made ready. and to suggest that the supposed enlightenment or liberality was mere pretence. one of the despised occupations. It meets us. to a girl of good family through intercourse with a slave (so that by the rule laid down in Manu 31. occupation. 132. I. But that very silence is valuable evidence. the very one of them who was referred to as the chief authority. of the whole number were base-born. 206. afterwards a low caste. It is most likely that this is just about the proportion which persons in similar social rank bore to the rest of the population. The caste-system. 224. D. Cy. In the face of this set of circumstances Gotama. the propounder of a deadly heresy. and social status. on the rules of the Order. 385. It is scarcely likely that if there had been much difference. 67. Nanda was a cowherd. Whether the Buddhist Order differed in this respect from the other similar communities which are mentioned in the Buddhist books as having already existed when the Buddhist Order was founded. In the first place. It does not show much historical insight to sneer at the numbers as small. 437. Sâti. See also A. 72. was of the sons of the fisherfolk.} {p. 217. III. but it forms one consistent and logical whole. II. 8½ per cent. he ignores completely and absolutely all advantages or disadvantages arising from birth. who had formerly been a barber. is still matter of controversy. in any proper or exact use of the term. and the percentage of low-born members of the Order was probably in fair proportion to the percentage of persons belonging to the despised gâtis and sippas as compared with the rest of the population. The Buddhist books are mostly silent on the matter. 145. had not. Thus of the Therîs mentioned in the Therî Gâthâ we know the social position of sixty. Dhp. So Sunita. 226. did not exist. Punnâ and Punnikâ had been slave girls. IV. Sumangalamâtâ was daughter and wife to workers in rushes. I. 5. as regards his own Order.

2. On the other hand. that the existing orders. and Vessas) were certainly justified. that is the Khattiyas.to it in the Pitakas. 51. he strove to influence that public opinion. the most rational view current at the time. 104} . by a constant inculcation of reasonable views. and is an anachronism. in which he seems to have restricted (and for a valid reason) the existing custom.' I. in such wise that the existing rights of third parties should not be encroached upon. Secondly. The low-born. S.} {p. and the Madhura Sutta of the Magghima. I think. Translated by Fausböll. and at IV. And in the Aggañña Sutta of the Dîgha.. There is one point. p. And the few passages in print confirm this. p. 77 ). B. admitted slaves to their ranks. however earnest in their search after truth. have been emancipated. on which the observances depend. 'Sociale Gliederung im nordöstlichen Indien. were accorded. long before the time of the rise of Buddhism. the Buddha adopted the only course then open to any man of sense. is at present doubtful. 50. B. It is impossible to avoid the inference from the passage just referred to (in the Sâmañña-phala. We {p. one of the questions asked of the candidate is: 'Are you a freeman{2}?' Whenever slaves were admitted to the Order. were no doubt excluded from any community of hermits or religious recluses in which Brahmans had the upper hand. not the Buddhist). they must have previously obtained the consent of their masters. But all the twice-born (the Dvigas. that is to say. Brâhmanas. 103} have seen how in the Sâmañña-phala Sutta (above. 392 of a Kandala. E. 199) that no runaway slave shall be admitted. Thus in the Âmagandha Sutta{3} of the Sutta {1. there is a rule (translated in 'Vinaya Texts. And in the form of words to be used at the chapter held for admitting new members. above. E. pp. So in the Gâtaka (III. 3.. by public opinion. 77) it is taken for granted that a slave could join an Order (that is any order. as regards all such matters as we may now fairly call 'questions of caste' outside the Order. and also. Now among a number of rules laid down to regulate admission to the Buddhist Order. I. See Fick. To what extent the Sûdras.' pp. as if it were a recognised and common occurrence. who become Samanas (not Buddhist Saman as){1}. 'Vinaya Texts. and the tribes below the Sûdras. 230. 381) we hear of a potter. or most of them. in becoming Samanas.' S. it is just possible that in these passages the custom afterwards followed in the Buddhist Order is simply put back to earlier times. a similar privilege. and probably extended. 40-43. there is express mention of Sûdras becoming Samanas. however. But the Buddha certainly adopted. in communities other than the Buddhist.

As his answer the Buddha reminds his questioners of the fact that whereas in the case of plants (large or small). and even anxious wherever possible to support their views by showing that others. A. and that it is only the ignorant who had. R. Gotama followed the same plan. On the general question. fish. J. As to other details also. maintained that it was birth that made a man a Brahman. serpents.} {p. 'Gotama was in accord with the conclusion of modern biologists. quadrupeds. Man"--a conclusion the more remarkable as the accident of colour did not mislead Gotama' as it did so many of his contemporaries then. shortly after the Buddha's death. He goes on to draw the conclusion that distinctions made between different men are mere matters of prejudice and custom. that "the Anthropidae are represented by the single genus and species. the point raised is whether the Brahmans are right in their . as in the Sonadanda Sutta. The Buddha's position is again to adopt. S. that the {1. is as to what makes a man a Brahman. We may class the utterances on this point under three heads--biological. p. which it would take too long to set out here. prepared or given by this or that person. 1894. For they are not found elsewhere. No originality. 396.' as pointed out by Mr. Chalmers{1}.Nipâta (certainly one of the very oldest of our documents) it is laid down. and even. there are many species and marks (due to the species) by which they can be distinguished--in the case of man there are no such species. 'Herein. in eloquent words. In the Vâsettha Sutta of the Sutta Nipâta (several verses of which have been inserted also in the Dhammapada) the question. And in the early Buddhist texts (always ready to give credit to others. presumably his own. that defilement does not come from eating this or that. and historical. and birds. a dialogue. being one of the few in which sayings of previous Buddhas are recorded. between the king of Madhura and Kakkâna. insects. ethical. is claimed on account of a view that would have put an end to so many foolish prejudices based on superstition. in this matter. however. translated below. no special insight. and no such marks. This is a particularly interesting passage. that make a man a Brahman. that it is wisdom and goodness that make the only valid distinction. especially in ancient times. within living memory. he had opinions. In the Madhura Sutta. so many in the West. In other words the Buddhists put forward this view as having been enunciated long ago--with the intended implication that it was a self-evident proposition which was common ground to the wise. Similar arguments frequently recur. the sensible position already put forward by others. had held them) these views are not referred to as part of the doctrine of either earlier or contemporary teachers. but from evil deeds and words and thoughts.. 105} Arahat is therefore the true Brahman. for so long.

a criminal. nor sex. 2. Sir. The Brahmans alone are accounted pure. will be reborn in some state of woe. whatever his vanna. 17. Robert Chalmers. 'The Brahmans say thus. Thirdly. every other division is inferior. The larger portion of this Sutta (from the beginning of the genesis part down to the election of the first king) is also preserved in the Mahâvastu. giving light from themselves. Gotama replies that they make these claims in forgetfulness of the past. nor stars.) represents the Pâli aggaññam. would. secondly. 338-348. when the evolution of the world began. originally. say to this?"' The Buddhist answer is first to remind the king of the actual facts of life--how a prosperous member of any one of the four vannas would find members of each of the other three to wait upon him and serve him. 1894. in many respects one of the most interesting and instructive of all the Dialogues{3}. feeding on joy. on becoming a religieux. specially made by Him. And lastly. In it the pretensions of the Brahmans are put forward in the same terms as those just quoted above from the Madhura Sutta. Kakkâna:--"The Brahmans are the most distinguished of the four divisions into which the people is classified{1}. neither of which was a caste. heirs of Brahmâ! What do you. with reference to the well-known classification into four vannas. that formed their chief weapon in the struggle. This Madhura Sutta has now been edited and translated. A Brahman might object that all this ignores the important point that the Brahmans were. vol. born from His mouth. would be equally subject to punishment for his crime. The claims have no basis in fact. in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. he points out how a wicked man (whatever his vanna). Then the earth rose in the midst of the waters. passing through the air. whatever his vanna. The reading agninyam (p. i. It is a kind {1. referred to above). &c. We find the Buddhist reply to that in the Aggañña Sutta of the Dîgha. all the rest are black. on joining an order. Do we not daily see Brahman women with child and bearing sons just like other folk? How can they then say that they are born of God? And as to their origin. with valuable introduction and notes. 340. It is righteousness (dhamma) and not class distinction (vanna) that makes the real difference between man and man{1}. and a good man in some state of bliss. a man. in accordance with the doctrine of Karma acknowledged by all good men (not only by Buddhists). by Mr. not those who are not Brahmans. beautiful as honey in taste and . and are his legitimate heirs. It was this claim to especial connection with the mysterious powers of a supernatural kind. so widely believed in. born of Brahmâ. The Brahmans are the white division. Then. nor measures of time. There was no difference between them in this respect. The Brahmans are the legitimate sons of God (of Brahmâ).exclusive claims. 3.} {p. pp. beings were at first immaterial. receive equal respect and honour from the people{2}. 106} of Buddhist book of Genesis. There was thick darkness round about them. and neither sun nor moon. Literally 'are the best colour' (vanna. See Senart's edition.

met together. differing from the others in no wise except in virtue (dhamma). and chose certain men. except only in virtue (dhamma).colour and smell. These were the first Kshatriyas. now become men. on the ground of their finer complexion. by others.' Dr. And some abandoned their homes and became the first recluses (samanas). vol. Fick also in his 'Sociale Gliederung im nordöstlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit' has collected the evidence found in the G âtaka book. p. Senart on the origin of caste. and is much nearer to the actual facts than the Brahman legend it was intended to replace. the beings. they very nearly prevailed--the evolution of social grades and distinctions would have gone on in India on lines similar to those it followed in the West. and delicate rice appeared. Then certain others. Then some prided themselves. and differences of complexion (vanna) became manifest among them. But it reveals a sound and healthy insight. and on the present actual facts of caste in India. There is an admirable little book by M. had gained his end. and on the Epics. to restrain the evil doers by blame or fines or banishment. and were infringed. and maintain their wives. And when lusts were felt. differing from the others in no wise. with its fanciful etymologies of the names of the four vannâ. 107} to be the Arahat. and by the highest knowledge was set free! We may not accept the historical accuracy of this legend. and then sun and moon and stars appeared. And these were the first vessas. The words here are quoted in the Milinda. and the rights of property arose. and despised others. eating thereof. lost their brightness. Then differences of sex appeared. are . had accomplished all that had to be done. and the aroma of it would be lost on the hearer who took it au grand sérieux. entitled 'Les Castes dans I'Inde. i. {1. 229 of my translation. Similar monographs on the Pitakas. And these were the first Brahmans. and thefts committed. who had made himself so by the destruction of the Four Mental Intoxications (the Âsavas) and by breaking the bonds that tied him to rebirths. and the beings. and sweet creepers. But all were alike in origin.} {p. And thereupon the fine-tasting earth ceased to be so. And then also their bodies became more coarse and material. who had lived the life. started occupations of various kinds. and the only distinction between them was in virtue. Then successively fine moss. and the caste system of India would never have been built up{1}. and analysed it with great skill. as they were. and the lazy stored up the rice. and each time the beings ate thereof with a similar result. Indeed a continual note of good-humoured irony runs through the whole story. And others they chose to restrain the evil dispositions which led to the evil doing. to keep their households going. on the Brahman views about it. the man who had laid aside every burden. instead of gathering it each evening and morning. and time began to run. And the highest of them all was acknowledged {1. and households were formed. Had the Buddha's views on the whole question won the day--and widely shared.

2. one half. 1. Thus have I heard.] I. Compare Divyâvadâna.} of the text. 127. a spot teeming with life. his share would be. AMBATTHA SUTTA. The rights of the peasants to the other half. 222. Now the Brahman Pokkharasâdi{2} heard the news: {1. and to the use of the common and waste and woods.} Return to top Next: III. Now at that time the Brahman Pokkharasâdi was dwelling at Ukkattha. on a royal domain. with about five hundred brethren. and while there he stayed in the Ikkhânankala Wood. Ambattha Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. p. The grant would be of his own rights only. 620. So Buddhaghosa. would be a tithe. granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala as a royal gift. or of the tenancy. payable of course in kind. would remain to them. The whole string of adjectives recurs below. If the king had full proprietary (zemindary) rights as well.much to be desired. which is the probable meaning of râga-bhoggam. and râga-bhoggam at Vin. 131 {see note 1 for the last ref. 108} III. when once on a tour through the Kosala country with a great company of the brethren. then the grantee would also be the king's . pp. of the grant. 111. If Buddhaghosa's interpretation of brahmadeyyam is correct. with much grassland and woodland and corn. but he gives no further details as to the terms. either with or without the land tax. III. 114. arrived at a Brahman village in Kosala named Ikkhânankala. [A YOUNG BRAHMAN'S RUDENESS AND AN OLD ONE'S FAITH. The land revenue. with power over it as if he were the king{1}. The Blessed One.

} {p. as the Athabbana Veda. with a great company of the brethren of his Order. the ritual. and the legends {1. is probably not the Veda. 3. and the exegesis (as a fourth){2}. Four Vedas are referred to in the Milinda. happy. a fully awakened one. 200). given (in S. And he was a repeater (of the sacred words) knowing the mystic verses by heart. According to Gât.} {p. both in the spirit and in the letter. in all its fullness and in all its purity. one who had mastered the Three Vedas. And it is quite unnecessary to suppose a silent reference to it here. for granted. IV. and three only. See the Introduction to the Mahâli Sutta. the Atharva. and so forth). has now arrived. Elsewhere the word has only been found as applied to marriage. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. Now at that time a young Brahman. and the word in our passage means literally 'a full gift. a Blessed One. 110} . an Ambattha{1}. [88] 'And good is it to pay visits to Arahats like that. who went out from a Sâkya family to adopt the religious life. 2. but farmers. and the Atharva-veda. But brahma as the first part of a compound never has that meaning in Pâli. 247) says we have to supply the fourth Veda. a teacher for gods and men. fold division. the higher life doth he make known. the phonology. he makes his knowledge known to others. lovely in its consummation. in the Atthakathâs and Tîkâs. 363 (compare Gât. 117. not four-. at Ikkhânankala. and the Mâras.--including the worlds above of the gods. and the first part of the compound (brahma) has always been interpreted by Brahmans as referring to themselves. abounding in wisdom and goodness. and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans. His full name was Pokkharasâdi Opamañño Subhagavaniko (M. IV. II. The Âthabba na. and is staying there in the Ikkhânankala Wood. But the older Pâli texts do not acknowledge the Atharva as a Veda. where the second is the gotta (gens) name and the third a local name. doth he proclaim. The fourth place is quite sufficiently filled as suggested in the translation. as it were. but witchcraft or sorcery. its princes and peoples.' 2. 109} 'They say that the Samana Gotama. The truth. 366) there were also Ambatthas who were not Brahmans by birth. face to face this universe. Buddhaghosa (p. the interpretation of dreams and of lucky signs. by himself. at p.representative for all purposes judicial and executive. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led.' 3. And the whole point of the Tevigga Sutta (translated in full in my 'Buddhist Suttas') is this three-. lovely in its origin. at p. The fourth is not expressly mentioned. He. thoroughly knows and sees. with knowledge of the worlds. N. It only occurs. lovely in its progress. of the Sâkya clan. was a pupil under Pokkharasâdi the Brahman. with the indices. 927) as the name of a mystic art (together with astrology. the Brahmas. a Buddha. The Pitakas always take three Vedas.--and having known it. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad:--That Blessed One is an Arahat.

he will become one of two things. 'Very good. you have received them from me. then he will become a Buddha who removes the veil from the eyes of the world. beating down the armies of the foe. Ambattha. the Woman. go to the Saman a Gotama. (Mahâ-purusha) is one of the details in the often-recurring paragraph giving the points of Brahman wisdom. the Horse. Sir. with a retinue of young Brahmans. am a giver of the mystic verses. 120 (of the text). [89] And these are the seven treasures that he has--the Wheel. The knowledge of these thirty-two marks of a Great Being. I. possessor of the seven royal treasures. he mounted a chariot drawn by mares. to the Ikkhânankala Wood. Sir. One or two of the details are not quite certain. which we have just had at § 3. as yet. pp. a conqueror.' 5. and rising from his seat and paying reverence to Pokkharasâdi. the Elephant. This is the standing description in the Suttas of a learned Brahman. 2.--signs which. the protector of his people. 163. bearing rule even to the shores of the four great oceans. But if he go forth from the household life into the houseless state. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man{1}. and the {1. Divyâvadâna 620.' 4. and what you know that I know. the Treasurer. in those portions of the pre-Buddhistic priestly literature that have survived. And Pokkarasâdi told Ambattha the news. And when he had gone on in the chariot as far as the road was . and find out whether the reputation so noised abroad regarding him is in accord with the facts or not. 111} Adviser as a seventh{1}. in our mystic verses thirty-two bodily signs of a great man. versed in Lokâyata sophistry. mighty in frame. 10. that he could say of him: 'What I know that you know. and no other{2}. 106 of the text) are very obscure. if a man has. learned in the idioms and the grammar. And he dwells in complete ascendancy over the wide earth from sea to sea. 114. Ambattha. And the inference from both our passages is that the knowledge is scattered through the Brahman texts. a righteous king. so far as I know. ruling it in righteousness without the need of baton or of sword.as a fifth. heroes. and a collection of the older Brahman passages would probably throw light upon them. whether the Samana Gotama is such as they say or not. and upon a curious chapter in mythological superstition. No such list has been found. Now I. Many of the details of the Buddhist list (see the note below on p. If he dwells at home he will become a sovran of the world. &c. shall I know whether that is so or not?' 'There have been handed down.' 6. Who will write us a monograph (historical of course) on the Mahâ-purusha theory as held in early times among the Aryans in India?} {p. dear Ambattha. And he has more than a thousand sons. and proceeded. A. Mil. See below. and said: 'Come now. 'But how. the Gem.--so recognised an authority in the system of the threefold Vedic knowledge as expounded by his master.' said Ambattha in reply.

It is proper to speak with a Brahman as one goes along only when the Brahman himself is walking. For the details of these seven see further my 'Buddhist Suttas. moving about the while or standing. the offscouring of our kinsman's heels{1}--with them I would talk as I now do to you!' 'But you must have been wanting something. scoffing. to the Blessed One sitting there. go quietly up and enter the porch gently. and Ambattha entered in. Ambattha. And the other young Brahmans also went in. though he prides himself on his culture.' 9. But Ambattha. on foot. walking about. This young Brahman Ambattha is ill bred. Now at that time a number of the brethren were walking up and down in the open air. and said: 'Where may the venerable Gotama be lodging now? We have come hither to call upon him. and took their seats. he got down. or standing up. 'Certainly not. is his lodging{2}. as you now do. 2. fidgeting about the while. and they exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and {1. And the Blessed One said to him: 'Is that the way. and seated to a Brahman who has taken his seat. and sneering at the Blessed . The Blessed One will open the door for you. Then Ambattha did so. and at the thought that the Blessed One was vexed with him.' 8. jeering. said something or other of a civil kind in an off-hand way. and give a cough. Ambattha. and a pupil of the distinguished Brahman Pokkharasâdi. sham friars. and teachers of your teachers well stricken in years. Gotama. menial black fellows. Then the brethren thought: 'This young Brahman Ambattha is of distinguished family. 251-259. and standing to a Brahman who stands. and knock on the cross-bar. Then Ambattha was displeased and angry with the Blessed One at being called rude. And the Blessed One opened the door. But with shavelings. Vihâra. that you would hold converse with aged teachers. where the door is shut. The Blessed One will not find it difficult to hold conversation with such.' And they said to Ambattha: 'There. 112} compliments of politeness and courtesy. into the park. with me thus seated?' 11. often rendered 'monastery. Ambattha. or reclining to a Brahman who reclines. 7. [90] 10.' a meaning the word never has in the older texts. Turn your thoughts rather to the object you had in view when you came.} {p. when you came here. he said. And Ambatth a went up to them.' pp.practicable for vehicles. and went on. what can this come from except from want of training{2}?' 12.

seated in the hall on grand seats. still others. and not one of them even offered me a seat.' Buddhaghosa refers the expression to the Brahman theory that the Sûdras were born from Brahmâ's heels. p.One: 'Rough is this Sâkya breed of yours. 103. . mere menials. 1894. mere menials{1}. old and young. nor give gifts to. 117. and went into the Sâkyas' Congress Hall{2}. A. Gotama. R.' Thus did the young Brahman Ambattha for the second time charge the Sâkyas with being menials. § 2 of the Pâli text). 4 and Gât. 13.' p. and is used exclusively of places for the assemblies of the householders in the free republics of Northern Kosala. is neither fitting. Gotama. I. nor esteem. I. 'Literature of India.. [91] Menials. 457 a similar one of the Sâkyas at Kâtumâya. 56 (VI. cit. Chalmers J. and below. should neither venerate. S. touchy is this Sâkya breed of yours and {1. Ibbhâ. methinks. says 'treading on one another's heels. of low caste. nor give gifts to. were admitted to it. S. I. nudging one another with their fingers{3}. p. at M. and at M. 228 and Vin. nor value. 2. is neither fitting. And this may well have been the meaning. Santhâgâra. Now at that time there were a number of Sâkyas. and at M. menials as they are. IV. and for a truth. as we had above (p. they neither venerate. making merry and joking together. 2. 90. not so much his fault as that of his teacher. That. That. I. {1. that the Sâkyas. nor esteem. which is râgâgâraka. nor is it seemly!' Thus did the young Brahman Ambattha for the first time charge the Sâkyas with being menials. Gotama. Bandhupâdâpakkâ. Ambattha. P.} {p. Childers is quite wrong about this word. But Buddhaghosa's interpretation is confirmed both by the context and by the derivation. it was I myself that was the subject of their jokes. Neumann. nor value. 113} violent. 91 (§§ 10-13) below. I had to go to Kapilavatthu on some business or other of Pokkharasâdi's. 343) renders this 'nought but men of substance. 118. nor is it seemly.' and he has been followed by Frazer. nor pay honour to Brahmans. And is therefore. D. It never means a royal rest house. 521. after all. 334. 147 we have this identical hall of the Sâkyas at Kapilavatthu. 353. and rude. 23 of the translation in my 'Buddhist Suttas') we have the congress hall of the Mallas of Kusinârâ. That this is the implication is clear from the text. 'But in what then. 1. IV. nor pay honour to Brahmans. Thus at M. For though Gotama and the majority of his order were well born. I. Gotama. It is the hall where a clan mote was held. and Ambattha is certainly represented as giving vent to caste prejudice when he calls the brethren 'black fellows.' Compare M. I. pp. have the Sâkyas given you offence?' 'Once. V. loc.

233 that of the Likkhavis of Vesâlî-all of them called Santhâgâra. {1. Gotama. What if I were to ask him as to his own lineage. Anguli-patodakena.' And he said to him: 'And what family do you then. IV. the Brahmans. but attendants on the Brahmans. mere menials. The Introductory Story to the 52nd Pâkittiya (Vin. and Sinipura--from the land.} {p. It must there mean 'tickling. little hen bird though she be. that is neither fitting. Ambattha.' 'Yes. And of these four. Karanda. nor pay honour to the Brahmans.' 15. the tradesfolk. [92] So. 3. nor value. And being thus banished they took up their dwelling on the slopes of the Himâlaya. 16. 'Why a quail. in Kapilavatthu. and at A. Ambattha. and the work-people--are. verily. 114} 14.' Here. And there the Sâkyas are at their own home. it seems to have the meaning given above. IV. can say what she likes in her own nest. menials as they are. nor esteem. nor is it seemly. 'Long ago. Gotama. nor give gifts to. that the Sâkyas.--the nobles. 110 = III. wanting to divert the succession in favour or the son of his favourite queen. Ambattha. banished his elder children--Okkâmukha. but if one were to follow up your ancient name and lineage. and all referred to in connection with a public meeting of the clan. three--the nobles. Hatthinika. 84) tells how a Bhikshu was inadvertently done to death by being made to laugh immoderately in this way. and the work-people. It is not fitting for you to take offence at so trifling a thing. belong to?' 'I am a Kanhâyana. 'There are these four grades{1}. Ambattha. Vannâ. and that you are the offspring of one of their slave girls. it would appear that the Sâkyas were once your masters.' Thus did the young Brahman Ambattha for the third time charge the Sâkyas with being menials. on the borders of a lake where a mighty oak tree grew. Then the Blessed One thought thus: 'This Ambattha is very set on humbling the Sâkyas with his charge of servile origin. But the Sâkyas trace their line back to Okkâka the king{2}. 343. should neither venerate. . on the father's and the mother's side. the tradesfolk. King Okkâka.

'Tis a black thing (kanha) that is born. of the Kanhayanas s. Mahâvastu I. The Pâli Saka means a teak tree. Ambattha. V. Buddhaghosa gives further details as to his subsequent life." 'Now just as now. on the borders of a lake. it would appear that the Sâkyas were once your masters.' 17. B. Now Okkâka had a slave girl called Disâ. mother. of this dirt. And they said: "This fellow spoke as soon as he was born. But see S. 258. mother. Sire. 396. And lest they should injure the purity of their line they have married their own (sakâhi) sisters. on the father's and on the mother's side. and could not grow in the Terai) has been introduced to enable the word play to be adequately rendered. II. Sammanti. She gave birth to a black baby.Gât. 311. 348. V. 226 = Sum. where there grows a mighty oak (sako).' not in Childers in this sense. mother. Ambattha. I. 'Now Okkâka the king asked the ministers at his court: "Where. And no sooner was it born than the little black thing said. Kanhâyana is the regular torm of patronymic from Kanha. that if one were to follow up your ancient name and lineage.2. When he had thus spoken the young Brahmans said to the Blessed One: 'Let not the venerable {1. On this famous old king see the legends preserved in the M. Sum.} . Bathe me. I. He was the ancestor of the Kanhâyanas{3}. Ambattha. a devil has been born!" And that is the origin. 115} And through fear of injuring the purity of their line they intermarried with their sisters. Set me free. "Wash me. So shall I be of use to you. and that you are the offspring of one of their slave girls. There do they dwell. Ambattha.} {p. 'dwell. Sirs. 2. 13. The oak (which doesn't grow in the text. why they are known as Sâkyas. I. 4." so then they called devils "black fellows" (kan he). are the children now{1}?"' 'There is a spot. 3. And thus is it.' 'Then did Okkâka the king burst forth in admiration [93]: "Hearts of oak (sakyâ) are those young fellows! Right well they hold their own (paramasakyâ){2}!" 'That is the reason. 125 and Gât. people call devils "devils. on the slopes of the Himâlaya.

as to whence the Kanhâyanas draw their origin. let Ambattha himself speak{1}. And he is able to give answer to the venerable Gotama in these matters. teachers of yours or their teachers. a learned man. What have you heard. I. &c. Sum. or go away. 493. 21. 263) says that Gotama's object was to confine the discussion to a single opponent. Ambattha is able to give answer to the venerable Gotama in these matters. Then the Blessed One said to him: 'You {1. and who the ancestor was to whom they trace themselves back?' And when he had thus spoken Ambattha remained silent. A. Aññena aññam patikarasi. answer a reasonable question put by a Tathâgata (by one who has won the truth). If [94] you thought otherwise. Then the Blessed One said to Ambattha the Brahman: 'Then this further question arises. 2 and 9. you should answer. Buddhist passages are M. does not. and of good family. Then the Blessed One said to them: 'Quite so. Comp. and is apparently never meant to--is a frequent form of expression in Indian books. see M.{p. then it would be for you to carry on our discussion further.' 19. Dhp. 116} Gotama humble Ambattha too sternly with this reproach of being descended from a slave girl. III. Up. 72. 198. A. I. I. not in Childers. when Brahmans old and well stricken in years. 6. 140. were talking together. 250. For whosoever.} {p. This curious threat--which never comes to anything.' 18. 94. 3. a very reasonable one which. Ambattha. I. among the Buddhists. 'We do think so. 85. 2. I. It is answering one thing by alleging another.' 20. 187. He is well born. Ambatth a. This is no time for you to hold your peace. 33. and is pre-Buddhistic. and we will hold our peace. Gotama. 87. he is versed in the sacred hymns. Brinad Âr. V. his head splits into pieces on the spot. Dhp. even though unwillingly. Buddhaghosa (p. an able reciter. Amba ttha. And the Blessed One asked the same question again. 117} had better answer. then your head will split in pieces on the spot{3}. 264. In the text Gotama repeats the whole speech of the Brahmans. Gât. [95] And still Ambattha remained silent. 26. I. it could not well be brought to a conclusion. now. 92. or go off upon another issue{2}. since if all spoke at once. But as you think so. Vin. 54. If you do not give a clear reply. or remain silent.' . 87. Mil. 231. For this idiom. even up to the third time of asking.

and uproar. says Buddhaghosa. Gotama. in their depreciation of Ambattha as the offspring of a slave girl. And the Blessed One perceived the spirit bearing the thunderbolt. To him the king in answer said: "Who forsooth is this fellow. who--son of my slave girl as he is--asks for my daughter in marriage. startled. Let me set him free from their reproach. with the intention. and that the ancestor to whom they trace themselves back. when Brahmans old and well stricken in years. they say he is descended from a slave girl. and said: 'What was it the Blessed One said? Say it once again!' 'What do you think. We did not suppose that the Samana Gotama. Indra.21. were talking together. and turmoil.' And he said to them: 'Be not too severe in disparaging Ambattha the Brahman on the ground of his descent. was not a man to be trusted!' 23. even as the venerable Gotama hath said. he fitted an arrow to his bow. his family.} {p. and aglow. And the Blessed One thought: [96] 'They {1. they say. But neither could he let the arrow fly.' 22. then would the earth dry up as far as his realm extends. dazzling. and so did Ambattha the Brahman. secret. angry and displeased. whose words are righteousness itself. Sir. 118} go too far. whence Upanishad. Ambattha? What have you heard. all fiery. teachers of yours or their teachers. and agitated. 2. they say. and returning to Okkâka the king. nor could he take it off the string again{2}. And when he had thus spoken the young Brahmans fell into tumult. seeking safety and protection and help from the Blessed One. is not of good standing. as to whence the Kanhâyanas draw their origin. a mystery. That Kanha became a mighty seer{1}. That is the origin of the Kan hâyanas. He went into the Dekkan." . Vagira-pânî: to wit. there and then to split his head in pieces. 'Then the ministers and courtiers went to Kanha the seer. let the king go safe{3}. and who the ancestor was to whom they trace themselves back?' 'Just so. and the Sâkyas were his masters. and said: 'Low born. and said: "Let the king go safe. if he did not answer." and. is Ambattha the Brahman. he demanded his daughter Madda-rûpî in marriage. Upanisîdati." "The king shall suffer no harm. But should he shoot the arrow downwards. terrified. did I hear. there he learnt mystic verses. And Ambattha on becoming aware of it. these Brahmans. listened to in awe. crouched down beside him in awe{2}. Now at that time the spirit who bears the thunderbolt{1} stood over above Ambattha in the sky with a mighty mass of iron.

not to work such results as these. was brutum fulmen. terrified at the lesson given him. I. He will suffer neither harm nor terror. Compare Merlin. he would." 'Then." "Let the king. go safe. Ambattha? Suppose a young Kshatriya should have connection with a Brahman maiden. The prince shall suffer no harm. and let the god rain. The effect of course of the charm which. was known as the Ambattha charm. Faustum fac regem. not a hair of him shall be touched. But should he shoot the arrow upwards. Rishi. 2.' . O Brahmans. II. mystic sage." "The king shall suffer no harm. The Ambattha charm had only power to stop the arrow going off. nor the land either. Then the Blessed One said to Ambattha: 'What think you. 81 = Gât. nor his land. the god would not rain for seven years as far as his realm extends{4}. says Buddhaghosa. [97] gave the man his daughter Madda-rûpî to wife. You should not. Buddhaghosa tells us (p. Now would the son thus come to the Brahman maiden through the Kshatriya youth receive a seat and water (as tokens of respect) from the Brahmans?' 'Yes. This is the old mystic word swasti. V. We have lost the use of such expressions. But let the king aim the arrow at his eldest son. the ministers told this to Okkâka. That Kanha was a mighty seer: 24. 3." "The king shall suffer no harm."Let the king. Sir. Sotthi hotu. as in B. O Brahmans. and the country too. {1. and from their intercourse a son should be born. and no harm was done. Gotama. Sir. But the king. All this." And the king did so. 4. and the country too. 119} and said: "Let the king aim{1} at his eldest son. go safe. 265). magician being no doubt implied. and the god shall rain. 17 (verse 90).} {p. be too severe to disparage Ambattha in the matter of his slave-girl ancestress.

or of the food boiled in milk{2}. I.} {p. Gotama. Literally 'place the arrow (which had a barb shaped like a horse-shoe) on his son. Thâlipâka.' 25. 'Then what think you. Ambattha? Suppose a Brahman youth should have connection with a Kshatriya maiden. 186. It is used in sacrifices. they would. and also on special occasions.' 2. 120} a seat and water (as tokens of respect) from the Brahmans?' 'Yes.'But would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the feast offered to the dead. Now would the son thus come to the Kshatriya maiden through the Brahman youth receive {1. or of the offerings to the gods. Mil. See Gât.' 'But would the Kshatriyas allow him to receive the consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya?' 'Certainly not. or not.' 'Why not that?' 'Because he is not of pure descent on the mother's side. Gotama. he would. 249.' 'But would he be shut off.' . and from their intercourse a son should be born.' 'But would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not?' 'They would. Gotama. or of food sent as a present?' 'Yes. from their women?' 'He would not be shut off. Gotama.

' 'But would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not?' 'They would. whether one compares women with women.'But would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the feast offered to the dead. or not. they would. Ambattha. or of the offerings to the gods. Gotama. Ambattha? Suppose the Brahmans.' 'Why not that?' 'Because he is not of pure descent on the father's side.' 'Or would the Brahmans allow him to partake of the food offered to the dead. the Kshatriyas are higher and the Brahmans inferior. or of the food boiled in milk. Would he be offered a seat or water among the Brahmans?' 'Certainly not. from their women?' 'He would not. or men with men.' 26. for some offence{1} or other. Gotama. or of food sent as a present?' 'Yes. 'Then. Gotama. Gotama. 'And what think you.' . or of an offering to the gods.' 'But would the Kshatriyas allow him to receive the consecration ceremony of a Kshatriya?' 'Certainly not. were to outlaw a Brahman by shaving him and pouring ashes over his head{2}. or of food sent as a present?' 'Certainly not.' [98] 'But would he be shut off. Gotama. were to banish him from the land or from the township. or of food boiled in milk. Gotama.

literally 'killing him with (the proceeding called) the Ash-basket.' 'And would the Brahmans teach him their verses?' 'They would. Gotama. be offered water and a seat?' 'Yes.' 'And would he be shut off. 'But what think you. 189. Ambattha. he would. 267) says 'offence.{1. or of food sent as a present?' 'He would. 2.' Buddhaghosa (p. the Kshatriya would have fallen into the deepest degradation. from their women?' 'He would not. or not. 121} 'Or would the Brahmans teach him their verses or not?' 'Certainly not.' 'And would he be allowed to partake of the food offered to the dead. Gotama. among the Brahmans. II. or of the offerings to the gods. or not. and banished him from the land or the township.' [99] 'But thereby. would he. Gotama?' 'And would he be shut off. Pakarane. Gotama. Assa-putena vadhitvâ.' 27. or of the food boiled in milk. Ambattha? If the Kshatriyas had in the same way outlawed a Kshatriya.} {p. shaven as . from their women?' 'He would be shut off. Perhaps 'in consequence of some regulation or other.' It is also mentioned at A. 242. Gotama.' but compare Mil.' Compare the idiom 'cut him dead.

284. he is the best among gods and men. 2. 344. pp. full of meaning and not void thereof. 585-588. or with Bühler from %smar. Hofrath Bühler has pointed out that in the Mahâbhârata III. 1897. Ambattha. It occurs also at M. Ambattha. Bühler.. See the whole article in the J. and this Brahmâ was one of the five. he is the best among gods and men. not indeed the actual words here imputed to him. I also. as referee in a dispute on a point similar to the one here discussed. So that. It occurs also in the description (Mahâ Sudassana Sutta) of the ideal woman as kimkâra-patisârinî. Sanam-kumâra means 'ever virgin. II. But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness. {3. still it holds good that the Kshatriyas are higher. and below in the Aggañña Sutta. Either 'tracing back their gotras' or 'referring back to their gotras' according as we derive the word with Childers from %sar. but others of a very similar import. We either have in our text a quotation from an older recension of the same legend. R. I.} {p. Sanam-kumâra{1}. And I too approve it. and the Brahmans inferior.to his head. A. cut dead with the ash-basket. say: "The Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk who put their trust in lineage. renders it 'record their gotras. A. S. or one of the two--either the Brahman editors of the Mahâbhârata. was well sung and not ill sung by the Brahmâ Sanam-kumâra. or the composers of our Sutta--have twisted the legend a little in their own favour. Gotta-patisârino. S. cit. 185 (Bombay edition) there is an interesting passage where Sanat-kumâra (the Sanskrit form of the name Sanam-kumâra) is actually represented by the Brahmans themselves as having uttered. banished from land and township. 1894. 28. I. p.. 358. well said and not ill said. 153. But he who is perfect in wisdom and righteousness. loc. The verse is a favourite one. even when a Kshatriya has fallen into the deepest degradation. 'Moreover it was one of the Brahmâ gods. S. 122} "The Kshatriya is the best of those among this folk who put their trust in lineage.' ."' Here ends the First Portion for Recitation{4}.' According to the legend--common ground to Brahmans and Buddhists--there were five 'mind born' sons of Brahmâ." 'Now this stanza. R.. who uttered this stanza{2}: {1. who remained always pure and innocent. See the passages quoted by Chalmers in the J.

under Morality (Sîla){1}. at the end of each clause." or "You are not held as worthy as I. J." It is where the talk is of marrying. 1897. Ambattha. and what that wisdom?' [Here follow. It runs here.. 123} CHAPTER II. 'But what. For whosoever. are in bondage to the notions of birth or of lineage. 341 and foll. II. they are far from the best wisdom and righteousness. 63 of the text) on the appearance of a Buddha. On the facts of caste as disclosed in the Gâtaka book see Fick's 'Sociale Gliederung in Indien zu Buddha's Zeit.' Paris. 1894. seems to have had a different reading--idam p'assa hoti sîlasmim--from that . all in the Magghima. 'But what. pp.} {p. 62. Gotama. through the whole of this repeated passage: 'This is reckoned in him as morality. 4. The introductory paragraphs (§§ 40-42 of the Sâmañña-phala. is that conduct. Ambattha. 4-12 (§§ 8-27) of the text. or of the pride which says: "You are held as worthy as I.' &c. R. the conversion of a hearer. pp.The next line might also be rendered 'when perfect. Gotama. or of lineage. 268. or of connection by marriage. that reference is made to such things as that. Only the refrain differs. or to the pride of social position. Chalmers. referring to the Kshatriya. Kannakathâla. there is no reference to the question either of birth.' Kiel. or of giving in marriage. and what the wisdom spoken of in that verse?' 'In the supreme perfection in wisdom and righteousness.' 2. is the righteousness. above.' {1. his preaching. is described at length also in the Assalâyana. besides being often referred to in isolated passages. The Sîlas. S. The first has been translated into German by Professor Pischel and the last into English by Mr. A. This question of caste. and his renunciation of the world: then come 1.. p. Buddhaghosa. It is only by having got rid of all such bondage that one can realise for himself [100] that supreme perfection in wisdom and in conduct. and Madhura Suttas. and on the general history of caste in India see Senart's 'Les Castes dans l'Inde. 1896. p. 1.

7. above. 86. p. The paragraph on 'Mindful and self-possessed. 71-2 of the text. 5. § 67. p. above. 69 of the text. but as higher conduct.' 3. 9. above. 2. The paragraphs on the Five Hindrances. 4. The paragraph on Content. §§ 89. p. above. above. 77 of the text. above. p. p. 76 of the text. §§ 85. 71 of the text. The paragraphs on Insight arising from Knowledge (Nâna-dassanam). §§ 83. 70 of the text. 11. The refrain from here onwards is: 'This is reckoned to him as conduct. The paragraphs on the Heavenly Ear (Dibbasota). § 66. above. § 64. 88. § 87. The paragraph on Confidence. 77 of the text. and it is higher and sweeter than the last. The paragraphs on Mystic Gifts (Iddhi). above. p. §§ 75-82. 124} Then under Conduct (Karana). of course. 12. § 63. p. 70 of the text. p.' above. The paragraph on Solitude. above. 90. The refrain from here onwards is: 'This is reckoned in him as wisdom.' 10. The refrain at the end of each of them ('higher and better than the last') is here. 71 of the text. pp. but is better. The paragraphs on the Four Rapt Contemplations{1}. 84. 79 of the text. The paragraphs on the Mental Image. § 65. It comes to much the same result. 73-76. to be read not as higher fruit of the life of a recluse.} {p. Under Wisdom (Viggâ).' above. as omitting the word bhikkhu. p. . 6. pp.preserved in our text. The paragraph on 'Guarded is the door of his senses. §§ 68-74. 8.

And what are the four?' 'In case. 79 of the text. and eight of the higher wisdom. to this supreme perfection in wisdom and goodness [101] there are Four Leakages{2}. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. 125} births (Pubbe-nivâsa-anussati-ñâna). 2. p. 83 of the text. §§ 91. should plunge into the depths of the forest. Ambattha. 14. p.' 3. verily. in case any recluse or Brahman. {1. and the rest of a mendicant friar's outfit). 96. Ambattha. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves. with his yoke on his shoulder (to carry fire-sticks. he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him that hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. Ambattha.] 'Such a man. Ambattha.} {p. p. It is important to notice that these are put. 'outlets. above. The paragraph on the Divine Eye (Dibbakakkhu). And there is no other perfection in wisdom and conduct higher and sweeter than this. is used in its . The paragraphs on Memory of one's own previous {1. vowing to himself: "I will henceforth be one of those who live only on fruits that have fallen of themselves"--then. verily. he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him who hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. 16. The paragraphs on the Destruction of the Deadly Floods (Âsavânam khaya-ñânam). 98{1}. not under wisdom. above. §§ 97. needles. p. above. 82 of the text.' The word aya-mukham. is said to be perfect in wisdom. so that it cannot fill up. There are therefore eight divisions of conduct. 81 of the text. perfect in wisdom and conduct. 15. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. any recluse or Brahman. a water-pot. 94. §§ 93. Apâya-mukhâni.13. 92. but under conduct. above. taking a hoe and a basket with him. The paragraphs on Knowledge of the hearts of others (Keto-pariya-ñânam). 'Now. leakages. inlet. should plunge into the depths of the forest. perfect in conduct. 'And again. § 95. vowing to himself: "I will henceforth be one of those who live only on bulbs and roots and fruits"--then.

I. and dwell there. saying to himself: "Whosoever. How little is it that I can profess {1. Compare M. been instructed in this supreme perfection of wisdom and conducts?' 'Not that. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves. 2. P. I. p. pp.} {p. in a secondary sense. 8. 24. in case any recluse or Brahman. II. 3.} {p. verily. Gotama. 34 foll. for 1891. 74. 'These are the Four Leakages. 'Now what think you. Ambattha. he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him that hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. and without having attained to serving the fire-god{2} [102] should build himself a four-doored almshouse at a crossing where four high roads meet. 127} to have learnt! How supreme this perfection of wisdom and conduct! Far is it from me to have been . 7. and he gives further details of eight different sorts (discussed in the Journal of the P. Ambattha? Have you. Ambattha. T. S. Buddhaghosa here (p. For instances of this see Gât. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. and both words at A. 270) says that all sorts of Brahman ascetics are here intended to be included. 126} 'And again. and without having attained to living only on bulbs and roots and fruits. him will I entertain according to my ability and according to my power"--then. 24. he turns out worthy only to be a servant unto him who hath attained to wisdom and righteousness. S. Sandissasi sâkariyako. shall pass here. 9. 494. 166. 25. and 'outlet' occurs figuratively. 299. should build himself a fire-shrine near the boundaries of some village or some town. verily. as in this passage. and without having attained to living only on bulbs and roots and fruits.concrete sense at D. as one of a class of pupils under the same teacher. 25). 43. 6. Ambattha. without having thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection in wisdom and conduct. 285. whether recluse or Brahman. and without having attained to living only on fruits fallen of themselves. in case any recluse or Brahman. pp. to supreme perfection in righteousness and conduct{2}.). from either of these four directions. 4. II. and there dwell serving the fire-god{1}--then. 'And again. in the Sigâlovâda Sutta. Such service paid to a god has already been condemned in the tract on the Sîlas. the minor details of mere morality (above.

Ambattha? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. the offscouring of our kinsman's heels. 128} 5. and dwell there as one who would fain observe the vow to entertain whosoever might pass that way.' . how deep]y your teacher. Gotama. that they should claim converse with Brahmans versed in the threefold Vedic lore!"--he himself not having even fulfilled any one even of these lesser duties (which lead men to neglect the higher ones).' 'Then what think you. Gotama. Ambattha? Although you have not thoroughly attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. but even in any one of the Four Leakages by which the complete attainment thereof is debarred. from any of the four directions. Ambattha. not only in the supreme wisdom and conduct. and have not attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves. according to your ability and according to your power?' 'Not even that. has herein done you wrong. have you been trained to take the yoke upon your shoulders. And your teacher too. and plunge into the depths of the forest as one who would fain observe the vow of living only on bulbs and roots and frutts?' 'Not even that.' {p.' 'Then what think you. the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. Gotama. and have not attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves. menial black fellows. the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. have you been trained to take hoe and basket.' 'Then what think you.trained therein?' 'Then what think you. nor have attained to living on fruits fallen of themselves. See. Ambattha? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. and dwell there as one who would fain serve the fire-god?' [103] 'Not even that. and have not attained to living on bulbs and roots and fruits. as a pupil. Ambattha? Although you have not attained unto this supreme perfection of wisdom and goodness. 'So then you. have you been taught to build yourself a four-doored almshouse at a spot where four high roads cross. and have not attained to living on bulbs and roots and fruits. has told you this saying: "Who are these shavelings. have you been taught to build yourself a fire-shrine on the borders of some village or some town. and have not attained to serving the fire-god. Gotama. and plunge into the depths of the forest as one who would fain observe the vow of living only on fruits fallen of themselves?' 'Not even that. Ambattha. have fallen short{1} of due training. sham friars.

