rdbms | Database Index | Pl/Sql


INTRODUCTION TO RDBMS A Relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd. Most popular commercial and open source databases currently in use are based on the relational model. A short definition of an RDBMS may be a DBMS in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways. An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spread across several tables. This differs from flat-file databases, in which each database is self-contained in a single table. Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Small database systems, however, use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries. RDBMS data is structured in database tables, fields and records. Each RDBMS table consists of database table rows. Each database table row consists of one or more database table fields. RDBMS store the data into collection of tables, which might be related by common fields (database table columns). RDBMS also provide relational operators to manipulate the data stored into the database tables. Most RDBMS use SQL as database query language. Edgar Codd introduced the relational database model. Many modern DBMS do not conform to the Codd¶s definition of a RDBMS, but nonetheless they are still considered to be RDBMS. The most popular RDBMS are MS SQL Server, DB2, Oracle and MySQL.

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INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply Oracle) consists of a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. As of 2008, Oracle had become a major presence in database computing. An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information. A database server is the key to solving the problems of information management. In general, a server reliably manages a large amount of data in a multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this is accomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also prevents unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery. Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing creates large pools of industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture, each new system can be rapidly provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need for peak workloads, because capacity can be easily added or reallocated from the resource pools as needed. Physical and logical structuring in Oracle An Oracle database system ² identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance ² identified persistently by an instantiation number comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor). Users of Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as databuffers, SQL commands and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.

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The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments; for example, Data Segments, Index Segments etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. At the physical level, data-files comprise one or more data blocks, where the block size can vary between datafiles. Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM table space. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary ² and often (by default) indexes and clusters. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user-objects in the database). Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces). If the Oracle database administrator has instituted Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually on different servers, attach to a central storage array. This scenario offers numerous advantages, most importantly performance, scalability and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid computing has introduced shared resources where an instance can use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in the grid. The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.

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3. Keys are used. Normalization concept is not Normalization is present. No keys are used. 2.no DBMS 1 There is no relationship concept.e. It is easy to retrieve data in both. Both store data in the form of tables. It support multiuser. It reads tables internally. It does not support null values. It is less secure. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 4 . It is possible to store and retrieve It is possible to store and retrieve large fewer amounts of data in it. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RDBMS It is use to establish relationship concept between two database objects i. It is possible to edit record in both DBMS and RDBMS. present. No data integrity. Used for smaller organizations Large organizations where large where security is not major amount data is maintain and security is concern. It support single user. also important. Both are used for storage. It is more secure. Support null values. tables. It requires low software and It requires high software and hardware hardware requirements. It reads data as files internally. amount of data in it. Data integrity concept is present. 4. Examples: FoxPro Examples: SQL Server MS-Access Oracle Similarities between RDBMS and DBMS 1.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between RDBMS and DBMS S. requirements.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 5 . Holds Number value with a max number digits specified in parenthesis. The various Data Types along with their description are shown below: Data Type char(size) varchar(size) number(size) Date Description Holds fixed-length character string. and how they are stored.d) Holds a Number value with a maximum number of digits of "size" total. Size is specified in parenthesis. Holds variable-length character string. with a maximum number of "d" digits to the right of the decimal. a limited number of such data types come built into a language. Holds a Date value. Max size is specified in parenthesis. Max 255 bytes.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Data Type A data type is a set of data with values having predefined characteristics. Each language has its own data types. how the values are processed by the computer. date etc. Usually. number(size. number. Some data types in SQL are: char. The language usually specifies the range of values for a given data type.

A row represents a single record while a column represents attributes/fields which can be thought of as one of the components contributing to make a record.. While creating a table. SQL Select This statement is used to view data from the table..name.dept varchar2(10).desg.name varchar2(10). A table can be considered as a basic structure within which data is stored.b_no. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query:To select all the column from the table:select * from studentcse. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 6 . The above statement creates an empty table (containing no records) named Details having fields-e_no. column_name2 data_type.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Create Table With CREATE TABLE. a new table can be created. Syntax: CREATE TABLE table_name (column_name1 data_type. data types have to be mentioned for each field. .dept.) Query: create table emp1(e_no number. It consists of rows and columns.b_no number.desg varchar2(10)).

Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. To do this. Thus Where clause is used to specify a selection criterion. The SQL Select retrieves values from database table which may be repetitive. we can get rid of this problem. Syntax: SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query: select distinct * from studentcse. Adding the word Distinct to Select.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS The Where Clause We might want to retrieve records which satisfy a particular condition. we want to retrieve Employee names from database table Employee with salaries above 14000. The Distinct Keyword Distinct keyword is used to retrieve values that are distinct or non-repetitive. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 7 . we make use of the clause Where. For example.

the order by clause sorts the result in ascending order. Syntax: DELETE FROM table_name WHERE column_name = some_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 8 . SQL Delete The SQL delete is used to delete rows from a database table. We can arrange data according to the sequence we need to put them into. Unless Explicitly stated.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Sorting Sorting is an important feature of any database. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno. Order by Clause ORDER BY is used to get the result in the sorted manner. Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno desc.

Syntax: DROP TABLE <table_name>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 9 . Query: drop table studentdet. Query: delete from studentcse where name='Radhika' and marks>300.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: delete from studentcse where rollno=106. DROP TABLE If the user want to delete a table (the table structure. Query: delete from studentcse where name like '__n%'. attributes. and indexes will also be deleted) Permanently then drop command can be used for the purpose.

Once there's data in the table. SQL Update Update statement is used to edit or update data in the table. Query: truncate table student1. we can use the UPDATE command. Syntax: UPDATE table_name SET column_name = new_value WHERE column_name = old_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 10 . Syntax: TRUNCATE TABLE <table_name>. we might find that there is a need to modify the data. To do so.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRUNCATE Truncate command is used to simply get rid of the data but not the table itself.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 11 . Query: update studentcse set marks=marks+10 where rollno>205 and name like 'Anish'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: update studentcse set marks=721 where rollno>205.

Change the data type for a column Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 add(s_address varchar2(10)). MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 12 . there are many occasions where one may wish to change the structure of the table. Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name MODIFY column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 modify(s_name varchar2(20)). Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name Query: alter table studentdet1 drop column s_address. ALTER TABLE is basically used to Change Add Drop a a a column column column name .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Modify Table: alter table: Once a table is created in the database.

Tab: This command is used to view all the tables. Syntax: select column_name alias_name from table_name. Syntax: select * from tab. Query: rename emp to emp2. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 13 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Rename Column Alias are used to rename a table¶s columns for the purpose of a particular query.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Describe: This command is used to describe the structure of the the structure of the table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 14 . Query: describe emp2. Syntax: describe tablename.

division.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Arithmetic Functions: Various functions like as addition. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 15 . Query: select sal/10 from emp2. Syntax: select <arithmetic operation>fieldname from <tablename>. subtraction are used on the database. multiplication. Query: select sal+10 from emp2.

OR). >. ). Logical operators (NOT. The various Operators along with their description are shown below in tabular form: Operator Description = > < >= <= <> LIKE AND OR NOT Equal Greater than Less than Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Not equal to String comparison test Logical And returns TRUE when both the specified conditions are true Logical Or returns TRUE when atleast one of the specified conditions is true Logical Not returns TRUE when none one of the specified conditions is true Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. *. <).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Logical Operators: Oracle provides a set of built-in operators-Arithmetic Operators (+. AND. Comparison Operators ( =. These operators take as input one or more arguments (operands) and return a result. -. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 16 .

value2..387).226.. select ename from employee where ecity like 'APS' AND ecode IN(select ecode from company where desg like 'Manager'). Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN ( value1.336. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2 Query: select * from students where rollno between 111 and 113.333..') Query: select * from student where sid in(101. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 17 . The BETWEEN keyword is used to test whether or not a value is present between the two values mentioned in the query followed by the keyword BETWEEN.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Range Searching: SQL In & Between The IN keyword is used to test whether a value(s) is present in the list of values specified after the keyword IN.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 18 . text. or dates..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Not between The NOTBETWEEN . Syntax: select * from <table_name> where <column_name> Not between <Range1> and <Range2>. AND operator selects a range of data between two values. These values can be numbers..

select * from studentcse where name like '__m%'. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 19 . select * from studentcse where name like 'A%'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Pattern Matching: The Like Clause: The Like condition can be used to search for a particular pattern in a column in a database table. Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name LIKE pattern Query: select * from studentcse where name like 'R%' and marks>300.

