Exam2 Sols physics solutions

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Exam2 Sols physics solutions

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You are on page 1of 4

Fall 2002

1. The figure below shows several equipotential lines. Comparing the points A and B, the electric

field

20 V

15 V 10 V 5V

B A

Answer. has a greater magnitude at the point A and points to the left.

Solution. The magnitude of the electric field is largest when the equipotentials are close

together. The direction of the field is from high potential to low potential—a positive test

charge will feel a force which points from regions of high potential to regions of low potential.

2. Two concentric√rings, one of radius R and total charge Q and the second of radius 2R and

total charge − 2Q, are in the plane z = 0. The charge on each ring is distributed uniformly.

Where on the positive z-axis is the electric potential zero (other than at z = ∞)?

z

Where is the potential zero?

√

Answer. 2R

Solution. The electric

√ potential due to a ring of radius R with a uniformly distributed charge

Q is V (z) = kQ/ z 2 + R2 . The net potential for both rings is

√

kQ k 2Q

V (z) = √ −√ . (1)

z 2 + R2 z 2 + 4R2

√

Setting V (z) = 0 and solving for z, we find z = 2R.

1

3. A certain arrangement of charges produces an electric potential V (x, y, z) = ax2 + bxy + cy 2 ,

with a = 4.0 V/m2 , b = −8.0 V/m2 , and c = −2.0 V/m2 . What is the x-component of the

electric field at the point x = 2.0 m, y = 4.0 m, z = 6.0 m?

Answer. 16 V/m

Solution. The x-component of the electric field is Ex = −∂V /∂x = −2ax − by. Substituting

the values of a, b, x, and y, we find that V = 16 V/m.

4. A charge Q is placed on a metal sphere (sphere 1) of radius R1 . Very far from this sphere is

a second sphere (sphere 2) of radius R2 which is initially uncharged. If the two spheres are

connected by a metal wire, what is the final charge Q2 on sphere 2?

Answer. Q2 = QR2 /(R1 + R2 )

Solution. Once the two spheres are connected, they become part of an equipotential system.

The potential for a single sphere of radius R1 and charge Q1 is V = kQ1 /R1 , and for a sphere

of radius R2 and charge Q2 is V = kQ2 /R2 . The total charge on both spheres is the same as

the initial charge on sphere 1, so that Q = Q1 + Q2 . Equating the potentials, we have

k(Q − Q2 ) kQ2

= . (2)

R1 R2

Solving for Q2 , we obtain Q2 = QR2 /(R1 + R2 ).

5. Three identical capacitors, each of capacitance C, are connected as shown in the figures below.

If same potential difference V is applied across each combination, which combination stores

the greatest energy?

Answer. (iv)

Solution. For a fixed potential difference V across the combination the energy stored is

U = (1/2)Ceff V 2 , with Ceff the effective capacitance of the combination. Therefore, we

obtain the greatest stored energy when the effective capacitance is the largest, which happens

for the three identical capacitors in parallel.

6. Four capacitors, each with a capacitance 10 µF, are connected as shown in the figure to a

10 V battery. What is the charge on the capacitor C1 ?

Answer. 20 µC

Solution. This is essentially Problem 26–16 of HRW (one of the suggested homework prob-

lems). In the upper network of three capacitors, the two in series have an equivalent capaci-

tance of 5 µF; this is in parallel with a 10 µF capacitor, for an equivalent capacitance of 15 µF

for the upper network. This is in series with the lower 10 µF capacitor, for a total equivalent

capacitance of 6 µF. Therefore, the charge q on the lower capacitor is q = Ceq V = 60 µC,

2

C1

+

10 V -

and the potential drop across the lower capacitor is 6 V. Therefore, the potential drop across

the upper network is 4 V, so the two capacitors in series in the upper network have 4 V across

them. Since the capacitors are identical, each one has 2 V across it, so that the charge on C1

is q1 = (10 µF)(2 V) = 20 µC.

7. A cylindrical wire of radius R carries a nonuniform current density J(r) = ar, where r is the

distance from the axis of the cylinder and a is a constant. What is the total current i which

flows in the wire?

Answer. 2πaR3 /3

Solution. The total current is

Z Z R 2π 3

i= J~ · dA

~= (ar)(2πrdr) = aR . (3)

0 3

8. Shown below are sketches of the temperature dependence of the resistivity of three different

materials. What are these materials?

ρ ρ ρ

T T T

Solution. See your class notes!

3

9. A uniform piece of copper wire of length L has a resistance R. It is cut into 10 pieces of equal

length L/10 which are then connected in parallel. What is the equivalent resistance of this

combination?

Answer. 0.01 R

Solution. The resistance of a piece of wire is proportional to its length. Cutting the copper

wire into ten equal pieces would mean that each piece has a resistance of 0.1 R. Connecting

these ten resistors in parallel would lead to an equivalent resistance of 0.01 R.

10. In th circuit shown below, what is the current in the 5.0 Ω resistor?

6.0 Ω

4.0 Ω

12.0 Ω

24.0 V

3.0 Ω 5.0 Ω

Answer. 3.0 A

Solution. The 6 Ω resistor and 12 Ω resistor in parallel are equivalent to a 4 Ω resistor, which

is in series with another 4 Ω resistor for an equivalent resistance of 8 Ω. This is in parallel

with a series combination of 3 Ω and 5 Ω which is equivalent to an 8 Ω resistor; i.e., we have

two 8 Ω resistors in parallel, for an equivalent resistance of 4 Ω. The battery emf is 24 V, so

there is a current of 6.0 A drawn from the battery. When this current encounters the junction

it is split equally between the two branches since they have the same equivalent resistance.

Therefore the current in the 5 Ω resistor is 3.0 A.

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