Bhâradvaga.' . looked down on a Brahman. How is it. know by heart their verses. Gotama. So at Gât. Ambattha? Suppose a king. By concealing this suggestive fact. should discuss {1. as a Brahman. old and well stricken in years. the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. the king of Kosala. 'And the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. trimmed as to their hair and beard. 'Have been done out of. neglected in the matter of. intoning or reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited--to wit. or composed. in the full possession and enjoyment of the five pleasures of sense. or have attained to the state of a Rishi--such a condition of things has no existence!' 9. Ambattha? What have you heard when Brahmans. from whom he accepts this pure and lawful maintenance. uttered. should discuss some resolution of state with his chiefs or princes. And suppose as he left the spot and stepped on one side. a Kshatriya. as a pupil. would he thereby be the king. Kassapa. 2. Angirasa. Atthaka. were talking together--did those ancient Rishis. standing there. perfumed.' &c. is in the enjoyment of a grant from Pasenadi.' 7. Ambattha. clad in white garments. parade about well groomed. Parihînako sâkariyako. saying: "Thus and thus said Pasenadi the king. Ambattha. and Bhagu{1}--though you can say: "I. Vâmaka. whose verses you so chant over and repeat. either seated on the neck of his elephant or on the back of his horse. or standing on the footrug of his chariot [104]. of great merit. Vessâmitta. how deeply your teacher. or even as one of his officers?' 'Certainly not. whose ancient form of words so chanted.6. the Brahmans of to-day chant over again and rehearse. 257 a king calls a Brahman 'low born' (hîna-gakko) compared with himself. the utterers of the verses. 'Now what think you. V. Ambattha.} {p. defrauded of. even one whom he considered. that the very king. 'But just so." Although he should speak as the king might have spoken. Ambattha. But the king does not allow him to come into his presence. this wisdom. does not admit him to his presence? See. has herein done you wrong{2}. Vâsettha. do now?' [105] 'Not that.' 8. teachers of yours or their teachers. and your teacher too. those ancient poets (Rishis) of the Brahmans. adorned with garlands and gems. 'Now what think you. Yamataggi. a workman (S ûdra) or the slave of a workman should come up and. King Pasenadi of Kosala. the authors of the verses." that you should on that account be a Rishi. Gotama. as you. When he consults with him he speaks to him only from behind a curtain. 129} the matter. and thereby leaving you ignorant that the king. or discuss as the king might have done. Vâmadeva.

Vethaka-nata-passâhi.} {p. do now?' 'Not that. the Sisterhood wore robes from the . and your teacher too. nor do you live under the conditions under which the Rishis lived. 'So then. 'Stûpa or Bharhut. We have here probably the ancient name of the very elaborate girdles which all the fashionable women and goddesses wear on the old bas reliefs. Ambattha. neither are you a Rishi. Cunningham. as you.'Or did they live. 13 (p. as you. nor your teacher. do now?' 'Or did they go about driving chariots. I will make it clear by explanation. and your teacher too. and began to walk up and down.' 11. 130. 130} and furbelows{1} round their loins. But whatever it may be. by men girt with long swords. LI. To judge from the bas reliefs--and I cannot call to mind any Pit aka passage contradicting them--the women (lay women of course. gives figures and details of them. as you. Gotama. drawn by mares with plaited manes and tails{2}. using long wands and goads the while. ask me as to that. And Amba ttha did the same. as their food. and flavoured with sauces and curries of various kinds. do now?' 'Not that.' 'Or were they waited upon by women with fringes {1. concerning which you are in doubt or perplexity about me. as you. and your teacher too.' 10. On these names see Tevigga Sutta I. 172 of my 'Buddhist Suttas') and 'Vinaya Texts. with moats dug out round them{3} and crossbars let down before the gates{4}.' 'Or did they have themselves guarded in fortified towns. Gotama. and your teacher too.' Pl. Ambattha.' II. Then the Blessed One went forth from his chamber. And as he thus walked {1. do now?' 'Not that. on boiled rice of the best sorts. from which all the black specks had been sought out and removed. Gotama.

219. As to the means by which the Buddha made the first visible to Ambattha. 2. 139. Mil.} {p. Neither text nor commentary make it clear what these two marks really quite meant. I. 433. 169) to show that he made a visible image of himself fully dressed in his robes. And he so arranged matters by his Wondrous Gift that Ambattha the Brahman saw how that part of the Blessed One that ought to be hidden by clothes was enclosed in a sheath. is 'like an elephant's. IV. whether they appeared on the body of the Blessed One or not. 4. The first. 330. {1. Kutta is not in Childers. I. 3. § 5) and adopted by the Buddhists. 124. And the Blessed One knew that he was so in doubt. Dhp. king of Kosala (see ibid. 2. says Buddhaghosa.' But where does the iron come in? This is surely a modern improvement. 84. Compare Gât. This last is possibly derived from poetical descriptions of the tongues of flame or light playing round the disk of the sun. Buddhaghosa simply quotes Nâgasena (at Mil. Asl. Kutta-vâlehi. They were unclothed from the neck to the waist.' Pl. Only an historical explanation of the meaning of the marks can here guide us to what is inferred. shows us the chariot of Pasenadi. he took stock of the thirty-two signs of a great man. as represented on the bas reliefs. 128. not sure. III. the steeds wore plumes on their heads. See Gât. and a very broad and handsome girdle worn over the top of the skirt. like a snake's. II. IV. 296. to a great length. The chariot of the time. 131} up and down. Unfortunately the word is found elsewhere (M. 88 of the text. 127. p. They are in part adaptations to a man of poetical epithets applied to the sun.' and the second seems. as handed down among the Brahmans (see note above. partly characteristics of personal beauty such as any man might have. and the whole circumference of his forehead he covered with his tongue{2}. from what follows. following the Blessed One. And the difficulty is to see how that would have helped matters. 12.shoulders downwards) have only very elaborate headdresses and necklaces. XII. pp. Okkhitta-palighâsu. not satisfied. 'Stûpa of Bharhut. Childers says (following the Sanskrit dictionaries) bars 'of iron. touched and stroked both his nostrils. 398) only in an ethical sense. These are two of the thirty-two bodily marks of a Great Being (Mahâ-purisa). But it occurs frequently. 125). a skirt from the waist to the ankles. and one or two of . [106] With respect to those two--the concealed member and the extent of tongue{1}--he was in doubt and perplexity. 106. And he perceived them all save only two. and had their manes and tails elaborately plaited. to be the power of extending the tongue. A. And the Blessed One so bent round his tongue that he touched and stroked both his ears. had standing room for four passengers.321. or to the personification of the mystic human sacrifice.

One of the Dialogues in the Dîgha. with the Samana Gotama?' 'Yes.' And he said to the Blessed One: 'And now. They are also enumerated. No. N. the young Brahman. and have much to do. thought: 'The Samana Gotama is endowed with the thirty-two signs of a great man. and took his seat respectfully on one side. not different. No. and saluted him. 33 = M.' And Ambattha mounted his chariot drawn by mares. 12 recurs in identical words in the Sela Sutta (S. the Lakhana Sutta. with them all. or is he not?' 'He is so. we would fain depart. I had. between the eyes with white hair on it. Sir.them--the little wart. Sir. 'Well.' . and from the old lists. is devoted to these thirty-two marks. Gotama. not only with some of them.' 'Well! is the venerable Gotama so as the reputation [107] about him I told you of declares. for instance. Now at that time the Brahman Pokkharasâdi had gone forth from Ukkattha with a great retinue of Brahmans. and later books give other lists differing from each other. 132} And Ambattha. And when he was so seated. with all of them. and not otherwise. Pokkharasâdi said to him: 14. and departed thence. Sir. and was seated in his own pleasaunce waiting there for Ambattha. with slight differences. he descended from it. Ambattha! Did you see the Blessed One?' 'Yes. and the protuberance at the top of the head--may possibly be added in reminiscence of personal bodily peculiarities which Gotama actually had. 92) and forms the subject of one of the dilemmas put by King Milinda to Nâgasena (Mil 167). in many small points. and not otherwise. what seemeth to you fit.' 'Do. And Ambattha came on to the pleasaunce. The story told here in §§ 11. Ambattha. And he is endowed with the thirty-two signs of a great man. We are busy. Is he such a one.} {p. Ambattha. And when he had come in his chariot as far as the path was practicable for chariots. we saw him.' 'And did you have any talk. and came on foot to where Pokkharasâdi was. not only with some. Such is he. as his reputation declares. 13. in the Mahâpadhâna Sutta.

both hard and soft. forsooth. Pokkharasâdi said to him: 'Oh! you wiseacre! Oh I you dullard! Oh! you {p. [108] 16. and then going on. what an expert. to where the Blessed One was. the young Brahman Ambattha. The venerable Pokkharasâdi can do so to-morrow. they say. who should carry out his business thus. 133} expert. must. have any talk with him?' 'Yes. in our threefold Vedic lore! A man. I had: 'And on what wise was the talk that you had with him: 18. himself. be reborn into some dismal state of misery and woe. Brahman.' So Pokkharasâdi had sweet food. been here?' 'Yes.' 'And did you. if not to the very disclosures the venerable Gotama made{1}? What a wiseacre. Sir. and rolled Ambattha over. 'Has our pupil. to-day to go to call on the Samana Gotama. When he had thus spoken. 15. Brahman. out to Ukkattha. and said to the Blessed One: 17. on foot. Then the Blessed One told the Brahman Pokkharasâdi all the talk that had taken place. on the dissolution of the body. he has. there and then. What could the very points you pressed in your insolent words lead up to. made ready at his own house. and taken on wagons. And when . But the Brahmans there spake thus to Pokkharasâdi: 'It is much too late. he struck out with his foot. And he wanted. what a dullard. driving in his chariot as far as the road was practicable for vehicles.' And angry and displeased. 'Gotama. to go and call on the Blessed One.'And how did the talk go?' Then Ambattha told the Brahman Pokkharasâdi all the talk that he had had with the Blessed One. after death. And he himself went on to the Ikkhânankala Wood. And when he had exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. he took his seat on one side. forsooth. Gotama. by the light of blazing torches. in our threefold Vedic lore.

Above. upanîyya upanîyya. Brahman. Pokkharasâdi took a low seat. § 12 repeated. that is to say. the Brahman. even as he had shown them to Ambattha{1}. p. had (on the morrow) the time announced to him: 'It is time. he spake to him of generosity. with the brethren. And Pokkharasâdi perceived that the Blessed One was endowed with the thirty-two marks of a Great Being. Gotama. with sweet food. his request. not only with some. 20. 251. of right conduct. and the defilement of lusts. 83. 2.' [109] 19. 172. with his own hand. And he saw them all plainly.} {p. And the Brahman Pokkharasâdi took stock. oh Gotama. See the note at 'Vinaya Texts. Then to him thus seated [110] the Blessed One {1. But the Blessed One showed them to Pokkharasâdi. the meal is ready.' 'Let him be quite happy. satisfied the Blessed One. I. until he refused any more. to Pokkharasâdi's house.' I. Gotama. and the young Brahmans the members of the Order. Âsagga âsagga . who had dressed in the early morning. the vanity. and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And he said to the Blessed One: 'May the venerable Gotama grant me the favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. of heaven. and sat down beside him. seeing that the Blessed One had accepted. Then the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. . by silence. both hard and soft. on the body of the Blessed One. on which compare M. And when the Blessed . 21. 250. of the thirty-two marks of a Great Being. went. save only two. of the danger. .} {p. that young Brahman Ambattha.{l. As to two of them--the sheath-concealed member and the extensive tongue--he was still in doubt and undecided. Buddhaghosa is somewhat ambiguous in his interpretation of this idiomatic phrase. with all of them. that young Brahman Ambattha. Forgive him.' And the Blessed One. 135} discoursed in due order. 134} he had thus spoken Pokkharasâdi said to the Blessed One: 'He is young and foolish. put on his outer robe. and also the members of the Order with him. and taking his bowl with him. And Pokkharasâdi. Onîta-patta-pânim. of the advantages of renunciation. and cleansed the bowl and his{2} hands. 106 of the text. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal. I.' And the Blessed One accepted. A.

addressed the Blessed One. even while sitting there. or offer him a seat or water. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. and my wife. softened. at Ukkattha. the Brahman. and my people. Brahman. to the truth. the Brahman. And then the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. as one who from this day forth. 136} mine.--just even so.One saw that Pokkharasâdi. what you say.' 'It is well. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. and said: 'Most excellent. has taken him as his guide. unprejudiced. so let him visit {p. had become prepared. of its cessation. just even so did Pokkharasâdi. by the venerable Gotama. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Sonadanda Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next . betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. Lord. the pure and spotless. Eye for the Truth. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms. and my companions. as one who had seen the Truth. then he proclaimed the doctrine the Buddhas alone have won. of Brahmans or their wives. had mastered it. understood it. as long as life endures. who had passed beyond doubt and put away perplexity and gained full confidence. and of the Path. And just as the venerable Gotama visits the families of others. dived deep down into it. with my sons. May the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple. upraised. has the truth been made known to me. obtain. that is to say. And just as a clean cloth from which all stain has been washed away will readily take the dye. his disciples. and he knew: 'Whatsoever has a beginning in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. oh Gotama (are the words of thy mouth). in many a figure. And I. or stand up in his presence. oh Gotama. a cause of weal and bliss. and believing in heart. for long. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. or take delight in him. who had become dependent on no other man for his knowledge of the teaching of the Master. to him that will be. who shall pay reverence to the venerable Gotama. Whosoever there may be there. and to the Order. the doctrine of sorrow.' Here ends the Ambattha Sutta. 22. of its origin.

he gives the same details. or social position. of the mind. 137} INTRODUCTION TO THE SONADANDA SUTTA. substantially the same. and firmly grasped. activity. mentions only Wisdom and Conduct (containing no word for Intelligence). in the Introduction to the Sâmañña-phala.{p. The reason seems to be simply that the verse. called a Brahman. 57-59. and remains in this state of Nirvâna in Arahatship. as beauty is of health' (to quote the words of Matthew Bassendine). who. declared to be the only true Brahman. In trying to gain over Sonadanda to his (the Buddha's) view of what is the essential quality that makes a man a Brahman. but puts the Ghânas (the states of Ecstasy) not under Conduct. which is ignorance of the action of Karma. 138} It is this latter phase which they call Wisdom (Viggâ){1}--the contrary of the Aviggâ. But under Intelligence they always distinguish two phases--the enquiring. pp. but under Paññâ (Intelligence). and of the doctrine of the Âsavas or Intoxications. not specially Buddhist) under Wisdom. quite beyond the stage of 'wasting his wonder on the fabulous soul. In trying to gain over Ambattha to his (the Buddha's) view of the essential distinction--rather than birth or social position--between man and man. on which the exposition in the Ambattha turns. It is true that the Buddhist position is that 'goodness is a function of intelligence. no doubt. does not see that this. in fact. in Buddhist terminology. See the summary above. of the Four Noble Truths. That dealt with the general question of pride of birth. and that it is not thought accurate to put the states of Ecstasy (which are Indian. the logical outcome of . and cheerfully acquiesced in. and necessarily therefore doubting. is not only.' has attained to. But there is a difference. THIS Dialogue comes very appropriately immediately after the Ambattha. as learned as he is wealthy. The man who knows these. {1. but is. and the final stage of emancipation and peace when the laws of the universe are clearly seen. finally and permanently out of the jungle and in the open. It is amazing that Sonadanda. and the difference is instructive.} {p. The conclusion is. This deals with the special question of what is the essential quality which makes a man a Brahman. Gotama includes the whole list as set out above in the thirteen divisions of the Sâmañña-phala{1}.

with safety.} {p. and on being asked what it is. is really incompatible with the supremacy of the Brahmans in the ordinary sense of that word. or a similar. the phonology. § 4: 'A Brahman well born on both sides. in common with the rest of the people. back through seven generations. and with due regard to his own doctrine. 139} legends as a fifth--a man learned in the (etymologies of the) words and in the grammar. In other words. versed in Lokâyata (Nature-Lore){1} and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man. till we come to that last paragraph. In the Tikanna and Gânussoni Suttas of the Anguttara{3} the question put by the Buddha is: 'What sort of person do you Brahmans acknowledge to be a Tevigga Brahman (a Brahman with threefold lore)?' The answer of each of the Brahmans is. pp. 2. one who has mastered the Three Vedas. with the indices. fully accept. and the exegesis (as a fourth).the Buddha's argument. 95. and of the translation below.' Whereupon the Buddha rejoins that in the teaching of the Arahats the 'threefold lore' is different. Vol. in the texts. in the words of our Sutta. which are not. to accept one self-evident truth after another. the ritual. and with the {1. It was really quite inconsistent with the ethical standard of the times. There is indeed nothing. which the Brahmans. i. that is to say. It will aid us in understanding the real gist of our Sutta to mention one or two of these. and no reproach. the doctrine of Brahman supremacy was intellectually indefensible. used always with scrupulous distinctiveness. answers in the words of sections 93. or a similar. a. by the usual Socratic method adopted in so many of the Dialogues. through the father and through the mother. Our Sutta is by no means the only one in which the same. which any intelligent Brahman could not. argument leads up to the same. . in respect of birth--a repeater (of the sacred words) knowing the mystic verses by heart. and carefully led up to in the final paragraph of the exposition{2}. § 23 of the text. 3. 163-168. The English equivalents do not exactly cover the corresponding Pâli terms. with no slur put upon him. of pure descent. conclusion. fully accepted. The knowledge of one's own previous births. He is baffled by the skill with which he is gradually led on. which are quoted as the last three paragraphs of his exposition in our Sutta. and 97 of the Sâmañña-phala Sutta.

who Lived for the weal of gods and of men delivered from folly. See below in the Introduction to the next Sutta. The only difference is that at the end of each section. with variations at the close. (And all this) inasmuch as he has continued in earnestness. leading on to the emancipation of Arahatship. Ignorance is dispelled within him. and wisdom has been born.} {p. become A sage. Pacified. Has reached the end of all rebirths. our Gotama. that other men pass through.--unswerving in goodness. the light has appeared. Given to earnest thought. Conqueror. The knowledge of the Four Truths. and after the words setting forth the emancipation. in mastery of himself. threefold wise. The darkness has been dissipated. is so constantly repeated.' And at the end of the whole the following verses are also added: 'Him do they honour whose heart. in zeal.' How important a place this doctrine occupied in early Buddhism is made evident by the fact that this latter stanza. And him resolute.--rests in his own control. And sees (with Heavenly Eye) the states of bliss. and of the Four Intoxications (Âsavas). able in method. the last of his mortal frames! ''Tis he who is a Brâhmana indeed Who knows the births that he has lived before. And not the man who mutters o'er again The mystic verse so often muttered through before. The knowledge of other people's previous births. perfect in insight. Him do they honour. Him of the threefold lore. dispelling the darkness. Threefold in knowledge. or third) lore hath he required. {1.b. Arahat. mindful and self-possessed. too. stedfast. wearing now. and wise. of Birth. And states of woe. We find it in the 99th Sutta of the . the Buddha. the conqueror of Death. In these three modes of knowledge threefold wise. the following sentence is added: 'This first (or second. c. 140} Him do I call a Brahman.

Petersburg and Paris. but also in the collection of verses from the Pitakas called the Dhammapada (verse 423). not only in this Sutta in the Anguttara. indeed. portions of which have simultaneously found their way. against their view.--Could not. Two conclusions force themselves upon us. putting new meanings into ancient words. selected the name of Brahman. emphasise this point of the identification. and also in the other collection of such verses (probably belonging to some other school of Buddhists). 141} a general rule. were so constant and so important a factor in the . 167). from one point of view or another. the old superstition associated with it will also survive. in this case. A physical meaning cannot be replaced by an ethical one. But it was obviously impossible that the contention should succeed. Brahmans by birth. last year. Twenty-seven of them are taken from the Vâsettha Sutta of the Sutta Nipâta. too strong to be overcome. many of them. And very absurd they seem to readers whose own vivid sense of superiority rests on a self-complacency quite as inexpugnable as that of the Brahmans. can only succeed under conditions. Here we have evidence from an independent source. But in this case the two ideas were too widely apart. in which the question raised is precisely the same as that raised in our Sutta. for the best of men. The subsequent language of India is full of phrases and words which bear. and therefore Brahmans only by birth. amounts to much the same as the reply given here. When the Buddhists. of the Arahat with the Brahman. The actual facts of life. were held by the masses of the people. in selecting a title of honour for those they valued so highly. engaged in various worldly trades and occupations. that. and in another Sutta in the Samyutta (I. and quite irrespective of character. it is clear that that word. And it is always open to the danger that. though different in details. consists of no less than forty verses. each of which. perhaps most of them. a connotation of real veneration and respect. not the meaning which they previously bore. and in which the reply. for the Arahats. as such. conveyed to the minds of the people an exalted meaning. attempt to alter. by the Buddhists.--evidence all the stronger because it is found in Suttas in which the exclusive claims of the Brahmans by birth are vigorously contested. now preserved in the oldest MS. The method. but exclusively a man of a certain character and insight--then the present caste system of India could never have grown up. We have hitherto only had the views which the Brahmans held about themselves. but the new and higher meaning put into them by Buddhists. It was a method largely adopted by the Buddhists. which contains this quotation. not only a man of a certain descent. and in numerous other cases. in the first place. which they could not alter. a striking proof of the high social esteem in which the Brahmans. adopted by all reformers. And it is not likely that this would have been the case unless the Brahmans had. if the contention of the Buddhists had been universally accepted--if the word Brahman had come to mean. It is. at least as {p. The whole section of the Dhammapada.--were a constant influence. to which I have elsewhere called attention.Iti-vuttaka (p.. to both St. deserved it--and on other grounds than the mere prerogative of birth. in the opinion of the early Buddhists. yet discovered in India. 100) and in the 91st Sutta of the Magghima (the Brahmâyu Sutta). of pouring new wine into old bottles. the so-called Kharoshthi MS. with the old and hallowed word. In the second place. And it is quoted also. were non-existent. too contradictory. adopted with success.

But it fought against too many vested interests at once. overwhelmed also the whole pantheon of the Vedic gods. The tone of worldliness and love of material comfort. more especially from the newly incorporated and less advanced provinces. And the margin of difference between the Buddhists and their opponents gradually faded almost entirely away. And it was actually brought about. in the movement for reform. for lasting victory--at least at that time. step by step. on the whole. The very means they adopted to lend weight to their doctrine of emancipation became a weapon to be turned against themselves. gained again the upper hand. the gradual creeping back. The day of compromise had come. produced weakness. to be the most striking proof of the success of the new movement. but by the gradual weakening of the theory itself. must (through the wide influence they exercised for so many centuries throughout and beyond the valley of the Ganges) have actually afforded a fresh strength to the veneration which the word inspired. Every relaxation of the old thoroughgoing position was widely supported by converts only half converted. a certain measure of temporary success. more favourable. that the idea of birth could not be dissociated from the word. The Buddhists failed. It is unlikely that this really mattered much. the eager restlessness . The social supremacy of the Brahmans by birth became accepted as an incontrovertible fact. under new forms and new names. 142} only. the most powerful ruler India had had--indeed the first real overlord over practically the whole of India--only hastened the decline. not by persecution. The very event which seemed. of the more popular beliefs. The struggle is now being renewed under conditions perhaps. The soul theory. the conversion and strenuous support of Asoka. it raised up too many enemies. rather than strength. Buddhism and Brahmanism alike passed practically away. their very choice of the word as a title of honour. from effect to cause. step by step. it tried in 'pouring new wine into the old bottles' to retain too much of the ancient phraseology.daily and hourly life of the people. and in this world {p. The caste system was gradually built up into a completely organised system. regarded final salvation as obtainable in this world. and modern Hinduism arose on the ruins of both. and in an advancing country then assimilating to itself surrounding peoples at a lower grade of culture. and only by self-conquest--a view of life that ignored the 'soul' and brought the very gods themselves under the domain of law--a religious movement which aimed its keenest shafts against all those forms of belief in the supernatural and mysterious. by the powerful personality of its founder and the enthusiasm and zeal of his early followers. A theory which placed the ideal in Self-conquest. And the in flood of popular superstition which overwhelmed the Buddhist movement. appealing most strongly alike to the hopes and to the fears of the people--a philosophy that confined itself to going back. And they not only failed. in the eyes of the world. and poured scorn on speculations as to the ultimate origin and end of all things--might gain. The end was inevitable. The adhesion of large numbers of nominal converts. The point was only one detail in a broad scheme which was doomed from the outset to failure--that is if failure to attain immediate and lasting acceptance can rightly be called the failure of a theory of life.

on a royal domain granted him by Seniya Bimbisâra. the king of Magadhâ{4}. with much grassland and woodland and water and corn.{p. 143} of modern social. Now the Brahmans and householders of Kampâ heard the news: 'They say that the Samana Gotama of the Sâkya clan. with about five hundred brethren. the degradation of learning to a mere means of getting on and making money. But history shows. how powerfully the contact of two diverse views of life tends to widen the thoughts of men. with a great . and economic competition. who went out from a Sâkya family to adopt the religious life. arrived at Kampâ{1}.] [111] I. has now arrived. Return to top Next: IV. Both India and Europe in the twentieth century may be fairly expected to afford fresh examples of the same influence. Now at that time the Brahman Sonadanda was dwelling at Kampâ. but in character and wisdom. now once again. notably in the case of the Reformation in Europe. are no doubt all unfavourable to any movement for the social and religious elevation of a people. when going on a tour through the Anga country with a great multitude of the brethren. The Blessed One once. Thus have I heard. And in India the powerful aid of the new methods of science and of historical criticism will lend their invaluable aid to the party endeavouring. with power over it as if he were the king. SONADANDA SUTTA. a place teeming with life{3}. And there at Kampâ he lodged on the bank of the Gaggarâ Lake{2}. 144} IV. to place the ideal. as a royal fief. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRUE BRAHMAN. The Sonadanda Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. not in birth. 2.

--and having known it. Now at that time Sonadanda the Brahman had gone apart to the upper terrace of his house for his siesta. IV. who had had it excavated. by himself. as it were. Like other names of famous places in India. 145} company of the brethren at Kampâ. 339. I. A. And he said: 'Then. was on the East bank of the river of the same name (Gât. doth he proclaim. Kampâ. A. face to face this universe.--including the worlds above of the gods. 454). 15 in the list of the thirty-two marks. 3.{1. 3. 95. P. a fully awakened one. the capital of Angâ. Also Gât. about Lat. a Blessed One. and seeing the people thus go by. so well known for the fragrance of their beautiful white flowers. 2. and is staying there on the shore of the Gaggarâ Lake. thoroughly knows and sees. He adds that on its banks was a grove or champaka trees. He will himself come to see the Samana Gotama. 4. he said to his doorkeeper: 'Why are the people of Kampâ going forth like this towards the Gaggarâ Lake?' Then the doorkeeper told him the news. It was close to the modern Bagulpur. p. good doorkeeper. 22-44. though Fausböll wrongly translates ussada 'desire. IV. IV. its princes and peoples. The meaning is really quite settled.307. happy. In the Buddha's time Angâ was subject to Magadhâ. 60 = Dhp. G. abounding in wisdom and goodness.' [112] And the Brahmans and householders of Kampâ began to leave Kampâ in companies and in bands from each district{1}. lovely in its progress. the Brahmas. IV.} {p. 3. Gât. Gât. 24° 10' by Long. and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans. I. go to the Brahmans and householders of Kampâ. to go to the Gaggarâ Lake. 'And good is it to pay visits to Arahats like that. so that they could be counted. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. a teacher for gods and men. both in the spirit and in the letter. says Buddhaghosa (Sum. So called after Queen Gaggarâ.' at S. 783 = Vin. See No. D. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. with knowledge of the worlds. lovely in its origin. 279).' and Oldenberg and myself 'uneven. 58). which formed the Eastern boundary of Magadhâ. in all its fullness and in all its purity. The truth. it was used over again by colonists in the Far East."' . and there means what we now call Cochin China and Annam (I-Tsing. 4. N. 87°. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad:--That Blessed One is an Arahat. lovely in its consummation. and say to them: "Sonadanda the Brahman desires them to wait. 188 = Dhp. Sattussada. the higher life cloth he make known. a Buddha. It was under those trees that the wandering mendicants put up. He. he makes his knowledge known to others. and the Mâras. Asl.

and the legends as a fifth. should not call upon him. Sir. and was gifted with polite address. If it were the venerable Son adanda who went to call upon him. knowing the mystic verses by heart. one who had mastered the Three Vedas. Sir.' 5.' 'Let not the venerable Sonadanda do that. and rich-- [114] That he was a repeater (of the sacred words). distinct. and no reproach. 'That is my intention. the ritual. not . Perhaps in 'companies and separately'. and he did so. then the venerable Sonadanda's reputation would decrease and the Samana Gotama's would increase. well to do. in respect of birth. they went to Sonadanda.'Very well. pleasant to look upon. [113] 4.' said the doorkeeper. with the indices. of pure descent through the mother and through the father back through seven generations. II. I propose to call on the Samana Gotama. fine in presence{1}. but he upon you. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man-- That he was handsome. fair in colour. I. 55. versed in Lokâyata (Nature-lore). increased in virtue.-- That he was prosperous. learned in the words and in the grammar. inspiring trust. and the exegesis (as a fourth). to wit: That he was well born on both sides.} {p. 231. stately{2} to behold-- That he was virtuous. the phonology. gifted with virtue that had waxed great-- That he had a pleasant voice and pleasing delivery. Now at that time there were about five hundred Brahmans from different kingdoms lodging at Kampâ for some business or other. and asked whether that was so. 146} Samana Gotama. Sirs. Comp. This is the first reason why you. It is not fitting for him to do so. but I follow Buddhaghosa. A. And when they heard that Sonadanda was intending to visit the {1. gifted with great beauty of complexion. with no slur put upon him. M. And they laid before Sonadanda the Brahman in like manner also other considerations.

' says Buddhaghosa. held of weight. and not he should call upon me-- . with power over it as if he were the king-- For each of these reasons it was not fitting that he. 147} instructing three hundred Brahmans in the repetition of the mystic verses. And when they had thus spoken. {1.} {p. Sirs. venerated and revered by Pokkharasâdi. and well stricken in years. esteemed worthy. and hear why it is fitting that I should call upon the venerable Gotama.husky{3}. for which Buddhaghosa (pp. Akkhuddâvakâso. held of weight. the king of Magadhâ. 3. old. long-lived and full of days-- That he was honoured. but rather that the Samana Gotama should call upon him. listen. The Burmese and Siamese MSS. as a royal gift. the king of Magadhâ-- That he was honoured. esteemed worthy. Sonadanda the Brahman. Brahma-vakkasî. Anelagalâya. 284) gives three contradictory explanations. Sonadanda said to them: [115] 'Then. all craving for the verses. 6. on a royal fief granted him by Seniya Bimbisâra. 282). 'With a body like that of Mahâ Brahmâ. 282. from various directions and various counties. suitable for making clear the matter in hand-- That he was the teacher of the teachers of many. came to learn them by heart under him-- That he was aged. the Brahman-- That he dwelt at Kampâ. venerated and revered by Seniya Bimbisâra. a place teeming with life. and that many young Brahmans. with much grassland and woodland and corn.' says Buddhaghosa (p. 'Not slobbering. read vakkhasî 2. should call upon the Samana Gotama.

and wept.' says Buddhaghosa--making a total for the Sâkya clan of 800. he is gifted with polite address. without a grey hair on his head. their cheeks being wet with tears. Sirs. the Samana Gotama is the teacher of the teachers of many-- 'Truly. Sirs. Sirs. Sirs. Sirs. 'Eighty thousand families on the mother's. Sirs. and went out from the household life into the homeless state-- 'Truly. and donned the yellow robes. giving up the great clan of his relations{1}-- 'Truly.000. reckoning five to a family. good and virtuous. the Samana Gotama believes in Karma. Sirs. Sirs. fine in presence. of pure descent through the mother and the father back through seven generations. gifted with goodness and virtue-- 'Truly. pleasant to look upon. giving up much money and gold. Sirs. while he was still a young man. the Samana Gotama. the Samana Gotama has gone forth (into the religious life). not husky. the Samana Gotama is virtuous with the virtue of the Arahats. and in action{1}. and has put away all fickleness of mind-- 'Truly. nevertheless cut off his hair and beard. distinct. stately to behold-- 'Truly. and eighty thousand on the father's side. the Samana Gotama hath a pleasant voice. has gone forth from the household life into the homeless state-- 'Truly. the venerable Gotama is well born on both sides. and a pleasing delivery. the Samana Gotama is handsome.} {p. inspiring trust. treasure both buried and above the ground-- {1. Sirs. 148} 'Truly. though his father and mother were unwilling. and no reproach in respect of birth-- 'Truly. gifted with great beauty of complexion. suitable for making clear the matter in hand-- 'Truly. he is one who puts righteousness in the forefront (of his exhortations) to the Brahman race-- . the Samana Gotama. in the beauty of his early manhood.'Truly. fair in colour. with no slur put upon him. Sirs. the Samana Gotama has no passion of lust left in him. the Samana Gotama has gone forth (into the religious life).

not backward in conversation-- 'Truly. a Blessed One.} {p. the Samana Gotama is honoured. and rich-- [116] 'Truly. people come right across the country from distant lands to ask questions of the Samana Gotama-- 'Truly.. Sirs. that he is said to be an Arahat. in the sense of 'primordial. laymen and lay women)-- 'Truly. which (if it was in the text before him) is suggestive. held of weight. Sirs. but I have taken the word. well to do. a Buddha-- 'Truly. have replaced it by an easy reading. the Samana Gotama went forth from a family prosperous. This is simple enough. Sirs. the only difficulty being that the word occurs nowhere else.' But all the Sinhalese MSS. Sirs. accessible to all. there the non-humans do the . He would scarcely have done so unless the matter were really very simple. 112. the Samana Gotama bids all men welcome. in whatsoever village or town the Samana Gotama stays. exalted. 2. 149} 'Truly. such is the high reputation noised abroad concerning the Samana Gotama. Kamma-vâdî kiriya-vâdî. many gods and men believe in the Samana Gotama-- "Truly. with knowledge of the worlds. it is difficult to see how the alteration to the more difficult reading should have occurred. not supercilious. Sirs. aboriginal.' as being a derivative from âdi. The reading is doubtful. the Samana Gotama went forth from a distinguished family primeval{2} among the Kshatriya clans-- {1. Sirs. in the same way as adhîna is from adhi. fully awakened. happy. conciliatory. 'unbroken Kshatriya family. Âdîna-khattiya-kulâ. Compare 'Vinaya Texts. Sirs. after their constant habit. Sirs. and if the reading had once been abhinna. abounding in wisdom and righteousness. Sirs. Sirs. the Samana Gotama has all the thirty-two bodily marks of a Great Being-- 'Truly.'Truly.' II. Buddhaghosa skips the clause. agree in reading either âdina or âdîna. 'Autonomous' would make a good sense in the context. multitudes of heavenly beings put their trust in the Samana Gotama-- 'Truly. and the Burmese MSS. abhinna-khattiya-kulâ. is congenial. 109. esteemed and venerated and revered by the four classes (of his followers--the brethren and sisters of the Order.

Let us then all go to call on the Samana Gotama together!' . with his people and his courtiers. that were he to be dwelling even a hundred leagues from here. and venerated and revered alike by Seniya Bimbisâra. with his children and his wives. even had he to carry a bag (for the provisions for the journey) on his back{1}. the king of Magadhâ. and by Pokkharasâdi the Brahman-- [117] 'Truy.humans no harm-- 'Truly. by Pasenadi the king of Kosala. for his excellence is beyond measure. Sirs. the Samana Gotama is honoured. has put his trust in the Samana Gotama-- 'Truly. held of weight. of a school. Seniya Bimbisâra. with his children and his wives. 'such as by wearing no clothes' explains Buddhaghosa (p. those Brahmans said to him: 'The venerable Sonadanda declares the praises of the Samana Gotama on such wise. as a guest-- 'For each and all of these considerations it is not fitting that the Samana Gotama should call upon us. King Pasenadi of Kosala.} {p. the Samana Gotama has now arrived at Kampâ and is staying on the shores of the Gaggarâ Lake. And when he had thus spoken. is the acknowledged chief of all the founders of sects. Sirs. But all Samanas and Brahmans who come into our village borders are our guests. with his people and his intimates. And so far only do I know the excellencies of the Samana Gotama. has put his trust in the Samana Gotama-- 'Truly. Pokkharasâdi the Brahman. Literally 'anyhow'. Sirs. but rather does it behove us to call upon him. with his people and his courtiers. Sirs. but these are not all of them. Sirs. 150} so the Samana Gotama. And guests we ought to esteem and honour. And as he is now so come. he ought to be so treated. with his children and his wives. Sirs. the Samana Gotama as the head of an Order. 288). His reputation comes from perfection in conduct and righteousness-- 'Truly. the king of Magadhâ. Whereas some Samanas and Brahmans have gained a reputation by all sorts of insignificant matters{1}. as the teacher of a school.' 7. not {1. to venerate and revere. has put his trust in the Samana Gotama-- 'Truly. esteemed. it would be enough to make a believing man go thither to call upon him.

{1.} {p. saying: "Foolish is this Son adanda the Brahman. 152} Blessed One was. 151} So Sonadanda the Brahman went out to the Gaggarâ Lake with a great company of Brahmans. and inexpert. I. For what we have to enjoy. But if the Samana Gotama were to put a question to me. some of them bowed to the Blessed One and took their seats on one side. 25. 183. 8. II. and then took their seats on one side. Verily. II. thinking as before set out. He is not even able to satisfy the Samana Gotama by his explanation of the problem put. So Sonadanda the Brahman went up to where the {1. Kittam na ârâdheyyam. How can he turn back after having come so far?" But if they did so. though obstinate with pride. and inexpert. that depends upon our reputation." But if they did so. M.' Comp. that depends on our reputation. thus ought the question to be framed." the company might thereupon speak of me with disrespect. 'win over his mind. I should then be able to gain his approval by my exposition of the problem put!' ." But if they did so my reputation would decrease. he is so afraid that he dare not call on the Samana Gotama. I should turn back without calling upon the Samana Gotama. for what we have to enjoy. And when he had come there he exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. on the threefold Vedic lore. Mil. And if they were then to say to me: "The question ought not to be answered so." the company might thereupon speak of me with disrespect. where a precisely similar phrase occurs. Now as Sonadanda was seated there he was still filled with hesitation. saying: "Foolish is this Sonadanda the Brahman. and with my reputation my incomings would grow less. and he added to himself: 'Oh! would that the Samana Gotama would but ask me some question on my own subject. then might the company speak disrespectfully of me. my reputation would decrease. and then took their seats on one side. 341.} {p. Now the following hesitation arose in Sonadanda's mind as he passed through the wood: 'Were I to ask the Samana Gotama a question. thus ought the problem to be explained. saying: "Foolish is this Sonadanda the Brahman. [119] 10. and with my reputation my incomings would grow less. that depends upon our reputation. And as to the Brahmans and householders of Kampâ. some of them exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. and some of them took their seats on one side in silence. 85. my reputation would decrease. if he were to say: "The question ought not to be asked so. for what we have to enjoy. [118] He is not even able to ask a question rightly. But on the other hand if. 9. and inexpert. having come so far. and with my reputation my incomings would grow less. 10. I might not be able to gain his approval{1} by my explanation of the problem. Putamsenâpi. some of them called out their name and family. and took his seat on one side. Compare A.

with no slur put upon him. the phonology. and without falling into falsehood. Sir. as just set . claim to be a Brahman?' 'Yes. technical training. and to declare the man who has the other four to be a Brahman. And drawing his body up erect. the ritual. knowing the mystic verses by heart. on the mother's side and on {p. gifted with great beauty of complexion. and wisdom." he speaks accurately and does not become guilty of falsehood?' 12. with the indices. so that if he says: "I am a Brahman. virtue. he said to the Blessed One: 'The Brahmans. versed in Lokâyata sophistry. pleasant to look upon. which the Brahmans say a man ought to have in order to be a Brahman. I had better question him on his own doctrine. and he thought: 'This Sonadanda is afflicted in his heart. Gotama. among those who hold out the ladle{1}. and the exegesis (as a fourth). and the legends as a fifth. who has five things. inspiring trust. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man-- 'Then he is handsome. increased in virtue. Then Sonadanda thought: [120] 'What I wished and desired and had in my mind and hoped for--that the Samana Gotama should put to me some question on my own subject. to be one who can accurately. or it may be the second. is it possible to leave one out. For what does colour matter? [121] If he have the other four--good birth. And what are the five? In the first place. and looking round on the assembly.-- 'Then he is virtuous. in respect of birth-- 'Then he is a repeater (of the sacred words).11.' 14. a Brahman is well born on both sides. oh Brahman. gifted with virtue that has grown great-- 'Then he is learned and wise. learned in the phrases and in the grammar. We could leave out colour{2}. the first. that can be done. declare him to be a Brahman who can accurately say "I am a Brahman" without being guilty of falsehood. Gotama. fair in colour. Now the Blessed One became aware in his own mind of the hesitation in the mind of Sonadanda.' And he said to him: 'What are the things. Brahman. one who has mastered the Three Vedas. 'But of these five things. 153} the father's side. stately to behold. Oh! that I may be able to satisfy his heart with my exposition thereof!' 13. fine in presence. and no reproach. of pure descent back through seven generations. on the threefold Vedic lore--that he now does.

to be one who can rightly. Then the Blessed One said to those Brahmans: 'If you.} {p.forth{3}-Brahmans would still declare him to be a Brahman. Verily the venerable Sonadanda is going over to the doctrine of the Samana Gotama.' 16.' 15. 154} he have the other three--good birth. oh Brahman. to be one who can accurately. and without falling into falsehood. without danger of falsehood. or of spirituous Soma. Brahman. (See the Introduction to the Ambattha. 'But of these four things. We could leave out birth. Gotama. and he could rightly. that he is unwise. claim to be one. let him keep silence. without danger of falsehood. For what do the verses matter? If {1. say not so! He depreciates not only our colour. and to declare the man who has the other two to be a Brahman. and let him discuss with me. much the same as 'caste. is it possible to leave one out. and to declare the man who has the other three to be a Brahman. 'But of these three things. 'officiate at a sacrifice by pouring out of a spoon a libation of butter. We could leave out the verses. The full text is repeated. without danger of falsehood.' though that rendering is not strictly accurate. But if you think him learned. and he could rightly. that could be done. but he depreciates our verses and our birth. For what does birth matter? If he have the other two--virtue and wisdom--Brahmans would still declare him to be a Brahman. think that Sonadanda is unlearned. and wisdom--Brahmans would still declare him to be a Brahman. is it possible to leave one out. That is. and he could rightly. claim to be a Brahman?' 'Yes. claim to be one. oh Brahmans. to the fire god. Gotama. and do you discuss with me. that he is unable to hold his own with me in this matter. and without falling into falsehood. able in speech. virtue. able to hold his own. that could be done.' 18. venerable Sonadanda. And when he had thus spoken the other Brahmans said to Sonadanda: 'Say not so. Vanna.' 2.' . then do you keep silence.' [122] 17.) 3. claim to be one. wise. that he speaks unfittingly. claim to be a Brahman?' 'Yes. both here and in the following sections.

should kill living things. on the mother's side and on the father's. nor our verses. sister's son to Sonadanda the Brahman. Sirs. pleasant to look upon. we see him.' 21. and without falling into falsehood. inspiring trust. and take what has not been given. and speak lies. 155} Brahmans: 'Do the venerable ones see this Angaka. claim to be . Sirs. to be one who can rightly. gifted with great beauty of complexion. Sirs. and no reproach in respect of birth--I myself know his forebears. nor our birth. is a repeater (of the sacred words). and the legends as a fifth. our nephew?' 'Yes. with the indices. stately to behold--none in this assembly is like unto him in colour. And when he had thus spoken. Sirs. is well born on both sides.' 'Well! Angaka. 'If Angaka. of pure descent back through seven generations.' 20. knowing the mystic verses by heart. one who has mastered the Three Vedas. 'But of these two things. Sonadanda the Brahman said to those Brahmans: 'Let not the venerable ones say so. in so far as he is learned and wise. versed in Lokâyata (Nature-lore). Sirs. the ritual. what then. and the exegesis (as a fourth). the first. or it may be the second. is handsome. increased in virtue. This name looks suspiciously like a kind of personification of the five Angas (the five characteristics) of the true Brahman as just above. was seated in that company. gifted with virtue that has grown great. fair in colour. among those who hold out the ladle. learned in the phrases and the grammar.19. And Sonadanda said to those {1.} {p. oh Brahman. would his colour avail him? what the verses? what his birth? 'It is in so far. with no slur put upon him. save only the Samana Gotama. and drink strong drink. is it possible to leave one out. on the mother's side and on the father's side. and in the theory of the signs on the body of a great man--I myself have taught him the verses. that Brahmans would declare him. set out. to be a Brahman. as a Brahman is virtuous. Now at that time a young Brahman named Angaka{1}. and go the way of the adulterer. the phonology. 'And Angaka. fine in presence. [123] I do not depreciate either our colour. Sir. to be one who could rightly say "I am a Brahman" without falling into falsehood. Sirs. as endowed with these two qualities. and to declare the man who has the other to be a Brahman. § 13. 'And Angaka. Say not so. Sirs.