Syntax: Select sysdate from dual. Syntax: select * from dual. Its predefined in ORACLE database. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 20 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS ORACLE Table dual Dual is a dummy table.

Syntax: SELECT min(column) FROM <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 21 . Syntax: SELECT avg(column) FROM <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -.AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS: Aggregate functions operate against a collection of values. but return a single value. (i) AVG (Average): It returns the average value of a column. (ii) MIN (Minimum): It returns the lowest value of a column in a table.

Syntax: SELECT max(column) FROM <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) MAX(Maximum): It returns the highest value of a column in a table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 22 .

Syntax: Select sqrt(value) from <table_name>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 23 . Syntax: Select abs(value) from <table_name> (ii)SQRT (Square root) It is used to find square root of any numeric value.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. (i) ABS (Absolute): It returns the absolute value of any numeric data. It can also be applied on dual table.NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: Numeric functions are applied on any table having numeric data.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) POWER: This numeric function calculates the power of any numeric value.no. of digits desired after decimal ) from MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 24 . round(value.power of value) from <table_name> (iv) ROUND: This function is used to get a rounded figure of a decimal value. Syntax: Select <table_name>. Syntax: Select power(value.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (v) Trunc: It shows the specified number of digits after truncating the other digits after decimal.no. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 25 . Syntax: Select trunc(value. (vi) EXTRACT function: It returns a value extracted from a date or an internal value. Syntax: Select extract (<value_name> from µvalue¶) from <table_name>. of digits desired after decimal) from <table_name>.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (vii) MOD: This function returns the remainder provided two numbers dividend and divisor.divisor) from <table_name>. (viii) FLOOR Function: It returns the immediate smaller integer of given decimal value. Syntax: Select FLOOR(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 26 . Syntax: Select MOD(dividend.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ix) CEIL Function: It returns the immediate greater integer value of the given decimal value. Syntax: Select CEIL(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 27 .

Syntax: Select ascii(char) from <table_name>.STRING FUNCTIONS: There are various functions in SQL that can be applied on the string type data. (i) ASCII: It returns the decimal representation in the database character set of the first character of string. (ii) UPPER: It returns char. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 28 . with all letters uppercase. Syntax: Select upper(string/column_name) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -.

with all letters lowercase.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ii) LOWER: It returns char. with first letter of each word capitalized. Syntax: Select lower(string/column_name) from <table_name>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 29 . Syntax: Select initcap(string/column_name) from <table_name>. (iii) INITCAP: It returns char.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iv) LPAD & RPAD: What this function does is that it fills up the extra space in the field with the padding either from the left or from the right. Syntax: select lpad(fieldnames) from tablename. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 30 .

or BINARY_DOUBLE. Syntax: Select to_number(µvalue¶) from <table_name>. DATE. format) from <table_name>. then n is converted to a VARCHAR2 value exactly long enough to hold its significant digits. using the optional number format fmt. The value n can be of type NUMBER. If you omit fmt. (ii) To_Number: It is used to convert character to number datatype. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 31 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS --CONVERSION FUNCTIONS: (i) To_Char: TO_CHAR (number) converts n to a value of VARCHAR2 datatype. BINARY_FLOAT. Syntax: Select to_char(value.

Syntax: Select to_date(µdate¶. µformat¶) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) To_Date: It converts a character field to a date field. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 32 .

<aggregate function>(column2) FROM <table_name> GROUP BY <column1>. Syntax: SELECT column1.. and without the GROUP BY function it was impossible to find the sum for each individual group of column values. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 33 ..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS GROUP BY CLAUSE: GROUP BY. was added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called.

