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Three-phase Inverter Control for AC Motor Drives with Small DC-Link Capacitor fed by Single-phase Diode Rectifier ByungGil Kwak al-Ki Seok, ‘Power Conversion Lab ‘Yeungnam University KOREA ke Abstract— This paper proposes x power controller used for three-phase inverter with small dc-link capacitors fed by a single-phase diode rectifier. The power flow of the three-phase inverter fed by the single-phase diode rectifier is analyzed. A direct activereactive (P-Q) power controller (DPQC) is ‘designed in discrete time instead of adopting a ‘current regulator. The proposed structure can be applicable three-phase inverters fora broad family of ae motors, such as induction and permanent magnet synchronous motors. Keywords— Direct activereactive power controller, single- phase diode recifier, small de-ink capacitor, three-phase 1. INtRopueriON AA three-phase inverter with small de-link capacitors coffers significant potential for long-term reliability. and whole system power density [1-5]. Despite aforementiones ‘advantages, the inverter with small de-link capacitors has no ‘been in the spollignt due to inherent motor control difficulty in comparison with conventional electrolytic eapacitor-based inverters, Recently, control of small de-link capacitor inverters fed by single-phase diode rectifiers has recsived a great deal of attention for compressor-installed heating-ventilaing-ai conditioning (HVAC) applications [1-4], where inverter ‘control strategies were developed to simultaneously perform 2 grid current shaping and motor control based on a Pl-ype ‘current regulator. However, instantaneous current control is not siraightforward due to frequent de-link vollage drops, ‘Thus, the selection of a current command of PI controller gains would be complicated and a daunting task from a practical point of view. Moreover, dealing with a reactive power of the motor has not been reported yet. If his is not ‘considered hy a designed controller, a system efficiency may bbe lost. In these approaches, the range of applicable motors is Timited to permanent magnet (PM) type motors. ‘The main contribution of this paper is the development and implementation of a direct activereactive (P-Q) power contraller (DPQC) for small de-link capacitor inverters fed by single-phase diode rectifiers. Instead of paying attention {© conventional motor current regulation, a power-level controller was designed in the diserete-time domain, where the resulting control actions can be determined analytically ‘This leads to an ability to tack aa instantaneous P-Q power command of the motor and shape a sinusoidal grid current at the same time. An inverter output voltage at every sampling instant can be easily calculated without requiring any complicated devision algorithm and control gains. In this 97861-4799. 312-5/18/831.00 ©2018 IEEE paper, a motor reactive power command selection rule can be proposed to improve the system efficiency or reduce the grid current with respect to a given active power demand of the motor. The unified control approach is potentially applicable to a wide range of ac motors such as PM and induction motors (IMs). TL. CONTROL PRINCIPLES OF SMALL DC-LINK CAPACITOR INVERTER, Fig. 1 shows a circuit configuration of a three-phase inverter with small de-link capacitors fed by a single-phase diode rectifier, where v, iS the ac grid voltage, R, /1, represents the input resistancefinductance, and p, is the % 1Cu dealing voltage/eapacitance, pz is the de-link active power, and Pm 18 the instantaneous active power supplied 10 the inverter from the delink rectified active power denotes the Tn this system, the de-link voltage has a significant Mutation with a double grid frequeney. Therefore, the inverter operation for motor control isnot trivial due to the periodical absence of the available de-link voltage Moreover, the grid current should meet the IEC61002-3-2 harmonic’ regulation without any input filers and power factor correction circuits ps ‘4 1 iret conigntion ofc phase inverter wih sal dink ‘pacify single-phase diode ect bo, A. Power Theory in Three-phase Inverter Neglecting the power of the inverter, the instantaneous active and reactive power supplied to the inverter from the dlink can be obtained as 3 Pos =FRe( ah @) 6983 Gun) =F 1m (Yan) @ where v4, and i, is the d-q axis motor phase voltage and current veetor in the d-q axis arbitrary reference frame, respectively, and © denotes the complex conjugate. ‘The instantaneous active power can be expressed as Pot = P+ BP ° ‘where P, represents the de value of the instantaneous