41. 156} [124] 'Not that. 171. 42. beginning {1. oh Gotama. Just. wisdom is there. and would have somewhat relieved the monotony of the paragraph. To the upright. to the wise there is uprightness. his renunciation of the world. 'Very well. And I.' 'Well then. May the venerable Gotama be pleased to explain the meaning of the phrase. see. Sum. his preaching. and wisdom and goodness are declared to be the best thing in the world{1}. that is.' p. is wisdom purified by uprightness. On paññâna as nominative. oh Brahman. and uprightness is purified by wisdom. just even so. oh Brahman. then.' 23. S. uprightness is there. the paragraph on the appearance of a Buddha. 62-70 of the text. oh Gotama.a Brahman?' {p. oh Gotama. to the wise there is uprightness. Gotama! For wisdom. Where there is uprightness. 290. To the upright there is wisdom. oh Gotama. 283) as follows: 'The wisdom of the upright and the uprightness of the wise have. and wisdom and goodness are declared to be the best thing in the world. is purified by uprightness. the general statement in this matter. as one might wash hand with hand. 'We only know. and pay earnest attention. uprightness is there. is that uprightness' (Sîla). 157} .' 22. the conversion of the hearer. 342.' I cannot see how this can be grammatically justified. give ear. the highest value. wisdom is there.] 'This also. And the Blessed One said: [Here follow the paragraphs 40-63 in the Sâmañña-Phala Sutta above. § 63. pp. and where there is wisdom. oh Brahman. 'That is just so. A. But what. Oldenberg renders this ('Buddha. too. there is wisdom.' said Sonadanda in assent to the Blessed One.} {p. and where there is wisdom. all the Sîlas. Sir. is that uprightness and what that wisdom?. and the paragraph on Confidence. IV. for instance. Where there is uprightness. not genitive. I. and I will speak. and uprightness is purified by wisdom. or foot with foot. of all uprightness and wisdom in the world. I. though the sentiment is admirable enough. [Here follow the paragraphs on the Ghânas. say the same.

with sweet food. And may the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple.' Then the Blessed One signified. both hard and soft. pp. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. there put. on the Heavenly Ear. but under Pa ññâ (Intelligence). In other words Paññâ includes all that was there included under Vigga. all as in the Sâmañña-phala. and the brethren. on the Wondrous Gifts. on Knowledge of the hearts of others. And Sonadanda. The only difference is that the paragraphs 64-74 of the Sâmañña-phala there included as coming under Karana (Conduct) are here included under Sîla (Uprightness). from this day forth. Then the Blessed One. Sonadanda the Brahman said to the Blessed One: [125] 'Most excellent. 292.} {p. betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. and the meal is ready. both hard and soft. on the Mental Image. But Sîla includes all that is put in the Ambattha under Sîla--all indeed of the eight divisions of Sîla as summarised above. not under Viggâ (Wisdom). And may the venerable Gotama grant me the favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. The Gh ânas. and the Four Ghânas besides. who had dressed in the early morning. And at early dawn he made ready at his house sweet food. . 219. and on the Destruction of the Deadly Floods. arose from his seat and bowed down before the Blessed {1. 268. And Sonadanda the Brahman satisfied the Blessed One. by silence. until they refused any more.' 24. 100 of the text. but under Karana. oh Gotama. on seeing that he had done so. are here put. is that wisdom{1}. The repetition here is nearly the same as that in the Ambattha Sutta. as long as life endures. and sat down on the seat prepared for him. in many a figure. and to the Order. I. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. 57-59. oh Gotama (are the words of thy mouth). and had the time announced to the Blessed One: 'It is time. 158} One. summarised above at the translation of p. §§ 83-98 inclusive. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms--just even so has the truth been made known to me. on Memory of one's own previous births. When he had thus spoken.at So vivikk' eva kâmehi in § 75 of the Sâmañña-phala down to the end of § 82. went with the brethren to Sonadanda's house. even I. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. with his own hand. to the truth. not under Sîla. his consent. by the venerable Gotama. put on his outer robe. oh Brahman.' 25.] 'This. on the Divine Eye. and also the members of the Order with him. See Buddhaghosa's notes at pp. has taken him as his guide. as one who. then the paragraphs on Insight arising from Knowledge. and walking round him with his right hand towards him. and taking his bowl with him. departed thence.

that depends upon our reputation. On the ground. I were to get down from the chariot to salute the venerable Gotama. and sat down beside him. and then rose from his seat and departed thence. And if. 159} my hand. the Truths. oh Gotama. with perhaps one or two exceptions. It will be seen from this section that Sonadanda is represented as being a convert only to a limited extent. ethical. it would follow that this Sutta must be describing events very early in the public ministry of the Buddha. that he would be saluting a much younger man. But those details are. 'If. If this tradition be correct. No doubt if every detail were carried to its strict logical conclusion there would be no further need for Vedic studies. I bend down low the staff of my goad. And if that part of the Buddha's doctrine put before him in this Sutta be examined. Then the Blessed One instructed and roused and incited and gladdened Sonadanda the Brahman with religious discourse. Now he with whom the assembly should find fault. and said: 26. They could be accepted by an adherent of the soul theory of life. Here ends the Sonadanda Sutta. Sonadanda took a low seat. when mounted on my chariot. {1. I stretch forth my joined palms in salutation. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as a salutation with my head. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as arising up from my seat. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as if I had got down. and Arahatship--are barely even referred to. For that which we have to enjoy. except from the historical standpoint. his reputation would grow less. and is keenly anxious to retain the good opinion of his students. then the assembly would find fault with me{1}. quite compatible with the best Brahman views.And when the Blessed One had finished his meal. I should rise from my seat to bow down before the venerable Gotama.} {p. let the venerable Gotama accept that from me as if I had bowed low in salutation{1}!' 27. He still keeps on his school of Vedic studies. says Buddhaghosa (p. one young enough to be his grandson. and cleansed the bowl and his hands. the surrounders would find fault with me. and of other Brahmans. They belong to a plane not touched on in the then Vedic studies. on the face of them. And the essential doctrines of Buddhism--the Path. So if. and he who should lose his reputation. when I am in my chariot. [126] And if when I am seated in the assembly I take off my turban. when I am seated in the assembly. If then.} Return to top Next: Introduction to the Kûtadanta Sutta . If. 292). when mounted on my chariot. then. after I have entered the assembly. it will be found to be. I should wave {1. his income would grow less.

perhaps. {1. In the Râgovâda Gâtaka{2} we are told of the two kings. I have already called attention to the great importance for the right understanding of early Buddhist teaching of a constant appreciation of this sort of subtle humour{1}. in the Introduction to the Ambattha. Fausböll's edition. So they each went. No. must be made. sallied forth into the world. entirely overlooked--that is. so far as I am aware. reigning over the famous lands of Benares and Kosala. 1 in vol. the notes above on p. And the aroma of it. as regards the ethical point at issue--is apt to be lost sight of precisely because of that earnestness. outside the palace on a similar quest. and went in vain. So they each made over the kingdom to their respective ministers. 161} . to the people in the city. on the Aggañña Sutta. scarcely even a smile.Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. everyone recognises it in the Gâtaka tales. nevertheless. The humour is not at all intended to raise a laugh. The attempt. in the Suttas. much more delicate than any joke. and of the Cambridge translation edited by Prof. WHOEVER put this Sutta together must have been deeply imbued with the spirit of subtle irony that plays no less a part in the Suttas than it does in so many of the Gâtakas. so in the attempt to write about this irony. all the while. they each went on to the city gate. but the point of it spoilt in the process. 2. to do so by an example which no one will dispute. It has been hitherto. ii of the Pâli text in Prof. And just as a joke may be explained. See. pervading the whole of an exposition--none the less delightful because of the very serious earnestness of the narrator. 160} INTRODUCTION TO THE K TADANTA SUTTA. for instance. Cowell. who simultaneously determined to examine into their own faults! No courtier would tell them of any. 33.} {p. and then to the surrounding suburbs. one runs great danger of smothering it under the explanatory words. And it is most easy. all in vain. Finding no fault-finders there. and the remarks. and with a single attendant as charioteer.

And they took out the horses. One feels it occasionally even in the Brâhmanas. and several other such episodes {1. 162} have this mixture of unreality and earnestness. and removed their chariot. and especially in American humour. And by goodness the wicked. and tribe. The fun of the extravagance can be matched. The full version can also be seen in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories. Of the other. Even the theosophic myth-makers of the Vedas had a sense of the humour in the incongruities. in succession. quest. Each calls on the other to make way for a king. and the dry humour of the predicament in which they find themselves is there to attract attention to. and family. The king of Kosala overcomes evil by evil.} {p. 'Then let the lord of the lesser realm go back. often adopted and developed old Indian tales of a similar sort. The piquancy of this contrast is Indian. The stingy he conquers by gifts. the two came face to face in a low cart-track with precipitous sides. the glory of their renown. the amount of their treasure. And by truth the speaker of lies{1}. 2. and made way for the king of Benares. are found to be the strength of their two armies.to find some one to tell them of their faults. to suggest that it is not all sober history. the king of Benares. Bent on this.' pp.' Their kingdoms are exactly equal in size. the half realities of their myths. to add emphasis to. The Liturgy of the Dogs. it is said: 'Anger he conquers by calmness. There is not a word in the whole story. Then at last comes the solution. And so on. here told in abstract{2}. This verse is quoted in the Dhammapada (verse 223).' The kings turn out to be exactly of an age. so serious. and especially Buddhist.' And on this being proclaimed. the king of Kosala and his charioteer alighted from their chariot. the Fable of the Senses. In the Upanishads it is very marked. Both are kings! How to settle the point? 'I have it. the lesson taught. the fame of their realms. The two kings are brought on to the stage merely to carry on their broad shoulders the moral of the tale. and it finds its perhaps most touching expression in the legend of Nakiketas. in European. even impossible details. What is the especial point in this fun--a kind of fun quite unknown in the West? It is the piquancy of the contrast between the mock seriousness of the extravagant. And the Buddhists. easily enough. But why should we think that this sort of humour is confined to the Gâtakas? We have a Gâtaka story . the distinction of their caste.' says one charioteer: 'Let the younger give way. the War of the Devas and Asuras. in their Gâtaka stories. xxii-xxvi. and the real serious earnestness of the ethical tone. But of course the whole story is invented.

and unfortunately quite impossible to be rendered adequately. in the Kevatta Sutta. in which the Very Reverend Sir Goldstick Sharptooth. lord of the manor of Khânumata. They accepted it all. often with a special beauty of their own. an historical romance. And it is quite open to question whether this does not apply as much to the whole Sutta as to the legend of King Wide-realm. I would submit. B. And the details. for readers now. Both Gâtaka and Sutta are translated in full in my 'Buddbist Suttas' (vol. The whole legend is obviously invented ad hoc. pp. 238-289). above referred to. the main point compared with which all others were quite subservient. as it is now to us. because they enjoyed both the lesson and the manner of the telling of it. Allowing for all the earnestness undeniably animating both the story-teller and the hearers. .. and very keen on being sure that his 'soul' should be as comfortable in the next world as he was. xi of the S. as well known. in the Sutta. are enlivened by an intentional exaggeration. and in many other Suttas. here also.of the Great King of Glory. translated below. the dry humour of the exaggeration and grotesqueness of the details of the story as it went along. a piece of dialectic smartness. The words could not be used in the new sense assigned. always striking. for instance. but vanity. in this. and was meant to be as evident. and is very likely meant to be rather the hero of a tale than an historical character. E. or as he would put it. and omitted. all the time.--cruel enough. The forced twist given to the meaning of the words vidhâ and parikkhâro is not serious. similar to that in the Râgovâda Gâtaka. Its details are not meant to be taken seriously as {1. A similar state of things is found in the Aggañña Sutta. Now the details are given only in the Sutta. They build up a gorgeous fairy tale in which the ancient mythology of the sun-myth is brought into play in order to show how the greatest possible majesty and glory of the greatest and best of all possible kings is. for it expressly quotes it. in the Gâtaka. the unreality of the whole thing was just as evident.} {p. no doubt. the Great King of Glory was expressly identified with the Buddha in a former birth. the same restrained art of the story-teller. What we have is a sort of pun. in English prose. and entered none the less into the spirit of the legend as legend. It is impossible not to see that to the early tellers and hearers of these legends. the same dry humour. The Brahman Kûtadanta (pointed-tooth) is mentioned nowhere else. a play upon the words. And so. in honour of a god. stands the case also with our present Sutta. and embodies the numerous details which lead up to the sublime lesson at the end of it{1}. a designed dry humour. now. it is clear that they enjoyed. And those details are at least as extravagant as the details in the Râgovâda Gâtaka. delightful to the hearers then. In that case we should have before us a novelette.--makes up his mind to secure that most desirable end by the murder of a number of his fellow creatures. certainly based on the Sutta of the same name. In all of them there is the same exaggeration. They knew quite well that the lesson taught was the principal matter. by celebrating a sacrifice. 163} historical fact. And it made no difference that. as pointed out above in the Introduction to the Ambattha. after all.

Far from exalting King Wide-realm's procedure. at the expenditure involved. the altar-furniture. the sacrifice consists. the officials. is injured. All the labour is voluntary. This is the only case. what is that? It is the hearty co-operation with the king of four divisions of his people. or rather one condition of mind at three different times. the author or authors of the Sutta go on to say what they think a sacrifice ought to be. That makes other eight. That {p. in every respect. and the householders. but of all the good. and leading up to the sweetest and highest of all. All its marvellous details. And eight personal qualifications of the king himself. either animal or vegetable. It is all ironical. The Brahman of our Sutta wants to know the three modes in which the ritual is to be performed. in which a similar omission has been made. would think of doing. And four personal qualifications of his advising Brahman make up the total of the sixteen articles required. and about the requisite utensils. not any god. And all the world co-operates in adding its share to the largesse of food. The whole long history of the development of Indian . the altar-furniture. the harbouring of no regret. verses on which all the magic efficacy of a sacrifice had been supposed to depend. the intending sacrificer is ironically represented as doing the very last thing any Brahman of position. the nobles. they put his sacrifice at the very bottom of a long list of sacrifices each better than the other. is simply the sensible. human view of the matter. And the king desires to propitiate. either before or during or after the sacrifice. The Buddha's answer is to tell him a wonderful legend of a King Wide-realm. not only of the king himself. and of the sacrifice he offered--truly the most extraordinary sacrifice imaginable. He goes to the Samana Gotama for advice about the modes of the ritual to be performed at the sacrifice. but living men. of course--just the very contrary. alone. there is nothing exclusively Buddhistic. under similar circumstances. each one settled. of a typical Vedic sacrifice. Having thus laughed the Brahman ideal of sacrifice out of court with the gentle irony of a sarcastic travesty. the ethical more worthy than any physical sacrifice. rational. No living thing. be it noted. And the evident unreality of the legend may be one explanation of the curious fact that the authors of the Gâtaka book (notwithstanding that King Wide-realm's Chaplain is actually identified in the Sutta with the Buddha himself in a previous birth) have not included this professedly Gâtaka story in their collection. That a sacrifice of the heart is better than a sacrifice of bullocks. are described with a deliberate extravagance none the less delicious because of the evident earnestness of the moral to be inferred. And the material accessories required. 164} makes four articles of furniture. Here again. except in the last paragraph. the Brahmans.In order to make certain that not one of the technical details--for to the accurate performance of all these the god was supposed to attach great weight--should be done wrong. on the advice of a Brahman. is quietly ignored. the priest's outfit. to be used in making it. which is the attainment of Arahatship. so far discovered. The three 'modes' are declared in the legend (§ 15) to be simply three conditions of mind. And the muttering of mystic verses over each article used and over mangled and bleeding bodies of unhappy victims. It is offered on behalf. on strict vegetarian principles. in which.

as on the question of caste or social privileges. quoted Matt. were not only as fully alive to this truth as any Buddhist. of animals. we find {1.' The more characteristically Indian point of view is. 16 and 17. as is so often asserted of them by European writers. the Gains of the Buddha's time. How could they have done so if the Indians of that time had been. ahimsâ. is especially mentioned. common ground to the wise. of an ancient and widely held trend of opinion. in the mystic identification of the sacrifice with man{1}. Hosea vi. in fact. See also Micah vi. Even in the Vedas themselves there is already the germ of this view in the mental attitude as regards Aditi and Varuna. 7. in these respects. And among these moral states. the early Buddhists took up.} {p. 165} certain moral states placed on an equality with certain parts of the sacrificial procedure. 166} . 8. 2. more deeply addicted to all manner of ritual than any other nation under heaven. That they did win is a suggestive fact. the habit of causing no injury to any living thing. And in the pre-Buddhistic Khândogya. as carried on chiefly by Brahmans (however much it may have owed in the earliest period to the nobles and others). But there is a very great probability that the ahimsâ doctrine. no doubt. and xii. a rational view held also by others. had practically been given up when the long struggle between Brahmanism and Buddhism reached its close. pre-Buddhistic. more superstitious. 13. xv. and xxi. whether inside or outside the ranks of the Brahmans. Isolated instances of such sacrifices are known even down to the Muhammadan invasion. there would seem therefore to be no valid reason for doubting the accuracy of the Buddhist tradition that their view of sacrifice was based on a very ancient belief which was. later. of course. and therefore not only in germ. Mahâbhârata I. 1544. more averse to change in religious ceremonial? There seems to me no reason to believe that they were very different.thought. 6073. foreshadowed in the Upanishad. And the combined ridicule and earnestness of our Sutta will have had its share in bringing about the victory. 13. then. Compare XIII. merely the oldest extant expression. and not sacrifice{1}. Though the Buddhists did not accept this extreme position. Khândogya Upanishad III. in so thorough and uncompromising a way.} {p. Our Sutta is. was also a part of the earlier G ain doctrine. are. But the battle was really won by the Buddhists and their allies. the more enlightened and cultured of the Brahmans. 3095 nearly = XIII. ix. The Vedic sacrifices. This comes very near to the Hebrew prophet's: 'I will have mercy. Prov. And on this question of sacrifice their party won. but that they took it all along for granted. 6-8. but as a developed teaching. 6. from {1. in the words of the old saying long afterwards taken up into the Mahâbhârata. shows that they. and afterwards so extravagantly taken up by the Niganthas. On this question. that it is truth (not mercy) that outweighs a thousand sacrifices{2}. and pushed to its logical conclusions.

which I have left untranslated in this Sutta. who seems to have been a good deal of a bigot. into the mouth of Brahmans theinselves{2}. mentions Lokâyata as one branch of his learning. charges the Mîmâmsâ system with having been. in more ways than one. The passage is quoted in Muir's 'Sanskrit Texts. for the most part. Lokâyata is explained by Wilson as 'the system of atheistical philosophy taught by Kârvâka{1}. without any explanation. a real sense of humour. is here merely hurling at adversaries. He gives as his authority the Amara Kosa. well authenticated. Now of course the Mîmâmsists would indignantly deny this. converted into a Lokâyata system. and other passages. But it is clear that he uses that term in the sense of 'atheistic. a term of abuse. Above all there was then the most complete and unquestioned freedom of thought and expression in religious matters that the world had yet witnessed. who claimed to be as orthodox as himself.} {p. at least for a later period. the system or the man who says 'there is not. It is evident. therefore. Kumârila Bhatta. Anguttara I. in a list. Yet they are each of them.' an infidel. 2. they are all descriptive of just those things which a Brahman would have been rightly proud to be judged a master of. The whole paragraph is complimentary. 95. But it was won. 167} would be nâstika. it would seem impossible that this victory could have been won. 163. And our views of Indian history must be modified accordingly. There is a curious expression in the stock phrase describing the learned Brahman. but the Kosa merely mentions the word. .' The exact phrase {1. On the contrary there was a well marked lay feeling. And though the exact connotation of one or two of the other terms is doubtful. in his Vârttika (verse 10). being uncertain as to the meaning in which it was used at the time when our Sutta was composed.' and by the Petersburg Dictionary as 'Materialism. in the Buddhist Suttas. a wide-spread antagonism to the priests.' III. a strong fund of common sense. It will be instructive. This is somewhat wider than atheist. that the Dictionary interpretations of the word are quite out of place in this connection. it comes however. in Kumârila's mouth. so often found in the Pitakas. to much the same thing.' Now the description of the good Brahman as put. To regard the Indian peoples through Brahman spectacles. as opposed to his own âstika-patha: that is. 3. to collect and consider the other passages in which the word occurs. to judge them from the tone prevalent in the Srauta and Grihya Sûtras. Kumârila.Greeks or Romans of the same period. and claims for his own book the merit of bringing it back to theistic lines{3}.

2. lokâyatam. but that it is diffused through the body. 90. . European 'materialists' (and one or two may be discovered by careful search) do not hold the view which Sankara describes to his Lokâyatikas. III. It seems to be the view that there is a soul. But it is never called Lokâyata in the Pitakas.D. 241 (where the word is wrongly spelt). that is the Vitanda. 2. and dies with it. after death."' Other Pâli comments on the word are the Abhidhâna Padîpikâ (verse 112). And though 'materialist. cranes are red from the redness of their blood. 168} such a one. such as: "By whom was this world created? By {1. within the body but not of it. 91. yet it is not quite exact. 3. and is not a separate unity.Sankarâkârya uses the word Lokâyata several times{1}. gives a good idea. Sum.' This does not help us much. It is not necessary to suppose that either Sankara or the Buddhists had in their minds any book setting forth a philosophy based on this single proposition. which is a generation older. 46). 2. pp. both translated below. A very similar.} {p. Much clearer is Aggavamsa in the Sadda-nîti.' as a rough and ready translation of Sankara's Lokâyatika. II. 2.' the Lokâyata is a text-book of the Vitandas (Sophists){3}. I. probably following Buddhaghosa: Vitanda-sattham viññeyyam yam tam lokâyatam. 53. p. as existing only so long as the body exists. or any actual school using such a book as a manual. and not expounded in any special treatise. Buddhaghosa in our passage has: Lokâya tam vukkati vitanda-vâda-sattham. He says{1}: Loko ti bâla-loko. ettha âyatanti ussâhanti vâyamanti vâdassâdenâti lokâyatam. to a European reader. 92. The Vitandas are quoted and refuted in the Attha Sâlinî. he explains Lokakkhâyikâ as follows: 'Foolish talk according to the Lokâyata. Nor do either the Buddhists or Sankara pretend to set out that opinion in full. It may have been so. not continuing. of the sort of feeling conveyed to Sankara's Indian readers. which says simply. 3. 3. The date of this work is the middle of the twelfth century A. in union with other opinions. For instance in his commentary on the Brahma-Sûtra. But the expressions used point rather to an opinion held by certain thinkers. 1. in a new condition and separate from the body. For instance in the Mahâli and Gâliya Suttas. which flies away from the body after death. if not indeed the very same view is also controverted in the Brahma-gâlla Sutta (above. p. Tam hi gandham nissâya sattâ puñña-kiriyâya kittam na uppâdenti. na yatati na îhati vâ. and always in the same specific sense as the view of those who look upon the soul as identical with the body. 247. Ayatati vâ tena loko. I. and is constantly referred to throughout the Pitakas under the stock phrase tam gîvam tam sarîram{2}. They are dealing with it only so far as is necessary to enforce their own contrary positions. A crow is white from the whiteness of its bones. but previously.

they exert themselves about it. verse 1238. separate from the body."' {1. S. 2. n'etam puññâya vaddhanam ti âha. move on by it. Quoted sub voce in Subhûti's 'Abhidhânappadîpikâ Sûki. According to the Sâsana Vamsa Dîpikâ (Dr. no soul. p. said: "Follow not the Lokâyata. strive about it. Or perhaps it means: "the world does not yatati by it.. Vitanda chatter. according to them. the crow is white. where. For while the Mahâbhârata has precisely the same use of the word as the Pitakas. yam loke Vitanda-sattham vukk ati. pp.. 74). 103. P.D. and for this reason or for that"--the book known in the world as the Vitanda-sattha. yam sandhâya Bodhisatto asamadhuro Vidhura-pandito: Na seve Lokâyatikam. 310. at the end of a list of the accomplishments of learned . 1882. The passage in the Mahâbhârata is at I. he lived at Arimaddana in Burma in 1127 A. See also Sâsana Vamsa Dîpo. T.' The exact meaning of âyata is really very doubtful. Vidhura the pandit. R.' p. S. Now the Lokâyata is the book of the unbelievers (of the Titthiyas) full of such useless disputations as the following: "All is impure. all is not impure. Lokâyata means: "on that they âyatanti. gives the allied proposition as his own conclusion from the uselessness of their discussions. J. And the difference is suggestive. 67. that works not for progress in merit.). Gandha Vamsa. through the pleasure they take in discussion. not as the opinion of the Lokâyatikas themselves. the crane is black."'} {p. does not depend on it. 'Loko means the common world." that is. and the commentator there says: 'This means: Follow not Lokâyata disputation. concerned with useless matters which neither give paradise nor lead men on into the Path. Loka evâyatante te lokayatikâ. 34. Mabel Bode's edition. and capable of going to the heavenly world or obtaining release{2}: The unknown author of the Gâtaka commentary. of which the Bodisat. With this attempt at derivation may be compared Nîlakantha on the passage quoted below from the Mahâbhârata (as given in B.' p. who certainly wrote however in the fifth century. 169} The verse quoted--certainly a very old one--is in the Vidhûra Gâtaka{1}. For living beings do not stir up their hearts to right-doing by reason of that book{2}. later works use it in a manner approximating more and more nearly to that of Sankara. p. 63. p." that is. especially in the light of other passages in both Sanskrit and Pâli books. 2889 ( = Hari Vamsa 14O68). Cowell's suggestion (Sarvad. Also Prof. 'Jardine Prize Essay.Lokâyatam nâma: sabbam ukkhittham sabbam anukkhittham seto kâko kâlo bako iminâ va iminâ va kâranenâti evam-âdi-niratthaka-karana-patisamyuttam titthiya-sattham. the incomparable leader. 2) that Lokayâta may be analysed etymologically as 'prevalent in the world. It would be an easy transition from the one expression to the other. Forchammer.' Sankara says: 'There is thus.

much less opprobiously. the word is mentioned twice. draw any certain conclusion as to whether or not there were actually any Lokâyatikas living in Bâna's time. In the long list of various sorts of hermits given in the Harsha Karita the Lokâyatikas come among others who would be classed by Vedântists as heretics{4}. One passage ascribes a knowledge of the Lokâyata (in a sentence expanded from the very clause in our Sutta) to the hero of the story. illustrating this Gâtaka. from which I take most of these references.' 310. 269. of the Gâtakas.Brahmans. Burnouf (p. But in any case it is evidence that.' p. 4. cii. No less than four bas reliefs. Both these passages from the epics are from later portions of them. entitled the Bhagavatî. II. as in our passage. no doubt wrongly. 286. romance'. 'Vedânta-system. as compared with the prose. they are said to be 'masters of the Lokâyata. and has a curious blunder in his note on the passage (p.' The date of {1. 109. This last expression cannot possibly mean anything of that sort.} {p. Gorresio's edition. points out that the word may possibly. VI. Being mentioned. at the time when it was written. he may be merely including in his list all . in which Lokâyatam is simply explained as vitanda-sattham. lxxviii. the passage given above from the Abhidhâna Padîpikâ. Chapter XIII. See my 'Buddhist Birth Stories. In expanding previous descriptions of the concourse of hermits in the forest. it is plain that this branch of learning is meant to be taken as of minor importance. have some other meaning than 'Materialism. in this passage. Nâgasena{2}. and quotes. have been found at the Bharhut Tope.' This may possibly be a gloss which has crept into the text. The other passage is in a parenthesis{3} in which the sub-hero. the Lokâyatikas occur in a similar list of blameworthy persons{1}. We cannot. cit. at the beginning. Fausböll's edition. 29. 2. at the end of the list. but the Laukâyatikâ are blamed as 'clever in useless things{3}. the king. which is probably somewhat earlier.' So in the Saddharma Pundarîka the good Mahâyânist does not serve or court or wait upon (among other low people) 'the Lokâyatikas who know by heart the Lokâyata mantras (mystic verses){4}. He says Lokâyata means in Pâli 'fabulous history.' The Râmâyana goes further. And the Petersburg Dictionary. See Deussen. On the greater age of the verses. 170} this may be a century or two after Christ. 409). which Weber puts at about the same time. In the Milinda.' II. is described as 'fond of wordy disputations. 168) reads tantras (instead of mantras). Loc. 'Vedânta-Sutras. There the word is also in a list. unfortunately. Here the Milinda is quite at the old standpoint. and in the habit of wrangling against the quibbles of Lokâyatas and Vitandas. But it is not yet considered unfavourably. see ibid. the later view of the meaning of the word had become prevalent. and Thibaut. 3. as his authority. And in the Gain book.

My Milinda. though it ranked. Such passages. 171} such as are not only the testimony of opponents. and several branches of natural science were regularly studied. 3. Khând. Ibid. on the colour of the rays of the sun. But portions of it trenched so closely upon. 5-7. IV. 1. were so often useful as metaphor in discussing the higher and more especially priestly wisdom. Up. it has been eminently successful. 1. an ogre. 4. of course. 2. p. In either case. scraps of astronomy. I. the word Lokâyata was used in a complimentary way as the name of a branch of Brahman learning. Sarva-darsana-samgraha. and knowledge of the nature of precious stones. Ait. 248. and of birds and beasts and plants. III. The amount then existing of such lore was too small to make a fair proficiency in it incompatible with other knowledge. Madhusûdana Sarasvatî. 17. 17. Pending the discovery of other texts. 3-7. 8. 3. Prabodhakandrodaya. and theories handed down by tradition as to cosmogony.the sorts of such people he had ever heard or read of. rhymes. the best working hypothesis to explain the above facts seems to be that about 500 B. riddles. At that time there was no school so called. who appears in the garb of a Brahman{5}. appropriately fathered on Kârvâka. made by Planudes in the fourteenth century A. Âr. as Bri. and VI. Khând. Cowell's Translation. 1. of elementary physics. on the worlds and on cosmogony. and no special handbook of such knowledge. and many others of a similar kind on these and other subjects might be cited as examples.C. III. Up. like the fathering of the later Sânkhya on the ancient sage Kapila. Ueber ein fragment der Bhagavatî. 7. or the fathering of the collection of fables. and is still widely accepted. Âr. a too exclusive acquaintance with Lokâyata became looked upon with disfavour. in various works of the fourteenth century and later. II. III. and III. It is not certain whether this is due to the ingenuity of a friend or a foe. and probably meant Nature-lore--wise sayings. 4. and especially of {1. II. upon Aesop the story-teller of the fifth century B. Even before . for instance. below his other studies. the elements. on the parts of the body. As the amount of it grew larger. 2-7. Âr. Up. Weber. and others. even of anatomy.. the Lokâyata system is. 236. the stars.C. a mythical character in the Mahâbhârata. has deceived many. the weather.} {p. Bri. on the elements. Lastly.D. I. To be a master of such lore was then considered by no means unbecoming to a learned Brahman.. that we find sayings that may well have belonged to it preserved in the pre-Buddhistic literature. 5. 2. 7.

or of a system of philosophy that called itself by the name there is no trace. but to such science as there was on the other. pegs on which certain writers can hang the views that they impute to their adversaries. the Mîmâmsists. And of the real existence of a school of thought. at that time. Chapter I. controverts a curious opinion which he ascribes to Lokâyatikas. as the very same opinion {p.} Return to top Next: V. as it is called 'a book of quibbles. It is the ideal of what will happen to the man of some intellect. Lokâyata was still the name for the old Nature-lore. though the word was in use in Pitaka times. in doing so. or his own knowledge Lokâyata. on the same level as folk-lore. but morally so depraved that he will not accept the theosophist position. in setting forth his theory of the soul. The Lokâyata had no doubt. long ceased to exist. Sarva-darsana-samgraha. and give them. folk-lore. Finally in the fourteenth century the great theologian Sâyana-Mâdhava has a longish chapter in which he ascribes to the Lokâyatikas the most extreme forms of the let-us-eat-and-drink-for-to-morrow-we-die view of life. the mysteries. and of atheism in theology. there is a tone of unreality over all the statements we have.the Christian era masters of the dark sayings. become mere hobby horses. of his equally orthodox opponents. and in the sense of infidel. an odious name. and not there called Lokâyata. Cowell in the version published in 1882. of Pyrrhonism in philosophy. And shortly afterwards Sankara.' Various branches of mundane science had been by that time fairly well worked out. not only to theosophy on the one hand.--possibly wrongly. Kûtadanta Sutta Top . 172} was controverted ages before in the Pitakas. presumably on the riddles and mysteries of the craft. In the last period the words Lokâyata. This feeling is increasingly vouched for in the early centuries of our era. and is chiefly based on certain infidel doggrel verses which cannot possibly have formed a part of the Lokâyata studied by the Brahmans of old{1}. translated by Prof. {1. Throughout the whole story we have no evidence of any one who called himself a Lokâyatika. In the first half of the eighth century Kumârila uses the word as a mere term of abuse. After the early use of the word in some such sense as Nature-lore. His very able description has all the appearance of being drawn from his own imagination. Lokâyatika. In the middle period the riddles and quibbles of the Nature-lorists are despised. and in contradistinction. In the fifth century we hear of a book. of such mundane lore were marked with sophists and casuists.

3. and seeing the people thus go by. 1 of the text).} . The whole of § 2 of the Sonadanda is here repeated. 2. as in the Sonadanda Sutta. The Blessed One once.Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. with about five hundred brethren. [128] And they began to leave Khânumata in companies and in bands to go to the Ambala tthikâ pleasaunce. {1. And just then Kûtadanta the Brahman had gone apart to the upper terrace of his house for his siesta. 173} V. Now the Brahmans and householders of Khânumata heard the news of the arrival of the Samana Gotama{2}. when going on a tour through Magadhâ.] [127] 1. And there at Khânumata he lodged in the Ambalatthikâ pleasaunce{1}. 2. And the doorkeeper told him{3}. with much grassland and woodland and water and corn. p. and a hundred goats. a place teeming with life. with a great multitude of the brethren. came to a Brahman village in Magadhâ called Khânumata. And a hundred bulls. Thus have I heard. 3. with power over it as if he were the king. and a hundred steers. 294) says it was like it. All given in the text in full. on a royal domain presented him by Seniya Bimbisâra the king of Magadhâ. as a royal gift. and a hundred heifers. Now at that time the Brahman Kûtadanta was dwelling at Khânumata. Not the same as the one with the same name half way between Râgagaha and Nâlânda (above. Buddhaghosa (p. he asked his doorkeeper the reason. [THE WRONG SACRIFICE AND THE RIGHT. And just then a great sacrifice was being got ready on behalf of Kûtadanta the Brahman. and a hundred rams had been brought to the post for the sacrifice. K TADANTA SUTTA.

But there were at that time a number of Brahmans staying at Khânumata to take part in the great sacrifice.{p. way. 136. As in § 4. and requested him to tell him about success in performing a sacrifice in its three modes{3} and with its accessory articles of furniture of sixteen kinds{4}. 319. IV. §§ 3-7 inclusive of the Sonadanda are here repeated in full in the text. 4.'--the furniture of a room. Now I don't know all this. 9. 269. Here again the word is turned into a riddle.' So he sent his doorkeeper to the Brahmans and householders of Khânumata. II. 2. no doubt. the smallest things one wears. the solution of which is the basis of the dialogue. and is a possible reading at Vin.' Used ethically of the Arahats it refers. in discussing a doubtful reading at Sum. 174} 4. I. to ask them to wait till he could go with them to call upon the Blessed One. He makes vidhâ a very rare word. and persuaded him. on the same grounds as the Brahmans had laid before Sonadanda. Childers gives 'pride' as the only meaning of this word. 168. equipments. and twists it round to his ethical teaching in the sense of mode of generosity. and yet I want to carry out a sacrifice. especially at the end of adjectival compounds. and so on. appurtenances. and ask him about it. the few objects a wandering mendicant carries about with him. 3. All that he has under both words should be struck out. Then Kûtadanta thought: 'I have heard that the Samana Gotama understands about the successful performance of a sacrifice with its threefold method and its sixteen accessory instruments. of course. But he has made a strange muddle between it and vidho. [134] Then they were satisfied. [129] It would be well for me to go to the Samana Gotama. 84. And when they heard this they went to Kûtadanta. to divers 'modes' of pride or delusion (as for instance in vidhâsu na vikampanti at S. It is given doubtfully by Buddhaghosa. {1. mode of rite or ritual. which has always the one meaning 'mode. Parikkhârâ. manner. fillings. I. 363 in the sense of 'brooch' or 'buckle. not to go. Vidho is most rare. 5. It is just the contrary. Vidhâ is frequent.} . 'accessories. and went with him to call upon the Blessed One{1}. But he answered them in the same terms as Sonada nda had used to those Brahmans. Vidhâ. Gotama lays hold of the ambiguity of the word. And when he was seated there Kûtadanta the Brahman told the Blessed One what he had heard{2}. All that he has under vidho should be entered under vidhâ. and vidho a common one.' Here vidhâ in Kûtadanta's mouth means. and in the passage quoted in Childers). in the sense of 'yoke'.

' 'Very well. with his treasure-houses and his garners full. give ear and listen attentively and I will speak. and fines and bonds and death!' But their licence cannot be satisfactorily put a stop to so. accepted the word of his chaplain. [135] he said: "So I would fain. will no longer harass the realm. to them let his majesty the king give wages and food. O Brahman. will dwell with open doors. to levy a fresh tax. 'Long ago. 295). Now there is one method to adopt to {1. called. 'Such as jewels and plate. O Brahman. But perchance his majesty might think: 'I'll soon put a stop to these scoundrels' game by degradation and banishment. 'Twere well if I were to offer a great sacrifice that should ensure me weal and welfare for many days. to them let his majesty the king give capital.' said Kûtadanta in reply. O Brahman. of aids to enjoyment{2}. Sire. Were the king. [136] and did as he had said. and who make the roads unsafe. The remnant left unpunished would still go on harassing the realm. offer a great sacrifice--let the venerable one instruct me how--for my weal and my welfare for many days. 'Thereupon the Brahman who was chaplain said to the king: "The king's country. following each his own business. O Brahman. . Then those men. Now when King Wide-realm was once sitting alone in meditation he became anxious at the thought: "I have in abundance all the good things a mortal can enjoy. with stores of silver and gold. There are dacoits abroad who pillage the villages and townships. there was a king by name Wide-realm (Mahâ Vigita){1}. verily his majesty would be acting wrongly." 'And he had the Brahman. 2. and the Blessed One spake as follows:-- 10. and telling him all that he had thought. with great wealth and large property. Whosoever there be in the king's realm who devote themselves to government service{1}. mighty. Literally 'he who has a great realm'--just as we might say Lord Broadacres.' says Buddhaghosa (p. so long as that is so. to them let his majesty the king give food and seed-corn. 175} 'Well then. dancing their children in their arms. Sir. 176} put a thorough end to this disorder.} {p. and the populace." 11. the king's revenue will go up. The whole wide circle of the earth is mine by conquest to possess." 'Then King Wide-realm. of goods and corn.{p. pleased one with another and happy. Whosoever there be in the king's realm who devote themselves to keeping cattle and the farm. is harassed and harried. Whosoever there be in the king's realm who devote themselves to trade. his chaplain. the country will be quiet and at peace.

of goods and corn. either in the country or the towns. in command of an army. 'So King Wide-realm had his chaplain called. Let the venerable ones give their sanction to what will be to me for weal and welfare for many days. pleasant in appearance. 177} word of his chaplain. either in the country or the towns. . And the country became quiet and at peace. The time is suitable. dwelt with open doors. as colleagues by consent. the locative singular of a neuter abstract form." 'Then let his majesty the king send invitations to whomsoever there may be in his realm who are Kshatriyas. And the king's revenue went up. and no slur was cast upon him. and said: "The disorder is at an end. gifted with great beauty of complexion. dancing their children in their arms. on the mother's side and on the father's. of aids to enjoyment. in respect of birth-- 'He was handsome. or who are householders of substance." 'Then King Wide-realm. compare M. stately to behold-- 'He was mighty. Râga-porise. I want to offer that great sacrifice--let the venerable one instruct me how--for my weal and my welfare for many days. O king{1}!" 'Thus did these four. The country is at peace. with stores of silver and gold. or who are Brahmans of position. harassed the realm no more. loyal and disciplined. with his treasure-houses and his garners full-- 'He was powerful. On this word. become wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice{2}. with great wealth. 'King Wide-realm was gifted in the following eight ways:-- 'He was well born on both sides. in four divisions (of elephants. And they each--Kshatriyas and ministers and Brahmans and householders--made alike reply: "Let his majesty the king celebrate the sacrifice. pleased one with another and happy. 13. inspiring trust. or who are ministers and officials of his. 85. either in the country or the towns. saying: "I intend to offer a great sacrifice. fine in presence. either in the country or the towns. I.And those men. following each his business. of pure descent back through seven generations. O Brahman.} {p. [137] and did as he had said. vassals of his. and no reproach. and large property. 12. accepted the {1. fair in colour. And the populace.

Compare M. a welling spring s whence Saman as and Brahmans. keeping open house. and the legends as a fifth. and no reproach in respect of birth-- 'He was a student repeater who knew the mystic verses by heart. too. with no slur cast upon him. and bowmen). with the indices. burning up. his enemies by his very glory-- 'He was a believer. 178} 'He was intelligent. expert and wise. and generous.' says Buddhaghosa (p. chariots. the ritual. I. on the mother's and on the father's. and could explain: "This saying has such and such a meaning. and able to think out things present or past or future{1}-- 'And these eight gifts of his. established in virtue. To spend one's days in selfishness. Yaññassa parikkhârâ. gifted with virtue that had grown great-- . and petitioners might draw. 379. of pure descent back through seven generations. 298. the phonology.' II. learned in the idioms and the grammar. in old age to give gifts would be no good. Mil. beggars. became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice. 236. and the exegesis (as a fourth ). versed in Lokâyata (Nature-lore) and in the thirty marks on the body of a great man-- 'He was virtuous. [138] 14. 115.cavalry. and the note at 'Vinaya Texts. and that such and such"-- {1. methinks. 'The Brahman his chaplain was gifted in the following four ways:-- 'He was well born on both sides. The latter word is here twisted round to a new sense. master of the Three Vedas. the poor and the wayfarers. 3. 2. 'Because it was right and fit to do such deeds when one was young and rich. I. Vin. a noble giver. Sum. 297). a doer of good deeds-- 'He was learned in all kinds of knowledge-- 'He knew the meaning of what had been said. I.411. and then.} {p. Opâna = udapâna.

among those who hold out the ladle. before the sacrifice had begun. 'And further." let not the king harbour such regret: {1. the king has the eight. in ten ways. and men who covet not--men who harbour illwill. in order to prevent any compunction that might afterwards. alas. For the consent of the four classes has been obtained. Should his majesty the king. and men who refrain therefrom--men who speak lies." let not the king harbour such regret. Buddhaghosa explains this as meaning that he knew the result of Karma. too.' 'Thus these four gifts of his. and his Brahman has the four. when the great sacrifice has been offered. and men who refrain therefrom--men who take what has not been given. in them shall your heart within find peace. and men who refrain therefrom--[139. and that there would be a similar result in future for his good deeds done now. said: "Now there will come to your sacrifice. Of each of these let them. 140] men who covet. and men who refrain therefrom--men who act evilly in respect of lusts. Sire. feel any such regret as: "Great. Should his majesty the king. O Brahman. the chaplain." 17. 15. without himself having the eight personal gifts. alas. before starting on the great sacrifice. and men whose views are right. for them. For them who do well let your majesty offer. instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened his heart in sixteen ways: "Should there be people who should say of the king. without the assistance of a Brahman who has the four personal gifts. arrange the rites. he knew that his present prosperity was a gift to him by the good deeds done to others in the past. who do evil. O Brahman. expert. became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice. feel any such regret as: "Great. Sire. men who destroy the life of living things.' then would they speak not according to the fact. and wise. personal gifts. 16. will be the portion of my wealth used up herein. as he is offering the sacrifice: 'King Wide-realm is celebrating sacrifice without having invited the four classes of his subjects. alas.'He was intelligent. or at most the second. before the sacrifice had begun. alone with their evil. and men who do not-men who speak rudely. the chaplain. arise as regards those who had taken part therein. whilst he is offering the great sacrifice. before the sacrifice had begun. explain to King Wide-realm the three modes." let not the king harbour such regret. feel any such regret as: "Great. explained to King Wide-realm the three modes: 'Should his majesty the king. whilst the king was carrying out the sacrifice. will be the portion of my wealth used up herein. 'And further.} {p. and men who harbour it not--men whose views are wrong. With regard to each and everyone of these sixteen conditions the king may rest . 'And further. and men who do not--men who chatter vain things. foremost. O Brahman. them let the king gratify. and men who do not--men who slander. has been the portion of my wealth used up herein. O Brahman. the chaplain. 179} 'Thus did the chaplain.