. Syntax: SELECT column1.<aggregate function>(column) FROM table GROUP BY column1 HAVING <aggregate function> condition. was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used against aggregate functions (like SUM)... MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 34 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS HAVING CLAUSE: HAVING. it would be impossible to test for result conditions.. and without HAVING.

those rows will not be listed. --Outer Join: Outer join uses two tables to extract the data . If there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders. <column2>.keyfield>.INNER JOIN: The INNER JOIN returns all rows from both tables where there is a match.right outer join or full outer join. Syntax: SELECT <column1>. y LEFT OUTER JOIN MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 35 . <column3> FROM <first_table> INNER JOIN second_table ON <first_table.keyfield> = <second_table. We have to perform a join.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS JOINS: Sometimes we have to select data from two or more tables to make our result complete.It displays all the rows of first table or second table or both depending on left outer join . -.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 36 .keyfield>.keyfield>. y RIGHT OUTER JOIN: It displays all the rows of the second table of the join. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>. ON <column3> FROM = <first_table>RIGHT second_table <first_table. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>. <column3> FROM <first_table> LEFT JOIN second_table ON <first_table. JOIN <column2>.keyfield> = <second_table. <column2>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS It displays all the rows of the first table of the join.keyfield> <second_table.

ON <column3>FROM = <first_table>FULL <first_table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS y FULL OUTER JOIN It displays all the rows of the first table and second table of the join. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 37 . Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>.keyfield>.keyfield> <second_table. JOIN second_table <column2>.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS UNION and INTERSECT operations ----Union: It is used to combine the tuples of two different tables. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 38 . ----INTERSECT: It select the common tuples in both the tables.

Unique constraint: This constraint ensures that no two rows have same value in the specified column(s). ename varchar2(9) NOT NULl.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Constraints in SQL A constraint is a condition or check applicable on field or set of fields. Example MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 39 . It is similar to default constraint except that only one column can be specified as primary key. Default constraint d. Primary key constraint: This declares a column as the primary key of the table. gross decimal). this means the column can never be empty. Example b. If you write the keyword NOT NULL after the data type of a column. Consider the following SQL command Create table employee (ecode integer NOT NULL. Unique constraint b. Different Constraints a. Primary key constraint c. Check constraint a.

Examples MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 40 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS c. Check constraint: This constraint limits values that can be inserted into a column of a table. Default constraint: A default value can be specified for a column using the DEFAULT clause. When a user does not enter value for the column (having default value). automatically the defined default value inserted in the field. d.

Syntax: DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INDEXES Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently.Create Index: It creates a simple index on a table. It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table. Query: create index id on studentcse(rollno). and each index is given a name. Duplicate values are allowed in simple index. -. The users cannot see the indexes. -.Drop index: It is used to vanish the existing index. Syntax: CREATE INDEX <index_name> ON <table_name> (column_name). they are just used to speed up queries. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 41 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: drop index id. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 42 .

'&name'). insert into vw values(&rollno. joins.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS VIEWS: A view is a virtual table based on the result-set of a SELECT statement. WHERE. a stored procedure. By adding functions. etc. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 43 . it allows you to present exactly the data you want to the user. to a view.name from studentcse where rollno>300. where.«««.columname2. Syntax: Create view <viewname> as select <columnname1. or join statements in a view. The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database. just like a real table..columname n>From <table_name>. Query: create view vw as select rollno. or from inside another view. Using Views A view could be used from inside a query. and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from a single table. The database design and structure will NOT be affected by the functions. A view contains rows and columns. You can add SQL functions. --CREATE VIEW: This command creates the view of a table.

