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Learning guide:

NAME: ___________________________________________ CODE:__________________


HOW TO WRITE A COMPLETE PROBLEM AND SOLUTION ESSAY

ACTIVITY 1: Organize the body paragraph below. In the ( ) place the number that corresponds to the correct order of
a body paragraph. Fill in the gaps using appropriate connectors.

1. Topic sentence 2. Supporting idea 3. Solution 4. Results

( ). _______________ the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) could create a program where the
agents or polices in borders can give account of all the money they get periodically.

( ). _______________ El Universal newspaper, reported that, according to the Department of Homeland Security, the
agents of the Border Patrol and other U.S. agencies, are under investigation for receiving bribes in exchange for
protection, spy on enemies and trafficking drugs to Mexican cartels in Mexico border and American soil.

( ). _______________, corruption by bribing won’t be an option to polices and authorities because they would be
penalized.

( ). _______________, the third problematic issue is corruption.

ACTIVITY 2:

Mind Map 1: Complete the mind map shown in the video you will find in Virtual Sabana with the components of the
conclusion Then, highlight the phrases used to begin each part of the conclusion with different colors in the sample
below.

Conclusion
1. __________________
4._____________

3.___________________
2. _____________

Sample:
Taking everything into account, some of the main problems caused by inappropiate waste management have to
do with health issues, extinction of our fauna and flora and environmental pollution. All of them could be
diminished by raising awareness of responsible consumption, reducing the amount of industrial waste and setting
up controls to avoid over-consumption. These actions can be carried out by joint efforts from local people,
industries and governmental entities .This way, the harmful effects of inappropriate waste management would be
alleviated.

REFLECTION TIME : It is time to review your work so far. To do so, follow these instructions:

1. Review your outline proposal in workshop 1. Are you going to keep problems 2 and 3 or are you going to
change them?.

Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights
Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright
holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to fld@unisabana.edu.co
2. Your teacher will give you your writing exam today. What do you need to improve in terms of structure? What
about the use of complex grammar and vocabulary?

ACTIVITY 3: Continue writing the third paragraph of your essay, it means the second problem and solution.
Highlight sentences in different colors as indicated below:

Topic sentence: The second problem should be stated (RED)


Supporting facts: Factual support of the second problem. (BLUE)
Second solution and its development (what, who, how).
Concluding sentence: Result of implementing the second solution.( BLACK)

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Teacher’s feedback:
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ACTIVITY 4: Move on to your fourth paragraph of which will explain the third problem and its solution. Do not forget
to use the paragraph structure and highlight its parts as follows:

Topic sentence: The third problem should be stated (RED)


Supporting facts: Factual support of the third problem. (BLUE)
Second solution and its development (what, who, how).
Concluding sentence: Result of implementing the third solution.( BLACK)

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Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights
Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright
holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to fld@unisabana.edu.co
Teacher’s feedback:
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ACTIVITY 5:

Mind Map 2: Now that you have watched the video and you know the components of the conclusion make a map showing
the information for your conclusion.

Conclusion
1. __________________
4. _____________

3. ___________________
2. _____________

ACTIVITY 6:

Now, write your conclusion.


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Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights
Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright
holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to fld@unisabana.edu.co
NAME: _________________________________________ CODE: ____________________
ACTIVITY 7: Based on your teacher’s comments on the structure, write the draft of your second and third body
paragraphs as well as the conclusion. You should write 200-250 words.

Thesis: (For your teacher’s reference when checking the conclusion)


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Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights
Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright
holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to fld@unisabana.edu.co
USEFUL EXPRESSIONS AND VOCABULARY

Causes and effects

…is resulting in… …is due to… …which causes… …leads to…
…which contributes to… …caused by… …as a result of…
…has a detrimental effect on…

Using modals for suggesting ways to solve a problem

Citizens must to solve this problem/issue.


have to take responsibility to dramatically improve the
Politicians need take measures situation.
should find ways to alleviate the problem.
Governments could take action to reduce the harmful effects.
may be able to to stop this worrying trend.
Industry

Expressing positive results Using conditionals to justify recommended action to be taken


Expressing negative results

This wouldExpressing positive results


certainly reduce… Expressing
Unless action negative results
is taken…
As a result, such action will… Otherwise the situation will continue to deteriorate.
This
If thiswould certainly
is done, … reduce… Unless action is refuse
If governments taken…to take action, …
As a result,
If this such action
suggested coursewill…
of action is taken, it will alleviate… Otherwise the situation will continue to deteriorate.
If this is done, … If governments refuse to take action, …
If this suggested course of action is taken, it will alleviate…