Whoso chose to help. 'So the Kshatriyas established a continual largesse to the east of the king's sacrificial pit. and said: 'How . O Brahman. he did. And there were three modes of the giving of that sacrifice. neither goats. And when he had thus spoken. whoso chose not to help. and the Brahmans of position. and the officials to the south thereof. and oil.assured that it has been fulfilled. 180} [141] 18. 181} eight personal gifts. was in all respects like unto the great sacrifice of King Wide-realm himself. is what is called the due celebration of a sacrifice in its threefold mode and with its furniture of sixteen kinds!'-- 21. at that sacrifice neither were any oxen slain. Do you keep yours. in the text. This whole closing sentence is repeated. laid up." {1. and take away more with you!" 'When they had thus been refused by the king.} {p. With ghee. and the ministers and officials. O Brahman. that was left undone. whether of the country or of the towns. no Dabbha grasses mown to strew around the sacrificial spot. they went aside. were we to take this wealth away again to our own homes. and the householders of substance. Let us too make an after-sacrifice!" 20. and sugar only was that sacrifice accomplished. [143] 'Thus. and possess his heart in peace{1}. of each of the sixteen. King Wide-realm is offering a great sacrifice. the Kshatriya vassals. nor carried on their work weeping with tears upon their faces. And the things given. [142] 19. nor fowls. have we brought hither for the king's use. and considered thus one with the other: "It would not beseem us now. nor were any kinds of living creatures put to death. and be glad. Sire. worked not. and milk. he worked. what they chose not to do. O Brahman. those Brahmans lifted up their voices in tumult. Let his majesty accept it at our hands!" '"Sufficient wealth have I. 'And further. and the householders to the north thereof. This. and butter. 'And further. went to King Wide-realm. and his officiating Brahman with four. the produce of taxation that is just. and King Wide-realm was gifted with {p. there was a fourfold co-operation. And the slaves and messengers and workmen there employed were driven neither by rods nor fear. He can sacrifice. What each chose to do. No trees were cut down to be used as posts. and the manner of their gift. nor fatted pigs. taking with them much wealth. and honey. O Brahman. and said: "This abundant wealth. and the Brahmans to the west thereof. my friends.

neither will the Arahats go. O Brahman.glorious the sacrifice.' 24. O Gotama. O Gotama. to be celebrated. verily his head would split in twain." but says only "Thus it was then. O Gotama. as chaplain. 23. into some state of happiness in heaven?' 'Yes. there is." So I thought: "For a certainty the Samana Gotama himself must at that time have been King Wide-realm. O Brahman. is reborn at the dissolution of the body. And at that time I was the Brahman who. of greater fruit and of greater advantage than either of these?' .' 22. and seizing by the throat{1}. 'But what is the reason. 'Is there. and kept up in a family. And why not? Because at it beating with sticks takes place." or "It was like that then.' 'And what. or the Brahman who officiated for him at that sacrifice. But I was considering that the Samana Gotama does not say: "Thus have I heard." nor "Thus behoves it to be. where such things are not. may that be?' 'The perpetual gifts kept up in a family where they are given specifically to virtuous recluses. are less difficult and troublesome. of greater fruit and greater {p. any other sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome. how pure its accomplishment!' But Kûtadanta the Brahman sat there in silence. O Brahman. or causes it. after death. O Gotama. Does the venerable Gotama admit that he who celebrates such a sacrifice. nor such as have entered on the Arahat way. Then those Brahmans said to Kûtadanta: 'Why do you not approve the good words of the Samana Gotama as well-said?' 'I do not fail to approve: for he who approves not as well-said that which has been well spoken by the Samana Gotama. and what the cause. with more fruit and more advantage still than this?' [144] 'Yes. that I admit. 182} advantage than that other sacrifice with its three modes and its accessories of sixteen kinds?' 'To the latter sort of sacrifice. any other sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome. And therefore are such perpetual gifts above the other sort of sacrifice. But they will go to the former. 'And is there. why such perpetual givings specifically to virtuous recluses. had that sacrifice performed.

better than the gift of dwelling places. any other sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome. abstinence from taking what has not been given. O Gotama. intoxicating.[145] 'Yes. may that be?' 'The putting up of a dwelling place (Vihâra) on behalf of the Order in all the four directions. and use violence in doing so. 'And is there.' 'And what. O Gotama. any other sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all these four?' 'When a man with trusting heart takes upon himself the precepts--abstinence from destroying life. O Gotama. better than the gift of a dwelling place. 'And is there. O Gotama. there is. better than perpetual alms. there is. 'And is there.' 'And what. says Buddhaghosa (p. better than perpetual alms. push the recipients about. any other sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome. there is. O Brahman. of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all these five?' 'Yes.' 25. make them stand in a queue. O Gotama. 183} 27. The attendants. abstinence from lying words.' [147] 'And what. at such a general largesse. abstinence from evil conduct in respect of lusts. of greater fruit and of greater advantage than each and all of these three?' 'Yes. maddening drinks. the root of carelessness--that is a sacrifice better than open largesse. abstinence from strong. and the Truth. may that be?' . better than accepting guidance.' [146] 26.} {p. O Brahman. and the Order--that is a sacrifice better than open largesse. O Brahman. may that be?' 'He who with trusting heart takes a Buddha as his guide. 303). O Gotama.' {1.

-- 1. on the First Ghâna. 7. The paragraphs on the Five Hindrances.' 5. The paragraph on 'Guarded is the door of his senses. his preaching. § 40. O Brahman. and Fourth Ghânas. and further (omitting direct mention either way of §§ 85-96 inclusive) of the knowledge of the destruction of the Âsavas. 9. §§ 97-98). the conversion of a hearer. O Brahman. the deadly intoxications or floods (ibid. The paragraph on Solitude. §§ 77-82). And when he had thus spoken. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up .' [The same is then said of the Second. The paragraph on 'Mindful and self-possessed. 84). 3. down to § 75 (p.] 'This. The Introductory paragraphs on the appearance of a Buddha. 62 (of the text). and his renunciation of the world. §§ 83. and of the Insight arising from knowledge (ibid. 74).' 6. The paragraph on Confidence. The Sîlas (minor morality). Kûtadanta the Brahman said to the Blessed One: 'Most excellent.] 'And there is no sacrifice man can celebrate. p. in succession (as in the Sâmann a-phala. The paragraph on Content. 8.' 28. higher and sweeter than this. 2.[The answer is the long passage from the Sâmañña-phala. as follows. Third. 4. of greater fruit and greater advantage than the previous sacrifices. are the words of thy mouth. The description of the First Ghâna. is a sacrifice less difficult and less troublesome. O Gotama.

' And the Blessed One signified. and had the time announced to the Blessed One: 'It is time. And then the Brahman Kûtadanta. And when he was thus seated the Blessed One instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Kûtadanta the Brahman with religious discourse. who had passed beyond doubt. and he knew: 'Whatsoever has a beginning. in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution. of the advantages of renunciation.{p. and the meal is ready. of the danger. as long as life endures. O Gotama. . by silence. just even so did Kûtadanta the Brahman. and keeping his right towards him as he passed. who had dressed early in the morning. as one who. and the seven hundred goats. his consent. then did he proclaim the doctrine the Buddhas alone have won. May the venerable One accept me as a disciple. as one who had seen the Truth. from this day forth. upraised. softened. that is to say. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. And at daybreak he had sweet food. even I. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. To them I grant their life. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms--just even so has the truth been made known to me in many a figure by the venerable Gotama. that is to say. put on his outer robe. 185} 'May the venerable Gotama grant me the favour of taking his to-morrow's meal with me. betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. and taking his bowl" with him. Then the Blessed One discoursed to Kûtadanta the Brahman in due order. obtain the pure and spotless Eye for the Truth. both hard and soft. both hard and soft. will have the seven hundred bulls. O Gotama. And Kûtadanta the Brahman [149] satisfied the brethren with the Buddha at their head. 184} what has been thrown down. and the seven hundred steers. And just as a clean cloth. and believing in heart. with sweet food. he departed thence. and of the Path. and the defilement of lusts. he spake to him of generosity. and put away perplexity and gained full confidence. seeing that the Blessed One had accepted. dived deep down into it. of its cessation.' 30. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal. of right conduct. rose from his seat. of its origin. the vanity. unprejudiced. and the seven hundred rams set free. to the Doctrine and the Order. will readily take the dye. till they refused any more. made ready at the pit prepared for his sacrifice. understood it. and may cool breezes waft around them.' And the Blessed One. who had become dependent on no other for his knowledge of the teaching of the Master. I. the doctrine of sorrow. even while seated there. Let them eat green grass and drink fresh water. And when the Blessed One became aware that Kûtadanta the Brahman had become prepared. of heaven. with all stains in it washed away. And I [148] myself.' 29. has taken him as his guide. addressed the Blessed One and said: {p. with his own hand. went with the brethren to Kûtadanta's sacrificial pit. and then arose from his seat and departed thence. had mastered it. and cleansed the bowl and his hands. and the seven hundred heifers. and sat down there on the seat prepared for him. Kûtadanta the Brahman took a low seat and seated himself beside him. and also the members of the Order with him. Then the Brahman Kûtadanta.

THE form of this Sutta is remarkable. who raises the first point. to the present division of the Dialogues. We have two distinct subjects discussed. There the Sutta might appropriately have ended. and it is in fact added. § 10 on p. as the aim. 46. along the Eightfold Path. the Buddha says that it is not for the sake of acquiring such powers that people join the Order under him. And though. The division is therefore . was known to harbour the heresy that there is a soul. This second part of our Dialogue might form a separate Sutta. and the context must. 186} INTRODUCTION TO THE MAHÂLI SUTTA. I think. before it received a place in that division of the Buddhist scriptures where it now stands. he leads the discourse again up to Arahatship along the series of mental states set out in the Sâmañña-phala. he gradually leads the questioner on to Arahatship. and that it has form. However this may be. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Mahâli Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. as a Sutta by itself.Kûtadanta Sutta is ended.) It was to clear his mind of this notion that the Buddha specially raised the second point. for the reason stated below. But the Buddha himself then raises a totally different question--whether the soul and the body are the same. And being asked what their object then is. Why then is it also included here? Buddhaghosa's answer is that the young noble Mahâli. First the question of the ability to see heavenly sights and hear heavenly sounds being raised. he gives no answer. the Sutta must have been already a double one. (The words the commentator uses are very short. Each Sutta in that division incorporates the whole of the very ancient tract called the Sîlas. be supplied from the passage translated above. must have had its present form.

Samyutta IV. That part. It is rendered very clear by the old legend put into the Buddha's mouth in the Udâna just quoted. and they are as follows{1}:-1. He who had felt the ear said it was like a winnowing basket. those numbered 1-4 and 7-10 are speculations already condemned in the Brahma-gâla (above. He who had felt the head said it was like a water-pot. The question raised in that second part is one of a group of questions on which primitive Buddhism expresses no {p. Udâna VI. Gotama thereupon tells a story how. 5. The remaining two. Whether the soul is the same as the body. or distinct from it{2}. He who had felt its back said it {1. 40 respectively). I. There are others mentioned occasionally by themselves.} . Our Sutta only contains the Sîlas in the second part. 2. and as getting so excited about them that they came to blows. pp.called the Sîla Vagga. Tam gîvam tam sarîram. 2. they form the subject of the Avyâkata Samyutta (No. Childers (sub voce pañho) renders this: 'Is this the life? is this the body?' but that must be wrong. 393. Potthapâda Sutta (translated below). He who had felt the tusk said it was like a plough-share.. 44 in vol. form the subject of the Gâliya. Whether the world is eternal or not. See Sum. or not. and p. in ancient days. He who had felt the trunk said it was like a plough-handle. Besides being often mentioned in the Dialogues translated in the present work and elsewhere. Whether the world is infinite or not. Of them. a similar riot having taken place. 484. the Indeterminates. The king then asks them to explain what an elephant is like. There the various non-Buddhist teachers of the time are represented as expressing strong opinions one way or the other on these questions. 319. and had an elephant brought in. pp. 35 foll. 3. after death. incorporated in our present Sutta. must have belonged to it when the dialogues were arranged as they now stand. but these form the usual group. those numbered 5 and 6. iv of the Samyutta Nikâya). and in any way. 187} opinion. &c. 27 foll. I. 4. 6. They are called the Ten Avyâkatâni. the king had all the blind men in the city brought together. M. 4. Each of the blind men touches a different part of the elephant. He who had felt its legs said it was like a pillar. And no Sutta not containing the Sîlas can belong to it.. therefore. The position taken by the primitive Buddhists as to these Indeterminates is so often referred to that it undoubtedly was an important item in the Buddha's actual belief. Whether a man who has attained to the truth (a Tathâgata) exists. points not determined. He who had felt the body said it was like a granary. 7-10.

{p. though after death. A. useless.' In other words the speculations. many centuries afterwards. by Hume and his followers. double of the body of the deceased. He who had felt its tail said it was like a pestle. R. because it is based on insufficient evidence.-'In such points Brahmans and recluses stick Wrangling on them. And. being based on insufficient evidence. or is not. a disadvantage in the struggle towards the only aim worth striving for--the perfection and emancipation of Arahatship. they conduce neither to detachment of heart. the desert. S. nor to the insight of the higher stages of the Path. II. in the West. 188} was like a mortar. and perhaps the most original . To discuss such questions is Mere speculation. nor to freedom from lusts. the ethical corollary is very emphatically insisted upon. but still material. to the amusement of the king. it was apparently regarded as a subtle and very impalpable. nor to tranquillity. As for the special point of our Sutta--the lesson that no wise man will condescend to discuss the question whether the soul is. For instance. are not only useless--they are also. 189} belief in a semi-material soul in his own system that is the most striking. smaller than the body. He who had felt its bristles said it was like a broom. And each one was so sure he was right that they clamoured one against the other. Then comes the moral. by the fever of excitement. There (to judge by the passages set out in my article in the J. 485. of speculation--are accompanied by sorrow. the entanglement. as usual in primitive Buddhism. at least during life. It is several times pointed out in the Dialogues{1} of these ten speculations that they-- 'The jungle. the writhing. when it flies away from the body through an aperture in the top of the head.} {p. 1. by wrangling. therefore. indeed universally prevalent among unthinking people throughout the world that it was almost certainly held also in India. nor to wisdom. nor to Arahatship. The general opinion about the soul in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads is somewhat different. and it resembles very closely the position taken up. the same as the body--it must be remembered that the negative is the view now known to be so widely. from the Buddhist point of view. This is the philosophic position. and came to blows. nor to peace. by resentment. they violently discuss-Poor folk! they see but one side of the shield!' The inference is obvious. that is. the puppet show. for January 1899) it is looked upon as being. It was the refusal to allow any place for this universal {1. wrong.

in the meaning of 'oneself. that there were such Buddhists as early as the time of Asoka. in an the oblique cases. it is used 55 times merely in the sense of person{1}. They belonged to two out of the eighteen schools of thought which had then arisen. He retained it in a personal sense. of course. in some sort of way. pp. attaaâ. We . sayam is almost always. {1. so fundamental to the right understanding of primitive Buddhism. 1896). 39-42. so fundamentally opposed to what is usually understood as religious belief. In this respect he came very near to our modern use of the word in such expressions as 'a high-souled man' or 'a soul for music. more clear. But it is clear from the tone of the first chapter of the Kathâ Vatthu. can be recognised. 3. but a different decision as to them would not change the proportion to any substantial extent.. pp. No other religion of which we have sufficient records to enable us to form an opinion on the point has been constructed without the 'soul. both in India and elsewhere.' which comes to much the same as character.' Where the others said 'soul. and 306 times in the sense of emotional or intellectual qualities or disposition{2}. He rejected entirety the use of the word in the old animistic sense. and the efforts to find one have always met with unswerving opposition. Even in the old authorised translation of our Bible. 87. &c. There are about a score of ambiguous passages. Yet the position is also so original. 81. which is really very simple. substituted. and the notes above.' Gotama said usually 'Action. emotional sense. 'We were in the ship two hundred and seventy-six souls. This will make Gotama's position. be acknowledged the reality of the emotional and intellectual dispositions.' &c. in which the word occurs altogether 449 times. 190} Our available records are not at present sufficient to enable us to judge either of the numbers. so often insisted on. See the quotations in my 'American Lectures' (London. There is no loophole.{3} And though.feature in Gotama's teaching. 4.' Acts xxvii.' And it is worth calling attention to the fact that even in Shakspere more than half the times the word is used it is in this secondary. of those Buddhists who made such attempts. himself.} {p. if not indeed always. 2. he refused absolutely to look upon them as a unity. only 85 times in the animistic sense. or of the importance. the use of which might have been misunderstood. both in the Pitakas themselves and in extra-canonical works{4}. ethical. The names of these schools are the Sammitiyâ and the Vaggi-puttakâ{1}. that there is great temptation to attempt to find a loophole through which at least a covert or esoteric belief in the soul and in future life (that is of course of a soul). But for the nominative attâ. Attano. as part of so widely accepted a religious system. The position is so absolute. that it is essential there should be no mistake about it. and from the express statements of the commentary on it.

calm. then it is most interesting and important as giving us the earliest mention of a doctrine not found in the Pâli Pitakas. p. awakening. Childers (sub voce parâyano) explains this as 'having the Four Truths as his support. The king there says that he 'set out for the sambodhi. and magnanimity. In describing the first and lowest of the four stages of the Path. joy. he has only attained abhisamaya--but that he is sambodhi-parâyano. 27. and is confirmed by every other passage in the Pâli Pitakas where the word sambodhi has been traced. in other words.' If this means that he had started. as the 'Lesser Vehicle' is quite possible here. but always the insight of the higher stages of the path to Arahatship. The doctrine spoken of with contempt. II. sub voce sambodhi ('attainment of Buddhaship. But if the opinion condemned at pp. 8 (in the Journal of the Pâli Text Society for 1889).' But Buddhaghosa (Sum. Buddhahood'). 14-19 of the Kathâ Vatthu be really theirs. The expression sambodhi-parâyano used in this Sutta. But it is necessary to point this out because the distinction is of the first importance for the history of Buddhism. S. in his own opinion. by going along an eightfold path. and also because the erroneous rendering of Burnouf has been followed by Childers in the Dictionaty. as the commentator declares it is. the ten so-called Bonds. are got rid of. A. and more in accordance with all the rest of the Asoka expressions. goes out of his way to raise in the form of a question. the Sambogghangâ--self-possession. and entirely opposed to their view of Buddhism. in some future birth. 238. And what is connoted by the term can best. I. towards the attainment. nor does the context require it. of Buddhahood. The Sambodhi is the insight. which the Buddha. II. M. be understood by bearing in mind its seven constituent parts. There would seem to be no sufficient reason why we should not understand Asoka to mean that he had started. investigation into the truth.} {p. concentration. intelligence. 191} the context. in his own opinion. along the Eightfold Path. towards the . Kathâ-vatthu-ppakarana-atthakathâ. The Buddhist ideal is a subjective state to be reached. by the Mahâyânist doctors.may yet hope to recover a work which will contain their arguments in their own words. It never means the wisdom of a Buddha. which is essential to the three higher stages of this state of Arahatship. so called because of the eight good qualities or characteristics which make up its eight parts. in this world.' Buddhaghosa's explanation is the only one possible in {1. perhaps. Progress along this path is divided into four stages in which certain evil dispositions.) of the disciple--not that he has then attained the sambodhi. 156. he will attain to that. and has not been corrected by any of the distinguished scholars who have discussed the meaning of Asoka's eighth edict in which the word occurs{1}. P. then it would seem that they held a view practically the same as that opinion of Mahâli. &c. § 13. has been hitherto misunderstood. But the word does not necessarily imply this. 313) says: 'He has the sambodhi--by which is meant that of the three higher stages--as his furthermost aim. wisdom. in our Sutta. it is always stated (Dîgha I. along the line of the Pârâmitâs. and to put aside as unworthy of discussion. energy.

the destruction of which is precisely Arahatship. 503. in English translations of Buddhist texts. with which we started. had all the graces an Arahat should have{2}. 765) that even here. doubtless in some future birth. to express a man's {1. 7{1}. 7) the object is said to be the destruction of the seven bonds. the way to which is said to be the Eightfold Path (M. 60. Thus. p. II. And sambodhi-parâyano. S. apart from. There are numerous passages where the very nature of the discourse held not only to laymen (upâsakas). 24 and 79 of the Magghima Collection) lead up to the same conclusion. 431 and the Dhamma-kakka-ppavattana Sutta. or that of having one's eyes opened to the higher life--the second is the more accurate use of the word. For though the word 'conversion' is used in English in two senses--either that of joining the outward organisation of a new faith.attainment. but quoted by Moggallîputta Tissa at Kathâ Vatthu XXII. 233) by the explanation that the way of gaining this understanding is to follow out the whole of the Eightfold Path to Arahatship. 42: compare ibid.' I. he will reach up to the sambodhi. carrying out those precepts. 186. and. It is therefore very doubtful whether the word 'conversion' should be used. and the same reply is expanded further on in the same book (IV. And this is repeated further on (S. 14. So sambodhi-patto is used in the Sutta Nipâta.. are. 47. but always (though the phraseology differs) the attainment of Arahatship. and ought always to be implied in the first. In the Anguttara (IV. Of course the above is not intended to imply that the Buddha had not attained the sambodhi. p. 200. 117 = A. 478. lower than.). on a different plane altogether. It is never the attainment of Buddhahood. at the end of Chapter V. not yet traced. 156) in the answer to the question. S. No. See Senart. . and the other authorities referred to at I. and the precepts laid down for laymen. of whom it is said (Itivuttaka. and often elsewhere). the aim is said to be the complete understanding of sorrow (dukkhassa pariññâ). 101). and also A. but even to members of the Order (bhikkhus). 49. N. shows that they were not supposed to have attained as yet to the state of mind described as 'entering upon the Path. in this world. II. 192} becoming an upâsaka or a bhikkhu. and it is interesting to notice how it is answered. V. can never even result in 'conversion' without the awakening of the new life. Whether this be so or not. The word sambodhi-parâyano occurs in the passage first above quoted (Dîgha I. 6: compare Mil. as such. of Arahatship. And further. it is said he has realised the aim of the higher life (brahmakariya-pariyosânam). 223. is only another way of stating what is expressed by amata-parâyano ('having the ambrosia of Arahatship as his aim') in a Sutta. of the member of the Buddhist Order)?' Opponents and controversialists are fond of asking this question. In the Samyutta IV.} {p. that of the Path. 182 and II. I. this entering on the Path--the Eightfold Path to the wisdom of the Arahat--is a quite different thing from becoming a Buddhist. He was an Arahat. 'What is the aim of the life of the recluse (that is. in the standing phrase used to state that so and so has become an Arahat (M. P.' Both the rules of the Order. Acting up to those rules. &c. p. 'Inscriptions de Piyadasi. The Ratha-vinîta and the Kulla Sakuludâyi Dialogues (Nos. 51. to describe the Arahat. from the Pitaka point of view. this is the only meaning of the word so far found in the Pitakas. 202.

Likkhavi. such as Opamañña. Malla. III. Bhâradvâga. Abhaya (Fearless). Otthaddha (Hare-lipped). introduced to us at the beginning of the Sutta by the name 'Hare-lip' (Otth addha). As the former is only found as yet in one ambiguous phrase (M. And such names occur so often that it would seem as if nearly everybody was known by a nickname. Compare brahma-parâyano at Mil. I. 17. &c. Vedehi-putta (a name of Agâtasattu king of Magadhâ. 3. addressed as Kassapa. Such are Tissa (after the lucky star of that name). 211. and without any explanation. but (and again without any explanation) as Mahâli. Vakkhâyana. called in Pâli Kula-nâma. Buli. A nickname arising out of some personal peculiarity. S. II. These are usually patronymic in form. but familiar way. 6. Some of these names (like similar ones among ourselves) are of very obscure derivation. 234. 88. 2. and many others. There are several points in this question of address which cannot yet be solved. Moggallâna. with putta (son) added to it. and danda-parâyano at M. Koliya. Devadatta (our Theodore). The name of the clan. Vaggi. brahmakariya-parâyano at A. like our own so-called Christian names. nor as Likkh avi.} {p. Nanda or Ânanda (Joy). 2. I. A personal name. called in Pâli the mûla-nâma. what we should call a surname or family name. is not connected with any personal peculiarity. . neither by his name Otthaddha. The name of the mother. 193} On the same page of this Sutta we have two instances of a curious manner of address not infrequent in the Pitakas. Kandarâyana. Vâsettha. but as yet very imperfectly understood.). Bhaddiya (nearly the same as our Frederick). This. Kassapa.{1. we find him suddenly. &c. 4. 8. There are at least eight different modes of speaking of or to a person:-- 1. 5. 75. but others are clear enough as adjectives with a good or lucky meaning. such as Sâri-putta (the more usual name by which the famous disciple Upatissa is called). Ma ndîkâ-putta (= Upaka). Kanhâyana. Kondañña. is addressed both by Nâgita and by the Buddha. Anâthapindika (the beggars' friend). such as Sakka. Such are Lambakanna (Hanging-eared). Vessâyana. Childers thinks sambodho is merely another form of sambodhi. All these are used in a quite friendly. And the young Likkhavi. After being told that Nâgita was the name of the Buddha's personal attendant. Kût adanta (with a protruding tooth). The name of the Gotta or gens. IV. 97. Kâlâma. Dârupattika (the man with the wooden bowl). 233. the discussion of its meaning would be premature. but several others are already pretty clear.

though his gotta name is {1. in narrative. of the person addressed.'} {p. that is. or from the family. as Uruvela. under the circumstances. 16. A mere general term of courtesy or respect. or father. 166. to which she belonged. whose child has become famous.Nadi. 54. and a mother or father. or of the trade. is simply referred to as the mother. IV. never used in addressing a person. not containing any special application to the person addressed--such as bhante. 194} Mantâni-putta (= Punna). be used in any particular case. either the nickname or the mûla-nâma. Sañgaya at M. except in the case of close familiarity. to use either of the two sorts of personal names. &c. Less frequently the reverse is the case. Lastly there is the local name.{p. thapati. Godhi-putta (= Devadatta).' 'the Todeyyan. Such are brâhma na. 159. It is not considered courteous among equals. 195} . 56. but always taken either from the clan. of the eight different Kittas one is distinguished as Ma kkhi-kâsandika. rathakâra-putto). or the occupation. II. author of the Kathâ Vatthu). mahârâga. 173. but prefixed or added to the mûla or gotta name. of so and so.and Gaya-Kassapa respectively. Moggali-putta (= Tissa. 132. II. Occasionally the root-form of the name of the clan. Gânussoni at M. I. Todeyya-putto{1}. On the rules regulating the choice as to which one of these various sorts of names should. has -putto added to it in a similar way (Vanganta-putto. 6. 127. in narrative sentences. It is noteworthy that the name of the father is never used in this way. or lastly 'of the Todeyya clan. to distinguish between two or more people of the same name. 8. âvuso. and that the mother's name is never a personal name. Thus of the eighteen different Kassapas mentioned in the books. ayye. should rather be classified under the next division. The Buddha addresses Brahmans as Brâhmana (for instance Sonadanda and Kûtadanta above in the Suttas so called. &c. 7. Pokkharasâdi Subhagavaniko. the following observations may be made. I. of the seventeen different Bhâradvâgas one is distinguished as Kâpathika. But these cases. The name of the position in society. Todeyya-putto may be rendered either 'son of the man of Tudi' or 'of the sons of the dwellers in Tudi' (a well-known village). 178. three are distinguished. which are rare. &c. Other instances are probably Hatthako Âlavako. gahapati. Bâhiyo Dârukîriyo. A.

the Nigantha. And at M. As shown above. a member of the Buddhist order. one may conclude that these also are probably gotta names. 186. in the case of Sarabha. I. of Mahânâma. 327). though he is addressed as Kassapa by his nephew. III. They called their own Order a gotra (ibid. A. addresses the ascetic Pilotika by his gotta name of Vakkhâyana. II. 'G aina-Sûtras. 175. 197. was expressly forbidden to Niganthas (Jacobi. A. as Gotama. even Brahmans use these gotta names of non-Brahmans. Âkâsa-gotta. it would seem that the gotta name was considered as more honourable than either of the personal names. not a Buddhist. Sikha at A. This is only in accord with the usage followed by others besides the Buddha. Gotamî. at M. From the usage referred to. cit. It would seem that the nickname. apparently a clan name (his gotta was Kanhâyana).' II. II. Sâriputta). A. When therefore we find other ascetics addressed by the Buddha by the same name as has been used in the introductory narrative (as. but some at least of the more distinguished among them are always addressed by him either by their gotta. each family or gens taking the gotta name of {p. in speaking of a person. I. and also than the descriptive . We have no certain instance of such a name in any other case. Thus Gânussoni. and every member of each of the free clans. when once generally known. though his gotta name is given. 354. who also bore the names. 232. Potaliya. At M. as followed by the Buddha and others. 321. On the other hand the Buddha usually addresses ascetics not as paribbâgaka. This custom of addressing people by their gotta name. name (compare Moggallâna. a Brahman. It has been concluded that they are Brahman names. or by their mother's. and apparently thought it worldly to recognise the existence of any other. and that the claim was admitted to be well founded. I. D. 196} their private chaplain. Potthapâda. II. 220. 284). and that the clans must have adopted them from the Brahmans. their purohita priest. by their personal names (so of Vappa. and Assagi.). Probably every Brahman. because he kept his nails long) by his gotta name. had a gotta name. addresses the Buddha by his gotta name. But in that case we should surely expect to find some evidence that such priests were usually maintained in such clans. also calls Sakkako by his gotta name (loc. 100. Kassapa. The Buddha addresses members of his own clan. I. to drive the others out of use. 40 he calls Vekhanaso by his gotta name of Kakkâna. II. 305). Nâgita. I. 228-250 he calls Sakkako. the novice Sîha. The same holds good of the junior members of the Order. and everybody. is addressed by the Buddha simply as Nâgita. by the very use of these names. But we have had one instance above where he addresses a young Brahman as Ambattha. 497-500 he calls Dîgha-nakho (so called.given. A. but by their gotta name. This solitary exception may be because of his youth. All that we can fairly conclude is that the clans claimed. no doubt. whether members of his Order or not. The gotta names used in the clans are the same as those given in Brahman books to Brahmans. But it is never used in speaking to the person referred to by it.). Thus at M. for instance. Ka kkâna. 91. to be descended from the same ancestors as the Brahmans. Moggallâna). tended. no doubt a common one in certain cases. for instance. There is no evidence of the kind. I. M. 178 foll. I. by his gotta name Aggi-vessâyana. which is again Aggi-vessâyana.

25.general name or title of paribbâgaka (wandering mendicant. III. recluse). 278. 242 is followed at D. {1. but evidence of any effect of social distinctions on names is at present very slight. that still remain. Even the title Brâhmana was dropped for the gotta name in the case of a recluse. when the Pitakas were composed. Evam-nâmo evam-gotto at M. D. both as to general principles and as to details. as gotra has in the later law books written by the priests. 188. S. II. There are a number of problems.} Return to top Next: VI. a nickname or a mûla-nâma. I.] . [THE AIM OF THE BRETHREN. MAHÂLI SUTTA. Mahâli Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. What has here been said is probably sufficient to make the use of the names in this Sutta clear{2}.' p. in this matter of names. and compare contra A. I. 13 by evam-vanno. 33. 197} VI. See my note at 'Buddhist Suttas. unsolved. Is Âlâra. for instance. I. 2. the Kula-nâma? The word gotta probably had the same meaning. is Kâlâmo a gotta name or a clan name{1}? To what classes of the people was the use of gotta names limited. How comes it then that the number of gottas referred to is so very small? Are there much more than a score altogether? What light does the meaning of the mûla and gotta names throw on the religious conceptions and social customs of the people? I hope to return to these and similar questicns when I can find time to publish my Pâli Onomasticon. 75. of the names in the Pitakas and in the older inscriptions. and what is the historical explanation of this limitation? Were there as many as a dozen clan names in Magadhâ and Kosala combined? What was exactly implied by the clan-name.

saying: 'I will not go till I have seen the August One. is now staying at Vesâlî at the Gabled Hall in the Great Wood. the higher life doth he make known. He. Now at that time a number of Brahmans. and saluted him. So those Brahmans from Kosala and Magadhâ went out to the Great Wood. he makes his knowledge known to others. he said to him: 'Where. [151] 'It is not a fitting time. and said: 'Where is it.} {p. O Kassapa{2}. 'Twere best. who knows all worlds. for we wish to see him. that that venerable Gotama is lodging now. he said to him: 'These envoys of the Brahmans from Kosalâ and Magadhâ. The truth. who went out from a Sâkya family to adopt the religious life. lovely in its origin. came to the Great Wood.[150] 1. the Brahmâs.' Then they sat down round about. And good is it to pay visits to Arahats like that. and to the Gabled Hall. happy."' 2. the Arahat. with a retinue of his clan.' 3. that all this folk should be allowed to see . a fully awakened one.' 4. both in the spirit and in the letter. and above it the gabled apartments in which the Buddha so often stayed. lovely in its progress.--including the worlds above of the gods. and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans. he saluted him. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. face to face this universe. a novice{1}. And Hare-lip the Likkhavi. a Buddha. too. the Arahat. And they went to him. a Blessed One. with a retinue of his clan. who had been sent on pressing business of one kind or another from Kosali and Magadhâ. The Great Wood stretched from Vesâlî northwards to the Himâlaya range. venerable Nâgita. is the Blessed One now lodging. and standing reverently apart. Sirs. He has retired into solitude. and facing the west. for we wish to see him?' And on receiving a similar reply he. too. The Blessed One was once staying at Vesâlî at the Gabled Hall in the Great Wood{1}. and the Mâras. 198} consummation. In it they had laid out a pleasaunce for the Order. and going up to the venerable Nâgita. has come to do the same. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. 'We will not go away without seeing the venerable Gotama. doth he proclaim. by himself. were lodging at Vesâlî. But Sîha. Now at that time the venerable Nâgita was acting as the personal attendant on the Blessed One. as it were. Thus have I heard. came up to the venerable Nâgita. a teacher for gods and men. and Hare-lip the Likkhavi. O Kassapa. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad: "That Blessed One is an Arahat. have come. many of them. and to the Gabled Hall. lovely in its {1. and made there a storied house.--and having known it. Nâgita. And they heard the news: 'They say that the Samana Gotama of the Sâkya clan. its princes and peoples. the Buddha. the Buddha. and reverently standing apart. with a hall below surrounded by pillars only. thoroughly knows and sees. saying. in all its fullness and in all its purity. to call upon the Blessed One. too. sat down apart. to call upon the Blessed One. abounding in wisdom and goodness.

.' {1. as put forth by Sunakkhatta. And the Blessed One came out from the house. 398) of the uselessness of the efforts he himself had made when . and said: 'Some few days ago. he went over to the creed of Kora the Kshatriya. pleasant to behold. 97) confounds the two. as the latter is not a member of the Order at all. Tell the Blessed One yourself. exciting longing in one's heart. But I cannot hear heavenly sounds like that. who is the hero of the story told at Vin. and seated himself on one side. 1888. and I can see heavenly forms. the gens. which he could not hear. Sir. Sîha. of rigid self-mortification. and sat down. And Sîha did so. and shown so much intelligence as a learner that he was a favourite with all. Sîha. exciting longing in one's heart. which he could not hear. Sir. Kora's doctrine was the efficacy of asceticism. S. He must therefore be different from the other Sîha. fitted to satisfy one's desires. I. And it was to show how wrong this doctrine. even with the Buddha himself. And the Brahmans from Kosalâ and Magadhâ exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy.' {1.' 5. was. pleasant. IV.the Blessed One. Spread out a mat for me in the shade in front of the house. p. 179-188. and said: "It is only three years." Now. but afterwards. and saluted him. then. 199} 'Very well. that the Buddha told the story (Gât. since I first came under the Blessed One. those heavenly sounds. Mahâli{2}. 2. bowed down to the Blessed One. to which Nâgita belonged. He was the son of Nâgita's sister. he said to him even as he had said to Nâgita.' 'Very good. They are not things of nought. with the retinue of his clan. and standing reverently apart. are there such heavenly sounds. And Hare-lip the Likkhavi also. [152] 'Very well. fitted to satisfy all one's desires. And he went where the Blessed One was. Sunakkhatta of the Likkhavis{1} came to me.} {p. and took their seats on one side. T. I. or have they no existence?' 'They are real. I. Professor Edward Müller (J. P. 233-238 = A. He had joined the Order as a novice when only seven years old. also a Likkhavi. Sir.' said Sîha the novice in assent to the venerable Nâgita. and left the Buddhist Order. And when he was thus seated he addressed the Blessed One. 68). This is the gotta. This young man became the Buddha's personal attendant. when the Buddha was in extreme old age (M.

or the South. the gens. the heavenly sounds. 'Suppose a recluse. And why not? Because of the nature of his self-concentration [samâdhi]. Then since he has practised one-sided concentration. or the West. a brother by the complete destruction of the Three Bonds (the Delusions of self. and is assured of . Mahâli. in any one direction. they being thus real and not things of nought?' [153] 7. with the one object only in view. 9.' 12. Sir. afire within. higher and sweeter than that. may those other things be?' 'In the first place. Naked. he has practised self-concentration with the double object in view of seeing and hearing. [154] 8. 'And what. and for the same reason. why he could not hear them. or below. 316) calls him a râga. or above. lone in fearsome woods. Doubt. Then. [155] 10. he hears not the sounds. 11. He. Buddhaghosa (p. Then since he has practised self-concentration with the double object in view. There are things. he hears the sounds. those heavenly sights and those heavenly sounds. and what the ultimate cause. without a fire. or the North. And why so? Because of the nature of his self-concentration. now frozen. or across. Mahâli. in any one direction. Mahâli. one who cannot be reborn in any state of woe. 'But what then is the proximate. 200} 6. he both sees the sights and hears the sounds. if he have practised one-sided concentration with the object of hearing. 'And so also. 'But suppose. as a hermit. Mahâli.} {p.' But we do not hear that Sunakkhatta ever came back to the fold. he only sees the sights. sought the crown of faith.--and not with the object of hearing such heavenly sounds. is it for the sake of attaining to the practice of such self-concentration that the brethren lead the religious life under the Blessed One?' 'No. to have practised one-sided concentration of mind with the object of seeing such heavenly forms in any one direction. 'Then. for the sake of which they do so. but he sees not the sights. This is again the name of the gotta. Sir. and Trust in the efficacy of good works and ceremonies){1} becomes a converted man.--in the East.' [156] 13.'Now scorched. Mahâli. 2.

'} . So Buddhaghosa on this (p. a brother by the complete destruction of the Five Bonds that bind people to this world{2} becomes an inheritor of the highest heavens{3}. Mahâli. accidentally as it were. 'And then further. Those who gain the highest heavens are so called because there is no birth there in the ordinary way. known and realised and continues to abide here. 2. Mahâli. That. a brother by the complete destruction of those Three Bonds. who is there. 15). Mahâli. Delusion. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. in the Brahmâ-worlds. See my 'American Lectures' (London. 2. 3. there to pass away. illwill. higher and sweeter. The above three. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. conception. are the conditions higher and sweeter {1. Becomings. by himself. pp. is a condition higher still and sweeter still. without generation. 201} attaining to the Insight (of the stages higher still){1}. becomes a Once-returner. which is Arahatship--that. 142-149) for the full meaning of these three. 'Such. 1896. Opapâtiko. the real connotation of the word being that of the words I have chosen. and Sensuality and Illwill.} {p. is a condition higher still and sweeter. Mahâli. in that emancipation of mind. Sambodhi-parâyano. That. And for them there is no return. 'There do they dwell far away. beyond. Mahâli.{1. Mahâli. That. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. 4. 'And then further. one who on his first return to this world shall make an end of pain. and dullness. and by reducing to a minimum lust. and Ignorance) has. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. in this visible world. and of the following Bonds. has appeared there suddenly. thence never to return{4}. gestation or any of the other means attending the birth of beings in the world. 313) and my Introduction to this Sutta. is a condition higher still and sweeter. but the use of such a word would only mislead the reader. 'And then further. Mahâli. Each being. It is impossible to ignore a reference here to the view expressed in the Brihad Âranyaka Upanishad (VI. is a condition. when a brother by the destruction of the Deadly Floods (or Intoxications--Lusts. that emancipation of heart. literally 'accidental'. Mahâli.

Mahâli. Mahâli. Mahâli. right effort. and give heed attentively. Sir. is the soul the same thing as the body? Or is the soul one thing and the body another?' 'Listen then. and speech. may be that path. in the Ghosita pleasaunce. right speech. O venerable Gotama. . 'One day. right mindfulness. Sirs. 3. And so standing they said to me: 'How is it then. 202} (than seeing heavenly sights and hearing heavenly sounds). and stood reverently apart. and right ecstasy in self-concentration{1}. and Gâliya the pupil of Dârupattika (the man with the wooden bowl). what that method?' 'Verily it is this Noble Eightfold Path. is the path. Mand issa the wandering mendicant. Sir: said those two mendicants in assent. a path.' 14.' [157] 'And what. The awakening of a hearer. §§ 40-75. 2. and I spake as follows:-- [Here follows the whole of the exposition given in the Sâmañña-Phala Sutta. that is to say: Right views. and I will speak. for the sake of which the brethren lead the religious life under me. The appearance of a Buddha and his preaching. for the realisation of these conditions?' 'Yes. His self-training in act. a right means of livelihood. is there a method. 'But is there. for the realisation of these conditions. that is to say: 1. and his entry into the Order. Sir. and exchanged with me the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy.{p. There two recluses. I was staying at Kosambî.' 'Very good. word. 15. and this the method. came to me. right action. This. right aspirations. there is.

" He knows as it really is: "This is the origin of pain. and perplexity. sloth of body and mind. aloof from evil states. The way in which he learns to guard the door of his senses. and the same question. and Sum. above. illwill. He knows as it really is: "This is pain.' pp. I. with simplicily of life.' [158] 17. 18. 136-141. p. II. he enters into and remains in the First Rapture--a state of joy and ease. 77-81) and the knowledge arising from insight (Ñâna-dassana. or is the soul one thing and the body another?"' 'Yes. and fourth Raptures (D. and rejoinder are given in each case. The resulting joy and peace that he gains.' 'But I." He knows as it really is: "This is the . See my' American Lectures. The minor details of morality which he observes. 9. it would.} {p. 7. when a Bhikshu knows thus and sees thus. reasoning and investigation going on the while. {1. Sirs. II." He knows as it really is: "This is the origin of the Deadly Floods. The emancipation of heart from the five hindrances--covelousness." He knows as it really is: "This is the cessation of the Deadly Floods.4. know thus and see thus. 84). The absence of fear. reply.] 16." He knows as they really are: "These are the Deadly Floods. he directs and bends down his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the Deadly Floods. 5. 8. The Constant self-possession he thus gains. 'With his heart thus serene (&c. Sirs. 10. 85). Sir{1}. excitement and worry. born of detachment.] 19. [The cases are then put of a Bhikshu who has acquired the second. third. 314-316. confidence of heart thence resulting. would that make him ready to take up the subject: "Is the soul the same thing as the body. D. Now. 'Then estranged from lusts. 203} 6." He knows as it really is: "This is the cessation of pain. 83." He knows as it really is: "This is the Path that leads to the cessation of pain. And nevertheless I do not say either the one or the other. The power of being content with little.

Two Sinhalese MSS. M. In him. p. Sir. and he knows: "Rebirth has been destroyed.} Return to top Next: VII. And he gives a characteristic explanation--that whereas the Arahat (in § 19) would have too much wisdom to be led astray. Gâliya Sutta Top . know thus and see thus. pleased at heart. II. § 16.' 'And I. the reading we have followed. The Siamese edition reads: 'No. there arises the knowledge of his emancipation. Sirs.' Thus spake the Blessed One.' On the idiom kallam etam vakanâya compare A. and the Siamese edition. Sirs. thus knowing. thus set free. both here and above. 167). 144. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings. The higher life has been fulfilled. What had to be done has been accomplished. have leanings that way. exalted the word of the Blessed One. is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance. I. it would not{1}. would that make him ready to take up the question: "Is the soul the same as the body.{1. or is the soul one thing and the body another?"' 'No. See also the Introduction to the Kûtadanta (above. After this present life there will be no beyond!" 'When a Bhikshu. following the false trail of the soul theory. the Bhikshu who had only reached up to the Ghânas might. an unconverted man. Sir. knows thus and sees thus. 204} Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods. 46). it would not.' But Buddhaghosa had clearly. being still a puthuggana. the heart is set free from the Deadly Taint of Lusts. So three Sinhalese and two Burmese MSS." To him. thus seeing. p.} {p. it would. read: 'Yes. Sir. And nevertheless I do not say either the one or the other. 211. {1. and Hare-lip the Likkhavi. To hold that the soul is the same as the body is the heresy referred to in the Brahma-gâla (above. Here ends the Mahâli Sutta.

Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. Mil. Such cross-references are fairly frequent in the Pitakas. For there would otherwise be no reason for the Mahâli Sutta being put into the Sîlakkhanda Vagga. I. III. The Mahâli Sutta must have already included. 51. 25 in the Dîgha). 13. where the episode of Nigrodha's question. when the Dîgha was put together. S. in full. inclusive. as a separate Sutta? Is it merely because of the importance of the question? We have another instance of a similar kind. [IS THE SOUL DISTINCT FROM THE BODY?] [This Sutta having been incorporated. GÂLIYA SUTTA. One of the most striking cases is where the Samyutta quotes a Sutta. 350. Why then should the episode appear also again. in the last Sutta. only referred to at § 23 of the Kassapa-Sîhanâda Sutta. as §§ 15-19. in the Udumbarîka Sîhanâda Sutta (No. 205} VII. this Gâliya episode. (Sakka-pañha Sutta. is set out afterwards. word for word. But there the whole episode is not given twice in full. now contained in the Dîgha. compare Sum. and are of importance for the history of the literature. by name. the Sîlas being contained only in that episode. the reader is referred to the translation given there. in full.)] Return to top Next: Introduction to the Kassapa-Sîhanâda Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. 206} .

and a grasp of ethical problems. He accepts as the starting-point of his own exposition the desirability of the act or condition prized by his opponent--of the union with God (as in the Tevigga). even antagonistic. he gradually leads his opponent up to his conclusion. partly by an appeal to such ethical conceptions as are common ground between them. He attacks none of his cherished convictions. One would expect. How is it that the other disciples who must. on the soul to one who believes in the soul theory. {p. that the highest social rank. (as in the Mahâli). IN this Sutta the Buddha. Gotama puts himself as far as possible in the mental position of the questioner.INTRODUCTION TO THE KASSAPA-SÎHANÂDA SUTTA. on Brahman claims to superior social rank to a proud Brahman. in conversation with a naked ascetic. and his principal disciples personifications of the stars. 207} the facts seem difficult to explain. Whoever put the Dialogues together may have had a sufficiently clear memory of the way he . then. He even adopts the very phraseology of his questioner. or of sacrifice (as in the Kûtadanta). that is. refrain so entirely from astrological and mythological details? How is it they attribute to their hero qualities of courtesy and sympathy. and so on. And then. that is the best sacrifice. the method is precisely that which it is most probable he would have actually followed. There is both courtesy and dignity in the method employed. always Arahatship--that is the sweetest fruit of the life of a recluse. When speaking on sacrifice to a sacrificial priest. &c. to those usually ascribed to sun-heroes--mostly somewhat truculent and very un-ethical personages? On the hypothesis that he was an historical person. as is compatible with his invariable method (as represented in the Dialogues) when discussing a point on which he differs from his interlocutor. of course. the method followed is always the same. all quite foreign. and an easy mastery of the ethical points involved. and a more worthy object. something quite different. explains his position as regards asceticism--so far. This is. are required to bring about the result. of that training and character he is represented in the Pitakas to have had. or of social rank (as in the Ambattha). In our Sutta it is the path to Arahatship which is the best asceticism. But no little dialectic skill. partly by putting a new and (from the Buddhist point of view) a higher meaning into the words. that the best means of seeing heavenly sights. or of seeing heavenly sights. or of the soul theory (as in the Potthapâda). On the hypothesis that the Buddha is a sun myth. on union with God to an adherent of the current theology. in that case. on mystic insight to a man who trusts in it. have concocted these Dialogues.