The key strength of PL/SQL is its tight integration with the Oracle database. functions. it was included in the Oracle Database server v7 (as database procedures. and anonymous blocks. functions. */ Numeric variables variable_name number(P[.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to the SQL database language. To define a numeric variable. A few years later.Program proper EXCEPTION -. History PL/SQL made its first appearance in Oracle Forms v3. the programmer appends the variable type NUMBER to the name definition.Exception-handling (optional) END /* Sample comment spanning multiple lines.Declaration block (optional) BEGIN -. To specify the (optional) precision(P) and the (optional) scale (S). Blocks take the general form: DECLARE -. packages. separated by a comma. Some other SQL database management systems offer similar extensions to the SQL language.. ("Precision" in this context refers to the number of digits which the variable can hold. and just like Ada compilers of the 1980s the PL/SQL runtime system uses Diana as intermediate representation. Each of these is made up of the basic PL/SQL unit which is the block. "scale" refers to the number of digits which can follow the decimal point.. triggers and anonymous blocks) followed by Oracle Reports v2. Basic code structure PL/SQL programs consist of procedures.S]) := value.) MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 44 . the other two being SQL and Java. PL/SQL's syntax strongly resembles that of Ada. PL/SQL is one of three languages embedded in the Oracle Database. used in the Oracle database. one can further append these in round brackets.

char. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 45 . real. Oracle provides a number of data types that can store dates (DATE. double precision. nchar2. decimal.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS A selection of other datatypes for numeric variables would include: binary_float. using as a definition the second quoted string. TIMESTAMP etc). Programmers define date variables by appending the datatype code "DATE" to a variable name.'dd-mm-yyyy') "or" TO_DATE American') ('31-Dec-2004'. for example: TO_DATE('31-12-2004'. int. long raw. format_string). however DATE is most commonly used. 'NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE = To convert the dates to strings one uses the function TO_CHAR (date_string. blob. dec. The function converts the first quoted string into a date. the programmer normally appends the variable type VARCHAR2 to the name definition. To define a character variable. numeric. There follows in brackets the maximum number of characters which the variable can store. nchar. binary_double. long. raw. float.'dd-mon-yyyy'. binary_integer Character variables variable_name varchar2(L) := 'Text'. clob. The TO_DATE function can be used to convert strings to date values. integer. Other datatypes for character variables include: varchar. DATETIME. bfile Date variables variable_name date := '01-Jan-2005'. smallint.

triggers.dml. Embedded SQL .where plsql uses cursors..Cobol. We can write cursors for fetching number of records at a time.. SQL is a structured query language used for various operations such as retrieval. Java or any other programming languages..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between SQL and PL/SQL 1.Advantage of pl/sql over sql is..sql writtens querys by using ddl...dcl etc.procedures etc.Pascal. 2. PL/SQL is programming language used to write various sql statements together.you can write many sql statements within a pl/sql block..Foxpro like languages.DML. Embeded SQL is used to embed SQL statements in C. In sql querys process at a time where as in plsql it done step by step or recoed by record . SQL is Structured Query Language used for DDL.One more advantage is subprogramming like procedures and functions.DDL statements. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 46 . Both sql and pl/sql are languages used to acess data with in oracle data base. 3. And also packages and triggers.SQL statements are invoked from a host environment like C/C++.PL/SQL is used for Cursors and Triggers .manipulation of data using DML..

Oracle loads the compiled procedure (or package) into the shared pool in the system global area (SGA). When an application calls a procedure stored in the database. and the PL/SQL and SQL statement executors work together to process the statements within the procedure. The procedure (or package) is stored in a database. The following Oracle products contain a PL/SQL engine: y y y y y Oracle server Oracle Forms (Version 3 and later) SQL*Menu (Version 5 and later) Oracle Reports (Version 2 and later) Oracle Graphics (Version 2 and later) Page 47 MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 . which processes PL/SQL program units. is a special component of many Oracle products. including the Oracle server.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS PL/SQL Execution Environment The PL/SQL engine.

you can pass anonymous blocks to Oracle from applications developed with these tools: y y y y y Oracle precompilers (including user exits) Oracle Call Interfaces (OCIs) SQL*Plus Server Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 48 . For example.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS You can call a stored procedure from another PL/SQL block. you can call a stored procedure from Oracle Forms (Version 3 or later). which can be either an anonymous block or another stored procedure. Also.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Displaying user message on the screen Set server output on Set server output off MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 49 .