LINKING WORDS
Connectors of addition Connectors of cause Connectors of order and others

 Additionally  Therefore  First / Firstly / In the first place


 Furthermore  Consequently  Second / Secondly /
 In addition (to this)  As a result (of)  Third etc.
 Moreover  Thus  Afterwards / After that
 Similarly  For this reason  Last but not least
 Likewise  Because  To sum up
 In the same way  Because of  All in all
 Besides  In order to  All things considered
 Not only … but also  So that  Taking everything into account
 For instance
 Such as

Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights
Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced, transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright
holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to fld@unisabana.edu.co
RUBRIC FOR SECOND AND THIRD PROBLEM SOLUTION PARAGRAPHS AND CONCLUSION
LEGEND MEANING MISTAKE (examples) CORRECTION (examples)
SS Sentence Structure I want that you open the door (ss) I want you to open the door.
He said me hello. (ss) He said hello to me.
SP Spelling Beatifull (sp) beautiful
^ Missing Word ^ Is important. It is important.
The only important ^ was to work. The only important thing was to work.
WP Wrong Pronoun María is my sister. He (wp) is 20 years old. María is my sister. She is 20 years old.
SVA Subject Verb He walk (sva) to school everyday. He walks to school everyday.
Agreement
Agreement Colombian people is (sva) nice. Colombian people are nice.
WPR Wrong Preposition In (wpr) the other hand… On the other hand…
He was in (wpr) the beach. He was at the beach.
WC Wrong Connector She is tall. However, (WC) she is intelligent. She is tall and intelligent.
or^C insert
?? connector Idea
Nonsense Comment: The teacher is not able to understand what the student is trying to communicate.
Isolated Idea Mary had an excellent time in NY. //The traffic signals are easy to handle in NY\\. There she Mary had an excellent time in NY. There she visited a lot of tourist places.
//…// visited a lot of tourist places.
VF Verb Form She has been wait (vf) for 2 hours. She has been waiting (vf) for 2 hours.
This is a way to protect herself and to avoid show (vf) what she really feels. This is a way to protect herself and to avoid showing what she really feels.

WV Wrong Verb I have (wv) 20 years old. I am 20 years old.


I like to see (wv) TV. I like to watch TV.
WT Wrong Tense Yesterday I go (wt) to the movies. Yesterday I went to the movies.
In her written journal, she argued that Joe become (wt) ill with cancer. In her written journal, she argued that Joe became ill with cancer.
WO Word Order She has eyes blue. (wo) She has blue eyes.
In the afternoon tomorrow (wo) he will travel to Israel. He will travel to Israel tomorrow afternoon.
XYZ Unnecessary Word His happy birthday is on January 15. His birthday is on January 15.
… when somebody called to Alejandro… … when somebody called Alejandro…
WW Wrong Word The Nile River is the largest (ww) river in the world. The Nile River is the longest in the world.
The city of Bogotá has (ww) the District Capital. The city of Bogotá is the District Capital.
WA Wrong Article The (WA) France is having a rough winter. France is having a rough winter.
Sue had a (WA) excellent final exam. Sue had an excellent final exam.
AF Adjective Form The Eiffel Tower is more tall (AF) than the Taj Mahal The Eiffel Tower is taller than the Taj Mahal
The Nile River is the larger (AF) river in the world. The Nile River is the largest river in the world.
S/P Singular-Plural form My child (p/s) were playing in the street when they saw the accident. My children were playing in the street when they saw the accident.

Rep Repetition Marvel’s new film is very interesting (Rep) because it has an interesting (Rep) starring and a very Marvel’s new film is very interesting because it has a great starring and script.
interesting (Rep) script.
Cap Capitalization Many people visit madrid (Cap) every year. it (Cap) has become the driving force of the(Cap) Many people visit Madrid every year. It has become the driving force of the Spanish
spanish economy nowadays. economy nowadays.
PUN Punctuation Crepes staff are helpful (pun) friendly and polite (pun) Crepes staff are helpful, friendly and polite.
FCG False Cognate Actually (fcg) I am assisting (fcg) English classes. Currently I am attending English classes.

WExp Wrong Expression I could care less (WExp) if you bought a car. I couldn’t care less if you bought a car.

Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced,
transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to
fld@unisabana.edu.co
CATEGORY MEETS EXPECTATIONS MEETS MOST EXPECTATIONS SHOWS CONSISTENT PROGRESS NEEDS IMPROVEMENT SHOWS MINIMAL PROGRESS
Grade: 5 Grade: 4 Grade: 3 Grade: 2 Grade: 1
* Addresses all the requirements of the task *Addresses most the requirements of the task * Some of the requirements are generally *Addresses very few of the *Addresses none of the requirements.
accurately (Problems 2 and 3 with their accurately (Problems 2 and 3 with their addressed accurately.( Problems 2 and 3 with requirements (Problems 2 and 3 with *Word count is not reached.
corresponding solution and the conclusion) corresponding solution and the conclusion) their corresponding solution and the their corresponding solution and the *Shows no knowledge and the paper is
conclusion) conclusion) off topic. THEREFORE, YOUR FINAL
* Shows high knowledge of sounding research *Shows enough knowledge of research supported * Shows some knowledge of research and fair GRADE IS 1.0.
TASK FULFILLMENT supported by two or more academic by at least one academic reference In English command of the subject/topic. *Shows limited knowledge and
20% references In English which are cited. which are cited. Some references were not cited. command of the subject/topic. *There is evidence of plagiarism in
* Word count is mostly reached. * Word count is approximately reached. *Word count is poorly reached. one or more paragraphs. THEREFORE
* Word count is outstandingly reached. YOUR FINAL GRADE IS 0.0
1 0.8 0.6
0.2

0.4
*Develops well-framed, coherent and * Develops sufficient, coherent and organized * Develops partially coherent paragraphs with *Provides paragraphs which lack *Paragraph structure is not evident
organized paragraphs based on the task paragraphs based on the task requirements. somewhat loose organization. appropriate structure and confusing and the ideas are mostly
requirements. *Makes proper use of connective devices and * Makes fair use of connective and discourse ideas that are repetitive and lack disconnected.
COHERENCE AND *Makes outstanding use of connective devices discourse markers . markers, but organization may be somewhat coherence. *Lacks basic connective devices.
COHESION and discourse markers . *The result sentences usually the issue loose. *Makes ineffective use and/or * There is no a logical connection
20% *The result sentences always address the mentioned in the topic sentence s *The result sentences sometimes address the overuse of basic connective devices. between the resulting sentences and
issue mentioned in the topic sentence s. issue mentioned in the topic sentences * The result sentences do not address the topic sentences.
the issue mentioned in the topic
sentences.

1 08 0.6 0.4 0.2


*Expresses ideas with ease in well-controlled *Expresses ideas in controlled sentence structure *Expresses ideas with enough control of *Expresses ideas with frequently *Expresses ideas with inconsistent
sentence structure and tenses. and tenses. grammatical forms and proper sentence inconsistent and fragmented and fragmented sentence structure.
*Uses a variety of simple and complex * Uses simple and complex grammar structures structure. sentence structure. *Shows inconsistencies with
GRAMMAR grammar structures mostly accurately. with some small errors. * Uses mostly simple and/or complex *Shows several inconsistencies with grammar usage which make ideas
25% grammar structures with some significant grammar usage that interfere with difficult to understand.
errors. the meaning. 0.25
1.25 1 0.75 0.5
*Shows highly varied and related vocabulary *Shows enough varied and related vocabulary *Shows fair use of related vocabulary learnt *Shows limited vocabulary that is *Shows a lack of vocabulary that is
learnt through research and studied in class. learnt through research and studied in class. through research which occasionally may be poorly related and often repetitive. related and repetitive.
*Makes outstanding use of useful expressions *Makes proper use of useful expressions to repetitive. *Makes poor use of expressions to *Lacks expressions to explain
VOCABULARY to explain problems and propose solutions. explain problems and propose solutions. *Makes good use of expressions to explain explain problems or to propose problems and to propose solutions.
25% *Makes consistent word choice. *Makes accurate word choice. problems or to propose solutions. solutions. *Uses words totally in an inaccurate
*Makes fair word choice. *Uses words mostly in an inaccurate manner.
1.25 manner.
1 0.75 0.5 0.25
*Shows accurate punctuation, capitalization, * Shows accurate punctuation, capitalization, and * Shows somewhat appropriate punctuation, *Attempts punctuation, capitalization, *Lacks of punctuation and
MECHANICS and spelling. spelling in spite of some errors that do not capitalization, and spelling in spite of some and spelling but frequent errors capitalization. Spelling with frequent
10% distort the message. errors which slightly distort the message. usually impede reading. errors impede reading constantly.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Copyright © 2015. Universidad de La Sabana, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures. Created by Rodriguez, S. (2016). Adapted by Perez, A. (2016) All Rights Reserved. No part of this material shall be reproduced,
transmitted, distributed or commercially exploited, except with express written permission from the copyright holders. Enquiries for permission to reproduced all or parts of this material should be directed to
fld@unisabana.edu.co