He there calls it one of 'two extremes which are to be avoided'. p. that the insight and self-control and self-mastery of the Path. Gotama. 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. the authors compel us. He was. E. our Sutta is addressed to an ascetic. are set out as the actions by which a man injures himself. But while the first discourse and the Puggala passage were both addressed to disciples. There is nothing of this sort in our Sutta. in this respect. the first five converts. The memory of co-disciples had to be respected. He maintains. are really harder than the merely physical practices so much more evident to the eye of the vulgar. the method followed in all these Dialogues has one disadvantage. the Buddha is represented to have spoken of asceticism in a very different way. To the mental vision of the compiler. 24) the very practices set out in our Sutta. B. The carrying out of such practices. are given in other Dialogues of the same date. It was a point that had to be made. in much the same position as Plato when recording the dialogues of Socrates. 208} as desirable and praiseworthy. It is clear that at the time when our Sutta was put together the practice of self-mortification had already been carried out to a considerable extent in India. in most cases.} {p. In the Suttas dealing with the practices of the ascetics. the ascetics laid claim to special virtue. only insisting that the self-mastery and self-control of the Path were the highest and best forms of it. no doubt. in all countries.). However this may be. The argumentum ad hominem can never be the same as a statement of opinion given without reference to any particular person. like Plato. are looked upon with a kind of fearsome wonder. in laying stress on the more moderate view. the doctrine taught loomed so much larger than anything else. to think of compilers. {1. notably in the twelfth Sutta of the Maggh ima. literally 'the lion's roars'--the proud claim by the Arahat to a dignity . in some of which the self-imposed penances are even more extreme.conversed. in order to follow what they give us as Gotama's view. To judge from it alone one might fairly conclude that the Buddha approved of asceticism. But he was not. That is strikingly the case with our present Sutta. And further details. and kept in mind. and the language used is modified accordingly. The conclusion in all is exactly the same. to read a good deal between the lines. and the reason is not far to seek. And the Suttas in which it is made are designated as Sîhanâdas. 147. as more holy than other men. than with any historical accuracy in the details of the story. that he was necessarily more concerned with that. or of the system of intellectual and moral self-training laid down for the Bhikkhu. may well have even remembered particular occasions and persons. takes occasion also to dispute this claim. and even submit themselves to voluntary torture. And no doubt. giving his own opinions. and unprofitable{1}. rather than of a compiler. unworthy. There is really no inconsistency in these three Suttas. by Kassapa the ascetic. on the occasion of his first discourse. as in our Sutta. wins for the ascetic a very high reputation. and adopting his language. In accepting the position of the adversary. And so far as the actual doctrine is concerned our Dialogues are probably a more exact reproduction of the thoughts of the teacher than the dialogues of Plato.' So in the Puggala Paññatti (IV. When addressing his five hearers--the Pañkavaggiyâ. and describes it as 'painful. We ought. This is oddly enough also called a Sîhanâda Sutta. and the first Arahats--in the Deer-park at Benares. Those who despise earthly comforts.

was especially defended on the ground that Gotama would not. or what they would have thought most proper for those living in India then. regular exercise. was the struggle{1} that the Arahat. It is open to question whether the earnest and unworldly would now draw the line at the precise point at which Gotama drew it. at present. So hard. Our available texts are only sufficient. should be always sufficiently clothed. so far as it agreed with the rest of his system. And the most serious schism in the Buddhist Order. by reason of his tub and of his physical renunciation. And this must have been a common practice. It is probable that Gotama was largely guided by the opinions and practice of previous recluses. to suggest the probability. Gotama adopted and extended. It turned men's minds from more essential matters. befrozen. He was to avoid. Naked. they were even not so practical. and take regular baths. without a fire. 7-13. His contemporaries the Niganthas thought the other way. speak on this point with as much certainty as we could in the other cases of the ethical view of sacrifice.} {p. but all undue luxury. as yet. what had already been put forward by others. afire within. The self-mortification was an actual hindrance. no nearer to the {1 M. I. Probably they would think rather that he erred on the side of austerity. in awful silence. or even to the man who 'Bescorched. that raised by Devadatta. . The technical term tapas is already found in the Rig-veda. 209} truth than they. or the man striving towards Arahatship. and was intellectually wrong. lone in fearsome woods. and all worry about personal comfort. though only in the latest hymns included in the collection. For we have already seen that in other matters. burning.' and very early acquired the secondary sense of retirement into solitude. Not only were the ascetics no better than the Arahats. of the ethical connotation attached to the word Brahman{2}. not what was necessary to maintain himself in full bodily vigour and power. and of the attempted conquest of one's lower nature by the burning heat of bodily austerity. Struggled. adopt ascetic practices which Devadatta held to be then necessary. regular food. so very hard. for the time of the year most favourable to such {1. either as regards what they would think proper for themselves now.and veneration greater than that allowed by the people to the self-torturer. It was his duty to keep himself in health. The line was to be drawn at another point. It is literally 'glow. and of the reasonable view as to social distinctions and questions of impurity. important it is true but not essential. towards the goal{1}!' And the boast goes really even further. But we cannot. 390. Diogenes was not only not superior to other men. 79 = Gât. So also Kâthaka Upanishad II. as regards various points. he was their ethical inferior. I.

The more conservative view of the learned Brahman--that it is repeating by heart to oneself. and mystic. IV. making amends for sin. In the latter case an expression often used on such occasions is tapas atapasyata. 8. 8. 'Metrical Translations. 155. that is the chief thing (with which twelve other qualities or practices should always be associated)--is only given with the interesting note that one teacher thinks 'the true' only. the Vedic verses. Compare Âpastamba I. 210} tapas came to be known as the month tapas.' There are several passages making similar comparisons. 1. Up. Tait. Manu VI. 6. the passages quoted from the Mahâbhârata by Muir. for like ends. The distinction seems to have been that it was rather power. 3. 'for that is tapas. 2 and 4. 13. The idea that Veda-learning is tapas is a common one. 17. 23. as one would expect.' pp. and heaven that were attained by sacrifice. but more often by tapas. 7. 25.} {p. literally 'he glowed a glow. 3. There was no idea of atonement for. and Deussen. that in the different cosmological legends one god or the other is supposed to bring forth creation{1}. There was no association with the word of what we call 'penance. superhuman faculties that were attained by tapas. Khând. VI. and teaching others. or that he glowed with strong desire. Vas. by a sort of charm that he worked by his sacrifice. children. or that he carried out each or some or all of the practices given in Kassapa's three lists of self-mortifications in our Sutta. and several times in the early Upanishads. punishment of. another thinks austerity only to be necessary. who therefore placed austerity above sacrifice. I. Thus it is sometimes by sacrifice. 11 = Manu II. It may have been meant to convey that he glowed with fierce resolve. austerity (tapas) is the second. All these various ideas may possibly be meant to be inferred together. 21-23. extraordinary. 1. So Khând. By a natural anthropomorphism the gods too were supposed. that is tapas{3}. Compare. 87 = Vishnu LV. III. or that he glowed with deep thought. on the ethics.' p.} . 21. 10. 263-4. and before they were ascribed to gods similar actions must have been well known among men.' a conception arising out of an entirely different order of religious ideas. worldly success. VI. so there was supposed to be a sort of charm in tapas producing mystic and marvellous results.2. But just as the sacrificer was supposed. XXVI. 4. 2. and yet a third thinks that learning and teaching the Veda is enough by itself. III. See Brihad. 5. 1. 1. 'Vedanta-system. Satapatha-Br. IV. to offer sacrifice and to perform tapas. to attain ends desirable for himself. or held that it could take the place of sacrifice{2}. 9. 23. 92 and the Ten Pâramitâs. Thus one text says: 'There are three branches of duty--sacrifice study of the Veda and charity are the first. to dwell as a learner one's life {1. There were some.' and the exact meaning of this enigmatic phrase is by no means certain. wealth.

that is simply to be explained by the facts that it is not only earlier. 7. Khând. VI. According to the Khândogya. and are thence reborn on earth. but is also not the work of one mind. 4. But the bad become insects. 6. and thence return to earth. and give alms go to the moon. charity. go along the path of the gods to the Brahma worlds. In the passages in which that older theory is set forth we {1. Brihad. Other later passages are Mu ndaka II. III. And though the Upanishad belief is not worked out with the same consistency. 9. and those who in the forest follow faith and austerity (tapas). on the other hand. 2. V. which are themselves meritorious. V. 23. This is the exact analogue. but of several. 4. as the Buddhist. Up. 4. those who practise sacrifice. 1. had come into contact with the very beliefs. belonging to a time when thought was less matured. Khând. 212} . On the other hand. There can be but little doubt that Gotama. so far as the superiority of wisdom to austerity is concerned. they who sacrifice. Here austerity is put into a lower grade than it occupies in the last extract. Prasna I. and that his general conclusion was based upon them. 10.{p. to the doctrine of the Buddhists that Arahatship is better than austerity. 2. 5. 211} long in the house of one's teacher is the third. during his years of study and austerity before he attained Nirvana under the Tree of Wisdom. those who know the mystic doctrine of the five fires. nor carried so far to its logical conclusion. to the older theory. 9. or at least with beliefs similar to those. According to the Brihadâranyaka. Prasna I. and are reborn in high or low positions according to their deeds. II. those who know a certain mystical doctrine about five fires.' So in the passages which explain (by no means consistently) where the soul goes to after it leaves the body. and austerity (tapas) go to the moon. 2. there is a something higher. But those who follow neither of these two paths become insects. a certain kind of truth or faith or wisdom. Though the details differ there is a general consensus that above both sacrifice and austerity. we have a somewhat corresponding division{2}. But he who stands firm in Brahman obtains deathlessness{1}. All these have as reward heavenly worlds. That he practically condemns physical tapas (austerity) altogether is no argument against his indebtedness. from the Upanishad point of view. now preserved in the Upanishads.} {p. V. Up. and those who in the woods practise faith and truth (not tapas) go to the Brahma worlds.

and (4) the wandering ascetic. 13. 2. 4. Compare VIII. 4. and Vaikhânasa (student. Burnell. 17. Him he places on linguistic grohnds not later than the third century B. Bhikshu. and Vânaprasthyam{4}. 82-84). Maunam. So Manu V. And stress was laid on the order in which the stages of effort were taken up. 87. and VI. to put Âpastamba 'at least B. and Âpastamba II. Hofrath Bühler dated these works (very hypothetically) in the fifth and third. and different names for the four stages--Gârhasthyam. He ventures on a conjecture as to possible date in the case of Âpastamba only. 3. 6. 10. four stages into which the life of each member of the ranks of the twice-born (the Dvigas) should be divided. 21. Âp.C. and Bhikshu do not even occur{3}. Âpastamba (II. and. xxx) calls 'the first authority on the literature of the Schools of the Taittirîya Veda. (3) the hermit. 1) has a different order. xxi-xxii) And Gautama was older still. In later times these are (1) the student. that of the sacrificer and of the hermit (not the Bhikshu). VI.' (Manu.. 9.C.C. p. but still the first source--of the well-known theory of the Âsramas. no doubt. whom Bühler (Baudh. and San kara and other commentators are obliged to resort to curious and irreconcilable shifts when they try to read back into these old texts the later and more developed doctrine{2}. that is. Vânaprastha. 9. The earliest mention of the four Efforts is in the old law books. And they have really only two divisions (and these not regarded as consecutive stages). 390. was not convinced by the arguments leading up to the above conclusion. 5. the Efforts (or perhaps Trainings). in the older Upanishads. The Upanishad passages know nothing or the curious technical term of Effort (Âsrama) applied to these stages. He only ventured. the Grihastha. and inconsistent. if the argument resting on the mention of S vetaketu hold good. 213} . Grihastha. Âkâryakulam.have the germs--indistinct statements. Brahmakârin is frequently used for pupil. Even the names of the several Âsramas do not occur.} {p. pp. p. But we are here at a standpoint really quite apart from the Âsrama theory. Of course studentship is understood as preliminary to both. 2) gives them as Brahmakârin. Yati in two or three passages means ascetic. and hermit). (2) the householder. after reading them. then a century or two older. Comp. householder. pp. or possibly in the sixth and fourth centuries B. and the Yati{1}.{5} The theory of the Four Efforts was then {1. it being held improper for a man to enter the latter without having passed through the former. but Grihastha. See Max Müller's interesting note in his translation of the Upanishads (Part I. 137. as such. wandering beggar. 97. the Vânaprastha. Baudhâyana was some generations was same generations older than Âpastamba (see Bühler. See Jacob's Concordance under the words. Gautama (III. the Brahmakârin. Baudhâyana II.' to which Âpastamba belonged. xxvii).

27. then the question arises. the others to the wandering mendicant (the bhikshu). after Buddha. 10. in each case. for bhikshu at Gaut. The theory has become finally formulated. and say that it must have been. Now the distinction befween the twois quite clear. 94). (3) Hermit. though the ambiguity of the English word 'ascetic. of course. in all probability. (2) Householder. X. Vânaprastha. applied in Gautama to the wandering mendicant. He gives the Four Efforts or stages in the life of an orthodox person.already current. We can. It will be noticed that this final arrangement differs in two--respects--and both of them of importance--from the earliest. are mentioned in the Pitakas. why should it? In either case the explanation may be sought for in the history of the two ideas. is dropped in the later books. It must evidently have taken shape between the date of the Upanishads just quoted and that of the law books. he has 'become an ascetic' (sam nyased in the Sanskrit. Or if it does. 54. the older order. 2. go safely further. This rendering can. 56. I think. for muni at Manu VI. Vas. Thus B¨ uses the one term 'ascetic' to render a number of Sanskrit words--for samnyâsin as Baudh.' often applied to both. in the order as to detail which has permanently survived. place. either just before or some time after the rise of Buddhism. 69. in order of time and importance. 11. Even for the old Brahman who remains at home under the protection of his son (the Veda-samnyâsin). which is exactly the reverse can scarcely imply the same. and Parivrâgaka{1}. as he was at first to the hermit. Each of the Sanskrit words means one or other form. be easily justified. of what may be called asceticism. II. In the second place the expression Bhikshu. 2. 1. for parivrâgaka at Vâs. Grihastha. VII. In the first place the wandering beggar is put in the last.} . for yati at Manu VI. nor any of the four stages of it. may tend to hide it from view{2}. and even after the time when the Pitaks were put together. (4) Wandering Mendicant--Brahmakârin. 86. but by no means settled as to detail. Manu VI. The commentators are at great pains to harmonise the divergent order. of the Four Efforts. the strange one) is meant to infer exactly the same as does the contrary later arrangement so familiar to them. that is to say. Of these the last two refer to the hermit in the woods (the tapasa). He is not subordinated. 2. But if the order they were familiar with implies one thing. for tâpasa at Manu VI. But the differences might be made clear by variety of rendering. For neither the technical term Âsrama. in the later law books from Vasishtha onwards. 17. Gautama starts his {1. To them the wandering mendicant had become the last. 11. III. And they do so by suggesting that the earlier arrangement (which. one or other degree. and they try to put back their own view into the words of the ancient writers they are dealing with. as (1) Student. that is in the highest.

and the practice of it was. tapas. Manu VI. Both Buddhist and Gain records agree on this point. 5. There it is said that he who desires to see {1. in our Sutta{1}. to observe the rules of ceremonial purity. 4. the ascetic. but one in a sense nearly the same as Gotama attaches to the word in the Sonadanda Sutta). in his three lists. is pre-Buddhistic{3}. simply clad.' The statement is no doubt ambiguous. also preserved in the same Upanishad{2}. put away silence and become a Brâhmana (that is. no doubt. 18. one or other of the very practices detailed by Kassapa the tâpasa. And though the origin and early history of this institution are at present obscure. but in a connection which Deussen thinks is a later interpolation{3}. This is to explain why it is that 'Brâhmanas' (in the ethical sense) give up cravings for children and wealth and the world and adopt begging as a regular habit (bhikshâkaryam k aranti). and though he has abandoned the world. this is the earliest passage in which . very early in India too. It was older than the Buddha's time. the idea of the wandering mendicant is peculiar to India. It might be taken to apply to the hermit (the tâpasa) who also begged. of course. According to it the twice-born mendicant of the priestly books is. as instances of the tapas. But Bühler thinks otherwise. 214} description of the hermit by saying that he is to feed on roots and fruits. often giving. 27 (of the hermit). III. Brihadâranyaka Upanishad III.{p. none of which were applicable to the Buddhist Bhikshu (Gaut. 31. not a Brahmana by birth. So also Vas. 11-25). There is one significant rule in Baudhâyana. we have no reason to believe that it was of ancient date. Another recension of the same passage. Now while the belief in the special efficacy and holiness of austerity. But I think on the whole that the wandering mendicant is more probably referred to. 1. Baudhâyana II.} {p. which is quite contrary to the corresponding Buddhist rule. the wandering mendicant does not practise these severe physical self-mortifications. 26-35). however. On the other hand. who calls him the Bhikshu (in X. And they are confirmed by an isolated passage in an Upanishad which. four or five are precisely equivalent to rules the Buddhist Bhikshu has to observe. and practise tapas. is a world-wide phenomenon. and wanders without a home. ascribes this habit to 'men of old. 2. If that be so. Gautama has altogether ten rules for the hermit. put away childishness and become a muni (a silent one){1}. he must put away learning and become childlike. 5. He is never called tâpasa. X. and referred to as belonging to a higher sphere than the muni. Of the fifteen rules laid down for him by Gautama. And all the later books lay stress on the same point. and Manu VI. 3. self-torture. as a whole. 10. 215} the god Brahman cannot attain his end by speculation. what we call now the rules of caste{2}. according to the commentator. 94 confirms Bühler's view. and begging his food. in begging for food. his self-restraint is mental rather than physical.

4. which is much later. 'Sechzig Upanishads. Brihad. In other words. not to say predominant. The word Bhikshu does not occur in any of these passages. This was doubtless of long standing. preserved in the Buddhist texts. But the application is by no means certain. 2. or the practice. or are dealt with in full detail. And indeed of all the Upanishads indexed in Colonel Jacob's 'Concordance' the word only occurs in one--in the little tract called the Parama-hamsa Upanishad. to have originated in Kshatriya circles than among the learned Brahmans. and the special ethical sense of the word Brahmana{4}) have. as yet. A wise Sûdra is apparently there calied a Brâhmana. 22. The oldest law book has barely a page on the rules for Bhikshus. 3. Gain Angas--agree in ascribing to Kshatriyas a most important. whereas the regulations. under the title 'Vinaya Texts. brevity. . And it is only in the Kshatriya books--those of the Buddhists and Gains--that the details of the practice receive much weight. IV.any one of these three ideas (the wandering mendicant. 7 is another passage of about the same date. 465. of students begging their food.} {p. IV. often referred to in the law books. is to ignore all these authorities. the peculiar institution of the Bhikshu is quite as likely. The oldest reference in the priestly literature to unorthodox Bhikshus (not necessarily Buddhists) is probably the Maitrî Upanishad VII. 8. But it is a conception altogether different from that of the wandering mendicant. Whenever it may have arisen. at the time when they were written. and in the curtest manner. part in such religious activity as lay apart from sacrifice. his superiority to the ascetic. in the priestly literature of the hermit (the tâpasa). Khând. on this third notion. if not more likely. in the Buddhist books of the Arahat. of about the same age. the development also of the Bhikshu idea was due rather to the Kshatriyas than to the sacrificing priests. Perhaps.' And as time goes on the priestly literature continues to treat the life of a Bhikshu as entirely subordinate.' p. 216} the Brahmans must have originated the idea. All our authorities--Brahman Upanishads. belonging to those circles. and incompleteness of the regulations in the priestly books lead one to suppose that. I. The inconsistency. been found. Buddhist Pitakas. there were not enough Bhikshus. 4. to make the regulations intended for them alone a matter of much practical importance. fill the three volumes translated. There is a custom. Afterwards an epithet often used. To take for granted that {1.' in the 'Sacred Books of the East. Even Manu has only three or four pages on the subject.

The percentage of elderly Brahmans who followed any of the three at all must always have been very small indeed. but still amounting to some thousands--who estimated the . a number of people--very small. become a practical reality--that is. they could scarcely have taken a more efficacious step than the establishment of this theory. 9. II. We have no evidence that the theory had. Parivrâgaka. and of these a good many probably became Vedasamnyâsins. to gain respectability and acceptance for his view. 230). So he makes the god his stalking-horse. Gains. The rules are admitted to be obsolete now. no doubt. and Vedasamnyâsin) as he chose to follow. and so far. to put obstacles in the way. by using his name. acted upon by Buddhists. or even of the Brahmans. And whenever he did renounce the world he was expected to follow such of the ancient customs (now preserved in the priestly books under the three heads of Vânaprastha. 24. the son of Prahlâda. a group which lies outside of the Âsramas. {1 Âp. Striving against the gods he made these divisions (the Âsramas). Sankara says they were not observed in his time{2}. though the whole passage is reproduced. had wished to counteract it. We ought not to be surprised to find that. If the priests. Âpastamba closes his exposition of them with a remark that upsets the whole theory: 'There is no reason to place one Âsrama before another{1}. when the custom of 'going forth' as a Bhikshu was becoming prevalent. at any time.' This was no doubt the real inmost opinion of the more narrow-minded of the priests. But the first maker of the phrase did not quite like to put this forward in his own name--the idea of the Bhikshu as a man worthy of special esteem had already become too strong for that. no doubt. Among the circles led by the opinion of learned and orthodox priests it was. they did not seem to be very keen about it. compared with the total population. 217} Baudhâyana also actually quotes with approval another old saying: 'There was forsooth an Asura.} {p. in the Institutes of Vishnu (XXXI.' And just before that he quotes a saying of Pragâpati from which it follows that those who become Bhikshus do not gain salvation at all. Even after they had invented the Âsrama theory. only. that even youths might 'go forth' without any previous Vedic study{3}. On the contrary. 7). 'they become dust and perish. A wise man should not take heed of them{1}. did actually carry out all the four Âsramas. do they seem to have cared much for it. and others. there are several passages the other way. 15. Kapila by name. And it survives accordingly as late as the earlier portion of Manu (II. that any considerable number of the twice-born. really held improper for any man to become a religieux until he was getting old. And the theory seems to be little more than a priestly protest against the doctrine. There were. in the Indian community of that time. And so far as it served this purpose. and laid down in the Madhura Sutta.The latter were naturally half-hearted in the matter. and tries. and especially to prevent any one doing so without first having become thoroughly saturated with the priest1y view of things.' omitting the Bhikshu. where mention is made of 'the Three Âsramas. in other words. But even then he need not observe a clear distinction between these various heads. in other respects. or without having first gone through a regular course of Vedic study. this very curious and interesting phrase is replaced by another which avoids the difficulty.

Tapas was then. and which no doubt became more widely spread in consequence of its having been the view taken up by the progressive party we now call Buddhists. See Bühler's 'Manu.' And there was a great deal of sympathy. Baudh. or after the subject the S râmanaka Sûtra. Burnell had in his possession fragments of this work. 11. 27. and procurable in Gugarât. gradually attained so unquestionably the upper hand. rather to regulate them. Bühler also (Âp. 21 (where he also says they are the same). He says it was used by followers of the Black Yagur-veda. 15 (which proves the identity of the two). seemed to be so. 2. who gave up the latter. 154. that the order of the last two of the Âs ramas had to be changed. 218} self-torture of which our Sutta gives the earliest detailed account. both with their aims and with their practice (provided always they keep to the priestly view of things). 11. taken from it{1}. But there was also another view which had already made itself felt in the Upanishads. therefore. III. There were others who rejected both. III. and put therefore at the end in the list of Âsramas. the religious life. But the other view continued to be held by a large and influential minority. in part. and preferred the life of the wandering mendicant. 6.' p. in his opinion. 21. which is the basis of our Sutta. See the fu11 text in Chalmer's paper in the J. 9. S. Haradatta on Âpastamba II. 3. 'Vedânta-system. II.} . IX. 202 and 203. In both classes there were unworthy men who used their religious professions for the 'low aims' set out in the tract on the Sîlas incorporated in our Sutta.' XXVII. no little 'plain living and high thinking' among these 'irregular friars. among the official class. of the wandering mendicant. in accordance with the general view in the circles in which the law books were composed. But there was also no little earnestness. 3. Also Vas. One Vikhanas compiled a special book on Tapas. and devoted themselves. or what. See the passage quoted by Deussen. and the commentators referred to in Bühler's notes. instead of the final crown of. disliked by the more narrow-minded. The strong leaning of the human heart to impute a singular efficacy to physical self-mortifications {1. for 1894. Dr. whose very words. Gaut. A. recur in the old law books. Tapas became then a preliminary stage to. the regular sacrificing priests. Baudh. note) says the Sûtra is in existence. was the higher. This view. 14. 15-18. which is several times referred to as an authority in the law books whose precepts are doubtless. 28.mystic power of tapas above that of sacrifice. 40. pp. R. According to this view the life of the Bhikshu. to those kinds of bodily austerity and {1. called either after the author the Vaikhânasa Sûtra. the priests tried.} {p. regarded as the higher of the two. but regarded with favour by the more spiritually-minded of the Brahmans. 6. 10. in the woods. p. Instead of condemning them. II. in not a few instances.

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of all kinds could not be eradicated. Many of the laity still looked on those who carried out such practices with peculiar favour. The tendency made itself felt even in Buddhism, in spite of our present Sutta, and of many other passages to a similar effect. There is a special name for the 'extra vows,' the dhutangas, carried out by such of the brethren as were inclined that way. And these receive special glorification in a whole book at the end of the Milinda{1}. It is true that, even in these 'extra vows,' all the extreme forms of tapas are omitted. But this is only a matter of degree. In the priestly law books, also, though they go somewhat further than the dhutangas, the most extreme forms are omitted, especially in the rules for hermits and mendicants contained in the earlier books. This is another point in which the early Buddhists and the more advanced of the learned Brahmans of their time are found to be acting in sympathy. But the discussion of the details would take us too far from our subject.

The Niganthas, Âgîvakas, and others went to the other extreme, and like the Buddhists, they never admitted any theory like that of the distinction in time between the Four Âsramas{2}. It is even doubtful how far that distinction became a really valid and practical reality among the learned priests. They alone, as we have seen, always laid stress on the importance of not 'going forth,' either as ascetic or as wandering mendicant (tâpasa or bhikshu), unless first the years of studentship, and then the life as a sacrificing householder, had been fulfilled. They spoke occasionally of Three Efforts only. And as we have seen the lawyers differed in the order in which they mention the two classes of religieux{3}.

{1. My 'Milinda,' II, 244-274.

2. The Buddhists admitted a distinction in class as between tâpasas and bhikkhus. They often distinguish between the simple pabbaggâ of the latter and the tâpasa-pabbaggâ of the former. See for instance Gât. III, 119 (of non-Buddhists).

3. When the warrior hero of the Râmâyana brutally murders a peaceful hermit, it is not necessary to call in the Âsrama rules to justify the foul deed. The offence (in the view of the poet on the part of the hermit, in the view of most Westerns on the part of the hero) is simply social insolence. Would public opinion, in Kosala, have sanctioned such an act, or enjoyed such a story, in the time of the Pitakas? The original Râmâyana probably arose, as Professor Jacobi has shown, in Kosala; but this episode (VII, 76) is not in the oldest part. The doctrine for which the poet claims the approval of the gods (and which, therefore was not unquestioned among men, or he need not have done so) is that a Sûmay not become a tâpasa.}

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By the time that the later order was settled the word Bhikshu had come to mean so specially a Buddhist mendicant that the learned Brahmans no longer thought it fitting to apply the term to their own mendicants. This at least may be the explanation of the fact that it is used in Gautama's law book, and not afterwards.

The history of the word is somewhat doubtful. It is not found as yet, as we have seen above, in any pre-Buddhistic text. Perhaps the Gains or the Buddhists first used it. But it was more probably a term common before their time, though not long before, to all mendicants. The form is sufficiently curious for Pânini to take special notice of it in the rule for the formation from desideratives of nouns in u{1}. In another rule{2} he mentions two Bhikshu Sûtras--manual for mendicants, as the Vaikhânasa Sûtra was for the hermits (tâpasas). These are used by the Pârâsârinas and the Karmaandinas, two groups or corporations, doubtless, of Brahmanical mendicants. Professor Weber refers to this in his History of Indian Literature, pe 305, and Professor Kielhorn has been kind enough to inform me that nothing more has been since discovered on the matter. These Sûtras are not mentioned elsewhere. And they can never have acquired so much importance as the Vaikhânasa Sûtra, or they would almost certainly have been referred to in the sections in the later law books on mendicants, just as the Vaikhânasa is in the sections of the tâpasas.

It is also very curious to find Brâmana Bhikshus with special class names as if they belonged to an Order like those of the Buddhists and the Gains. No such Brahmanical Orders of recluses (pabbagitâ) are mentioned in the Pitakas. When Brâmana Bhikshus are referred to, it is either as isolated recluses, or by a generic name not implying any separate Order. Thus in an important passage of the Anguttara we have the folowing list of religieux, contemporaries of the Buddha:-1. Âgivikâ. 2. Niganthâ. 3. Munda-sâvakâ. 4. Gatilakâ. 5. Paribbâgakâ. 6. Magandikâ. 7. Tedandikâ. 8. Aviruddhakâ. 9. Gotamakâ. 10. Devadhammikâ. No. 1. The men of the livelihood, among whom Makkhali Gosâ was a recognised leader, were especially addicted to

{1. II, 3, 4.

2. IV, 3, 110.}

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tapas of all kinds, and went always quite naked. The name probably means: 'Those who claimed to be especially strict in their rules as to means of livelihood.' The Buddhists also laid special stress on this. The fifth of the eight divisions of the Eightfold Path is sammâ âgîvo{1}.

No. 2. The Unfettered are the sect we now call Gains, then under the leadership of the Nâtaputta. They were also addicted, but to a somewhat less degree, to tapas; and Buddhaghosa here adds that they wore a loin cloth.

No. 3. The disciples of the Shaveling are stated by Buddhaghosa to be the same as No. 2. The reading is doubtful, and his explanation requires explanation. Perhaps some special subdivision of the G ains is intended.

No. 4. Those who wear their hair in braids. To do so was the rule for the orthodox hermits (the Vânaprasthas or Tâpasas, Gautama III, 34). The Brâmana Bhikshu, on the other hand, was either to be bald, or to have only a forelock (ibid. 22).

No. 5. The wanderers. This is a generic term for wandering mendicants. They went, according to Buddhaghosa, fully clad.

Nos. 6-10 are said by Buddhaghosa to be followers of the Titthiyâ, that is the leaders of all schools that were non-Buddhist. It is precisely here that the list becomes most interesing, the first five names being otherwise known. And it is much to be regretted that the tradition had not preserved any better explanation of the terms that the vague phrase repeated by Buddhaghosa.

No. 6 is quite unintelligible at present.

No. 7. The Bearers of the triple staff have not been found elsewhere, as yet, earlier than the latest part of Manu (XII, 10). It is very possibly the name given in the Buddhist community to the Brahmana Bhikshus (not Tâpasas). They carried three staves bound up as one, as a sign, it is supposed, of their self-restraint in thought, word, and deed. This explanation may possibly hold good for so early a date. But it may also be nothing more than an edifying gloss on an old word whose original meaning had been forgotten. In that case the gloss would be founded on such passages as Gaut. III, 17{2}, where the idea of this threefold division of conduct recurs in the law books. But the technical term tridandin is not mentioned in them.

{1. See on this Order the passages quoted above in the note at p. 71; and Leumann in the 'Vienna Oriental Journal,' III, 128.

2. Comp. Baudhâyana XI, 6, 11, 23; Manu V, 165; IX, 29.}

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No.8. The not opposing ones, the Friends, are not mentioned elsewhere.

No. 9. The followers of Gotama means, almost certainly, the followers of some other member of the Sâkya clan, distinct from our Gotama, who also founded an Order. We only know of one who did so, Devadatta. The only alternative is that some Brâmana, belonging to the Gotama gotra, is here referred to as having had a community of Bhikshus named after him. But we know nothing of any such person.

No. 10. Those who follow the religion of the God are not mentioned elsewhere, Who is 'the God'? Is it Sakka (Indra) or Siva? The Deva of the names Devadatta, Devasetthi, Devadaha, &c, is probably the same.

We find in this suggestive list several names, used technically as the designation of particular sects, but in meaning applicable quite as much to most of the others. They all claimed to be pure as regards means of livelihood, to be unfettered, to be friends; they all wandered from place to place, they were all mendicants. And the names can only gradually have come to have the special meaning of the member of one school, or order, only. We should not, therefore, be surprised if the name Bhikshu, also, has had a similar history{1}.

{1. There is a similar list, also full of interesting puzzles, but applicable of course to a date later by some centuries than the above, in the Milinda, p, 191, Worshippers of Siva are there expressly mentioned.}

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VIII. KASSAPA-SÎHANÂDA SUTTA.
[THE NAKED ASCETIC.]
[161] 1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once dwelling at Uguññâ, in the Kannakatthala deer-park{1}. Now Kassapa, a naked ascetic, came to where the Exalted One was, and exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of civility and courtesy, and stood respectfully aside. And, so

standing, he said to the Exalted One:

2. 'I have heard it said, O Gotama, thus: "The Samana Gotama disparages all penance; verily he reviles and finds fault with every ascetic, with every one who lives a hard life." Now those, O Gotama, who said this, were they therein repeating Gotama's words, and not reporting him falsely? Are they announcing, as a minor tenet of his, a matter really following from his Dhamma (his system)? Is there nothing in this opinion of his, so put forward as wrapt up with his system, or as a corollary from it, that could meet with objection{2}? For we would fain bring no false accusation against the venerable Gotama.'

3. 'No, Kassapa. Those who said so were not

{1. Miga-dâye. That is, a place set apart for deer to roam in in safety, a public park in which no hunting was allowed.

2. It would, perhaps, be more agreeable to the context if one could render this idiomatic phrase: 'Is there anything in this opinion of theirs as to his system, or as to this corollary they have drawn from it, which amounts to being a matter he would object to?' But I do not see how this could be reconciled with the syntax of the Pâli sentence. And Buddhaghosa takes it as rendered above, summarising it in the words: 'Is your opinion herein altogether free from blame?'}

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following my words, On the contrary, they were reporting me falsely. and at variance with the fact,

[162] 'Herein, O Kassapa, I am wont to be aware, with vision bright and purified, seeing beyond what men can see, how some men given to asceticism, living a hard life, are reborn, on the dissolution of the body, after death, into some unhappy, fallen state of misery and woe; while others, living just so, are reborn into some happy state, or into a heavenly world--how some men given to asceticism, but living a life less hard, are equally reborn, on the dissolution of the body, after death into some unhappy, fallen state of misery and woe; while others, living just so, are reborn in some happy state, or into a heavenly world. How then could I, O Kassapa, who am thus aware, as they really are, of the states whence men have come, and whither they will go, as they pass away from one form of existence, and take shape in another,--how could I disparage all penance; or bluntly revile and find fault with every ascetic, with every one who lives a life that is hard?

4. Now there are, O Kassapa, certain recluses and Brahmans who are clever, subtle, experiences in controversy, hair splitters, who go about, one would think, breaking itno pieces by teir wisdom the speculations of their adversaries. And as between them and me there is, as to some points, agreement, and as to some points, not. As to some of those things they approve, we also approve thereof. As to some of those things they disapprove, we also disapprove thereof. As to some of the things they approve, we disapprove thereof. As to some of the things they disapprove, we approve thereof. And some things we approve of, so do they. And some things we disapprove of, so do they [163] And some

things we approve, they do not. And some things we disapprove of, they approve of.

5. 'And I went to them, and said: "As for those things, my friends, on which we do not agree, let us leave them alone. As to those things on which we

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agree, let the wise put questions about them, ask for reasons as to them, talk them over, with or to their teacher, with or to their fellow disciples; saying: 'Those conditions of heart, Sirs, which are evil or accounted as evil among you, which are blameworthy or accounted as such among you, which are insufficient for the attainment of Arahatship, or accounted as such among you, depraved or accounted as such among you--who is it who conducts himself as one who has more absolutely put them away from him, the Samana Gotama, or the other venerable ones, the teachers of schools?'"

6. 'Then it may well be, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over, should say: "The Samana Gotama conducts himself as one who has absolutely put those conditions away from him; whereas the venerable ones, the other teachers of schools, have done so only partially." Thus is it, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over, would, for the most part, speak in praise of us therein.

7. 'And again, O Kassapa, let the wise put questions one to another, ask for reasons, talk the matter over, with or to their teacher, with or to their fellow disciples, saying: "Those conditions of heart, Sirs, which are good or accounted as such among you, which are blameless or accounted as such among you, which suffice to lead a man to ArahatShip or are accounted as sufficient among you, which are pure or accounted as such among you--who is it who conducts himself as one who has more completely taken them upon him, the Samana Gotama, or the other venerable ones, the teachers of schools?"

8. 'Then it may wen be, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over, should say: "The Samana Gotama conducts himself as one who has completely taken these conditions upon him, whereas the venerable

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ones, the other teachers of schools, have done so only partially." Thus it is, O Kassapa, that the wise, so putting questions one to the other, asking for reasons, talking the matter over, would, for the most part, speak in praise of us therein.

[164] 9-12. '[And further, also, O Kassapa, the wise would, for the most part, acknowledge that the body of my disciples were more addicted to that which is generally acknowledged to be good, refrain themselves more completely from that which is generally acknowledged to be evil, than the venerable ones, the disciples of other teachers{1}.]

that which redounds to advantage. 7 and 8 are here repeated in full in the text with the change only of reading ' the body of the disciples of the Samana Gotama' instead of 'the Samana Gotama. if politely requested to step nearer. both see and know that: "The Samana Gotama is one who speaks in due season. both know and see that: "The Samana Gotama is one who speaks in due season. he will. and Right Rapture. which if a man follow. Kassapa. or sitting down. that which is the law of self-restraint. that which is the Norm (the Dhamma). and eating food. know that. as Samana-ship and Brâhmana-ship{1}. what that method. that which is the law of self-restraint (the Vinaya). the naked ascetic. that which redounds to profit. in order that food may be put into his bowl). Right Effort. 'Now there is. The four paragraphs 5. Right Mode of Livelihood. Right Action. Right Mindfulness. Right Aspirations. Gotama. said to the Exalted One: 'And so also. a way.--[166]. speaks that which is. 'This. speaks that which is. and see that.} {p. that is to say: Right Views. O Kassapa. he passes stolidly on (lest he should incur the guilt of following another person's word):-- . that which is the Norm. And when he had spoken thus. as others do){2}:-- '(When on his rounds for alms.[165] 13. instead of washing them. as well-bred people do):-- 'He licks his hands clean (after eating. this that method. is that way."' 14. there is a method which if a man follow he will of himself.' and similarly for the other teachers. 'He goes naked:-- 'He is of loose habits (performing his bodily functions." 'And what. Right Speech. in the opinion of some Samanas {1. Kassapa. Verily it is this Noble Eightfold Path. which if a man follow. is that way. in a standing posture. not crouching down. 227} and Brâhmanas. Kassapa. are the following ascetic practices accounted. or to wait a moment. of himself. 6. he will of himself.

'He refuses to accept food brought (to him, before he has started on his daily round for alms):--

'He refuses to accept (food) if told that it has been prepared) especially for him:--

'He refuses to accept any invitation (to call on his rounds at any particular house, or to pass along any particular street) or to go to any particular place):--

'He will not accept (food taken direct) from the mouth of the pot or pans (in which it is cooked; lest

{1. The following description of the naked ascetic recurs in the Magghima I, 77, 238, 342; II, 161, and in the Puggala Panññatti IV,

2. It consists of a string of enigmatic phrases which are interpreted in my translation, according to Buddhaghosa here, and the unknown commentator on the Puggala. These two are very nearly word for word the same. The differences are just such as would arise when two authors are drawing upon ope uniform tradition.

It would seem from M. I, 238, if compared with I, 524, that it was the Âgîvakas (see note above on p. 71) who were more especially known for the practice of these forms of asceticism: and from M. I, 167 that it was these forms that had been followed by Gotama himself before his eyes were opened, before he attained to Nirvâna. (M. I, 167.)

2. Hatthâpalekhano. The tradition was in doubt about this word. Both commentators give an alternative rendering: 'He scratched himself clean with his hand after stooling.' And the Puggala Paññatti commentator adds a very curious piece of old folklore as his reason for this explanation.

3. Kalopi; not in Childers. It no doubt means some cooking vessel of a particular shape, but the exact signification, and the derivation of it are both unknown. It may possibly be a Kolarian on Dravidian word. Many centuries afterwards karota and karoti were included in the Vyutpatti, and the Amara Kosa, as meaning 'vessel.' It is of course out of the question that a word of the fifth century B. C. can be derived from either of them; but they are evidently the descendants of allied forms. Childers gives another form khalopî on the authority of the Abhidhâna Padîpikâ (twelfth century), verse 456, where it occurs in a list of names of pots. Another--khalopi--is put in his text by Trenckner at Milinda, p. 107, from one MS., but the other two differ. Both commentators paraphrase it here by ukkhali pakkhi vaâ.}

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those vessels should be struck or scraped, on his account, with the spoon):--

'(He will) not (accept food placed) within the threshold (lest it should have been placed there specially

for him):--

'(He will) not (accept food placed) among the sticks{1} (lest it should have been placed there specially for him):--

'(He will) not (accept food place) among the pestles (lest it should have been placed there specially for him):--

'When two persons are eating together he wil not accept (food, taken from what they are eating, if offered to him by only one of the two):--

'He will not accept food from a woman with child (lest the child should suffer want):--

'He will not accept food from a woman giving suck (lest the milk should grow less):--

'He will not accept food from a woman in intercourse with a man{2} (lest their intercourse be hindered):--

{1. Na Danda-m-antaram. That is, perhaps, among the firewood; but the expression is not clear. The Commentaries only give the reason. Dr. Neumann (on Magghima I, 77) has, 'he does not spy beyond the lattice' or perhaps 'beyond the bars of the grate' (spähte nicht über das Gitter), but this seems putting a great deal of meaning into the sticks, and not sufficiently reproducing the force of antaram. And how can patiganhâti mean 'spy'? We have, no doubt, to fill out an elliptical phrase. But it is just such cases as those in this paragraph where we are more likely to go right if we follow the ancient tradition.

2. Na purisantara-gatâya. The commentators only give the reason. On the meaning, of the word compare Gât. I, 290.}

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'He will not accept food collected (by the faithful in time of drought){1}:--

'He will not accept food where a dog is standing by (lest the dog should lose a meal):--

'He will not accept food where flies are swarming round (lest the flies should suffer):--

'He will not accept fish, nor meat, nor strong drink, nor intoxicants, nor gruel{2}:--

'He is a "One-houser" (turning back from his round as soon as he has received an alms at any one house), a "One-mouthful-man":--

'Or he is a "Two-houser," a "Two-mouthful-man":--

'Or he is a "Seven-houser," a "Seven-mouthful-man":--

'He keeps himself going on only one alms{3}, or only two, or so on up to only seven:--

'He takes food only once a day, or once every two days, or so on up to once every seven days. Thus does he dwell addicted to the practice of taking food according to rule, at regular intervals, up to even half a month.

'And so also, Gotama, are the following ascetic practices accounted, in the opinion of some Samanas and Brâhmanas, as Samanaship and Brâhmanaship:--

{1. Na samkhittisu. Both meaning and derivation are uncertain. Dr. Neumann has 'not from the dirty.'

2. Thusodaka. It is not fermented. The traditional interpretation here is: 'a drink called Suvîrakam (after the country Suvîra) made of the constituents, especially the husk, of all cereals.' The use of salt Sovîraka as a cure for wind in the stomach is mentioned at Mahâ Vagga VI, 16. 3; and it was allowed, as a beverage, if mixed with water, to the Buddhist Bhikkhus. In Vimâna Vatthu XIX, 8 it is mentioned in a list of drinks given to them. Childers calls it 'sour gruel' following Subhûti in the first edition (1865) of the Abhidhâna Padîpikâ (verse 460), but in the Abh. Pad. Sûkî (published in 1893) Subhûti renders it 'kongey'; something of the same sort as barley water. Buddhaghosa adds: 'Everyone agrees that it is wrong to drink intoxicants. These ascetics see sin even in this.' The corresponding Sanskrit word, tusodaka, is found only in Susruta.

3. Datti. 'A small pot,' says Buddhaghosa, 'in which special titbits are put aside, and kept.'}

{p. 230}

'He feeds on potherbs, on wild rice{1}, on Nivâra seeds, on leather parings{2}, on the water-plant called Hata, on the fine powder which adheres to the grains of rice beneath the husk, on the discarded scum of boiling rice, on the flour of oil-seeds{3}, on grasses, on cow-dung, on fruits and roots from the woods, on fruits that have fallen of themselves.

'And so also, Gotama, are the following ascetic practices accounted, in the opinion of some Samanas and Brâhmanas, as Samanaship and Brâhmanaship:--

'He wears coarse hempen cloth:--

'He wears coarse cloth of interwoven hemp and other materials:--

'He wears cloths taken from corpses and thrown away{4}:--

'He wears clothing made of rags picked up from a dust heap:--

'He wears clothing made of the bark of the Tiritaka tree{6}:--

[167] 'He wears the natural hide of a black antelope:--

'He wears a dress made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide{6}:--

'He wears a dress made of Kusa grass fibre:--

'He wears a garment of bark:--

{1. Samaka, not in Childers. See M. I, 156. Gât. II, 365; III, 144.

2. Daddula, not in Childers. See M. I, 78, 156, 188.

3. Piññaka, not in Childers. See Vin. IV, 341. The commentators here merely say: 'This is plain.'

4. Khava-dussâni pi dhâreti. The commentators give an alternative explanation: 'Clothing made of Eraka grass tied together.' Was such clothing then used to wrap dead bodies in?

5. Tirîtâni pi dhâreti. This custom is referred to at Mahâ Vagga VIII, 29, as having been there followed by ascetics. The use of such garments is there forbidden to the Bhikkhus.

6. Aginakkhipam pi dhâreti. Buddhaghosa gives here an explanation different from that given by him on Vin. III, 34 (quoted 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 247), where the word also occurs. The Puggala Paññatti gives both explanations as possible. Khipa at A. I, 33 means some sort of net. Aginakkhipa is referred to at S. I, 117 as the characteristic dress of an old Brahman.}

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'He wears a garment made of small slips or slabs of wood (shingle) pieced together{1}:--

'He wears, as a garment, a blanket of human hair{2}:--

'He wears, as a garment, a blanket made of horses' tails{3}:--

'He wears, as a garment, a blanket made of the feathers of owls:--

'He is a "plucker-out-of-hair-and-beard," addicted to the practice of plucking out both hair and beard:--

'He is a "stander-up," rejecting the use of a seat:--

'He is a "croucher-down-on-the-heels," addicted to exerting himself when crouching down on his heels{4}:--

'He is a "bed-of-thorns-man," putting iron spikes or natural thorns under the skin on which he sleeps{5}:--

'He uses a plank bed:--

'He sleeps on the bare ground{6}:--

'He sleeps always on one side:--

'He is a "dust-and-dirt-wearer," (smearing his body with oil he stands where dust clouds blow, and lets the dust adhere to his body):--

'He lives and sleeps in the open air{7}:--

'Whatsoever seat is offered to him, that he accepts

{1. Phalaka-kîram pi dhâreti. See Mahâ Vagga VIII, 28. 2; Kulla Vagga V, 29. 3.