ELSIF x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. WHEN x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. END IF.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Conditional Statements The following code segment shows the IF-THEN-ELSIF construct. CASE WHEN x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. The CASE statement simplifies some large IF-THEN-ELSE structures. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. IF-THENELSE constructs. IF x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 50 . END CASE. The ELSIF and ELSE parts are optional so it is possible to create simpler IF-THEN or.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block to find greatest number among three numbers. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 51 .

statement2. END LOOP. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 52 . Looping As a procedural language by definition. and Cursor FOR loops. WHILE loops. LOOP statements Syntax: LOOP statement1. Loops can be terminated by using the EXIT keyword. including basic LOOP statements. END CASE. PL/SQL provides several iteration constructs. or by raising an exception. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CASE statement can be used with predefined selector: CASE x WHEN 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. WHEN 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. FOR loops.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block that display table for entered no using for loop. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 53 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS WHILE loops Syntax: WHILE LOOP . FOR loops Cursor FOR loops FOR RecordIndex IN (SELECT person_code FROM people_table) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT..person_code). END LOOP. END LOOP.. Sequential Statements Syntax: GOTO record Where record is place in the PL/SQL to which goto label shift the control of program...do something.PUT_LINE(RecordIndex. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 54 .

A roolback statemet given at the SQL prompt can be used to undo a part of entire transaction. 3. 4. Syntax: Commit. Savepoint savepoint_name. SET TRANSACTION. The changes made to the table is a two step process. 2. Rollback [to[savepoint]savepointname]. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 55 . SAVEPOINT. First the changes requested are done.restore database to original since the last COMMIT. secondly to make change permanent a commit statement has to be given at SQL prompt.saves work done.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRANSACT-SQL (T-SQL) It is a part of PL/SQL. ROLLBACK. 1.identifies a point in transaction to which you can later roll back. COMMIT.Change transaction options like isolation level and what rollback segment to use. Oracle treats a series of operators as a single entity.

Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 56 . date of change of price and oldprice. The price change is to be than recorded to the table oldprice along with productnumber (pno).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: If price of product 10 is less than 4000 then change the price to 4000.

Update salary of Raman & Teena by 2000 & 1500. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 57 . made to the salary of the person. then check. 2.000 then undo the update. To see that the total salary does not exceed 20.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code as following: 1.000. Insert a record in employ2 table. 3. If total_salary>20.

depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. or package. subprogram.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursors PL/SQL uses two types of cursors: implicit and explicit. we release the cursor with the CLOSE statement. Then. Moreover. When a query returns multiple rows. Explicit Cursors The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. We use three commands to control a cursor: OPEN. When the last row has been processed. one. and CLOSE. one can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. which identifies the result set. First. one can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. FETCH. Cursor Attribute Values %FOUN %ISOPE %NOTFOU %ROWCOU D N ND NT OPEN before exception FALSE after First FETCH NULL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE exception NULL NULL FALSE FALSE exception 0 0 1 1 before NULL after TRUE Next FETCH(es) before TRUE after TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE data dependent data dependent data dependent Last FETCH before TRUE after FALSE MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 58 . or multiple rows. PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements. you can execute FETCH repeatedly until all rows have been retrieved. including queries that return only one row. we initialize the cursor with the OPEN statement.

parameter]. we can reopen it. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. and parameter stands for the following syntax: cursor_parameter_name [IN] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expression] Opening a Cursor Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the result set. each formal parameter in the cursor declaration must have a corresponding actual parameter in the OPEN statement. Once a cursor is closed. Fetching with a Cursor The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the result set one at a time. Each fetch retrieves the current row and then advances the cursor to the next row in the result set. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 59 . which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. we name it and associate it with a specific query using the syntax: CURSOR cursor_name [(parameter[. where return_type must represent a record or a row in a database table.)] [RETURN return_type] IS select_statement. and the result set becomes undefined...PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CLOSE before FALSE after TRUE TRUE exception data dependent exception exception FALSE Declaring a Cursor When we declare a cursor. Unless we want to accept default values. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. Passing Cursor Parameters We use the OPEN statement to pass parameters to a cursor. Closing a Cursor The CLOSE statement disables the cursor.

we can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement. Although we cannot use the OPEN. FETCH. You can use cursor attributes in procedural statements but not in SQL statements MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 60 . FETCH. and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor. Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor. But.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit Cursors Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor. We can refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. PL/SQL lets you refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. You cannot use the OPEN. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor. you can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement Using Cursor Attributes Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: 1) 2) 3) 4) %FOUND %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND %ROWCOUNT.