real povwor that is transferred from the dlink to the motor and indicates the ripple component exchanged between the de- link andthe motor [6-7]. On the contrary, (0) isa vital power trapped in each phase, which is not coupled to the dex Tink power, Hence, it could be compensated or adjusted 10 rinimize the phase curent or maximize the power factor without affecting the real power flow, as shown in Fig. 2. Thus, a desirable reactive power can minimize a motor stator current oF p, for & given active power demand, which naturally lads to a reduced grid curent magnitude because the grid supplies the main power to the inverter and motor. ‘This approach provides a different level of isight into the contrl framework forthe three-phase inverter with small de- link capacitors. In other words, a suitable selection of the reactive power contributes to more efficient operation ofthe small de-nk capacitor inverter, which is essentially required to white goods and HVAC applications. However, it is not trivial to find a proper reactive power command while simultaneously meeting the moter active power requirement. Phare * 4} i 2 nsuntansaracbve a reactive power low ina tre phase me Ge B. Direct P-Q Control for Small DC-link Capacitor Inverters In this paper, a direct P-Q power controller is designed in discrete time to regulate the grid current and to track the changes in motor power at the same time, The proposed ccontfoller improves the system efficiency with the reactive power control, compared 10 existing Pl-type current regulator-based control schemes. Neglecting the inverter and motor losses, the instantaneous inverter active power can be approximated as las) Pag(t)= Py(8)~ Plt) = 20,,Te sin’ 8, % a ‘where 6, isthe phase angle of the grid voltage, a, denotes the mechanical angular velocity of the motor, and T. the average value of the motor airgap torgue, Therefore, the inverter active power command can be calculated as P(t) = 20), To sin’ 6, 6) ‘The inverter power command can be given as o ‘The rate of change in inverter power can be developed over a PWM period, 7, in diserete time as (ray (7) 10) i, r+, ADE, (On the other hand, the inverter reactive power command an be constructed from the conventional MIPA (PM. motors) or the rated flux linkage (IM) information. Thus, the reactive power change in time is (8b) 1. DPQC for Salient PM Synchronous Motors ‘The rate of change in stator current of salient permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors can be obiained from the voltage equation as BO- He) (20-2400) a) VeR- RG) Cee) BOR) e en 6984. where Wy and I, ae the sabe vohage and current vector A, is the stator Aon the fx linkage ofthe PM, and Z,, denotes the dq axis Stor inductance in the rotor reference frame, respectively, resistance, @, isthe electrical rotor angular velocity, 2 is Substituting (9) into (8) yields the inverter power, which is given as a(anweansor) Aa (i) =| MOAT ay. cy A) ;| wo (103) 3f Bog ()> By) raw ax,0) ) Mn) (106) where the coefficients Aj, As, As, Aa, Bs, Bi; Bs, and Ba are constant values whose mathematical expression is presented in Appendix A for those intrested. AA voltage command in the next sampling time ean be uniguely obtained from (10) as a function of the inverter power and the vollageleurrent value of the kth sampling ‘ime! (1a) 2. DPQC for Induction Motors The rate of change in stator current can be obtained from the voltage equation of induction motors as EO-BW 1p EORBO Lic Rgareetnis) — (2 UO) 1p ) EWE py -egiay-atscih) (12a) where vi, and i, are the stator voltage and current vector in the synchronously rotating reference frame, respectively , is the electrical synchronous angular velocity, 1, indicates the stator inductance, and [, denotes the stator ‘transient inductance Substituting (12) into (8) becomes (Cate renew) (39) lewsarecaeay } 3( Das + Dyas Agn(®) | (38) Lowrpaa | Where the coeflicients C:, C2, Cs, Cs, Ds, Ds, Ds, and Dy are constant values whose mathematical expression is described in Appendix B. A voltage command in the next sampling time can be uniquely obtained as a) Dye ay Pave ay Pave Wp vis (kD D, i, ()- D, i () (4b) The command voltage vector ean be chosen in a similar ‘manner for non-salient PM motors. deaxisfV Fig, 3. Votiage command vestr sletion under the d-link votge cacilaion cation The designed direct P-Q power controller operates instantaneously and is responsible for balancing power demand and supply of ac motors. Fig. 3 shows how the voltage vector ean be determined at every sampling instant in the deq voltage plane under the condition of the destink voltage fluctuation, 6985