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Three-phase Inverter Control for AC Motor Driveswith Small DC-Link Capacitor Fed by Single-phase Diode Rectifier

Three-phase Inverter Control for AC Motor Driveswith Small DC-Link Capacitor Fed by Single-phase Diode Rectifier

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Three-phase Inverter Control for AC Motor Drives
with Small DC-Link Capacitor fed by Single-phase
Diode Rectifier
ByungGil Kwak
al-Ki Seok,
‘Power Conversion Lab
‘Yeungnam University
KOREA
dolikiaynu.ac ke
Abstract— This paper proposes x power controller used for
three-phase inverter with small dc-link capacitors fed by a
single-phase diode rectifier. The power flow of the three-phase
inverter fed by the single-phase diode rectifier is analyzed. A
direct activereactive (P-Q) power controller (DPQC) is
‘designed in discrete time instead of adopting a
‘current regulator. The proposed structure can be applicable
three-phase inverters fora broad family of ae motors, such as
induction and permanent magnet synchronous motors.
Keywords— Direct activereactive power controller, single-
phase diode recifier, small de-ink capacitor, three-phase
1. INtRopueriON
AA three-phase inverter with small de-link capacitors
coffers significant potential for long-term reliability. and
whole system power density [1-5]. Despite aforementiones
‘advantages, the inverter with small de-link capacitors has no
‘been in the spollignt due to inherent motor control difficulty
in comparison with conventional electrolytic eapacitor-based
inverters,
Recently, control of small de-link capacitor inverters fed
by single-phase diode rectifiers has recsived a great deal of
attention for compressor-installed heating-ventilaing-ai
conditioning (HVAC) applications [1-4], where inverter
‘control strategies were developed to simultaneously perform
2 grid current shaping and motor control based on a Pl-ype
‘current regulator. However, instantaneous current control is
not siraightforward due to frequent de-link vollage drops,
‘Thus, the selection of a current command of PI controller
gains would be complicated and a daunting task from a
practical point of view. Moreover, dealing with a reactive
power of the motor has not been reported yet. If his is not
‘considered hy a designed controller, a system efficiency may
bbe lost. In these approaches, the range of applicable motors is
Timited to permanent magnet (PM) type motors.
‘The main contribution of this paper is the development
and implementation of a direct activereactive (P-Q) power
contraller (DPQC) for small de-link capacitor inverters fed
by single-phase diode rectifiers. Instead of paying attention
{© conventional motor current regulation, a power-level
controller was designed in the diserete-time domain, where
the resulting control actions can be determined analytically
‘This leads to an ability to tack aa instantaneous P-Q power
command of the motor and shape a sinusoidal grid current at
the same time. An inverter output voltage at every sampling
instant can be easily calculated without requiring any
complicated devision algorithm and control gains. In this
97861-4799.
312-5/18/831.00 ©2018 IEEE
paper, a motor reactive power command selection rule can be
proposed to improve the system efficiency or reduce the grid
current with respect to a given active power demand of the
motor. The unified control approach is potentially applicable
to a wide range of ac motors such as PM and induction
motors (IMs).
TL. CONTROL PRINCIPLES OF SMALL DC-LINK CAPACITOR
INVERTER,
Fig. 1 shows a circuit configuration of a three-phase
inverter with small de-link capacitors fed by a single-phase
diode rectifier, where v, iS the ac grid voltage, R, /1,
represents the input resistancefinductance, and p, is the
% 1Cu dealing
voltage/eapacitance, pz is the de-link active power, and
Pm 18 the instantaneous active power supplied 10 the
inverter from the delink
rectified active power denotes the
Tn this system, the de-link voltage has a significant
Mutation with a double grid frequeney. Therefore, the
inverter operation for motor control isnot trivial due to the
periodical absence of the available de-link voltage
Moreover, the grid current should meet the IEC61002-3-2
harmonic’ regulation without any input filers and power
factor correction circuits
ps ‘4
1 iret conigntion ofc phase inverter wih sal dink
‘pacify single-phase diode ect
bo,
A. Power Theory in Three-phase Inverter
Neglecting the power of the inverter, the
instantaneous active and reactive power supplied to the
inverter from the dlink can be obtained as
3
Pos =FRe( ah @)
6983Gun) =F 1m (Yan) @
where v4, and i, is the d-q axis motor phase voltage and
current veetor in the d-q axis arbitrary reference frame,
respectively, and © denotes the complex conjugate.