Otherwise. SQL%NOTFOUND %NOTFOUND is the logical opposite of %FOUND. %NOTFOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT. UPDATE. or DELETE statement affected no rows. IF SQL%FOUND THEN -. before oracle opens the sql cursor. or DELETE statement affected one or more rows.). or DELETE statement. UPDATE. the values of the cursor attributes always refer to the most recently executed sql statement. or a SELECT INTO statement returned one or more rows. or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows. SQL%ISOPEN Oracle closes the SQL cursor automatically after executing its associated SQL statement. . %ROWCOUNT MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 61 . Thereafter. %NOTFOUND yields FALSE. or select into statement. %FOUND yields NULL. you use %FOUND to insert a row if a delete succeeds: DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = my_empno..(i. %ISOPEN always yields FALSE. As a result.. my_ename.e sql). update. Otherwise.delete succeeded INSERT INTO new_emp VALUES (my_empno. SQL%ROWCOUNT %ROWCOUNT yields the number of rows affected by an INSERT.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS IMPLICIT CURSOR HANDLING implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an insert. %FOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT. In the following example. UPDATE. delete. %FOUND yields FALSE. SQL%FOUND Until a SQL data manipulation statement is executed. or returned by a SELECT INTO statement. the implicit cursor attributes yield null the implicit cursor attributes are referred by preceding the implicit cursor attribute with cursor name.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS yields 0 if an INSERT.. In the following example. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT > 10 THEN -. END IF. or DELETE statement affected no rows. you use %ROWCOUNT to take action if more than ten rows have been deleted: DELETE FROM emp WHERE . UPDATE..more than 10 rows were deleted ... MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 62 . or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%notfound. Output: Records of employee table before execution: Program: Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 63 .


Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%found. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


Records of employee table after execution:

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MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250

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Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to give the no of records deleted by a delete statement in PL/SQL block. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


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PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 68 .

we need the name of columns and table to which the variable correspond. %Type: This attribute is used when declaring variables that refer to data base column by using type variable. %Rowtype a.<column_name>%type. %Rowtype: This attribute is used to declare the single variable for various columns in a table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit cursor handling Kinds of variables: The types of attribute are a. %Type b. Syntax: variable_name <table_name>. b. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 69 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query1: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100.ENAME.BP.HRA. employee(ENO. the table employee has the following column. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 70 .TOTAL).DA.

DA. employee(EMPNO.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100. the table employee has the following column.HRA. Using %ROWTYPE: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 71 .TOTAL).ENAME.BP.

b. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 72 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Methods or steps to perform explicit cursor management a. Syntax: open <cursor_name>. Close a cursor: Syntax: close <cursor_name>. d. c. Fetch data from cursor into memory variable: Syntax: fetch <cursor_name> into variable_name. e. Declare a cursor: A cursor is declared in the declare section of a PL/SQL block. Syntax: cursor <cursor_name> is select <statement>. Open a cursor: It is use to open cursor explicitly that is by the user. Exit from loop.

job of employees of department number 10.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno. Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 73 . ename.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno. job of employees of department number 10. ename. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 74 .

sal of top 3 highest paid employees. Emp(eno.ename. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 75 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno.salary).

salary). Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 76 .ename. Emp(eno.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno. sal of top 3 highest paid employees.

Before execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 77 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursor for loop Syntax: For <variable_name> in <cursor_name> Loop <SQL statement>. Query: To display eno. job of employee of department number 10 with the help of cursor for loop. ename.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 78 .

ename. Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 79 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display eno. salary of top 3 highest paid employees with the help of cursor for loop.

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