2. So of Agita of the garment of hair, above, p. 73. Both commentators say the hair is human hair.

3. Vala-kâmbalam pi dhâreti. So the commentators here. The alternative rendering given by us at 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 247, 'skin of a wild beast,' should be corrected accordingly. That would be vâla, and all the passages where our word occurs read vâla. Comp. A. I, 240.

4. Ukkutikappadhâna. Compare Dhp. 141, 2 = Divy. 339. The commentator says he progressed in this posture by a series of hops. The posture is impossible to Europeans, who, if they crouch down on their heels, cannot keep their balance when the heels touch the ground. But natives of India will sit so for hours without fatigue.

5. Both commentators add: 'or stands, or walks up and down.'

6. Thandila-seyyam pi kappeti. The Burmese MSS. and Buddhaghosa, but not the Siamese edition, read tandila. So does my MS. at Dhp. 141. The Puggala omits the word. S. IV, 118, and Mil. 351 have the th.

7. Abbhokâsiko ka hoti. There is no comment on this. But compare Gât. IV, 8; Mil. 342.}

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(without being offended at its being not dignified enough):--

'He is a "filth-eater," addicted to the practice of feeding on the four kinds of filth (cow-dung, cow's urine, ashes, and clay){1}:--

'He is a "non-drinker," addicted to the practice of never drinking cold water (lest he should injure the souls in it){2}:--

'He is an "evening-third-man," addicted to the practice of going down into water thrice a day (to wash away his sins).

15. 'If a man, O Kassapa, should go naked, and be of loose habits, and lick his hands clean with his tongue, and do and be all those other things you gave in detail, down to his being addicted to the practice of taking food, according to rule, at regular intervals up to even half a month--if he does all this, and the state of blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have not been practised by him, realised by him, then is he far from Samanaship, far from Brâhmanaship. But from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no illwill--from the time

when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and know-from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brâhmana!'

{1. Vekatiko. So of an Âgîvaka at Gât. I, 390, and compare 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 59. My rendering of the word at Mil. 259 ought, I think, to be corrected accordingly. But why was not this entered among the foods above, where one of them was already mentioned? It looks like an afterthought, or a gloss.

2. Apânako. Compare my Milinda II, 85 foll. on this curious belief.

3. That is, of course, a true recluse, an actual Arahat. Throughout these sections Gotama is purposely at cross purposes with his questioner. Kassapa uses the word Brâhmana in his own sense; that is, not in the ordinary sense, but of the ideal religieux. Gotama, in his answer, keeps the word; but he means. something quite different, he means an Arahat. On the persistent way in which the Pitaka texts try to put this new meaning into the word, see above, in the Introduction to the Kûtadanta.}

{p. 233}

'And if a man, O Kassapa, feed on potherbs, on wild rice, on Nivâra seeds, or on any of those other things you gave in detail down to fruits that have fallen of themselves, and the state of blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have not been practised by him, realised by him, then is he far from Sama naship, far from Brâhmanaship. But from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no illwill--from the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and know--from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brâhmana!

[168] 'And if a man, O Kassapa, wear coarse hempen cloth, or carry out all or any of those other practices you gave in detail down to bathing in water three times a day, and the state of blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, in intellect, have not been practised by him, realised by him, then is he far from Samanaship, far from Brâhmanaship. But from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no illwill--from the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and know--from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brâhmana!'

{p. 234}

[169] 16. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked ascetic, said to the Blessed One: 'How hard then, Gotama, must Samanaship be to gain, how hard must Brâhmanaship be!'

'That, Kassapa, is a common saying in the world that the life of a Samana and of a Brâhmana is hard to lead. But if the hardness, the very great hardness, of that life depended merely on this ascetism, on the carrying out of any or all of those practices you have detailed, then it would not be fitting to say that the life of the Samana, of the Brâhmana, was hard to lead. It would be quite possible for a householder, or for the son of a householder, or for any one, down to the slave girl who carries the water-jar, to say: "Let me now go naked, let me become of low habits," and so on through all the items of those three lists of yours. But since, Kassapa, quite apart from these matters, quite apart from all kinds of penance, the life is hard, very hard to lead; therefore is it that it is fitting to say: "How hard must Samanaship be to gain, how hard must Brâhmanaship be!" For from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no illwill--from the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, in that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and know--from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brâhmana{1}!'

[170] 17. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked ascetic, said to the Blessed One: 'Hard is it, Gotama, to know when a man is a Samana, hard to know when a man is a Brâhmana!'

'That, Kassapa, is a common saying in the world

{1. This paragraph, like the last and like the next, is, in the Pâli, broken up into three sections, one for each of the three lists or penances.}

{p. 235}

that it is hard to know a Samana, hard to know a Brâhmana. But if being a Samana, if being a Brâhman a, depended merely on this asceticism, on the carrying out of any or each of those practices you have detailed, then it would not be fitting to say that a Samana is hard to recognise, a Brâhmana is hard to recognise. It would be quite possible for a householder, or for the son of a householder, or for any one down to the slave girl who carries the water-jar, to know: "This man goes naked, or is of loose habits, or licks his fingers with his tongue," and so on through all the items of those three lists of yours. But since, Kassapa, quite apart from these matters, quite apart from all kinds of penance, it is hard to recognise a Samana, hard to recognise a Brâhmana, therefore is it fitting to say: "Hard is it to know when a man is a Samana, to know when a man is a Brâhmana!" For from the time, O Kassapa, when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart of love that knows no anger, that knows no illwill--from the time when, by the destruction of the deadly intoxications (the lusts of the flesh, the lust after future life, and the defilements of delusion and ignorance), he dwells in that emancipation of heart, in that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and that he, while yet in this visible world, has come to realise and know--from that time, O Kassapa, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brâhmana!'

[171] 18. And when he had thus spoken, Kassapa, the naked ascetic, said to the Blessed One: 'What then, Gotama, is that blissful attainment in conduct, in heart, and in mind?'

[The answer [171-173] is all the paragraphs in the Sâmanna-phala translated above, and here divided as follows:--

Under Conduct (Sila).

1. The paragraphs on the appearance of a Buddha, the conversion of a layman, his entry into the Order (§§ 40-42 above, pp. 78-79).

{p. 236}

2. The Sîlas, as in the Brahma-gâla, §§ 8-27. See above, pp. 57, 58.

3. The paragraph on Confidence (§ 63 above, p. 79).

Under the heart (Kitta).

4. The paragraph on 'Guarded is the door of his senses' (§ 64 above, pp. 79, 80).

5. The paragraph on 'Mindful and Self-possessed' (§ 65 above, pp. 80, 81).

6. The paragraph on Simplicity of Life, being content with little (§ 66 above, p. 81).

7. The paragraphs on Emancipation from the Five Hindrances--covetousness, ill-temper, laziness, worry, and perplexity (§§ 67-74 above, pp. 82-84).

8. The paragraph on the Joy and Peace, that, as a result of this emancipation, fills his whole being (§ 75 above, p. 84).

9. The paragraphs on the Four Ecstasies (Ghânas,--§§ 75-82 above, pp. 84-86).

Under Intelligence (Paññâ).

10. The paragraphs on the Insight arising from Knowledge (Ñâna-dassana,--§§ 83, 84 above, pp. 86, 87.)

11. The paragraphs on the power of projecting mental images (§§ 85, 86 above, p. 87).

12. The paragraphs on the five modes of special intuition (abhiññâ):-a. b. c. d. e. The practice of Iddhi. Hearing heavenly sounds. Knowledge of other people's thoughts. Knowledge of one's own previous births. Knowledge of other people's previous births.

13. The realisation of the Four Noble Truths, the destruction of the Intoxications, and the attainment of Arahatship.]

'And there is no other state of blissful attainment

{p. 237}

in conduct and heart and mind which is, Kassapa, higher and sweeter than this{1}.

[174] 21. 'Now there are some recluses and Brahmans, Kassapa, who lay emphasis on conduct. They speak, in various ways, in praise of morality. But so far as regards the really noble, the highest conduct, I am aware of no one who is equal to myself, much less superior. And it is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is, in the highest conduct (of the Path).

'There are some recluses and Brahmans, Kassapa, who lay emphasis on self-mortification, and scrupulous care of others. They speak in various ways in praise of self-torture and of austere scrupulousness. But so far as regards the really noblest, the highest sort of self-mortification and scrupulous regard for others, I am aware of no one else who is equal to myself, much less superior. And it is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is, in the highest sort of scrupulous regard for others{2}.

'There are some recluses and Brahmans, Kassapa, who lay emphasis on intelligence. They speak, in various ways, in praise of intelligence. But so far as regards the really noblest, the highest intelligence, I am aware of no one else who is equal to myself, much less superior. And it is I who have gone the furthest therein; that is, in the highest Wisdom{3} (of the Path).

"' It comes therefore to very nearly the same thing as ahimsâ. that the recluses of adverse schools may say: "The Samana Gotama utters forth a lion's roar. [175] 22. For the man who has adhipaññâ has then to strive on till he attains to Arahatship. 'Now it may well be. Gotama must either. he cannot answer:-- "But even when he answers. From Anguttara II. Gigukkhâ. and taking 'the higher scrupulousness' in the sense of the self-control of the Path. They speak. 'he means Arahatship. At Anguttara II. I am aware of no one else who is equal to myself. Puggala paññatti IV. 'And by this.' 2. in the most complete emancipation (of the Path)." 'And it may well be. that pity is stirred up in one even towards a drop of water.' says Buddhaghosa. that is. 200 (compare M. in various ways. Adhipaññâ. in praise of emancipation. but it is in solitude that he roars.{1." Then should they be answered: "Say not so. is translated by Childers as 'disgust. 93 it is clear that this is the wisdom of the higher stages only of the Path. who lay emphasis on emancipation. I. The example of it given at M. raise each of the following objections:-- "But it is not in full confidence that he roars:-- "But men put no questions to him:-- "But even when questioned. But so far as regards the really noblest. Probably both are implied. And it is I who have gone the furthest therein. The Samana Gotama utters his lion's roar.' following the Sanskrit dictionaries. not of Arahatship. For the doctrine of the Exalted One has Arahatship as its end. 239} 'There are some recluses and Brahmans. be here referring to his years of penance before he attained Nirvâna under the Tree of Wisdom. 26 is not really inconsistent with this. 240-242) it is said that those addicted to tapo-gigukkhâ are incapable of Arahatship. in succession. not where men are assembled. he gives no satisfaction by his exposition of the problem put:-- . I. Kassapa.} {p. and that too in the assemblies where men congregate. Kassapa. the highest emancipation. 3. 78 is 'being so mindful. to the effect that: "may I not bring injury on the minute creatures therein. or he must be putting a new meaning into the expression. Kassapa. in going out or coming in. that the recluses of adverse schools should thus. much less superior. therefore. loathing.

and being convinced they give outward signs thereof. and on being questioned he expounds the problem put. Lord. Kassapa. would not be well pleased. they experience no conviction therefrom:-- "But even when convinced. renounce the world under the Exalted One. by name [176] Nigrodha. and men put their questions to him on that. and by his exposition thereof satisfaction arises in their hearts. and in full confidence in the justice of his claim. they arrive not at the truth:-- "But even when they arrive at the truth they cannot carry it out:"-- 'Then in each such case. they should be answered as before. And there a follower of the same mode of life as yours. on the hill called the Vulture's Peak. or were to bring a lamp into the darkness. he was well pleased."But men do not hold his opinion worthy to be listened to:-- "But even when men listen to his word. and in listening to it they experience conviction. And I. most excellent. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. Lord. And when I had thus answered what he asked. Sir. Lord. in many a figure. and they hold it worthy to listen to his word. at Râgagaha. are the words of thy mouth. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. as if with a great joy. Most excellent. has the truth been made known to me. and to the Doctrine. I would fain. even as if with a great joy. am thus well pleased. having formerly been a member of another school. and they penetrate even to the truth. on hearing the doctrine of the Exalted One. by the Exalted One. 'I was staying once. asked me a question about the higher forms of austere scrupulousness of life. I would fain be admitted to his Order. and that too in assemblies where men congregate. Kassapa.' 24. who have now heard the doctrine of the Exalted One. 239} lion's roar. And having been thus questioned I expounded the problem put. betake myself as my guide to the Exalted One. Kassapa. and to the Brotherhood. 'Whosoever. so that those who have eyes could see external forms--just even so. even I. and having grasped it they are able also to carry the truth out! 23. until the answer runs:--"Say not so. men give no outward sign of their faith:-- "But even when they give such outward sign. as if with a great joy{1}: 'And who. wishes to renounce the . I also. For the Samana Gotama both utters forth his {p. just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down.

3. the naked ascetic. According to the rule laid down in Vinaya I. And e'er long he attained to that supreme goal{2} for the sake of which clansmen go forth from the household life into the homeless state: yea. And at the end of the four months the brethren. No. and master of himself. It forms the subject of the Udumbarika Sîhanâda Suttanta. 83). called attention in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories' (pp. and continue to realise. and while yet in this visible world. And I had already. give me initiation and raise me up into the state of a Bhikkhu. give him initiation. Then let the brethren. 55) or several different names being given. received initiation. The Burmese MSS. And from immediately after his initiation the venerable Kassapa remained alone and separate.' [177] So Kassapa. earnest. and to see face to face. the distinction there may be between individuals. the four months' probation is the regular custom. 396).' 'Since. 25 in the Dîgha. Arahatship. bring himself to the knowledge of.} {p. the Lomaham sana Pariyâya. Here ends the Kassapa-Sihanada Suttanta{3}. exalted in spirit. and was admitted to membership of the Order under the Exalted One. We have had an instance above (p. that supreme goal did he. and that after this present life there would be no beyond! And so the venerable Kassapa became yet another among the Arahats. 240} discipline. raising him up into the state of a Bhikkhu. by himself. And he became sure that rebirth was at an end for him.world and receive initiation in this doctrine and {1. to the same Sutta. That is. lxi) to the numerous instances in the Gâtaka Book of the same Gâtaka being known. in 1880. But nevertheless I recognise. which is also the name given in the MSS. {1. exalted in spirit. then. zealous. that the higher life had been fulfilled. in such cases. It is evident that the titles were considered a very secondary matter. he temains in probation for four months{1}. call it the Mahâ Sihanâda Sutta. in the collection itself. The whole conversation will be translated below. to the Twelfth Sutta in the Magghima-called there in the text (p. and receive him into the Order. will remain on probation for that time. I too.} . by different names. Nirvâna. 2. and in the Milinda (p. that everything that should be done had been accomplished. lx. 69. Lord. in the text itself.

passes over. to misunderstand the ancient view. and impalpable--but still a physical double of the physical body. and to import into it modern conceptions{1}. But it is. When the 'soul' was away the body lay still. by a natural transition. and made up. It is even by no means certain that it has not been quite universal. Endless were the corollaries of a theory which. no doubt. 241} INTRODUCTION TO THE PO TTH APÂDA SUTTA. They take the theory so completely for granted that thc . Long before the date of the earliest records of Indian belief this theory. in which case its adoption is probably a necessary result of the methods of thought possible to men in early times. or association of ideas. underlies every variety of early speculation in India. unfortunately. among the ancestors of the men to whom we owe those records. motion began again. The oldest and simplest form of the hypothesis was frankly materialistic. very easy for us. and life. had gone through a whole course of development of which the Vedas show us only the results. however devoid of the essential marks of a sound scientific hypothesis. As is well known. or sleep. beginning with a discussion on the mystery of trance. and no doubt quite independently. like the body. THIS Sutta. For trance (as is pointed out by Potthapâda in § 6) had been explained by adherents of the soul theory as produced by the supposed fact of a 'soul' having gone away out of the body. among so many different peoples in all parts of the world that it may fairly be described as almost universal. this hypothesis of a soul inside the body has been adopted. When the 'soul' came back. as elsewhere. who now no longer use the word 'soul' exclusively in its original sense. without moving. or disease. apparently without life. The notion was that of a double--shadowy.Return to top Next: Introduction to the Potthapâda Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. in trance. of the four elements. to the question of soul.

so important to theologians. in this respect. See above. more especially on the point. 45). 242} details of it. allied to one or other of the thirty-two theories controverted above (pp. A. This is that the Upanishads show how the whole theory of the priests.{1. it was considered amply sufficient to refer to it in vague and indirect phraseology{1}. However. the existing records show to have existed in India. A careful search would no doubt reveal passages. For souls inside animals. then existing in the world. and all philosophies. Buddhism stands alone among the religions of India in ignoring the soul. 163.. The vigour and originality of this new departure are evident from the complete isolation in which Buddhism stands. The numerous details are full of inconsistencies. There were almost certainly other views. R. or even understanding the doctrine. it is certain that all the religions. is throughout based on this old theory of a soul inside the body. and when our Sutta was composed. as to what happens to the soul after it flies away from the body. are based on this belief in a subtle but material 'soul' inside the body. find in appreciating. were based upon it. 11704. in the time when Buddhism arose. . And the stage which the theory had reached before the time when our Sutta was composed can only be pieced together imperfectly from incidental references in the Upanishads. acknowledging views which do not happen to be referred to in the Upanishads. I have collected these references together in the article already referred to (J. from all other religious systems then existing in the world. And the very great difficulty which those European writers. 5. who are still steeped in animistic {1. see Rig-veda I. 189. and need here only state the result. it will go to the Sâdhyas.} {p. at so early a period in the history of human thought. That is always taken for granted. but which bear the stamp of great antiquity--such passages as Mahâbhârata XII. p. where we are told that if the soul. as they held it. S. 243} preconceptions. 1899). and in shape like the body. or in any detail. may help us to realise how difficult it must have been for the originator of it to take so decisive and so far-reaching a step in religion and philosophy. 7.} {p. in departing from the body. But not one of these inconsistent views leaves for a moment the basis of the soul theory. The hypothesis having been handed down from time immemorial. Atharva-veda V. for souls inside plants. 44. even in the later priestly literature itself. 6. as there set out. and being accepted by all. that may be. And the different views set out in these priestly manuals by no means exhaust the list of speculations about the soul that must have been current in India when Buddhism arose. and all the philosophies. are nowhere set out in full. goes out by way of the knees. It would scarcely be going too far to say that all religions.

POTTHAPÂDA SUTTA. anattalakkhanatâ. since then. In our Sutta it is. to wit. the enthusiasm of their poetry and eloquence for the positive side of their doctrine. was dwelling at the hall put up in Queen Mallikâ's park for the discussion of systems of opinion--the hall set round with a row of Tinduka trees. The Exalted One was once staying at Sâvatthi in Anâtha Pindika's pleasaunce in the Geta Wood. by its apparent implication of some permanent entity. {1. physical or mental.] [178] 1.} Return to top Next: IX. Potthapâda Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. the wandering mendicant. niggîvatâ. any sub-stance. nissattatâ. Now at that time Potthapâda{1}. For the most part. The publication.Nearly a quarter of a century ago I put this in the forefront of my first exposition of Buddhism. in the first place. individuality (attapatilâbho) is only a convenient expression in common use in the world. but only in such a manner that he is not led astray by its ambiguity. . na h'ettha sassato bhâvo attâ vâ upalabbhati) is treated. for Arahatship.' pp. from the numerous points of view from which it can be approached. any entity. Thus have I heard. of states of consciousness: and then. secondly. any 'soul' (anikkatâ. See the authorities quoted in my 'American Lectures. as is only natural. But the doctrine of the impermanence of each and every condition. the point that personality. and known by the name of 'The Hall{2}. three hundred mendicants. 244} IX. the gradual change of mental conditions.' And there was with him a great following of mendicants. in as many different Suttas. [THE SOUL THEORY. They reserve. the absence of any abiding principle. 64. one point only is dealt with in each text. of numerous texts has shown how the early Buddhist writers had previously followed precisely the same method{1}. and therefore made use of also by the Tathâgata. 65.

[179] 4. 32. not as Gotama. it is noteworthy that he addresses the Buddha. the mendicant. desultory chatter. §§ 2-6 recur. and countries. at M. talks about equipages. I. the mendicant was. Sum. king of Kosala. proceeded in his robes. legends about the creation of the land or sea. Now the Exalted One. who had put on his under garment in the early morning. and with his bowl in his hand. about clothes and beds and garlands and perfumes. and make no noise. towns. with shouts and tumult. See Gat. and speaks in praise of quietude.C. Akelas.2{3}. meaning 'born under Potthapâda (the old name for the 25th lunar asterism. tales of war. Niganthas. IV. 3. I. II. Now at that time Potthapâda was seated with the company of the mendicants all talking with loud voices. Paribbâgakas.' And he did so. of ministers of state. for the reasons given above at p. Now the Exalted One came on to where Potthapâda. cities. also Potthapâda. of battles. villages. 2. seeing how quiet the assembly is. a patronymic from the personal name. And at the sight of him he called the assembly to order. the mendicants kept silence. talks about relationships. is probably a gotta name. And Potthapâda. See M. the debating hall in the Mallikâ Park. and places whence water is fetched. and other teachers met and expounded. Here is the Samana Gotama coming. tales of kings. venerable Sirs. 22. 513. nearly. II. 405. their views. {1. but as bhante. of terrors. Let me go to the Hall. If so. Now that venerable one delights in quiet. 1. Buddhaghosa says that as a layman he had been a wealthy man of the Brahman Vanna. and speculations about existence and non-existence{1}. into Sâvatthi for alms. 245} And he thought: 'It is too early now to enter Sâvatthi for alms. of robbers. The very fact of the erection of such a place is another proof of the freedom of thought prevalent in the Eastern valley of the Ganges in the sixth century B. 3. III. or discussed. afterwards called Bhadrapadâ). all sorts of worldly talk: to wit. 2. This. And the latter said to him: . gossip such as that at street corners. talks about foods and drinks. Mallikâ was one of the queens of Pasenadi. It is mentioned elsewhere. How well it were if. 195. 437. he should see fit to join us!' And when he spake thus. 5. 398. S. saying: 'Be still. IV.' There Brahmans. but the group of buildings continued to be known as 'The Hall.} {p. and. ghost stories. tales about women and heroes. caught sight of the Exalted One approaching in the distance. others near it had been built in honour of various famous teachers. where Potthapâda is. Buddhaghosa tells us that after 'The Hall' had been established. as such.

14 {p. 'On that another said: "That. So M. the subject we were seated together to discuss. Let him take a seat. We bid him welcome. will never be as you say.'May the Exalted One come near. and sat down beside him. when the soul goes away out of a man then he becomes unconscious. and were seated in the debating hall." Thus do others explain the cessation of consciousness{2}. . Sirs. And to him thus seated the Exalted One said: {1.' And the Exalted One sat down.'} {p." Thus do others explain the cessation of consciousness{3}. I. Sirs. But there are certain Samanas and Brahmans of great power and influence. When they infuse it into him he becomes conscious. Sirs. then he becomes conscious. Sir. Consciousness. It is they who infuse consciousness into a man. the talk fell on trance{1}. 2. Idhâgamanâya pariyâyam akâsi. the mendicant. and what was the talk among you that has been interrupted?' 6. is a man's soul. 514. For notes on this list. when they pass away. Sirs. And when he had thus spoken. and the question was: [180] "How then. Here is a place spread ready. 481. had met together." Thus did they explain the cessation of consciousness. There will be no difficulty in the Exalted One hearing afterwards about that. then he becomes unconscious. 326. Perhaps 'since you made this change in your regular habits. 13}. will never be so as you say. when they draw it away he becomes unconscious. Potthapâda said: 'Never mind. when various teachers. and draw it away out of him. p. But long ago. It is the soul that comes and goes. 246} 'What was the subject. When the soul comes into a man then he becomes conscious. § 17. and so also do they pass away. 'On that another said: "That. Potthapâda. brought a low stool. Samanas and Brahmans. is the cessation of consciousness brought about?" 'Now on that some said thus: "Ideas come to a man without a reason and without a cause. And Potthapâda. that you were seated here together to discuss. It is long since the Exalted One took the departure{2} of coming our way. Sir. on several occasions. At the time when they spring up within him. &c. 252. see above.

78-84. Buddhaghosa explains that they came to this conclusion on the ground of such instances as that of the Rishi Migasingî. pp. the conviction of a hearer and his renunciation of the world. The tract on the Sîlas. 3. 'Well. Sir. whom Alambusâ tries in vain to seduce. 11. [He then sets out the first part of the system of self-training for the Bhikkhu. The paragraphs on 'Guarded is the door of his senses. his preaching.' 5. The introductory paragraphs on the appearance of a Buddha. Buddhaghosa explains that the ground for this view is the way in which sorcerers work charms (Athabbanikâ athabbanam payogenti-perhaps 'Atharva priests work out an Atharva charm') which make a man appear as dead as if his head had been cut off. is there cessation of consciousness?' 7. 523. Potthapâda. from the Sâmañña-phala. the memory of the Exalted One arose in me. The paragraphs on 'Mindful and Self-possessed. The paragraphs on Confidence. as follows:-- 1. By training others pass away. as to that.' 2. and then bring him back to his natural condition.' How. L. 4." For the Exalted One would know how trance is brought about{1}.{1.' . Sir. 3. fell into a trance that lasted for three years.} {p. 247} 'Then. [181] By training some ideas arise. as translated above. would that the Happy One were here. those Samanas and Brahmans who said that ideas come to a man and pass away without a reason. Compare Vimâna Vatthu XVIII. and I thought: "Would that the Exalted One. 'And what is that training?' continued the Exalted One. he who is so skilled in these psychical states. by means of a cause. 'the cessation of consciousness. are wrong from the very commencement. This must be a different tale from that of the Rishi Isisinga of Gâtaka No. 26. who. the minor details of mere morality. 2. Abhisaññâ-nirodho. For it is precisely through a reason. that ideas come and go. through love of the celestial nymph Alambusâ. and without a cause. then.

he experiences in his body that ease which the Arahats talk of when they say: "The man serene and self-possessed is well at ease. The paragraphs on the conquest of the Five Hindrances. born of the serenity of concentration. the Bhikkhu. 'And again. This is the training I spoke of. but actual. suppressing all reasoning and investigation. and through training another passes away. 'And again. of lusts. consciousness of the joy and peace arising from detachment. and so rejoicing all his frame {1. 7. Then that idea. II.} {p. Then that subtle. Saññâ-nirodhassa pakataññû. a gladness springs up within him. and in that peace his heart is stayed. 'Thus is it that through training one idea. he enters into and remains in the First Rapture (the First Ghâna)--a state of joy and ease born of detachment. 11. Potthapâda. Saññâ which is used in a sense covering both 'idea' and' consciousness. and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace. consciousness of the joy and peace born of concentration. but actual.6. and. And he becomes a person conscious of that. consciousness of the joy and peace arising from detachment. 199. becomes equable.' Ekâ saññâ is therefore rendered below. And thereupon there arises within him a subtle. that he just had. And goes on:] [182] 10. and joy arises to him thus gladdened. holding aloof from joy. one sort of consciousness. So Buddhaghosa. 'one idea.' said the Exalted One.'} . Then estranged from lusts." And so he enters {1. the Bhikkhu. And thereupon there arises a subtle. aloof from evil dispositions. one sort of consciousness. and through training another passes away. passes away. and he becomes a person to whom that idea is consciously present. that he had before. arises. a tranquillisation of the heart within.' said the Exalted One. one sort of consciousness. [183] 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. The paragraphs on Solitude. reasoning and investigation going on the while. (that consciousness){1}. in the refrain. when no reasoning or investigation goes on. arises. This is the training I spoke of. 'But when he has realised that these Five Hindrances have been put away from within him. Compare Vin. passes away. enters into and abides in the Second Rapture (the Second Ghâna)--a state of joy and ease. a state of elevation of mind. 248} becomes at ease. but actual. mindful and self-possessed. Potthapâda. 12.

134). arises. This is the training I spoke of. the Bhikkhu. chapters 2 and 4. 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. and there arises in him the blissful consciousness. and of the absence of ease{1}. by passing beyond the consciousness of form. of form passes away. Then the consciousness.{p. but yet actual. ease and dis-ease. but yet actual. It is unfortunate that dis-ease has acquired a special connotation which prevents the word being used here. And thereupon there arises a subtle. by putting an end to the sense of resistance. and through training another passes away. one sort of consciousness. Well-fare and ill-fare. consciousness of the absence of pain. one sort of consciousness. And thereupon there arises to him a subtle.' said the Exalted One. 10. and that we have no pair of correlative words corresponding to those in the Pâli. any elation. 13. to be a good rendering of dukkha. 'And again. This is the training I spoke of. of the joy and peace born of concentration. thinking: "The space is infinite. by the passing away of any joy. And he becomes a person conscious of that. S. by the putting away alike of ease and of pain. he had previously felt. And he becomes a person conscious of that.. uneasiness. consciousness. enters into and abides in the Fourth Rapture (the Fourth Ghâna)--a state of pure self-possession and equanimity. discomfort. This is the training I spoke of. and has too frequently an exclusively physical sense. subtle but yet actual. Sukha and dukkha. that he just had." reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which {1. arises. the Bhikkhu. that he previously had. passes away. that he just had. consciousness of the bliss of equanimity. by paying no heed to the idea of distinction. and sometimes dukkha-vedanâ (Mil. 'And again. but yet actual. 14. without pain and without ease. and through training another passes away. . 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. Potthapâda.' said the Exalted One. I.} {p. 249} into and abides in the Third Rapture (the Third Ghâna). 250} the mind is concerned only with the consciousness of the infinity of space. well-being and ill-being. Then that subtle. arises. consciousness. And he becomes a person conscious of that. Mil. Potthapâda. of the bliss of equanimity. 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. passes away. P. 'Pain' is both too strong a word. Then that subtle. 112). of his being concerned only with the infinity of space. one sort of consciousness.' said the Exalted One. and through training another passes away. M. but yet actual. For pain we have vedanâ often (M.

that the Bhikkhu is thus conscious in a way brought about by himself (from the time of the First Rapture). one sort of consciousness. by passing quite beyond the consciousness of the infinity of cognition. would pass away." reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which the mind is concerned only with the unreality of things. that the attainment of the cessation of conscious ideas takes place step by step. E. 16. and through training another passes away. arises. the states of consciousness.' said the Exalted One. This is the training I spoke of. arise. coarser than they. as we see from M. pass away. I have reached to. 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. these ideas. Were I to go on thinking and fancying{1}. And then he is on the summit it may occur to him: "To be thinking at all is the inferior state. the ideas. 51. 'Twere better not to be thinking. of everything being within the sphere of the infinity of cognition. 'So from the time. 251} 'Thus also is it that through training one idea. might arise. Perhaps 'mind' is meant. and through training another passes away. thinking: "Cognition{1} is infinite. subtle but yet actual. Âlâra Kâlâma. by passing quite beyond the consciousness of space as infinite. Potthapâda." And he does not. subtle but yet actual. fifth. he goes on from one stage to the next. 47. 48. that he just had. 'And again. one sort of consciousness. And there arises in him a consciousness. passes away.} {p. Potthapâda? Have you ever heard. Then the subtle. of unreality as the object of his thought{2}. consciousness. So he touches cessation. formed part of the teaching of Gotama's teacher. which set out the fourth." reaches up to and remains in the mental state in which the mind is concerned only with the infinity of cognition. Potthapâda. before this. see my former translation at p. he had. This is the training I spoke of. 52 of my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. Thus is it. Viññâna. 'And again. of the infinity of space. 164. And there arises in him a consciousness. And to him neither thinking any more. Potthapâda. and no others. 17. {1. of this gradual attainment of the cessation of conscious ideas?' . I. These stages are almost exactly the same as the views controverted above at pp. And the doctrine of the sixth Vimokkha. 'Now what do you think. coarser ones. passes away. 18. And he becomes a person conscious of that. Then that sense of everything being within the sphere of infinite cognition. And he becomes a person conscious of that. thinking: "There is nothing that really is.[184] 15. So I will neither think nor fancy any more. these states of consciousness. B. Potthapâda. the Bhikkhu.) and the notes on pp. nor fancying.' said the Exalted One. but yet actual. 2. 50. the Bhikkhu. but others. and sixth stages of Deliverance (the Vimokkhas). arises. that he just had. the exact translation of this word is still uncertain. On these last three sections. and from that to the next until he reaches the summit of consciousness.

that I put forward both one summit and several. or does knowledge arise first. the state of consciousness. one after another.' 2. Potthapâda{2}.' 'But how can the Exalted teach that there both is one. Trance is not mentioned in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads. and that there are also several?' 'As he attains to the cessation (of one idea. Abhisamkhareyyam. And the springing up of knowledge is dependent on the springing up of the idea. and there are also several. Potthapâda."' 21. And this may be understood from the fact that a man recognises: "It is from this cause or that that knowledge has arisen to me. the consciousness identical with a man's soul. Potthapâda. neither of them before or after the other?' 'It is the idea. and the soul another{2}?' 'But what then.'No. and then knowledge.]' 'That is right.} {p. the state of consciousness. one state of consciousness) after another. of the state of consciousness{1}. that arises first. or that there are several?' {1. and after that knowledge.' [185] 19. I have not. 'And does the Exalted One teach that there is one summit of consciousness. so does he reach. But I now understand what you say as follows: [and he repeated the words of section 17. and then the idea. the state of consciousness. or is consciousness one thing. Sir. Potthapâda. the idea. there is one. 'Is then. 'Now is it. 252} 'In my opinion. Potthapâda? Do you really fall back on the soul?' . So is it.' 20. Sir. Sir. that arises first. The foregoing discussion on trance is the earliest one on that subject in Indian literature. or do both arise simultaneously. to different summits up to the last. perhaps 'perfecting' or 'planning out.

nourished by solid food{1}. That. Po tthapâda.' 22. So in G. 164). Buddhaghosa says that as a village pig. V. even if you bathe it in scented water. with all its major and minor parts complete.' 3. 253} form.' [187] 23. 803 it can be taken either way. you had such a soul. you may know by the following considerations. a material soul. some states of consciousness.' . 13. and deck it with garlands. you had such a soul. still some ideas. built up of the four elements.' 'And granting. those that arise in the Ghânas. having form. and give play to others. then.} {p. and anoint it with perfumes. having tasted the sweet taste of the doctrine of the Three Signs (of the impermanence. a material soul. and recurring also G. S. in Pitaka times. and your soul another. harks back to the superstition of the 'soul. and lay it to rest on the best bed. 445. still the same argument would apply{3}. Pakkemi. It means primarily 'to goback towards. On this account also. the same argument would apply{3}. 'Then. and others would pass away. nourished by solid food. Sir. N. Ñâna depends on saññâ. Potthapâda. depends on the ideas.[186] 'I take for granted{3}. but will go straight back to the dung-heap to take its ease. your consciousness would be one thing. I fall back on a soul without form. M.' and is so used in the Pitakas. 196 and in S N. with the connotation of regarding them as certain. N. 662 (quoted as verse 125 in the Dhammapada. 803. I fall back on a soul made of mind. At S. so in a secondary sense. 788. Sir. that the mass of knowledge a man has. 'Then. and the absence of any abiding principle) found in everythiug. Sir. I take it. it means apparently to revert to them. fall back on them. not deficient in any organ{2}. harp on them. III. 840 = 908. is still doubtful. 309. I.) that are themselves due to the action on his sense organs of the outside world. his insight. you can see how consciousness must be one thing. his power of judgment. This is another of the words the exact sense of which. of opinions or reasons. that is. and in the question and answer here. to revert. Potthapâda. so Potthapâda. would arise to the man. Potthapâda. built up of the four elements. the latter seems to be the sense. Granting. the states of consciousness (here.' 'And if there were such a soul. &c. in this connection. At S. 203.' 'And granting. and made of consciousness. But somewhat in the same way as to go back home is to go to a place of security. but are in so far under his own control that he can shut out some. Potthapâda. and soul another. will not feel happy there. 2. even so. the pain. Potthapâda. having {1. I.

different views. 87). as a permanent entity. proposition. subject. Sir. but so subtle that it can be described as 'made of mind. But he advances this. 360. and in the Samaññâ-phala (§ 85. He held to that set out below in § 23. even if Potthapâda had any one of these three sorts of soul. Potthapâda. holding. in the Brahma-gâla (§ 12. Potthapâda asked each of the following questions. On his own showing then. Potthapâda. striving after a different perfection. Sir. Is the world finite?-- 4. if that be so. to constant change. as he must (and would) admit. Is the world not eternal?-- 3. It is nearly the same as the first of the seven propositions about the soul controverted in the Brahma-gâla (above. But the consciousness is not an entity. Is the world infinite?-- [188] 5. in the same terms. to grasp this matter!' 25-27. It is a soul the exact copy. The text repeats the answer given in § 21. Buddhaghosa says this was not his real opinion. is a matter on which I have expressed no opinion. of the body. 47). pp. for me to understand whether consciousness is the man's soul. Is the soul the same as the body?-- .' [Then. it is not 'soul. with the necessary alterations. other things approving themselves to you. The supposition in § 23 is quoted at Asl. as you do. and material. trained in a different system of doctrine. tell me at least: "Is the world eternal? Is this alone the truth.'} {p. and any other view mere folly?"' 'That. The argument is of course that.' 3. more elementary. in the given case. 'But is it possible. It is a 'becoming' only. 46-48).-- 2. or the one is different from the other?' 'Hard is it for you. then he would regard each of them. 'Then. This sort of soul is nearly the same as the one referred to above. p. in every respect. p. just to see how the Buddha would meet it. 2. setting different aims before yourself. 254} 24.{1.

and not live again. it does not redound even to the elements of right conduct. Potthapâda.6. nor to quietude. Does one who has gained the truth live again after death?-- 8. Does he both live again.' [189] 29. and the body another?-- 7. nor not live again. I have expounded what is the origin of pain. after death?-- And to each question the Exalted One made the same reply:--]{1} 'That too. nor to real knowledge. Therefore is it that I express no opinion upon it. it is not {1. I have expounded what is the cessation of pain. On these Ten Indeterminates see above. 255} concerned with the Norm (the Dhamma). nor to the insight (of the higher stages of the Path). what pain{1} is. nor to tranquillisation of heart. 'And why has the Exalted One put forth a statement as to that?' .' 30. 'Then what is it that the Exalted One has determined?' 'I have expounded. nor to Nirvâna. Is the soul one thing. 'But why has the Exalted One expressed no opinion on that?' 'This question is not calculated to profit. is a matter on which I have expressed no opinion. after death?-- 10. nor to detachment. Potthapâda. Does he not live again after death?-- 9.} {p. nor to purification from lusts. I have expounded what is the method by which one may reach the cessation of pain{2}.' 28. Does he neither live again. in the Introduction to the Mahâli Sutta.

And on their arrival Kitta. to detachment. 282 and A. Now after the lapse of two or three days Kitta. Potthapâda. Now no sooner had the Exalted One gone away than those mendicants bore down upon Potth apâda. the mendicant. is concerned with the Norm. pp. came to the place where the Exalted One was staying. replied: 'Neither do I see that he puts forward. II. O Exalted One. forsooth. to quietude. the mendicant. the son of the elephant trainer. based on the Norm. O Exalted One. true and fit. Therefore is it. So also at S. the son of the elephant trainer{1}. and certain by reason of the Norm. fail to see that the Samana Gotama has put forward any doctrine that is distinct with regard to any one of the ten points raised. to purification from lusts. that I have put forward a statement as to that. And now let the Exalted One do what seemeth to him fit." Now we. any proposition with respect to those points. and to Nirvâna. redounds to the beginnings of right conduct. 148-150. . Vâkaya sannitodakena sañgambharim akamsu. See the note above on § 13. and departed thence. to tranquillisation of heart.} {p. That is so. what has been so well said by the Saman a Gotama as he propounded that?' 32. the mendicant. 2. 187. exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings and compliments of courtesy and friendship.' And the Exalted One rose from his seat. and took his seat on one side. I. and took his seat on one side. this Potthapâda gives vent to approval of whatsoever the Samana {1. But the Samana Gotama propounds a method in accordance with the nature of things. on the other hand. to the insight of the higher stages of the Path. That is so. with his: "That is so. and how he had replied. 3. E. and when he was so seated he told the Exalted One how the mendicants had jeered at him. 256} Gotama says.' 'That is so. from all sides with a torrent of jeering and biting words{3}. as certain. and Potth apâda.).'Because that question. These are the Four Truths. the mendicant. [190] But when they spake thus Potthapâda. Probably from the roots tud and gambh. as well said. bowed low to the Exalted One. 31. to real knowledge. Potthapâda. And how could I refuse to approve. Dukkha. And Potth apâda. set out more fully in my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. O Happy One. saying: I Just so. O Happy One.' And they went through them all in detail. B. is calculated to profit.

" 'And then I said: "Or have you.[191] 33. left it again. other things I have declared uncertain. says Buddhaghosa. the people in the world) was perfectly happy. with the express purpose of bringing about a reconciliation.'" And still they answered: "No. Potthapâda. or even for half a night or day." 'Then I said to them: "Or further. are blind. Potthapâda. Some things. with eyes to see. and asked them whether that was their view or not. was placed by the Buddha at the head of the expounders of the Norm.) He prided himself on his keenness in distinguishing subtle differences in the meanings of words. [192] 34.} {p. He took refuge with his friend Potthapâda. by which you can realise a state that is altogether happy?" And still to that question they answered: "No. can you maintain that you yourselves for a whole night. (The same thing is related by I-Tsing of Bhartrihari. And his last revolt was owing to a discussion of that sort he had had with Mahâ Kotthita. and then. who hold the following opinion. 44-47. or for a whole day. Sirs. Compare above. . indulge in the following speculation: "The soul is perfectly happy and healthy after death. Potthapâda? That being so. And I asked them whether. saying: 'Be earnest. I have laid down as certain. one of whom. 2. so far as they were in the habit of knowing or perceiving it{2}. and direct in effort." 'Then I asked them: "Or further. and they answered: "No. Buddhaghosa takes ganam passam as plurals. does not the talk of those Samanas and Brahmans turn out to be without good ground{3}?' {1. and for the reasons given I hold them matters of uncertainty. have been reborn in such a world. pp. brought him along with him." And I went to them. You are the only one. do you know a way. a layman. ever heard the voices of gods who had realised rebirth in a perfectly happy world. {1." 'Now what think you as to that. among them. Sirs. or a method. the world (that is. 'There are some Samanas and Brahmans. have ever been perfectly happy?" And they answered: "No. who. 'All those mendicants. O men. on this occasion. no less than seven times. Sirs. There are seven or eight Kittas in the books. And they acknowledged that it was{1}. towards the realisation of (rebirth in) a world of perfect happiness. The former are the Four Truths I expounded. For we. and see not. and for the reasons given I hold them to be matters of certainty. on one pretext or another. Potthapâda. The Kitta of our passage was famous for the fact that he joined the Buddha's Order. in consequence of similar effort. 257} The latter are those ten questions that you raised.

or her family name. on the other hand. 71) must be also modified accordingly. when a discussion on a wrong opinion has arisen. I. quoted at Sum.' p.. 'Just as if a man should say: "How I long for. P.3. S. or of medium height. or whether she be tall." . The Pâli word for miracle comes from the same root (prati-har). he should answer: "No. Buddhaghosa explains this as 'witless' (patibhâna-virabitam). Appâtihîrakatam. Perhaps the meaning of the two words is 'apposite' and 'not apposite' (compare B. do you know whether that beautiful woman is a noble lady. or town. but to render here 'unmiraculous' would make nonsense of the passage. 26. 258} [193] 351. whom you so love and long for. or of the trader class. There is a closely-allied expression at M. R. whom you so love and long for. on pratiharana). 43. ('Buddhist Suttas. how I love the most beautiful woman in the land!" 'And people should ask him: "Well! good friend! this most beautiful woman in the land. S.} {p. It is the contrary of sappâti hîrakatam which he explains (on § 45 below) by sappativiharanam. her do you love and long for?" 'And when so asked. whom you know not. or of priestly rank." 'And people should say to him: "So then." 'And people should ask him: "Well! good friend! This most beautiful woman in the land. is the apposite explanation from the Buddhist point of view. or of menial birth?" 'And when so asked. or in what village. 'Mâra und Buddha. do you know what her name is. a doctrine that is sappâtihâriyam. 14 in the Digha). P. he should answer: "No. whether she be dark or brunette or golden in colour{2}. neither have seen. he should answer: "Yes. 32. a doctrine which. in contra-distinction to the heresy advanced. pp. that is. where the talk is of disciples who. On the form compare anuhîramâne. or city she dwells?"-- 'And when so asked. and to preach. and both my own and Windisch's rendering of the word in the M. good friend. 61 from the Mahâ-padhâna Suttanta (No. know how to refute it according to the doctrine (Dharma).' p. or short.

he should answer: "No. that being so. III. or low. turn out to be without good ground?' [195] 'For a truth. do you know whether it is in the East. with those Samanas and Brahmans who postulate a soul happy and healthy after death. 259} [194] 36. to mount up into which you are making this staircase. good friend. neither have seen!" 'And when so asked. Perhaps 'of sallow complexion. Potthapâda. I.] Now what think you of that. Potthapâda. that being so. 175) and in the Magghima II. Potthapâda. Mangura-kkhavî. Potthapâda. that the talk of that man was witless talk?' 'For a truth. his talk would turn out to be witless talk. 260 is an allied form. of ensuring such a result{2}. you are making a staircase to mount up into a mansion you know not of.} {p. to mount up thereby on to the upper storey of a mansion. that the talk of that man was witless talk?' {1." 'Now what think you of that. Potthapâda? Would it not turn out. '[Then surely just so. XI.' S.' Compare M.'Now what think you of that. that being so. B. Potthapâda? Would it not turn out. It is just. 'Then just so also. This simile recurs in the Tevigga Sutta (translated in my 'Buddhist Suttas. Here it must evidently be taken in a favourable sense. or of medium size?" 'And when so asked. They acknowledge that they cannot say their own souls have been happy here even for half a day. E. their talk would turn out to be without good ground: . too." 'And people should say to him: "But then. no method. In all these cases an unhealthy complexion is inferred. Sir. That being so. 37. Sir.' 38. 2. 107 = S. does not their talk. or in the West. 246 where all these three words for complexion are used. as if a man were to put up a staircase in a place where four cross roads meet. And they acknowledge that they know no way. he should answer: "Yes. For they acknowledge that they know no such state in this world now. or in the North? whether it is high.. with the Samanas and Brahmans who talk about the soul being perfectly happy and healthy after death{1}. or in the South. And people should say to him: "Well! good friend! this mansion. that being so. Mangulî itthî at V. 33. II.

attained to by the practice of four of the Vimokkhas (Nos. because the fool jumps to the conclusion: 'This is my soul. and is nourished by solid food. from hell beneath to heaven above. purely temporary. from purgatory below to the deva heavens above. that leads to the putting off of that personality. But it is clear from § 58 below that the opinion here put forward is intended to represent. both inclusive: (2) the rûpâvakara worlds. Buddhaghosa here explains atta-patilâbho by attabhâva-patilâbho. In either case. 2. Olâriko. and indeed has admitted (above. and formless{3}. the dispositions which tend to purification{3} may increase. for a time only. is made up of mind. § 34 repeated. [196] 'Now it may well be. Potthapâda. is made up of the four elements. Potthapâda. so that if you walk according to that doctrine. which are the sixteen worlds of the Brahma gods. 4-7). The third is without form. and are attained to by the practice of the Four Raptures (the Four Ghânas): (3) the four arûpavakara worlds. manomayo. (are commonly acknowledged in the world):--material. 260} first has form. these modes of existence would be. 'Now I teach a doctrine. has all its greater and lesser limbs complete.' These three forms of personality correspond nearly to the planes. or the five Skandhas. not any Buddhist theory. 308) that it is used for the body. or divisions. from the Buddhist point of view. and one may continue to see face to face. that you think: "Evil dispositions may be put away. The {1. an unstable individuality. with respect to each of these{1}.39. and all the organs perfect. and on attabhâva he says (Asl. the full perfection and grandeur of wisdom. the evil dispositions one has acquired may be put away{2}. into which the worlds are divided in the later Buddhist theory--(') the eleven kâmâvakara worlds. of course. and is made up of consciousness only. § 34 is here repeated in the text. 40-42. the dispositions .} {p. and arûpo atta-patilâbho. Potthapâda. such as Potthapâda himself would admit. 'The following three modes of personality. They are the fleeting union of qualities that make up. The second has no form. §§ 21-23). And that the others are connected with the pre-Buddhistic idea of ecstatic meditation leading to special forms of re-existence. but a view commonly entertained in the world. and by himself come to realise. immaterial. It will be noticed that the lowest of these three planes includes all the forms of existence known in the West. 3.

contra. In the words of §§ 39. do you know whether it is in the East. and by himself come to realise. with the twelve kâmâvakara-akusala-k ittappâdâ of Dhamma Samgani 365-430. one will dwell at ease. Dh." [198] 'Now what think you of that. one may continue to see face to face. and in continual mindfulness and self-mastery. 2. These samkilesikâ dhammâ are identified by Buddhaghosa. would not be accurate judgment. that is. S.' 46. by getting rid. Potthapâda. namely. might question us thus: "What then. at the foot of the very palace itself. . 'And outsiders. to mount up into which you are constructing this staircase. The whole paragraph is repeated for each of the three modes of personality. 1241 (where. [197] 43-45. seeking for happiness beyond the grave. then there will be joy. or in the {1. 40. Potthapâda. of certain evil dispositions. And men should say to him{2}: '"Well! good friend! that palace. Buddhaghosa thinks this is said in protest against those who. of temporary individuality. Sir. or that formless) mode of personality for the putting away of which you preach such a doctrine as will lead him who walks according to it to get free from the evil dispositions he has acquired.{1. Potthapâda. to increase in the dispositions that tend to purification. there is happiness obtainable. and peace. 3. Sir. it would. is that material (or that mental." Now that. as if a man should construct a staircase. the full perfection and grandeur of wisdom. 'Just. Potthapâda. and by himself come to realise. but one may continue sad. That being so. the full perfection and grandeur of wisdom?" And to that I should reply (describing it in the words I have now used to you{1}): "Why this very personality that you see before you is what I mean. do not admit that happiness can be reached here (as above. 261} that tend to purification may increase. and by the increase of certain good dispositions. the word apariyâpannâ must be struck out). But compare. When such conditions are fulfilled. in § 34). and happiness. but only in one way. that whatever the mode of existence. Buddhaghosa explains these as 'tranquillity and insight. would not the talk turn out to be well grounded?' 'For a truth.'} {p. of course. so that he may continue to see face to face. or in the West. to mount up into the upper storey of a palace.