‘The instantaneous active power can be expressed as
Pot = P+ BP °
‘where P, represents the de value of the instantaneous real
povwor that is transferred from the dlink to the motor and
indicates the ripple component exchanged between the de-
link andthe motor [6-7]. On the contrary, (0) isa vital
power trapped in each phase, which is not coupled to the dex
Tink power, Hence, it could be compensated or adjusted 10
rinimize the phase curent or maximize the power factor
without affecting the real power flow, as shown in Fig. 2.
Thus, a desirable reactive power can minimize a motor stator
current oF p, for & given active power demand, which
naturally lads to a reduced grid curent magnitude because
the grid supplies the main power to the inverter and motor.
‘This approach provides a different level of isight into the
contrl framework forthe three-phase inverter with small de-
link capacitors. In other words, a suitable selection of the
reactive power contributes to more efficient operation ofthe
small de-nk capacitor inverter, which is essentially required
to white goods and HVAC applications. However, it is not
trivial to find a proper reactive power command while
simultaneously meeting the moter active power
requirement.
Phare
* 4}
i 2 nsuntansaracbve a reactive power low ina tre phase
me Ge
B. Direct P-Q Control for Small DC-link Capacitor
Inverters
In this paper, a direct P-Q power controller is designed in
discrete time to regulate the grid current and to track the
changes in motor power at the same time, The proposed
ccontfoller improves the system efficiency with the reactive
power control, compared 10 existing Pl-type current
regulator-based control schemes.
Neglecting the inverter and motor losses, the
instantaneous inverter active power can be approximated as
las)
Pag(t)= Py(8)~ Plt) = 20,,Te sin’ 8,
% a
‘where 6, isthe phase angle of the grid voltage, a, denotes
the mechanical angular velocity of the motor, and T. the
average value of the motor airgap torgue, Therefore, the
inverter active power command can be calculated as
P(t) = 20), To sin’ 6, 6)
‘The inverter power command can be given as
o
‘The rate of change in inverter power can be developed
over a PWM period, 7, in diserete time as
(ray
(7)
10) i,
r+, ADE,
(On the other hand, the inverter reactive power command
an be constructed from the conventional MIPA (PM.
motors) or the rated flux linkage (IM) information. Thus, the
reactive power change in time is
(8b)
1. DPQC for Salient PM Synchronous Motors
‘The rate of change in stator current of salient permanent
magnet (PM) synchronous motors can be obiained from the
voltage equation as
BO- He)
(20-2400) a)
VeR- RG)
Cee)
BOR) e
en
6984.where Wy and I, ae the sabe vohage and current vector
A, is the stator
Aon
the fx linkage ofthe PM, and Z,, denotes the dq axis
Stor inductance
in the rotor reference frame, respectively,
resistance, @, isthe electrical rotor angular velocity, 2 is
Substituting (9) into (8) yields the inverter power, which
is given as
a(anweansor)
Aa (i) =|
MOAT ay. cy A)
;| wo (103)
3f Bog ()> By)
raw ax,0) )
Mn) (106)
where the coefficients Aj, As, As, Aa, Bs, Bi; Bs, and Ba are
constant values whose mathematical expression is presented
in Appendix A for those intrested.
AA voltage command in the next sampling time ean be
uniguely obtained from (10) as a function of the inverter
power and the vollageleurrent value of the kth sampling
‘ime!
(1a)
2. DPQC for Induction Motors
The rate of change in stator current can be obtained from
the voltage equation of induction motors as
EO-BW 1p
EORBO Lic Rgareetnis) — (2
UO) 1p )
EWE py -egiay-atscih)
(12a)
where vi, and i, are the stator voltage and current vector
in the synchronously rotating reference frame, respectively
, is the electrical synchronous angular velocity, 1,
indicates the stator inductance, and [, denotes the stator
‘transient inductance
Substituting (12) into (8) becomes
(Cate renew)
(39)
lewsarecaeay }
3( Das + Dyas
Agn(®) | (38)
Lowrpaa |
Where the coeflicients C:, C2, Cs, Cs, Ds, Ds, Ds, and Dy are
constant values whose mathematical expression is described
in Appendix B.
A voltage command in the next sampling time can be
uniquely obtained as
a)
Dye ay Pave ay Pave
Wp vis (kD D, i, ()- D, i ()
(4b)
The command voltage vector ean be chosen in a similar
‘manner for non-salient PM motors.
deaxisfV
Fig, 3. Votiage command vestr sletion under the d-link votge
cacilaion cation
The designed direct P-Q power controller operates
instantaneously and is responsible for balancing power
demand and supply of ac motors. Fig. 3 shows how the
voltage vector ean be determined at every sampling instant
in the deq voltage plane under the condition of the destink
voltage fluctuation,
6985

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