§§ 42-45 repeated in full. [200] 'If people should ask you.' 48. 'At the time. . unreal?"--How would you answer?' {1. that I shall be in the future.' 50. and the present. and not not. and the present. and the past personality. unreal? The personality that you have now. are the other two unreal to him then? Is it only the one he has that is real{2}?' 49. or in the North? whether it is high or low or of medium size?" 'And when so asked. turn out to be well grounded?' 'For a truth. Potthapâda. Kitta." 'What would you think. and the future. Sir. and not not. and the future personality. that being so. 2. 262} South. of that? Would not his talk. he should answer: "Why! here is the very palace itself! It is at the very foot of it I am constructing my staircase with the object of mounting up into it. unreal? The future personality that you will have. 'Then just so.The above rendering of the elliptical phrase Ayam vâ so is confirmed by the simile in § 46. and not not. Sir it would. thus: "Were you in the past. when any one of the three modes of personality is going on. It is known only by the name of the mode going on. is that real to you. when a man is in possession of any one of the three modes of personality. then it does not come under the category of either of the other two. and the past personality. is that real to you. Potthapâda. Kitta. See above. § 37. Kitta. Now when he had thus spoken. or not?"--How would you answer?' 'I should say that I was in the past. is that real to you.} {p. or not? Are you now. when I answer thus{1} to the questions put to me.' [199] 47. that I am now. or not? Will you be in the future. in the present. the son of the elephant trainer. said to the Exalted One: 'At that time. 'Then if they rejoined: "Well! that past personality that you had.

and from the butter ghee. And so also in the other two cases. and from the milk curds. when any one of the three modes of personality is going on. turns of speech. and so on-- [202] 53. are merely names. And of these a Tathâgata (one who has won the truth) makes use indeed.} {p. And when he had thus spoken. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. but is not led astray by them{1}. betake myself to the Exalted One . For these. 264} been made known. When the change has reached a certain point. when any one of the three modes of personality is going on. and the others unreal. Sir. and from the ghee junket. or butter. make up a personality--always changing. as used by savages). but when it is milk it is not called curds. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms. and from the curds butter. 263} [201] 'I should say that the past personality that I had was real to me at the time when I had it. 25.' 54. The author of the Milinda (pp. of course. 'Well! Just so. and when it is curds it is not called by any of the other names. are the words of thy mouth. 27) has a precisely similar argument. said to the Exalted One: 'Most excellent. by the Exalted One. as from a cow comes milk. or ghee. that just as there is no substratum in the products of the cow. Kitta. in many a figure. no constant unity. then it does not come under the category of either of the other two. it is not called by the name of the other. it is convenient to change the designation.} {p. no 'soul' (in the animistic sense of the word.--just even so has the truth {1. or junket. There never was any personality. designations in common use in the world. expressions. Sir. by which the personality is known--just as in the case of the products of the cow. Kitta. There are a number of qualities that. all the time.2. But the abstract term is only a convenient form of expression. when united. as a separate entity. Potthapâda. the name. the mendicant. 'Just. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. The point is. so in man there is no ego. And I. Kitta. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. Kitta.' 51. Each of the three cases is given in full. 'Just so. 52.

the son of the elephant trainer. that the higher life had been fulfilled. May the Exalted One accept me as an adherent. as one who.' [203] 56. the son of the elephant trainer. zealous. the son of the elephant trainer. and he was received into the Order. bring himself to the knowledge of. there would be no beyond! So the venerable Kitta. And his request was granted. remained alone and separate. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Subha Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. And e'er long he attained to that supreme goal of the higher life for the sake of which the clansmen go forth utterly from the household life to become houseless wanderers--yea! that supreme goal did he. and continue to realise. by himself.as my guide. from this day forth as long as life endures. concluded with the request: 'And may I be permitted to go forth from the world under the Exalted One. that all that should be done had been accomplished.' 55. earnest. and while yet in this visible world. became yet another among the Arahats. and resolved. And from immediately after his initiation Kitta. to his Doctrine. But Kitta. has taken him as his guide. 265} INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBHA SUTTA. As this Sutta is almost word for word the same as the Sâmañña-phala. and to his Order. and to see face to face! And he became conscious that rebirth was at an end. and that. though he made use of the same words. Here ends the Potthapâda Suttanta. may I receive admission into his Order. after this present life. the question arises why it was .

here. in the Noble Path. Samâdhi on the other hand is a constant habit. never in a concrete sense. either of the meaning. more physical. did the larger. in the statement of their most essential and ethical doctrines. and under what reservations. it is true. xiv-xxviii). These are the habit of guarding the doors of one's senses. In our prescnt Sutta--and the principal reason for its existence as a separate Sutta is that it points out just this--it is pointed out that Samâdhi includes. And. did the word Samâdhi come to mean nothing more than meditation? The history of the two ideas. to be used in preference to the more limited. The oldest Sanskrit text in which it occurs is the Maitrî Upanishad. to express 'self-concentration' with implied coordination. that we find in the Four Truths. Samâdhi. is of the first importance in following the evolution of philosophical and religious thought in India. constant mindfulness and self-possession. and Intelligence). pp. 266} How far was the word (literally 'allocation') invented or adopted by the Buddhists. and the rendering 'meditation' has been used for it in subsequent works in English by Western scholars. {p. and not Gh âna. The chief difference is that the states of mind enumerated in the Sâmañña-phala as fruits of the life of a recluse are here divided under the three heads of Sîla. has constant analogies with the history of the two similarly related ideas of Tâpasa and Bhikshu. It is not the same as Ghâna. as in them. and it probably has there the same meaning as it has in the Pitakas. Subha Sutta . From the negative point of view it is said to include emancipation from ill-temper. inertness of mind and body. It is quite clear that this would be a very inadequate and misleading rendering in our Sutta. and must confine myself. Samâdhi has not yet been found in any Indian book older than the Pitakas. Samâdhi and Ghâna. its meaning is not easy to fix exactly. as ethical feeling died away. and very different things. 1896. Return to top Next: X. it is used exclusively of a mental state. culminating in self-induced ecstasy. to referring to those pages. I have made some detailed contributions to the discussion of such questions in my 'Yogâvacara Manual' (Pâli Text Society. and in the thirty-seven constituent parts of Arahatship. and. through the constant association of the two ideas. worry. like it. Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary (1819) gives the meaning 'devout meditation'. or faculty. and Paññâ (Conduct. from the positive point of view it is said to include a constant state of joy and peace. Concentration. or by their immediate spiritual forerunners. and the faculty of being content with little. which is a pre-Buddhistic term applied to four special forms of meditation. of mind. or of the very interesting and suggestive history of the word in India. the Ghânas. and perplexity. harmonisation. but also other. But exigencies of space preclude the discussion here. become swallowed up by the smaller? At what date. notion of Ghâna? (It is Samâdhi. in what circles. of the mental faculties--an idea they wanted.) How far.considered advisable to include it in our collection as a separate Sutta.

and said: 'Come now. But perhaps I may be able to go on the morrow. and took his seat apart. addressed a certain young man. SUBHA SUTTA. convenient. young man. the son of the man of Tudi. And. Go to the Samana Ânanda. Now Subha. The full details are given in Sumangala Vilâsinî. and exchanged with him the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. the son of the man of Tudi{2}. and say: "'Twere well if the venerable Ânanda would be so kind as to pay a visit to Subha.' {1. the young Brahman. as to his health and vigour and condition of ease. and ask in my name as to whether his sickness and indisposition has abated. the venerable Ânanda said to him: 'It is not just now. he delivered to the venerable Ânanda the message with which he had been charged. shortly after the Exalted One had died away{1}. And he went to the place where the venerable Ânanda was staying.] [204] I.' said that young man in reply. 7. 2. p. Thus have I heard. 'Very well. the young Brahman. [205] 4. if so be that conditions and opportunity seem fit. Sir. On hearing that message. CONCENTRATION. in Anâtha Pindika's pleasaunce."' 3. 267} X. Now at that time the young Brahman Subha. The venerable Ânanda was once staying at Sâvatthi in the Geta Wood. . [CONDUCT. 1.Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. young man. AND INTELLECT. for I have just taken medicine. was dwelling at Sâvatthi on some business or other. so seated.

Ânanda?' 6. 268} Then that young man arose from his seat. And Subha. constantly near him. the young Brahman. have waited long on the venerable Gotama. including: {1. dressed himself early in the morning. the matter has been so far accomplished that perhaps the venerable Ânanda may be able to come on the morrow. as his attendant. to which he used to incite the folk.' 5. [The reply §§ 7-29 is §§ 40-63 of the Sâmañña-phala Sutta. and went to Subha. is this so noble body of doctrine regarding right conduct (Sîla) in praise of which the venerable Gotama was wont to speak. in which he established them. And what are the three? The so noble body of doctrine regarding right conduct. in which he established them. to which he used to incite the folk. 'Three are the bodies of doctrine. . and made them firm?' 7. if so be that conditions and opportunity seem fit. when the night had passed away. A village near Sâvatthi. And the venerable Ânanda. and told him all. 125. continually in his company. will know what were the things the venerable Gotama was wont to praise. and took his seat on the mat spread out for him. to Subha's house. What were they. in which he established them. the so noble body of doctrine regarding self-concentration. On these three Skandhas of doctrine. 269} 1. came there where he sat. and made them firm. &c. p. You. he said to the venerable Ânanda: [206] 'You. see above. which the Exalted One was wont to praise. O Brahman. in his robes and carrying his bowl. I. and his preaching. Sir. Ânanda. the so noble body of doctrine regarding intelligence{1}. And. the son of the man of Tudi. to which he used to incite the folk.' 'And what. so seated. and made them firm.2. Sir. and took his seat on one side. and A.} {p. Sir.} {p. with a Bhikkhu from the Ketiya countrya. The appearance of a Buddha. now in Nepal territory. 82. and exchanged with the venerable Ânanda the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. and added: 'So. and went.

and would say: "So far is enough." But you. And the answer concludes the enumeration with the words:--] 30. then would they be satisfied with thus much. say: "There is yet something further. according to this system."' Here ends the First Portion for Recitation in the Subha Sutta. 2. The awakening of a hearer. confidence of heart thence resulting. The constant mindfulness and self-possession that he gains. to which he used to incite the folk. in which he established them. [207] And were they also to perceive such in themselves. The minor details of morality he observes. that is to say: 1. 'And there is yet something further. 'And what. according to your system. 1. 4. The aim of our Samanaship has been reached. and his entry into the Order. 270} 3. still to be done. is this so noble body of doctrine regarding self-concentration (Samâdhi) in praise of which the venerable Gotama was wont to speak.2. on the other hand. and made them firm?' [The answer §§ 2-18 is §§ 64-82 of the Sâmañña-phala Sutta. and speech. 3. Ânanda. We have done thus much. like unto it. The way in which he learns to guard the door of his senses. II. among the other Samanas and Brâhmanas outside of this communion. Ânanda. not incomplete. Ânanda. The absence of fear. with simplicity of life. word. His self-training in act. and that I perceive no other. and mysterious--both that this so noble group of conduct is well-rounded. still to be done. The power of being content with little. {p.' 'Wonderful is this. 5. .

and to the Order. as one who. Ânanda. not incomplete. The Four Raptures (Ghânas). excitement and worry. 'This.] [208] 20. in which he established them. §§ 20-26 is §§ 83. young Brahman. And the answer is followed by the same injunction as to something further to be done. 'And what. to which he used to incite the folk. has no existence independent of it. and the final. like unto it among the other Saman as and Brâhmanas outside of this communion. by the venerable Ânanda. from this day forth. betake myself to that venerable Gotama as my guide. and made them firm?' [The answer. the rooting out of one's mind of the Intoxicants (the Asâvas). is this so noble body of doctrine regarding intellect (Paññâ) in praise of which the venerable Gotama was wont to speak. May the venerable Ânanda receive me as an adherent. and 97 of the Sâmañña-phala Sutta. as long as life endures. Most excellent. anything further to be accomplished. And I. or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who have eyes could see external forms--just even so has the truth been made known to me.4. And {p. or were to reveal that which has been hidden away. ill-temper. 271} there is not. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been thrown down. 3. The emancipation of heart from the Five Hindrances--covetousness. of which that Exalted One was wont to speak in praise. consequent thereon.' [210] 'Wonderful is this. and mysterious--both that this so noble group of doctrine regarding intellect is well-rounded. and the same rejoinder as above in Chapter I. in which he established them. and that I perceive no other. sloth of body and mind. The Nâna-dassana--the insight which sees that the body is impermanent. 85. and that mind (Viññâna) is bound up with it. to the truth. of Emancipation gained.] [209] 27. 6-9. even I. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. and made them firm. in many a figure. are the words of thy mouth. The perception of the Four Truths as to sorrow and the Eightfold Path. and fills his heart. The resulting joy and peace that pervades his bodily frame. assurance.' . that is to say: 1. The power of calling up mental images. and perplexity. Ânanda. § 30. 2. has taken them as his guide. to which he used to incite the folk. 5. in this matter. is that so noble body of doctrine regarding intellect. Ânanda.

88. in which there was then universal belief. He simply says that he loathes the practice of them. miracles in our Western sense. There was no interference by an outside power with the laws of nature. who was the very reverse of an Arahat. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Kevaddha Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. It is pre-Buddhistic. These acts are eight in number: and as set forth in detail (above. as to the practice of the wonders or miracles. pp.' He gives no authority for the statement. It is very strange that Childers should have stated (Dict. It was supposed that certain people. and no doubt by Gotama himself. As usual{1} the Buddha is represented as not taking the trouble to doubt or dispute the fact of the existence of such powers. p. There is no evidence of a similarly reasonable view of this question of wonders having been put forward by any Indian teacher before the Buddha. 272} INTRODUCTION TO THE KEVADDHA SUTTA. however. IN this Sutta we have the position taken up by the early Buddhists.Here ends the Subha Suttanta. . and common to all schools of thought in India. by reason of special (but quite natural) powers. and that a greater and better wonder than any or all of them is education in the system of self-training which culminates in Arahatship. could accomplish certain special acts beyond the power of ordinary men. They were not. The belief is not Buddhist. 157) that 'Iddhi is the peculiar attribute of the Arahats. 89) remind us of some (not of all) the powers now attributed to mediums. Devadatta.

} {p. even at its best. II. that is. seeking the answer to a deep problem in religion and philosophy. p. as such. more potent and more glorious than they. and the waning thereof. that within this very body. in all such matters. by the power of his Iddhi. And of the many Arahats mentioned in the books. that he too. 183. I. precisely {1. 'Verily. the prosperity and splendour. appealing to the gods. of Buddhist philosophy. and goes to the very core of the Buddhist Welt-anschauung. Gât. were famed for this acquirement. which. the glory and majesty and potency. of the unconverted wonder-worker. the world. does not know the answer! All the details of the story are worked out with persistent humour. of their emancipation{5}. of course. The Iddhi of the Arahats. only to be taken discreetly aside. and the waxing thereof. is. We have the Iddhi. 273} not an attribute of the Arahats. 3. in the technical sense just explained. whose illustrations . Vin. and secondly. The problem put is of great interest. of a rich young man{3}--the Iddhi. of a hunter{4}--the Iddhi. I declare to you. mortal as it is and only a fathom high. how perfectly useless is the power of such Iddhi. only one or two. the unconverted. just as they could have any craft or skill of the unconverted.was noted for his power of Iddhi. In illustration of his position Gotama is represented to have told a wonderful legend--how a Bhikshu. See for other instances above. the craft and power. my friend. and told in confidence. from world to world. a practice carried out for worldly gain. A.or puthugganikâ-iddhi{2} or âmisâ-iddhi{3}. in order to bring out the two lessons--in the first place how. but of the worldly. was the majesty and potency of their victory. but conscious and endowed with mind{6}.' On this Dr. and the way that leads to the passing away thereof{7}. And so he comes at last to the great god of gods. the majestic movement. and send him on to the gods above. as we know it. They could have it. 206. of animals{1}--the Iddhi. Karl Neumann. of a king{2}--the Iddhi. But the eight powers referred to above are called the pothugg anikâ. The world. the gods confess their ignorance. In each heaven. 93. as he mounts ever higher. so that the gods may not hear it. 360. to trust to the gods is to lean on a broken reed. the Mahâ Brahmâ. can give no better help than that to one in earnest about higher things. I. the Mahâ Brahmâ himself. is within each of us. notably Moggallâna. or even of men in the lower stages of the Path. characteristic of such legends in the Buddhist books. 2. goes up and up.

There are the nights not bright. and Gât. III. 3. In some passages of the fifth century A. I. 454. 132). and when intellection (with special reference to the representative faculty) ceases. 175. I. The person should be introduced.of Buddhist {1. 7. So in the Bâhiya story (Ud. A. That is. I. constructed by. Samanake. human intelligence. Above. 145. 2. where does that union of qualities that make a person (nâma and rûpa) pass away?' The alteration is suggestive. 274} texts from passages in Western literature.' Compare saviññânake kâye (A. wrongly. . as put by the Bhikshu to the gods. in giving his solution. in the Pitakas. It ought to be: 'Where do the elements find no foothold. but within. water. the answer is: 'They find no foothold in the mind of the Arahat. as thus altered. V. first says that that is not the right way to put the question. where earth. appropriately compares Schopenhauer's saying (W. We only know of the elements and their derivatives. is: 'Where do the elements pass away?' The Buddha. 6. 'One can also say that Kant's teaching leads to the view that the beginning and end of the world are not to be sought without. in certain cases. Iddhi was then considered to be a consequence of the Arahatta. and the person with them. 88. W. p. Dhp. I. IO) we are told: 'There. us. and wind no footing find. then they.} {p. 538).' The problem. a thinking being. Anguttara II. M. 5. 48--Samyutta I. To the question. Morris here has. 4. samanaka. cease. perhaps 'with the repreientative faculty. it seems to be implied that. old and new. 152. fire.D. as reflected in. are so happy. 62. nor suns resplendent. I.

is he freed!' This is a striking.' That is. 15. it is the very reverse of a man intellectually asleep. have ceased to have the paramount importance they have to the thoughtless{1}. material things. from form and formless. and compare Asl. On Viññânassa nirodho. 9. used in the Pitakas of the Arahat. dull to ideas. {1. see further Ud. and the ways in which they affect him. And we see what is meant by this from verse 1111 in the Sutta Nipâta: 'To him who harbours no delight in feelings that arise. p.} Return to top Next: XI. cognition (Vinññâna) tends to wane. is a standing example of what the early Buddhists considered a man to be in whom the Vññâna had waned. contrast to the Upanishad passages where the same kind of language is used of the Great Soul. and above. Whatever else it is. VIII. A. 39. The picture drawn of the Arahat par excellence. And then. KEVADDHA SUTTA. the corollary of the human soul. the Buddha himself. It is one of many instances (as has been pointed out by Father Dahlmann) where the same expressions. there is no darkness seen. We have another reference to the view that the Four Elements find no foothold in the Arahat at Sam yutta I. 275} a man to whom the Four Elements. A. and in all probability intentional. Kevaddha Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. IV. But it is the picture of {p. 54-58. are used in the older or later priestly speculation of God. not that his mental activity grows less--the mental alertness of the Arahat is laid stress upon throughout the books. . S. either from within or without. when he. From well and ill. in his wisdom.No moon shines there. 350. 45. 87. II. 276} XI. seen. and all that follows from them. III. of course. unconscious of what is said to him. the Arahat hath.

who has translated this Suttanta in his 'Buddhistische Anthropologie. full of folk. The Exalted One was once staying at Nâlandâ in the Pâvârika's mango grove{1}. a young householder. Neumann. is influential and prosperous.[THE THREE WONDERS. full of folk. a mystic wonder. Thus would this Nâlandâ of ours become even so much the more devoted to the Exalted One. Thus would this Nâlandâ of ours become even so much the more devoted to the Exalted One. differ as to the spelling of this name. AND THE GODS. it is not thus that I am wont to give instruction to the brethren: "Come now. by power surpassing that of ordinary men.} {p. came where the Exalted One was. should have been called Kevatta. 'fisherman.' However. And a second time Kevaddha made the same request to the Exalted One. perform ye a mystic wonder. 277} [212] 3. And a third time Kevaddha. by power surpassing that of ordinary men. Thus have I heard. for the lay folk clad in their garments of white!" 2. {1. addressed the Exalted One. has adopted this form. and bowed down in salutation to him. The MSS.' On his speaking thus the Exalted One said to him: 'But. And. he said to the Exalted One: 'This Nâlandâ of ours. and said: 'I would fain do no injury to the Exalted One. Dr. 2. a mystic wonder.' . It were well if the Exalted One were to give command to some brother to perform. crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. I only say that this Nâlandâ of ours is influential and prosperous. so seated. Kevaddha. and it may turn out to be the better of the two. Afterwards the site of the famous Buddhist University.' pp. crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One.] [211] 1. It is improbable that a wealthy and distinguished man. the young householder. by power surpassing that of ordinary men. my brethren. and took a seat on one side. and received a second time the same reply. It were well if the Exalted One were to give command to some brother to perform. Now Kevaddha{2}. of high social position. Sir. 62-100.

should see him doing so{2}. as if through water: he walks on water without dividing it. up to the heaven of Brahmâ. saying: "Wonderful. Kevaddha. he might. and am ashamed thereof. Thus and thus are your emotions. as if through air: he penetrates up and down through solid ground. Kevaddha. Kevaddha. in various ways. of mystic power--from being one he becomes multiform. You are thinking of such and such a matter. 168-173. 'And what. Sir. of trusting heart. 'And what. . beings of mystic power and potency though they be: he reaches. of trusting heart. down to) reaching. of other individuals. is the wonder of manifestation? 'Suppose. and the wonder of education{1}. Kevaddha! It is because I perceive danger in the practice of mystic wonders. as before. the wonder of manifestation. and abhor. A. even in the body. Kevaddha. having myself understood and realised them. and marvellous is the mystic power and potency of that recluse. the reasonings and the thoughts. is the mystic wonder? 'In this case. Sir. as if on solid ground: he travels cross-legged through the sky.. which I. And what are the three? The mystic wonder. up to the heaven of Brahmâ. And some believer. have made known to others. [213] 5. Kevaddha. even in the body. from being multiform he becomes one: from being visible he becomes invisible: he passes without hindrance to the further side of a wall or a battlement or a mountain. 6. 'Then that believer should announce the fact to an unbeliever. 4." And some believer.'There are three sorts of wonders. suppose that a brother enjoys the possession. in this case.' 'Well. saying: "So and so is in your mind. For verily I saw him indulging himself. in mystic power:--from being one becoming multiform (&c. in various ways. Kevaddha? Might not the unbeliever so say?' 'Yes."' {1."' 'Now what think you. of other beings. 278} 'Then that unbeliever should say to him: "Well. These are explained at length in the Samgârava Sutta. that I loathe.} {p. I. like the birds on wing: he touches and feels with the hand even the Moon and the Sun. should behold him doing so. that a brother can make manifest the heart and the feelings. Sir! there is a certain charm called the Gandhara Charm. It is by the efficacy thereof that he performs all this{1}.

according to Gât. 504. For verily I saw him making manifest the heart and the feelings. 267. 8. and am ashamed thereof. You are thinking of such and such a matter. Sir. 279} 'Now what think you. as a well-known charm for the single purpose only of making oneself invisible. 499. or by hearing the actual sound of the man's mental operations.) tells us how--either by omens. of other beings. of other individuals.'} {p. he might. is the wonder of education? 'Suppose. and remain. It is by the efficacy thereof that he performs all this. which. 'Then that believer should announce the fact to an unbeliever. Thus and thus are your emotions. train yourself. cit. 'And what. Compare Sum. Sir. in that. 2. Kevaddha! It is because I perceive danger in the practice of the wonder of manifestation. and not thus. to be 'drawing the long bow.' 'Well. Kevaddha. Sir! there is a charm called the Jewel Charm{3}. saying: "Wonderful. is only for following up trails. Kevaddha? Might not the unbeliever so say?' 'Yes. the heart of the other." {1. like Kanha in the Ambattha Suttanta. or by knowing. that I loathe. in his own heart. and abhor.[214] 7. Identified here. is what is called "The wonder of education. 265." . 3. and marvellous is the mystic power and potency of that recluse. Kevaddha. saying: "So and so is in your mind." 'Then that unbeliever should say to him: "Well. the reasonings and the thoughts. The Samgârava Sutta (loc. III. by Buddhaghosa. or by interpreting exterior sounds. Consider thus. Kevaddha. that a brother teaches thus: "Reason in this way. with the Kintâmanî Viggâ. do not reason in that way. Get rid of this disposition. It is most probable that the Gâtaka is right in both cases as to the meaning of these charm-names. IV. 498. The Gandhâra Charm is mentioned at Gât." This. 271. and that the objector is intentionally represented.

The training in the Four Raptures. and the final assurance of the emancipation of Arahatship. The preaching of the Buddha. confidence of heart thence arising. and of the fact that consciousness is bound up with it. 2. and § 97. The a wakening of a hearer. and his renunciation of the world.'And further. that is to say: 1. 13. 6. of simplicity of life.' [The text repeats the Sâmañña-phala Suttanta. the destruction of the Intoxicants. The constant self-possession he thus gains. The emancipation of the heart from the Five Hindrances--covetousness. suppose that a Tathâgata is born into the world. and speech. 9. 4. The resulting joy and peace that he gains. excitement and worry. 3. 280} 12. and its impermanence. The realisation of the Four Truths. sloth of body and mind. Kevaddha. 8. &c. The insight arising from the knowledge of the nature of the body. 7. 11. 58) which he observes. ill-temper. §§ 40 to 84. and perplexity. The minor details of mere morality (summarised above at p. . The absence of fear. {p. 10. 5. His self-training in act. word. The way in which he learns to guard the doors of his senses. The power of being content with little.

and wind--pass away. who sent him on to their king. and wind-cease. fire. Vasavatti. and was sent on. the Ruler. went up to the realm of the Four Great Kings. who sent him on to the Tusita gods. who sent him on to their king. Kevaddha. water. They will know it.' pp. who sent him on to the gods of the Brahmâ-world{1}. But there is Brahmâ. and said: "Where. '{1}Once upon a time. leaving no trace behind?" 'And when he had thus spoken the gods of the retinue of Brahmâ replied: "We. the Creator. fire. the All-seeing One. my friends.The refrain throughout is: 'This. do the four great elements--earth. Kevaddha. Kevaddha. my friends. Sakka. more potent and more glorious than we. [and put the same question. the Controller. the Great Brahmâ. and made known to others. the Ancient of days. 'So these. Kevaddha." [216-219] 69-79. the Mighty One. leaving no trace behind?" So that brother. 68. by a similar reply. brother. there occurred to a certain brother in this very company of the brethren. 281} to the Nimmâna-rati gods. brother. Kevaddha. 'Then that brother. Santusita. and wind--cease. to the world of the Gods became clear to his ecstatic vision. Suyâma. is what is called the wonder of education. who sent him on to their king. who sent him on {1. to the Thirty-three. worked himself up into such a state of ecstasy that the way leading. 308 foll. Warren in his 'Buddhism in Translations. Kevaddha.} {p.'] [215] 67. and said to the gods thereof: "Where. do not know that. who sent him on to their king. appointing to each his place. who sent him on to the Yâma gods. the Father of all that are and are to be{2}! He is more potent and more glorious than . the Supreme One. From here to the end has been translated by the late Henry C. water. do the four great elements-earth. a doubt on the following point: "Where now do these four great elements--earth. 'Then that brother. fire.'] [320] 80. Kevaddha. 'Then that brother. the Chief of all. water. are the three wonders I have understood and realised myself. But there are the Four Great Kings. And he drew near to the gods of the retinue of Brahmâ. Sunimmita. who sent him on to their king. do not know that. the Lord of all. became so absorbed by self-concentration that the way to the Brahmâ-world became clear to his mind thus pacified. leaving no trace behind?" 'And when he had thus spoken the gods in the heaven of the Four Great Kings said to him: "We. went to the Four Great Kings. who sent him on to the Para-nimmita Vasavatti gods.

2. 'Then again. brother. have done wrong. I do not know. in each case. The question and answer in §68 is repeated. water. Kevaddha. the All-seeing. 'Then that brother answered Brahmâ. leaving no trace behind?"' And when he had thus spoken that Great Brahmâ said to him: "I. the Father of all that are and are to be!" 82. among others. brother. and accept the answer according as he shall make reply. For that is the portent of the manifestation of Brahmâ when the light ariseth. and said: "Where. and wind--cease. know not where Brahmâ is. Therefore you. put to Brahmâ his question as before. appointing to each his place. nor whence. to be such that there is nothing I cannot see. brother. water. nothing I have not understood. return to the Exalted One. the retinue of Brahmâ. and the glory shineth. the Great Brahmâ took that brother by the arm and led him aside. yet a third time. have acted ill. Brahmâ gave the same reply. am the Great Brahmâ. the Controller. 'And it was not long. water. in the text.} {p. hold me. Go you now. So also above." . and wind--cease. Kevaddha. brother. then will He be manifest. do the four great elements--earth. when the signs of his coming appear. fire. in that." '"Where then is that Great Brahmâ now?" '"We. where those four great elements--earth. as to whether you were indeed all that you now say. nor why Brahmâ is. But. before that Great Brahmâ became manifest. you have undertaken this long search. the Supreme. the Ancient of days. ignoring{1} the Exalted One. leaving no trace behind. And that brother.we. 31. the Ruler. fire. p. nothing I have not realised. 'Then. and wind--cease. the {1. ask him the question. the Mighty. fire. But I ask you where the four great elements--earth. the Chief of all. friend. the Creator. leaving no trace behind?" 83. brother. Kevaddha. and the glory shineth. when the light ariseth." [221] 81. and said: "I did not ask you. He will know it. 282} Lord of all. brother. And that brother drew near to him. my friend. Therefore I gave no answer in their presence. for an answer to this question. and said: [221] '"These gods.

the endless. brother. who gives it as an alternative explanation. took it as = pabham. I answered him thus: "Long. comes very near to the Buddhist meaning. Paham. Kevaddha. Sir. brother. fire. Neumann puts this into nineteenth-century language by translating 'subject and object. and to the West. it would come back even to the ship. that is. ghat. as quickly as one could stretch forth his bended arm. do you. that is. he said to me: "Where is it. and appeared before me.. 'Then. leaving no trace behind?" 'On that the answer is: 'The intellect of Arahatship. And if anywhere on the horizon it caught sight of land. and wind. fire. The Siamese edition has abhisimsitvâ. On atisitvâ see Morris in the J. the mental and the physical. and wind--cease. 2. 'And when he had thus spoken. even up to the Brahmâ-world. brother. 283} sea-faring traders were wont. Such a bird would fly to the East. James d'Alwis. Just so. S. But if no land. Dr.} {p. and Fausböll at S. Neumann. the invisible. And he bowed in salutation to me. II. and took his seat on one side. leaving no trace behind?" 85. leaving no trace behind. accessible from every side{2}-- {1. Nâmaâñ ka rûpañ ka. and to the South. the only European writer who has discussed the . T. come back therefore to me. Dr. that these four great elements--earth. water. all round about. and sought it in vain. shining--which Buddhaghosa. [223] Now the question. if by subject be understood an ever-changing group of impermanent faculties or qualities. and to the North. And when the ship got out of sight of the shore they would let the land-sighting bird free. 39). Atisitvâ.' p. and fine and coarse. thither would it fly. water. Buddhaghosa takes this in the sense of tittha. to take with them a land-sighting bird. to the zenith. flight of steps or shelving beach from which to step down into water. no footing find? Where is it that both name and form{1} Die out. so seated. {1. or draw it in when stretched forth. and to the intermediate points of the compass. and. long ago. that Bhikkhu. 366.' And however un-Buddhistic the phrase may be--for no Buddhist would use an expression apparently implying a unity in the subject--it really. Pure and impure. vanished from the Brahmâ-world.84. had rejected ('Buddhist Nirvâna. N. 1886. should not be put as you have put it. And long and short. having sought an answer to this question. Instead of asking where the four great elements cease. you should have asked: "Where do earth. Kevaddha. were visible. P. when they were setting sail on an ocean voyage. who usually gives the view of Batuwan Tudâwa.

He need have gone no further afield than adopting simply gaham. rejoiced at the spoken word. would scarcely write 'recting' for 'rejecting. for pagaham. The social view against which it is directed lies too remote from .' Thus spake the Exalted One. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Lohikka Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. can be meant for the viññâna of a man who has attained to Nirvâna. And Kevaddha. could easily have found other means. That viññâna. Here ends the Kevaddha Suttanta. And long and short. There is it that both name and form Die out. no footing find.} {p. pleased at heart. metri causa. When intellection ceases they all also cease. had he wished to give that meaning. fire. and fine and coarse. if he wanted to save a syllable. 'rejecting. water. the young householder. thinks it is put by the poet. IT is not easy to put ourselves in the mental position suitable for appreciating the kind of idea that underlies the argument in this Suttanta. could be supported by other passages from the Pitakas.' But an English poet. and wind. leaving no trace behind. 284} 'There is it that earth. Pure and impure.point.' And the Pâli poet. when qualified by such adjectives as those here used. 285} INTRODUCTION TO THE LOHI KKA SUTTA.

But they. His tongue is to be split if he recites it. who indeed claim to be. 3. were ever actually.} {p. That is a battle that is not so easily won. God himself has bestowed the exclusive right of teaching upon the hereditary priests{2}. in practice. IX. than the rise of Buddhism. The Pitakas themselves give ample proof that. in that time at least. 286} out. he was very far from thinking right. as old. Sankara quotes with approval the rules of the priestly law books which lay down that the ears of a Sûdra who hears the Veda (including of course the theosophy of the Upanishads) are to be filled with molten lead and lac. The numerous passages collected by Dr.the social views universally admitted now in the West. in ancient times. 3. Ibid.. 317. 319. but in becoming teachers. and the many others like them. there were not a few base-born people who succeeded. or older. or any twice-born males who would not share their views as to the ethics of teaching. in spite of the priests. . On the other hand one may be permitted to doubt whether the gentle measures approved by Sankara for keeping people in that state of life into which their evil deeds in a previous birth had brought them. Muir in his article in the 'Indian Antiquary' for 1877 show that the priestly literature itself--the law books and the epics--has preserved evidence of the lax way in which the strict rules as to exclusion from teaching or being taught were really carried out. the question as to the ethics of teachers and teaching was one of wide interest and of great importance. great divinities{3}. give a fair idea of the spirit animating one section at least of the priests. And it would be a danger to social order if they taught women. Commentary on the Vedanta-Sûtras I. And that is especially the case. These passages are much later than the Pitakas. 85. And this was not the case only among the despised Buddhists. each of them. not only in getting taught. 88. XI. his body is to be cut through if he preserves it in his memory{1}. But in the sixth century B. When Asoka thought he had brought about such a change in public opinion that those who had been very gods upon the earth had come to be gods no longer. in the Eastern valley of the Ganges. 2. and of a trend of opinion that doubtless had its supporters also in Pitaka times. Ibid.C. or any males not twice-born. Manu I. 38. and as to the privileges and prerogatives of the priest as teacher. carried {1. But the expression of his belief is sufficient to show that the striking idea he thought he had killed was far older than our existing text of Manu. even to the gods{4}. 4. according to the priestly tradition.

As M. much less in the time of the Buddha. or from priestly teacher to pupil. As a matter of fact it never really prevailed.The fact doubtless is that. Their teaching (that of the Brahmans). . III. to which many of the more liberal minded of the Brahmans themselves belonged.' The position taken up by the Buddha on this question. which was certainly. But there were many exceptions. A. 190. at first. Baines comments (p. S. in other hands. The general practice must have been that the hereditary priests kept the magic of the sacrifice. Hindu and Buddhist sovereigns are found supporting Buddhists and Hindus alike. And of these the vast majority are not priests at all. of course. Baines. The Brahmans had not yet monopolised the intellectual life. before the time to which our present Sutta refers. even in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads. more than Lassen does. . II. . 32 = A. show for example that there existed alongside of them an entire profane literature of great extent . gave also equal support to other teachers--just as. We have enough evidence. 287} must not judge India at any time. learning as the chief buttress of their social supremacy. appears to have been in a high degree esoteric and exclusive. and the repugnance of both. as well as between the pretensions of a caste and the real state of things. The opposition of the Brahmins to the rise of the writer class has been already mentioned. Even now the Brahmans. I. in the present day. III. already in 1873. or those who in the census returns claim to be such. and the emoluments and privileges that went with the knowledge of it. On this striking fact Mr.'} {p. 56 = Mil. M. . of others. as appears from our present Sutta (and such other passages as M. it is true. 211): 'The second influence antagonistic to a more general spread of literacy is the long continued existence of a hereditary class whose object it has been to maintain their own monopoly of book. who looked with sympathy on relaxations of these rules. 123-127. The numerous Brahmans who were not priests were wont. scholars have inevitably tended to attach too great a degree of importance to what the priests describe as the proper state of things. as also the very nature of the Vedic books. Certain testimonies of the epics. I. 277. 513-524. Even the higher teaching of the mysteries of theosophy was to be handed down only from priest--father to son. besides the priests. in later times. form only about five per cent. 69 = V. 'General Report on the Census of 1891. being teachers of the higher wisdom. and though they were strong enough to establish. though there were bigots among the Brahmans. . to emphasise the importance rather of birth than of knowledge. applicable to this very period.' pp. . P. in their own hands. between different epochs. We {1. of the population. Barth said. they are engaged in all sorts of worldly occupations{1}. can only be appreciated after long experience. through the yellow spectacles of Sa nkara. Our knowledge of Indian views of life having been hitherto derived almost exclusively from the priestly books. though they gave support to the Brahmans. or even of the priestly compilers of Manu. The four powerful kings. rules as to restriction of teaching which no one in priestly circles could venture formally to dispute--yet that there was also always a strong party in India. 202. The census shows that out of 261 millions only fifteen millions could read or write. to the diffusion of learning amongst the masses. in protesting against Lassen for falling into this mistake{1}: 'We must distinguish. and the still important free clans.

then he should tell no one else about it. that everyone. on a royal domain granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala. arrived at Sâlavatikâ (a village surrounded by a row of Sâla trees). Thus have I heard. as a royal gift. should be allowed to teach. keeping nothing back. either in our Sutta or elsewhere. or rather acceptable.144). [SOME POINTS IN THE ETHICS OF TEACHING. For what can one man do for another? To tell others would be like the man . The Exalted One. if he does teach. 288} XII. and have also acquired the faculty of imparting to others the truth he has gained himself. LOHIKKA SUTTA. with much grassland and woodland and corn. translated by Dr. 2. his contemporaries and predecessors. a spot teeming with life. Now at that time Lohikka{1} the Brahman was established at Sâlavatikâ. Muir in the 'Indian Antiquary. 'Revue Critique. having certain abilities.' June. He lays no claim. 1873. with power over it as if he were the king{2}. is that everyone should be allowed to learn. There can. and that. he should teach all and to all. by all. shutting no one out. And they are based not on any distinctively Buddhist doctrine but on general ethical principles accepted. I think. Lohikka Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p.] [224] 1. It is taken for granted that the arguments put into his mouth in our Sutta will appeal to the Brahman to whom they are addressed. {1. to any special peculiarity in this respect. Now at that time Lohikka the Brahman was thinking of harbouring the following wicked view: 'Suppose that a Samana or a Brâhmana have reached up to some good state (of mind).} Return to top Next: XII. when once passing on a tour through the Kosala districts with a great multitude of the members of the Order. But no man should take upon himself to teach others unless and until he have first taught himself. with about five hundred Bhikshus.' 1874. be very little doubt but that the great teacher is here voicing the opinion of many others of liberal views.

and passing the Exalted One with his right hand towards him.' [226] 4. has now arrived. Like that. go where the Samana Gotama is staying. who went out from the Sâkya clan to adopt the religious life. in intellectual and religious matters. lovely in its consummation. an exalted one. with a great company of the brethren of his Order. This is open to two interpretations: 'What can the teacher gain from a disciple?' or 'What can a disciple gain from a teacher?' 'Why should you trouble about others? they cannot help you!' or 'Why should you trouble about others? you cannot help them!' But in either case the implied ground of the argument is the proposition that a man's rise or fall. and the world below with its Samanas and Brâhmanas. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. I think. For what can one man do for another{3}?' {1. He must work out his own salvation. and. and with him the brethren of the Order. to his request. accept the to-morrow's meal from Lohikka the Brahman.} {p. acquiescing in the word of Lohikka the Brahman. And when Bhesikâ the barber perceived that the Exalted One had consented. thoroughly knows. This is. 289} 3. See above. and the Mâras. the Brahmâs. lovely in its origin. by himself. lovely in its progress. on his tour through the Kosala districts. and in all its purity. 108. 144. having broken through an old bond. and on his arrival spake to him thus: . such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad:--that Exalted One is an Arahat. 'Very well. The higher life doth he make known in all its fullness. He. a Buddha. fully awakened. of the sons of the Sâkyas.who. should entangle himself in a new one. he makes his knowledge known to others. And good is it to pay visits to Arahats like that. the better rendering throughout would be 'the Lohikka Brahman. it is a form of lust. 3. and did so even as he had been enjoined. 6. And the Exalted One consented. happy. If that be so. I say. abounding in wisdom and goodness. as to his health and vigour and condition of ease. he rose from his seat. The truth."' 5.' said Bhesikâ the barber. is this (desire to declare to others). Then Lohikka the Brahman said to Bhesikâ the barber: 'Come now. a teacher for gods and men. by silence.' 2. pp. this universe--including the worlds above of the gods. a local name. progress or defeat. with knowledge of the worlds. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. doth he proclaim both in the spirit and in the letter. Now Lohikka the Brahman heard the news: 'They say that the Samana Gotama. on your arrival. its princes and peoples--and having known it. ask in my name as to whether his sickness and indisposition has abated. at Sâlavatikâ. went to Lohikka the Brahman. Sir. and sees as it were face to face. lies in himself. good Bhesikâ. the name of the place from which he had come. and speak thus: "May the venerable Gotama.

" 'Twere well. saying: "It is time. And to him. the Exalted One spake as follows: . behind the Exalted One. Lohikka the Brahman brought a low seat and sat down beside him. Then Lohikka the Brahman. should entangle himself in a new one. O Gotama. 290} 'We addressed that Exalted One{1}. that may well be. then he should tell no one else about it. having broken through an old bond.' said Bhesikâ the barber in assent to the words of Lohikka the Brahman. until they refused any more.' [227] 9. I say.{p. and the meal is ready. with sweet food both hard {1. Bhesikâ the Barber walked. with the Buddha at its head. thus seated. went robed. if the Exalted One would disabuse his mind thereof. It is clear from this expression that Bhesikâ was already a follower of the new teaching. 291} and soft. And the Exalted One hath consented to eome. when the night had passed.' [226] 7. and on your arrival. go where the Samana Gotama is. both hard and soft. and did so even as he had been enjoined. And he said to him: 'The following wicked opinion has occurred to Lohikka the Brahman: "Suppose that a Samana or a Brâhmana have reached up to some good state (of mind). with his own hand. And the Exalted One. towards Sâlavatikâ. Sir. Bhesikâ. staying. And Lohikka the Brahman satisfied the Order. and had cleansed the bowl and his hands. in your name. 8. Sir. For what can one man do for another?' 'That may well be. and said to Bhesikâ the barber: 'Come now. made' ready at his own dwelling-place sweet food. is this (desire to declare to others). who had robed himself early in the early morning. even as you commanded. And when the Exalted One had finished his meal. and carrying his bowl with him.} {p. Sir. step by step. good Bhesikâ. as he went. For what can one man do for another? To tell others would be like the man who. and sat down on the seat prepared for him. with the brethren of the Order. And the Exalted One went on to the dwelling-place of Lohikka the Brahman. announce the time to him. it is a form of lust. Now."' 'Very well. Like that.

or sound?' 'It is unsound doctrine.' . Gotama. I declare that one of two future births will be his lot. Lohikka.' [228] 11.' 'And not considering their welfare. that the following wicked opinion has arisen in your mind: [and he set forth the opinion as above set forth]?' 'That is so. 'Now what think you. or not?' 'He would be a danger-maker. Gotama. Gotama?' 'And making that danger. that is so.' 'Then suppose.' 'Now if a man hold unsound doctrine. Gotama. or not?' 'He would not be considering their welfare. would his heart stand fast in love toward them. Lohikka? Is not King Pasenadi of Kosala in possession of Kâsi and Kosala?' 'Yes. Lohikka. Gotama. Let him alone enjoy all the revenue and all the produce of Sâlavatikâ.' 10.'Is it true. Lohikka? Are you not established at Sâlavatikâ?' 'Yes.' 'But when one's heart stands fast in enmity. Gotama. one were to speak thus: "Lohikka the Brahman has a domain at Sâlavatikâ. Gotama. or in enmity?' 'In enmity. is that unsound doctrine. I Now what think you. allowing nothing to anybody else!" Would the utterer of that speech be a danger-maker as touching the men who live in dependence upon you. Lohikka. what they say. would he be a person who sympathised with their welfare. either purgatory or rebirth as an animal. that is so.

or in enmity?' 'In enmity. Lohikka. would his heart stand fast in love toward them. you admit that he who should say that you. bestowing nothing on any one else--would be making danger for those living in dependence on you. or sound?' 'It is unsound doctrine.' 'Now if a man hold unsound doctrine. 292} anybody else. would he be a person who sympathised with their welfare. is that unsound doctrine. bestowing nothing on any one else. For what can one man do for another? To tell others would be like the man who. Gotama. and he who should say that King Pasenadi of Kosala. must be wanting in sympathy for them. should entangle himself in a new one. or for those. it is a form of lust. is this desire to declare to others. should therefore himself enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof. he who should say: "Suppose a Samana or a Brâhmana to have reached up to some good state (of mind). being in power over Kâsi and Kosala. Gotama. Lohikka.' 'And not considering their welfare. should therefore yourself enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof. you and others. allowing nothing to {p. Let him enjoy all the revenue and all the produce of Kâsi and Kosala. Lohikka."-- . Like that. And that those who thus make danger for others. living in dependence upon the King. Gotama. And that the man wanting in sympathy has his heart set fast in enmity. Lohikka. 'So then. being in occupation of Sâlavatikâ." Would the utterer ot that speech be a danger-maker as touching the men who live in dependence on King Pasenadi of Kosala--both you yourself and others--or not?' 'He would be a danger-maker.'Then suppose. And that to have one's heart set fast in enmity is unsound doctrine:-- 13 and 15. one were to speak thus: "King Pasenadi of Kosala is in possession of Kâsi and Kosala. either purgatory or rebirth as an animal. 12 and 14. I say. or not?' 'He would not be considering their welfare. then should he tell no one else about it. 'Then just so. having broken through an old bond.' 'And making that danger. Gotama. I declare that one of two future births will be his lot.' 'But when one's heart stands fast in enmity.

have attained to great distinction therein--to the fruit of conversion. For what. 13 are repeated of the case put about Pasenadi. no one heeding. [230] 16. or to the fruit of once returning. can one man do for another?" 'This. his rebuke would be justified. or even to Arahatship--he would be putting obstacles in the way of those who are bringing to fruition the course of conduct that will lead to rebirth in states of bliss in heaven{1}. Like that. Such a teacher may be rebuked. not improper. is this lust of yours (to go on posing as a teacher of men. this will make you happy. In the translation both cases are included at the beginning of § 12. and when one's heart is established in enmity. 'In the second place. saying: "This is good for you. since they trust you not). who are worthy of blame. being out of sympathy for their welfare his heart would become established in enmity. Lohikka. that is unsound doctrine. 17. But putting obstacles in their way he would be out of sympathy for their welfare. do I say. is the first sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. 'There are these three sorts of teachers in the world. having taken upon themselves the Doctrine and Discipline set forth by Him-who-has-won-the-Truth. And whosoever should blame such a one. nor give ear to his words. Lohikka. or to the fruit of never returning. there is a sort of teacher who has not himself attained to that aim of . 294} adding: "You are like one who should make advances to her who keeps repulsing him. and {1. I declare that one of two future births will be his lot. or should embrace her who turns her face away from him. Lohikka. not improper. there is a sort of teacher who has not himself attained to that aim of Saman aship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life. nor become stedfast in heart through their knowledge thereof.' 2. king of Kosala. 293} so he. for instance.[229] just {p. Lohikka. apart from the teaching of the master. Without having himself attained to it he teaches a doctrine (Dhamma) to his hearers. who should say thus. his rebuke would be justified. Lohikka. would be putting obstacles in the way of those clansman who. setting out these facts. then. Now if a man hold unsound doctrine. Paragraphs 12. either purgatory or rebirth as an animal{2}. in accord with the facts and the truth. And whosoever should blame such a one. in accord with the facts and the truth. Literally 'Who are making heavenly embryos ripe for rebirth in heavenly states. What are the three? 'In the first place. they go their own way.} {p." Then those hearers of his neither listen to him.

having broken through an old bond. should take thought to weed out his neighbour's field.Samanaship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life. in accord with the facts and the truth. Lohikka the Brahman spake thus to the Exalted One: 'But is there. . in the third place. is this lust of yours (to go on teaching others when you have not taught yourself). apart {p. he teaches the doctrine to his hearers. For what. apart from the teaching of the master. the conversion of a hearer. and they go not their own way. there is a teacher not worthy. is the third sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. Having himself attained it. is this lust of yours (to go on teaching when you have not trained yourself to teach). not improper. of blame. The appearance of a Tathâgata (one who won the truth). saying: "This is good for you. his rebuke would be justified. Without having himself attained to it he teaches a doctrine to his hearers. any sort of teacher not worthy of blame in the world?' 'Yes. And when he had thus spoken. saying: "This is good for you. [231] they give ear to his words. and adding: "You are like a man who. setting out these facts. Lohikka. do I say. 'And again. that will make you happy. in the world. 18. For what." But those hearers of his neither listen to him. Lohikka. Such a teacher may be rebuked. Like that. his preaching. Lohikka." And to him his disciples listen. Lohikka. then. are the three sorts of teachers of which I spoke. nor become stedfast in heart through understanding thereof. not improper. they go their own way. should entangle himself in a new one. can one man do for another?" 'This. setting out these facts and adding: "You are like a man who.' 'And what sort of a teacher. 295} from the teaching of the master. Like that. is the second sort of teacher in the world worthy of blame. Such a teacher may be rebuked. And whosoever should blame such a one. his rebuke would be justified. Lohikka.' [232. neglecting his own field. do I say. can one man do for another? 'This. Gotama. Gotama. 233] 19. is so?' [The answer is in the words of the exposition set out above in the Sâmañña-phala. in accord with the facts and the truth. they become stedfast in heart by their understanding what is said. nor give ear to his words. there is a sort of teacher who has himself attained to that aim of Samanaship for the sake of which he left his home and adopted the homeless life. as follows:-- 1. that will make you happy. And these. And whosoever should blame such a one. then.

) 7.) 5. 87. (Above.' (Above. under whom the disciple attains to distinction so excellent as that{1}. 79. his rebuke would be unjustifiable. (Above. that. (Above. 80.his adoption of the homeless state. (Above. worry. Lohikka. 86. pp. p. 79. The paragraphs on the Insight arising from Knowledge (the knowledge of the First Path). (Above. The paragraph on the Joy and Peace that.' (Above. 80. 92. laziness.' [234] 78. 79. 93.) 9. The paragraph on Simplicity of life. is a teacher not open to blame in the world. (Above. 84. the destruction of the Intoxications--lust. 58. 57. pp. ill-temper. and ignorance--and the attainment of Arahatship. And when he had thus spoken.) {p. pp.) 3. delusions. pp.) The refrain throughout and the closing paragraph is:] 'And whosoever the teacher be. fills his whole being. and perplexity. The paragraphs on the Four Raptures (Ghânas). 78. not in accord either with the facts or with the truth. 84-86. The paragraph on 'Guarded is the door of his Senses. The paragraph on 'Mindful and Self-possessed. The paragraphs on the Realisation of the Four Noble Truths. 81. Lohikka the Brahman said to the Exalted One: . being content with little. pp. without good ground. 82-84. p. becomings.) 4. (Above. p. (Above. The minor details of mere morality that he practises. as a result of this emancipation. pp. (Above. The paragraphs on Emancipation from the Five Hindrances--covetousness. pp.) 10. 81.) 2.) 11. Lohikka. And whosoever should blame such a one.) 6. 296} 8. pp. The Confidence of heart he gains from this practice.

154. in many a {I.} {p. 5. by the hair of his head. betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide. even I. and to the Order. falling over the precipitous edge of purgatory. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down. been lifted back on to the land by the venerable Gotama. in which the discourse does not . O Gotama. 298} INTRODUCTION TO THE TEVIGGA SUTTA. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms--just even so has the truth been made known to me. on the point of falling into purgatory. May the venerable Gotama accept me as a disciple. by the venerable Gotama. See for instance Samyutta V. Gotama. are the words of thy mouth. has taken him as his guide!' Here ends the Lohikka Suttanta. among the thirteen translated in this volume. to the Doctrine. Ulâram visesam adhigakkhati. And I. as one who. Most excellent. as if a man had caught hold of a man. or were to reveal what has been hidden away. Return to top Next: Introduction to the Tevigga Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous Next {p. from this day forth as long as life endures. 297} figure. THIS is the only Suttanta. and lifted him up safe back on the firm land--just so have I.'Just.

was precisely about union with Brahmâ.lead up to Arahatship. . after death. They are even mentioned in the Gâtaka Mâlâ. words familiar to his interlocutors in a different sense. explain the position occupied in the series of dialogues by this Suttanta by the supposition that it was deliberately inserted here as the Buddhist answer to the Upanishad theory. which leads to no rebirth at all--that this lower ideal is thus suddenly introduced? It would seem that the particular point here discussed was regarded as so important that it could scarcely be left out. an essential part of Buddhist practice. The neuter Brahman is. He would probably rejoin. by the sages of old. However this may be. and with truth. It is an Indian--not an exclusively Buddhist--theory. The Gâtaka commentary in numerous passages states that the four Brahma Vihâras were practised. it is {p. in a rebirth in the heavenly worlds of Brahmâ. and of course the Buddha's idea of Brahmâ. The Buddhist texts represent it as held by non-Buddhists. and still preserved in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads. It leads up only to the so-called Brahma Vihâras--the supreme conditions--four states of mind held to result. really differs widely from that of the Upanishads. In the first place. secondly. the nature of his rebirth. they remained. But they have not been found in any Indian book not a Buddhist work. And it is even not exclusively Indian. their doctrine that there was not really any 'soul' to be reborn. Why is it--the Buddhist ideal being Arahatship. The Buddha is in them often represented as using. we may. The essentially Buddhist parts of the theory are three. and are therefore almost certainly exclusively Buddhist. the subtle depth of the ideas. that similar sentiments are met with in other (post-Buddhistic) Indian books. and it is most probable therefore that the Gâtaka commentator is antedating the particular meditations in question. and thirdly. save only in the one case of the Arahat. in his own sense. that the highest ideal was not to be reborn at all (even only once. the choice of the particular details they held essential to such a habit of mind as would lead to rebirth in the Brahmâ-worlds. entirely unknown in the Nikâyas. a work usually supposed to be Mahâyânist. And it would be interesting to know whether they still form a part of the regulated meditations which are known to be practised by Buddhists in Thibet. long before the time of the rise of Buddhism. But it is one thing to give expression in isolated passages to such views. I have not found such a statement in the Nikâyas. and as accepted by all as a matter of course. throughout the long history of Buddhism. There is nothing original in the Buddhist belief that a man's habit of mind at the time of his death would determine. As I have pointed out elsewhere. and into union with Brahmâ). and already long before the Buddha's time. without much danger of error. and quite another to have selected just these four as the four cornerstones of habitual endeavour. and the great value of the practice from the point of view of ethical self-training. That is quite in accordance with the method of the Suttantas. so far as I am aware. Siam. And when we recollect that the highest teaching current before the Buddha. They are well known to-day in Burma. and Ceylon. In this respect it is noteworthy that the neuter Brahman is quietly ignored. China. and dated about a thousand years later than the Buddha{2}. in the masculine. Even the most determined anti-Buddhist must admit the beauty of the language (in spite of its repetitions §§ 76-78). 299} ascribed by Plato to Socrates{1}. and Japan.

206. Since then the text has been published by the Pâli Text Society. and other very distinguished and wealthy Brahmans{2}. 300} XIII. to wit. to the north of Manasâkata. [ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS{1}. E. verse 12). Gânussoni the Brahman.} Return to top Next: XIII. 1. Kankî the Brahman. {1. See the remarks above on p.It should be recollected that the argument here is only an argumentum ad hominem. 2. 3. on the bank of the river Akiravatî. Târukkha the Brahman. 1881). Todeyya the Brahman. in my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. In the well-known story of the Bodhisattva giving his body to feed a tigress (No. he came to the Brahman village in Kosala which is called Manasâkata. and alterations and amendments in a number of details have been rendered necessary. with about five hundred brethren. B.] [235] 1. Thus have I heard. This Suttanta was translated from the MSS. Tevigga Sutta Top Sacred-Texts Buddhism Index Previous {p. When the Exalted One was once journeying through Kosala with a great company of the brethren. Phaedo 69. And there at Manasâkata the Exalted One stayed in the mango grove. Pokkharasâdi the Brahman. TEVIGGA SUTTA.. {1. 2.' Appendix viii. The full context is given in my 'Hibbert Lectures. . If you want union with Brahmâ--which you had much better not want--this is the way to attain to it{3}. Now at that time many very distinguished and wealthy Brahmans were staying at Manasâkata.

pp. Gânussoni lived at Savatthi. see above. Târukkha lived at Ikkhagala (so MSS. 98 = Sutta Nipata III.. 7. Buddhaghosa adds that because Manasâkata was a pleasant place the Brahmans had built huts there on the bank of the river and fenced them in. Now a conversation sprung up between Vâsettha and Bhâradvâga. see above. Buddhaghosa says that-Kankî lived at Opasâda. On Pokkharasâdi. perhaps for Ikkhânangala).' 5. Pokkharasâdi (sic MS. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. this the direct way which makes for salvation. 108. who acts according to it. No.} {p.) lived at Ukkattha. who acts according to it. and leads him. and which the false{1}. and on Todeyya. this the direct way which makes for salvation. [236] I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Târukkha. as to which was the true path. and used to go and stay there from time to time to repeat their mantras. see Magghima Nikaya. and on all the names. The young Brahman Bhâradvâga spake thus: 'This is the straight path. and Todeyya lived at Tudigama. 135.2. and leads him. into a state of union with Brahmâ. nor was the young Brahman Bhâradvâga able to convince the young Brahman Vâsettha. 267. 147. Gânussoni was converted by the Bhaya-bherava Sutta. 9. when they were taking exercise (after their bath) and walking up and down in thoughtful mood.' 4. 301} 3. Then the young Brahman Vâsettha said to the young Brahman Bhâradvâga: . But neither was the young Brahman Vâsettha able to convince the young Brahman Bhâradvâga.' 6. into a state of union with Brahmâ. p. The young Brahman Vâsettha spake thus: 'This is the straight path.

"' . this the direct way which makes for salvation. Now regarding that venerable Gotama. on the bank of the river Ak iravatî." {1. they. into a state of union with Brahmâ. and when we have come there. and leads him.' from Buddhaghosa. let us ask the Samana Gotama touching this. in assent. What the Samana Gotama shall declare unto us. to the young Brahman Vâsetth a. Kankamati is to walk up and down thinking. And while they were thus seated the young Brahman Vâsettha said to the Exalted One: 'As we. with knowledge of the worlds. were taking exercise and walking up and down. 240. and sat down beside him. who acts according to it. of the sons of the Sâkyas. let us go to the place where the Samana Gotama is. a teacher of gods and men. is now staying at Manasâkata. who says that this must be understood to have taken place when. a Buddha.} {p. they exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings and compliments of politeness and courtesy. went down in the evening to the riverside to bathe. Then the young Brahman Vâsettha and the young Brahman Bhâradvâga went on to the place where the Exalted One was. I said thus: '"This is the straight path. a fully enlightened one. after learning by heart and repeating all day. 272. Bhâradvâga. to the north of Manasâkata. matter. into a state of union with Brahmâ. I have added 'after their bath. II. that let us bear in mind{1}. 8. abounding in wisdom and goodness. who went out from the Sâkya clan to adopt the religious life. an Exalted One. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Târukkha. And when they had come there. and then walked up and down on the sand. Ganghâvihâram anukankamantânam anuvikarantânam.' 'Very well. Bhâradvâga.'That Samana Gotama. such is the high reputation that has been noised abroad: "That Exalted One is an Arahat. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. and leads him who acts according to it. this the direct way which makes for salvation. 302} Come. Gotama. my friend!' said the young Brahman Bhâradvâga. in the mango grove. Comp. happy. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. there sprung up a conversation between us on which was the true path."' 'Bhâradvâga said thus: '"This is the straight path. 22. then. and which the false. Mil. Gât.

a dispute. into a state of union with Brahmâ. who acts according to it. who acts according to them."' 'Wherein. 246. then. Various Brahmans. who acts according to it. there is a strife. Gotama. I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Târukkha. the Bavharigâ Brahmans. into a state of union with Brahmâ? 'Just. a difference of opinion between us. Vâsettha? 'I say so. 'So you say. Gotama. pp. and leads him. Divyâvadâna 196. 303} I mean that which has been announced by the Brahman Pokkharasâdi. as near a village or a town there are many and various paths{3}. the Khandokâ Brahmans [the Khandavâ Brahmans]. that you said thus: '"This is the straight path. the Khandokâ Brahmans [the Khandavâ Brahmans]. 24. a dispute. 'Do you say that they all lead aright. yet they all meet together in the village--just in that way are all the various paths taught by various Brahmans--the Addhariyâ Brahmans. Gotama. a difference of opinion between you{1}?' 10. Gotama. Vâsettha. 'Concerning the true path and the false.'Regarding this matter. 23. this the direct way which makes for salvation. into a state of union with Brahmâ?' 11. the Bavharigâ Brahmans{2}. Comp. the Tittiriyâ Brahmans. and leads him. Gotama. teach various paths.} {p. Are all these saving paths? Are they all paths which will lead him."' 'While Bhâradvâga said thus: '"This is the straight path. is there a strife. this the direct way which makes for salvation. and Anguttara II. The Addhariyâ Brahmans.' [237] 9.' . who acts according to them. into a state of union with Brahmâ. {1. the Tittiriyâ Brahmans. Are all those saving paths? Are they all paths which will lead him. O Vâsettha.

sacrifice. either as Tâpasas or as Bhikshus. Vâsettha. and Bahvrika priests--those skilled in liturgy generally. Sâma.{1. and some of them omit the last but one. and Rig Vedas respectively--are probably meant. Vâsettha?' 'So I say. a single one of the Brahmans up to the seventh generation who has seen Brahmâ face to face?' 'No. and half a dozen of the other'--or is intended to lead on Vâsettha to confess still more directly the fact that the different theologians held inconsistent opinions. then those priests who relied on liturgy. The MSS. or chant would be contrasted with those who had 'gone forth' as religieux. Khandoga. Gotama. Gotama!' 'Or is there then. Vâsettha.' 'Or is there then. 3.' [238] 12. This is either mildly sarcastic--as much as to say. Taittîriya. If we adopt the other reading for the last in the list. 2. Gotama. indeed. is there a single one of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas who has ever seen Brahmâ face to face?' 'No. The Adhvaryu. 304} 'Do you really say that they all lead aright. Gotama!' . indeed. a single one of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas who has seen Brahmâ face to face?' 'No. and in the Yagur. Vâsettha. which is noteworthy as a curious change of gender. indeed. differ as to the last name. 'that is six of one. indeed. a single one of the teachers of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas who has seen Brahmâ face to face?' 'No. Maggâni. Gotama!' 'Or is there then.} {p. Vâsettha. 'But yet.

or composed. uttered. that the talk of the Brahmans. and leads him. Yamataggi. Vâsettha.13. Vâmadeva. the middle one sees not. Vâmaka. of the ancient form of words which the Brahmans of to-day so carefully intone and recite precisely as they have {1. the authors of the verses. intoning or reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited--to wit. has ever seen Brahmâ face to face. that none of the Brahmans. to a state of union with that we can show the way. See the note on these names at 'Vinaya Texts. the Brahmans of to-day chant over again or repeat. Gotama!' 14. where Brahmâ is. Bhâradvâga. 'Then you say. what we have not seen.' II. into a state of union with Brahmâ!'" 'Now what think you. whence Brahmâ is. those ancient Rishis of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. neither can the foremost see. nor can the hindmost see--just even so. Angirasa. and Bhagu{1}--did even they speak thus. .} {p. nor can the middle one see. whose ancient form of words so chanted. methinks. the authors and utterers of the verses. Vâsettha. 'Verily. Vessâmitta. this being so. whither Brahmâ is?"' 'Not so. Gotama. Kassapa. or of their pupils. 'Well then. In the text §§ 12. 13 are repeated word for word. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. is the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas but blind talk: the first [240] sees not. that being so. or of their teachers. Vâsettha. And that even the Rishis of old. 305} been handed down--even they did not pretend to know or to have seen where or whence or whither Brahmâ is{1}. [239] even up to the seventh generation. the utterers of the verses. Vâsettha. turns out to be foolish talk?' 'In sooth. and can say: 'This is the straight path. Vâsettha? Does it not follow. saying: "We know it. who acts according to it. So that the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas have forsooth said thus: "What we know not. this is the direct way which makes for salvation. Vâsettha. neither have seen--such a condition of things can in no wise be! 'Just. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!' 15. as when a string of blind men are clinging one to the other{2}. Vâsettha. nor can the latest see. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know. Atthaka. The talk then of these {1. we have seen it. 130.

to a state of union with the Moon or the Sun?"' 'Certainly. after the constant custom of the Burmese MSS. saying: "This is the straight path. that the Brahmans are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen. 'Now what think you. or whither Brahmâ is. 170. Buddhaghosa explains andhaveni by andhapaveni. Now what {1. and praise. . 306} Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas turns out to be ridiculous) mere words. or whence. that the Sun and Moon were gods just as much as Brahmâ. and worship them. Gotama!' 18. and then led them on till they came to a wilderness. has replaced venî by pavenî. and vainly. The Phayre MS. and so on.} {p. When they besought him for hire to lead them there. And you further say that even the Rishis of old. Vâsettha. that they can point out the way to union with that which they know not. folk--see the Moon and the Sun as they pray to. 'So you say. they can{1}. and that the Moon always comes first in Nikâya and other ancient texts. Andhavenî paramparam samsattâ. and praise. for these sections. turning round with clasped hands towards the place whence they rise and where they set?' 'Certainly. did not pretend to know. folk--see the Moon and the Sun as they pray to. who can very well--like other. the next of that one. nor of their pupils. made one blind man catch hold of his stick. whose words they hold in such deep respect. and with tears. turning round with clasped hands to the place whence they rise and where they set--are those Brahmans. who meeting a company of blind men. who acts according to it. to improve away unusual or difficult expressions. and you further say that neither any one of them. II. and leads him. a vain and empty thing!' 16.' 17. forsooth. and they all--still holding each the other. The words of the question are repeated in the text in this and the following answers. versed in the Three Vedas.2. or to have seen where. this the direct way which makes for salvation. ordinary. he took the money. and tells a tale of a wicked wight. Gotama. Vâsettha? The Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. ordinary. Vâsettha? Can the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas--like other. not. [241] nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahmâ. able to point out the way to a state of union with the Moon or the Sun. M. It must be remembered. seeking both their guide and the path--came to a miserable end! Comp. told them of a certain village wherein plenty of good food was to be had. Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say. 'Now what think you. There he deserted them. neither have seen{2}. and worship them.

Vâsettha. "So then. or of the trader class." 'And when people should ask him. 'Very good. neither have seen--such a condition of things can in no wise be!' 'Just. whom you know not. that the talk of that man was foolish talk?' . whether she be tall or short or of medium height. "How I long for. her do you love and long for?" 'And then when so asked.} {p. that being so. he should answer: "No. neither have seen. whom you so love and long for. dark or brunette or golden in colour. turns out to be foolish talk?' 'In sooth. 14.2. the talk of the Brahmans. that being so. Vâsettha. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. or in what village or town or city she dwells?" 'But when so asked. Gotama. do you know whether that beautiful woman is a noble lady or a Brahman woman. "Well! good friend! this most beautiful woman in the land. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!' 19. he should answer: "Yes. Verily then. how I love the most beautiful woman in this land!" 'And people should ask him. Vâsettha? Does it not follow that. 307} think you. or a Sûdra?" 'But when so asked. 13. good friend. "Well! good friend! this most beautiful woman in all the land." 'And then people should say to him. as if a man should say. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know. he should answer: "No. this being so. or what is her family name." 'Now what think you. The text repeats at length the words of §§ 12. Vâsettha. do you know [242] what the name of that most beautiful woman is. Vâsettha? Would it not turn out. whom you thus love and long for.

or in the south. And people should say to him. "But then. nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahmâ. Gotama." 'And people should say to him. the talk of the Brahmans. that the talk of that man was foolish talk!' {p. good friend. is foolish talk?' 'In sooth. to mount up into a mansion. Vâsettha. you know not.' 21. that being so. Vâsettha. you are making a staircase to mount up into something--taking it for a mansion--which. it would turn out. Vâsettha? Does it not follow that. whose words they hold in such deep respect. 'And just even so. that they can point out the way to union with that which they know not. or in the west. or to have seen where. 308} 20. Vâsettha? Would it not {p. this mansion. and you further say that neither any one of them. neither have seen! Now what think you. or whence. or in the north? whether it is high or low or of medium size?' 'And when so asked. neither have seen--such a condition of things can in no wise be. he should answer: "Yes. neither have seen!" 'And when so asked. good friend. though you say that the Brahmans are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen. this being so. "Well. forsooth. 'Just. Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say.'In sooth. Vâsettha. as if a man should make a staircase in the place where four roads cross. that being so. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas [243] should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know. all the while. did not pretend to know. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!' 'Very good. 309} turn out. that being so. Gotama. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. or whither Brahmâ is. And you further say that even the Rishis of old. he should answer: "No. nor of their pupils." 'Now what think you. that the talk of that man was foolish talk?' . Vâsettha. to mount up into which you are making this staircase. do you know whether it is in the east. Verily then.

Gotama. Brahmâ we call upon. it would turn out. 179. by reason of that man's {1. should invoke the further bank.). this being so. Vâsettha. that those Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. do the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas--omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. Vâsettha. it follows that the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk!' 23. that being so. nor of their pupils. O further bank! come over to this side!" 'Now what think you. that the talk of that man was foolish talk!' 22. if this river Akiravatî were full of water even to the brim. pp. or whither Brahmâ is. E. Vâsettha? Does it not follow that. Vâsettha. come over to this side?' 'Certainly not. and overflowing{1}. bound for tlle other side. and want to cross over. [245] . B. should come up. Varu na we call upon. standing on this bank. the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas is foolish talk?' 'In sooth. Vâsettha. "Come hither. neither have seen! Now what think you. And a man with business on the other siJe. Vâsettha. forsooth. And he. whose words they hold in such deep respect.} {p. See on this phrase the note in my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. Yama we call upon{1}!]" Verily. Gotama.' [244] 24. 'In just the same way. 'Very good. or to have seen where. [Mahiddhi we call upon. making for the otller side. Gotama!' 25. 178. neither have seen--such a condition of things can in no wise be. Vâsettha. Verily then. though you say that the Brahmans are not able to point out the way to union with that which they have seen. 310} invoking and praying and hoping and praising. Pagâpati we call upon. or whence. Soma we call upon. did not pretend to know. and say. nor of their predecessors even to the seventh generation has ever seen Brahmâ And you further say that even the Rishis of old. Vâsettha? Would the further bank of the river Akiravatî. that being so. and you further say that neither any one of them. 'And just even so. Samatittika kâkapeyyâ. that they can point out the way to union with that which they know not. Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say.'In sooth. 'Again. Îsâna we call upon. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state of union with that which they do not know. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans--say thus: "Indra we call upon.

as usual. do the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas cling to. were to be bound tightly. Vâsettha. and so enjoy them{1}. attached to them. 'Just. Tastes of the same kind perceptible to the tongue.' 28. making for the other side. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas. and elsewhere. And he.} {p. The Buddha. the 'further bank' is Arahatship. on this bank. which are called. should. after death and when the body is dissolved. Substances of the same kind perceptible to the body by touch. Sounds of the same kind perceptible to the ear. 'In the same way. see not the danger of them. become united with Brahmâ--verily such a condition of things can in no wise be{2}!' 26. 'And verily. there are five things {1. would that man be able to get over from this bank of the river Akiravatî to the further bank?' 'Certainly not. a "chain" and a "bond. bound for the other side. 2. here takes the 'further bank' in the meaning attached to it by the theologians he is talking to. they are infatuated by them. even to the brim."' 'What are the five?' 'Forms perceptible to the eye. of course. Vâsettha. 232. It is possible that the Burmese copyist has wrongly inserted them to remove the strangeness of this repetition. Vâsettha. by reason of their invoking and praying and hoping and praising. The comment is silent. And a man with business on the other side. Vâsettha.but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. as if this river Akiravatî were full. should come up. in the Discipline of the Arahats. omit Mahiddhi and Yama. Now what think you. that are accompanied by lust and cause delight. in the Discipline of the Arahats. The Sinhalese MSS. attractive forms. with his arms behind his back. These five things predisposing to passion are called. Vâsettha. a "chain" and a "bond. and want to cross over. 233. but repeat the verb. but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. desirable. Odours of the same kind perceptible to the nose. as union with Brahmâ. infatuated by ." And these five things predisposing to lust. and overflowing. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans--[246] clinging to these five things predisposing to passion. So An guttara V. 311} leading to lust. 'we call upon. pleasant. by a strong chain. Gotama!' 27. In his own system. know not how unreliable they are. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans--that they.' three times after Brahmâ. agreeable.

even to his head. 'Now what think you. bound for the other side. 'Again. which are called "veils.} {p. 4. And if he covering himself up. in the Discipline of the Arahats{1}. to sleep. knowing not their unreliability. &c. 59. and overflowing. 'The hindrance of illwill." and are called "obstacles. were to lie down. 'The hindrance of suspense. 74. And a man with business on the other side." and are called "hindrances. in the Discipline of the Arahats." and are called "entanglements. 'The hindrance of torpor and sloth of heart a mind. 274. Vâsettha. 'These are the Five Hindrances. and so enjoying them--that these Brahmans should after death. become united to Brahmâ--such a condition of things can in no wise be!' 29. there are these Five Hindrances.them. and . Gotama!' 30. 312} be able to get over from this bank of the river Akiravatî to the further bank?' 'Certainly not. See A. Udâna VII. Gathitâ mukkhitâ agghopannâ. are called veils. on the dissolution of the body. 'And in the same way. 'The hindrance of flurry and worry. Vâsettha? Would that man {1. Sum. if this river Akiravatî were full of water even to the brim. and want to cross over. on this bank. 3. seeing not their danger. Vâsettha. making for the other side. Vâsettha. which. I. attached to them. should come up."' 'Which are the five?' 'The hindrance of worldly lusts.

Gotama. or free from malice?' 'Free from malice.' 'Is his mind tarnished. These Five Hindrances are more fully dealt with above. and entangled by these Five Hindrances--that these Brahmans should after death. Vâsettha. when the learners and teachers are talking {1. 'Now with these Five Hindrances. [247] become united to Brahmâ--such a condition of things can in no wise be!' 31. hindered. that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas.} {p. obstructed. or free from anger?' 'Free from anger. and adopting the practice of those qualities which really make men non-Brahmans--veiled. but omitting the practice of those qualities which really make a man a Brahman. obstructed. 82. Vâsettha. and are called obstacles. Gotama.' 'Is his mind full of anger. This may possibly mean 'in the disciple recommended by the Arahat' (that is. 237-239 with 234. or is he not{1}?' 'He is not. 'Now what think you. by the Buddha).are called hindrances. 2. and entangled. on the dissolution of the body. Vâsettha.' 'Is his mind full of malice. 'And verily. Anguttara V. the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas are veiled. hindered. But the latter is expressed rather by Sugata-vinaye. Gotama. 313} together? Is Brahmâ in possession of wives and wealth. or is it pure{2}?' . 235. and what have you heard from the Brahmans aged and well-stricken in years. Comp. p. Ariyassa vinaye. and are called entanglements{2}.

' 33. B.' 'Do they bear malice. 'no encumbrances.' 32. xxiii. or have they not?' 'They have not.' 'Have they self-mastery. and the word in the text.' and Jacobi. Gotama. Gotama.) I.' 'Has he self-mastery. and that Brahmâ is not. But the reference is no doubt to the first 'hindrance'. Gotama.' 'Have they anger in their hearts. that the Brahmans are in possession of wives and wealth. Gotama. 'Then you say. or are they not?' 'They are not.' 'Are they pure in heart. on the general idea of the passage. Can there. the English expression.' thus restricting the 'possession' to women. who has none of these things?' {1. 'Now what think you. or do they not?' 'They do. Vâsettha. Gotama.'It is pure. Vâsettha. or has he not{3}?' 'He has. includes more. E. then. 'Gaina-Sûtras' (S. Gotama. 'Kâmakkhandassa âbhavato itthipariggahena apariggaho. Compare. are the Brahmans versed in the Vedas in the possession of wives and wealth. though doubtless alluding to possession of women also. . be agreement and likeness between the Brahmans with their wives and property. Sapariggaho vâ Brahmâ apariggaho vâ ti. and Brahmâ. Buddhaghosa says on Vâsettha's reply. or have they not?' 'They have. or are they not?' 'They are. Gotama.

'Very good. 314} 'Certainly not.2. that these Brahmans versed in the Vedas. 'free from mental torpor and idleness. Vâsettha. But. the young Brahman Vâsettha said to the Blessed One: {1. I have no doubt the commentator is right in his explanation of these figurative expressions. and so sinking they are arriving only at despair. thinking . Gotama!' 36. too. that the Brahmans bear anger and malice in their hearts. and has self-mastery--such a condition of things can in no wise be! 'So that thus then. the Brahmans. and uncontrolled. [248] become united with Brahmâ who has none of these things--such a condition of things can in no wise be!' 35. should after death.' 3. Vâsettha. become united to Brahmâ. they neglect higher things. says Buddhaghosa. Buddhaghosa says. Gotama!' 34. verily. versed though they be in the Three Vedas. are sinking down (in the mire){1}. then. who is free from anger and malice. should after death. who live married and wealthy. sinking into folly and superstition. That these Brahmans versed in the Vedas and yet bearing anger and malice in their hearts. and has self-mastery. in explanation of the answer. Asankilittha-kitto. and are tarnished in heart and uncontrolled. worry and flurry. and so. 'Therefore is it that the threefold wisdom of the Brahmans. That is. Confident in their knowledge of the Vedas. is called a waterless desert. whilst Brahmâ is free from anger and malice. Âsîditva samsîdanti. while they sit down (in confidence). pure in heart. be concord and likeness between the Brahmans and Brahmâ?' 'Certainly not. when the body is dissolved. Vasavattî vâ avasavattî vâ. 'When he had thus spoken. thinking the while that they are crossing over into some happier land. 'By the absence of wavering he has his mind under control (vase vatteti).'} {p. pure in heart. when the body is dissolved. wise in their Three Vedas. their threefold wisdom is called perdition!' 37. 'they are arriving only at despair. 'Then you say. Now can there. and in their practice of Vedic ceremonies. 'Very good. sinful. their threefold wisdom is called a pathless jungle. Vâsettha. Vâsettha.

[249] which was the way to Manasâkata. Vâsettha. Vâsettha. suppose there were a man born in Manasâkata.' 'What do you think. Buddhaghosa takes this to mean. be in any doubt or difficulty?' 'Certainly not. 'That man. in assent. but to the Tathâgata.'} {p. and people should ask him. there can be neither doubt nor difficulty. and give ear attentively. Vâsettha. born and brought up at Manasâkata might. when asked touching the path which leads to the world of Brahmâ. I know it even as one who has entered the Brahmâ-world. Vâsettha. Gotama. Would that man. . and the path which leadeth unto it. and the world of Brahmâ. and has been born within it!' 39. Manasâkata is near to. Yea. is not Manasâkata near to this spot. fall into doubt and difficulty. and I will speak!' {1. that the Samana Gotama knows the way to the state of union with Brahmâ. I know.the while that they are crossing over into some happier land. 'Save me of the Brahman race. When he had thus spoken. the young Brahman. let the venerable Gotama save the Brahman race{1}!' 'Listen then. is not far from here. Vâsettha. Gotama! And why? If the man had been born and brought up in Manasâkata. Gotama. 316} 'So be it. It is well! Let the venerable Gotama be pleased to show us the way to a state of union with Brahmâ. Lord!' said the young Brahman Vâsettha. For Brahmâ. even that the Samana Gotama knows the way to a state of union with Brahmâ. to the Blessed One. 315} 'It has been told me. Vâsettha. said to the Blessed One: 'Just so has it been told me.' 'Now what think you. who never till that time had left Manasâkata. if he were asked the way to Manasâkata. every road that leads to Manasâkata would be perfectly familiar to him.' 38. born and brought up in Manasâkata. Gotama. not distant from this spot?' 'Just so.'} {p.

forsaking his circle of relatives. he clothes himself in the orange-coloured {1. lovely in its consummation: the higher life doth he make known. inclusive. that the acceptance of this'Doctrine and Discipline' is open to all. lovely in its progress. and the world below with its Samanas and Brahmans. a Blessed One. lovely in its origin.--and he then makes his knowledge known to others. in all its purity and in all its perfectness. abounding in wisdom and goodness. listens to that truth{1}. is his conduct good?' [The answer is set forth in the words of the tract on the Sîlas. On hearing the truth he has faith in the Tathâgata. by himself. he cuts off his hair and beard. He adopts and trains himself in the precepts. Uprightness is his delight. p. and when he has acquired that faith he thus considers with himself: '"Full of hindrances is household life. in all its bright perfection! Let me then cut off my hair and beard.} {p. a fully awakened one. 'Then the Blessed One spake. but with the refrain as in the Sâmañña-phala Suttanta above. Vâsettha. 'When he has thus become a recluse he passes a life self-restrained by that restraint which should be binding on a recluse. 41. 79. or a man of inferior birth in any class. with knowledge of the worlds. not of course that Brahmans never accept it. a Buddha. forsaking his portion of wealth. of the Sâmaññ . and he sees danger in the least of those things he should avoid. He. and let me go forth from a household life into the homeless state!" 'Then before long. Vâsettha. and the Brahmâs. The truth doth he proclaim both in the letter and in the spirit. in all its purity. happy. that (from time to time) a Tathâgata is born into the world. 42. an Arahat. guarded the door of his senses. thoroughly understands. Then follow §§ 63-75. a path defiled by passion: free as the air is the life of him who has renounced all worldly things. or one of his children. 3-26. good is his conduct. 'A householder (gahapati). and he goes forth from the household life into the homeless state. its princes and peoples. mindful and self-possessed. a teacher of gods and men. How difficult it is for the man who dwells at home to live the higher life in all its fullness. 317} robes. pp. 'And how. as it were. and said: 'Know.40. he is altogether happy!' [250] 43-75. He encompasses himself with goodness in word and deed. let me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes. He sustains his life by means that are quite pure. be they many or be they few. face to face this universe--including the worlds above with the gods. unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led. translated above. the Mâras. The point is. be it great or be it small. and sees.

. His habit of being content with little. 318} the world with thoughts of Love [251]. E. and occupy very much the place that prayer takes in Christianity. above. . around. The joy and peace which. and deep-felt love. the meditation on Impurity. sympathy{1}.} {p. and beyond measure. in my 'Buddhist Suttas' (S. . The confidence of heart that results from the sense of goodness. . Vâsettha. and so the second. each with the explanatory simile. setting forth:-- 1. . 8. . 5. but regards them all with mind set free. Vâsettha. as a result of this conquest. before the last. and everywhere. and so the fourth. 4. {1}'And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of {1.' pp. Mahâ-Sudassana Sutta II. And thus the whole wide world. These paragraphs occur frequently. equanimity{1}. 'And he lets his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of pity{1}. These four (or five) are called the Brahma Vihâras. . 171.a-phala. and the practice of them leads. far-reaching. not to Arahatship. 3. 'Verily this. around. see. below. . and so the second. does he continue to pervade with heart of Love. but to rebirth in the Brahmâ-world. It will be seen from 'Buddhism. A fifth. The way in which he is mindful and self-possessed. 'Just. above. even so of all things that have shape or life. B. 2. and so the third. . and everywhere. of adopting simplicity of life. as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard--and that without difficulty--in all the four directions. and so the fourth. that these meditations play a great part in later Buddhism. has been added.). grown great. inter alia. and so the third. fills his whole being. 78.] 76. And thus the whole wide world. 6. 170. 77. His conquest of the Five Hindrances. at what time I do not know. is the way to a state of union with Brahmâ. there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside. The way in which he guards the doors of his senses. . does he continue to pervade with heart of pity. below.

but regards them all with mind set free. . Vâsettha. sympathy. or will he not?' 'He will not. and that Brahmâ is free from household and worldly cares. equanimity. or free from anger?' 'He will be free from anger. Vâsettha. there is not one that he passes by or leaves aside. . Gotama!' 'Will his mind be full of malice. . Gotama!' [252] 81. grown great. Is there then agreement and likeness between the . .' 80. Paragraphs 76. far-reaching. .sympathy. 'Then you say. even so of all things that have shape or life. equanimity. Gotama!' 'Will his mind be tarnished. is the way to a state of union with Brahmâ.} {p. 79. that the Bhikkhu is free from household and worldly cares. will the Bhikkhu who lives thus be in possession of women and of wealth. 'Verily this. 77 are supposed to be repeated of each. 319} 'Free from malice. or pure?' 'It will be pure. Vâsettha. and beyond measure. 'Now what think you. . . as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard--and that without difficulty--in all the four directions. or will he not?' 'Surely he will. Gotama!' 'Will he have self-mastery. . . Gotama!' 'Will he be full of anger. and deep-felt pity. Vâsettha. 'Just. or free from malice?' {1.

where the names of these 'doctors' are given. to the Truth. to the Blessed One as our guide. Lord. and master of himself should after death. 303. pure in mind. are the words of thy mouth. betake ourselves. May the Blessed One accept us as disciples. when the body is dissolved. Lord.Bhikkhu and Brahmâ?' 'There is. Vâsettha. Gotama!' 'Very good. and master of himself. by the Exalted One. and free from malice. free from malice. Vâsettha. Vâsettha. from this day forth. Then in sooth. the young Brahmans Vâsettha and Bhâradvâga addressed the Blessed One. in many a figure. pure in mind. Literally 'The Suttanta about those who have the knowledge of the Three (Vedas). become united with Brahmâ. and free from malice. has the truth been made known to us. Lord. and said: 'Most excellent. so that those who have eyes can see external forms. {p. or were to bring a lamp into the darkness. when the body is dissolved. and that Brahmâ is free from anger. who is the same-such a condition of things is every way possible!' 82. that the Bhikkhu is free from anger.} Return to top Top . And we. 'When he had thus spoken. or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray. or were to reveal that which is hidden away. pure in mind. that the Bhikkhu who is free from anger. as true believers. even we. Vâsettha. most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down. that the Bhikkhu who is free from household cares should after death. and master of himself. as long as life endures!' Here ends the Tevigga Suttanta{1}. Then in sooth.--just even so. {1. 320} and to the Brotherhood. become united with Brahmâ. who is the same-such a condition of things is every way possible! 'And so you say.' See p.

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