INTRODUCTION TO RDBMS A Relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd. Most popular commercial and open source databases currently in use are based on the relational model. A short definition of an RDBMS may be a DBMS in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways. An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spread across several tables. This differs from flat-file databases, in which each database is self-contained in a single table. Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Small database systems, however, use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries. RDBMS data is structured in database tables, fields and records. Each RDBMS table consists of database table rows. Each database table row consists of one or more database table fields. RDBMS store the data into collection of tables, which might be related by common fields (database table columns). RDBMS also provide relational operators to manipulate the data stored into the database tables. Most RDBMS use SQL as database query language. Edgar Codd introduced the relational database model. Many modern DBMS do not conform to the Codd¶s definition of a RDBMS, but nonetheless they are still considered to be RDBMS. The most popular RDBMS are MS SQL Server, DB2, Oracle and MySQL.

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INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply Oracle) consists of a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. As of 2008, Oracle had become a major presence in database computing. An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information. A database server is the key to solving the problems of information management. In general, a server reliably manages a large amount of data in a multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this is accomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also prevents unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery. Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing creates large pools of industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture, each new system can be rapidly provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need for peak workloads, because capacity can be easily added or reallocated from the resource pools as needed. Physical and logical structuring in Oracle An Oracle database system ² identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance ² identified persistently by an instantiation number comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor). Users of Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as databuffers, SQL commands and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.

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The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments; for example, Data Segments, Index Segments etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. At the physical level, data-files comprise one or more data blocks, where the block size can vary between datafiles. Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM table space. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary ² and often (by default) indexes and clusters. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user-objects in the database). Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces). If the Oracle database administrator has instituted Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually on different servers, attach to a central storage array. This scenario offers numerous advantages, most importantly performance, scalability and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid computing has introduced shared resources where an instance can use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in the grid. The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.

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MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 4 . It is less secure. It is possible to edit record in both DBMS and RDBMS. It does not support null values. It reads tables internally.e. No keys are used. tables. It is easy to retrieve data in both. It is possible to store and retrieve It is possible to store and retrieve large fewer amounts of data in it. Keys are used. amount of data in it. 3. 4. Data integrity concept is present. It is more secure. Normalization concept is not Normalization is present. Examples: FoxPro Examples: SQL Server MS-Access Oracle Similarities between RDBMS and DBMS 1. present. It support single user. It reads data as files internally. It support multiuser. requirements. also important.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between RDBMS and DBMS S. Support null values. No data integrity. Used for smaller organizations Large organizations where large where security is not major amount data is maintain and security is concern. It requires low software and It requires high software and hardware hardware requirements. DBMS 1 There is no relationship concept. Both are used for storage. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RDBMS It is use to establish relationship concept between two database objects i. Both store data in the form of tables.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Data Type A data type is a set of data with values having predefined characteristics. The various Data Types along with their description are shown below: Data Type char(size) varchar(size) number(size) Date Description Holds fixed-length character string. Holds Number value with a max number digits specified in parenthesis. Some data types in SQL are: char. number. Max size is specified in parenthesis. Holds variable-length character string. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 5 .d) Holds a Number value with a maximum number of digits of "size" total. a limited number of such data types come built into a language. Max 255 bytes. Usually. Each language has its own data types. date etc. The language usually specifies the range of values for a given data type. and how they are stored. Size is specified in parenthesis. how the values are processed by the computer. Holds a Date value. number(size. with a maximum number of "d" digits to the right of the decimal.

.. a new table can be created.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Create Table With CREATE TABLE.b_no number. Syntax: CREATE TABLE table_name (column_name1 data_type.desg. A row represents a single record while a column represents attributes/fields which can be thought of as one of the components contributing to make a data types have to be mentioned for each field. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 6 .dept varchar2(10). SQL Select This statement is used to view data from the table.desg varchar2(10)). It consists of rows and columns. The above statement creates an empty table (containing no records) named Details having fields-e_no.dept.) Query: create table emp1(e_no number. While creating a table. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query:To select all the column from the table:select * from varchar2(10).b_no.. A table can be considered as a basic structure within which data is stored. column_name2 data_type.

Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. Syntax: SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query: select distinct * from studentcse. we can get rid of this problem. we want to retrieve Employee names from database table Employee with salaries above 14000. The SQL Select retrieves values from database table which may be repetitive.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS The Where Clause We might want to retrieve records which satisfy a particular condition. Thus Where clause is used to specify a selection criterion. To do this. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 7 . Adding the word Distinct to Select. The Distinct Keyword Distinct keyword is used to retrieve values that are distinct or non-repetitive. we make use of the clause Where. For example.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Sorting Sorting is an important feature of any database. the order by clause sorts the result in ascending order. We can arrange data according to the sequence we need to put them into. Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno desc. SQL Delete The SQL delete is used to delete rows from a database table. Unless Explicitly stated. Syntax: DELETE FROM table_name WHERE column_name = some_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 8 . Order by Clause ORDER BY is used to get the result in the sorted manner. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno.

attributes. Query: delete from studentcse where name='Radhika' and marks>300. DROP TABLE If the user want to delete a table (the table structure. Query: delete from studentcse where name like '__n%'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: delete from studentcse where rollno=106. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 9 . Query: drop table studentdet. and indexes will also be deleted) Permanently then drop command can be used for the purpose. Syntax: DROP TABLE <table_name>.

we might find that there is a need to modify the data. SQL Update Update statement is used to edit or update data in the table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRUNCATE Truncate command is used to simply get rid of the data but not the table itself. we can use the UPDATE command. Query: truncate table student1. To do so. Once there's data in the table. Syntax: TRUNCATE TABLE <table_name>. Syntax: UPDATE table_name SET column_name = new_value WHERE column_name = old_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 10 .

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 11 . Query: update studentcse set marks=marks+10 where rollno>205 and name like 'Anish'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: update studentcse set marks=721 where rollno>205.

there are many occasions where one may wish to change the structure of the table.Change the data type for a column Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 add(s_address varchar2(10)).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Modify Table: alter table: Once a table is created in the database. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 12 . ALTER TABLE is basically used to Change Add Drop a a a column column column name . Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name Query: alter table studentdet1 drop column s_address. Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name MODIFY column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 modify(s_name varchar2(20)).

Syntax: select * from tab. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 13 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Rename Column Alias are used to rename a table¶s columns for the purpose of a particular query. Syntax: select column_name alias_name from table_name. Tab: This command is used to view all the tables. Query: rename emp to emp2.

Query: describe emp2. Syntax: describe tablename. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 14 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Describe: This command is used to describe the structure of the the structure of the table.

multiplication. Query: select sal/10 from emp2.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Arithmetic Functions: Various functions like as addition. Query: select sal+10 from emp2. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 15 . Syntax: select <arithmetic operation>fieldname from <tablename>. subtraction are used on the database. division.

The various Operators along with their description are shown below in tabular form: Operator Description = > < >= <= <> LIKE AND OR NOT Equal Greater than Less than Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Not equal to String comparison test Logical And returns TRUE when both the specified conditions are true Logical Or returns TRUE when atleast one of the specified conditions is true Logical Not returns TRUE when none one of the specified conditions is true Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. Logical operators (NOT. Comparison Operators ( =. OR). These operators take as input one or more arguments (operands) and return a result. >. -. AND. *.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Logical Operators: Oracle provides a set of built-in operators-Arithmetic Operators (+. ). <). MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 16 .

value2.') Query: select * from student where sid in(101.336.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Range Searching: SQL In & Between The IN keyword is used to test whether a value(s) is present in the list of values specified after the keyword IN. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 17 . select ename from employee where ecity like 'APS' AND ecode IN(select ecode from company where desg like 'Manager')..333. Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN ( value1..387).226.. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2 Query: select * from students where rollno between 111 and 113. The BETWEEN keyword is used to test whether or not a value is present between the two values mentioned in the query followed by the keyword BETWEEN.

AND operator selects a range of data between two values. or dates. These values can be numbers. Syntax: select * from <table_name> where <column_name> Not between <Range1> and <Range2>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 18 . text...PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Not between The NOTBETWEEN .

Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name LIKE pattern Query: select * from studentcse where name like 'R%' and marks>300. select * from studentcse where name like 'A%'. select * from studentcse where name like '__m%'. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 19 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Pattern Matching: The Like Clause: The Like condition can be used to search for a particular pattern in a column in a database table.

Its predefined in ORACLE database.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS ORACLE Table dual Dual is a dummy table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 20 . Syntax: select * from dual. Syntax: Select sysdate from dual.

Syntax: SELECT avg(column) FROM <table_name>. (i) AVG (Average): It returns the average value of a column.AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS: Aggregate functions operate against a collection of values.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. but return a single value. Syntax: SELECT min(column) FROM <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 21 . (ii) MIN (Minimum): It returns the lowest value of a column in a table.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) MAX(Maximum): It returns the highest value of a column in a table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 22 . Syntax: SELECT max(column) FROM <table_name>.

Syntax: Select sqrt(value) from <table_name>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 23 .NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: Numeric functions are applied on any table having numeric data. Syntax: Select abs(value) from <table_name> (ii)SQRT (Square root) It is used to find square root of any numeric value. (i) ABS (Absolute): It returns the absolute value of any numeric data. It can also be applied on dual table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -.

no. Syntax: Select <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) POWER: This numeric function calculates the power of any numeric value.power of value) from <table_name> (iv) ROUND: This function is used to get a rounded figure of a decimal value. round(value. of digits desired after decimal ) from MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 24 . Syntax: Select power(value.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 25 . Syntax: Select extract (<value_name> from µvalue¶) from <table_name>. (vi) EXTRACT function: It returns a value extracted from a date or an internal value. of digits desired after decimal) from <table_name>. Syntax: Select trunc(value.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (v) Trunc: It shows the specified number of digits after truncating the other digits after

(viii) FLOOR Function: It returns the immediate smaller integer of given decimal value.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (vii) MOD: This function returns the remainder provided two numbers dividend and divisor.divisor) from <table_name>. Syntax: Select MOD(dividend. Syntax: Select FLOOR(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 26 .

Syntax: Select CEIL(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 27 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ix) CEIL Function: It returns the immediate greater integer value of the given decimal value.

(i) ASCII: It returns the decimal representation in the database character set of the first character of string. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 28 . (ii) UPPER: It returns char.STRING FUNCTIONS: There are various functions in SQL that can be applied on the string type data. Syntax: Select ascii(char) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. with all letters uppercase. Syntax: Select upper(string/column_name) from <table_name>.

with first letter of each word capitalized. (iii) INITCAP: It returns char. Syntax: Select initcap(string/column_name) from <table_name>. Syntax: Select lower(string/column_name) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ii) LOWER: It returns char. with all letters lowercase. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 29 .

Syntax: select lpad(fieldnames) from tablename. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 30 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iv) LPAD & RPAD: What this function does is that it fills up the extra space in the field with the padding either from the left or from the right.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 31 . Syntax: Select to_char(value. If you omit fmt. DATE. The value n can be of type NUMBER. format) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS --CONVERSION FUNCTIONS: (i) To_Char: TO_CHAR (number) converts n to a value of VARCHAR2 datatype. BINARY_FLOAT. (ii) To_Number: It is used to convert character to number datatype. Syntax: Select to_number(µvalue¶) from <table_name>. or BINARY_DOUBLE. then n is converted to a VARCHAR2 value exactly long enough to hold its significant digits. using the optional number format fmt.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 32 . µformat¶) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) To_Date: It converts a character field to a date field. Syntax: Select to_date(µdate¶.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS GROUP BY CLAUSE: GROUP BY.<aggregate function>(column2) FROM <table_name> GROUP BY <column1>. was added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called.. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 33 .. and without the GROUP BY function it was impossible to find the sum for each individual group of column values. Syntax: SELECT column1.

was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used against aggregate functions (like SUM).. Syntax: SELECT column1..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS HAVING CLAUSE: HAVING. it would be impossible to test for result conditions.<aggregate function>(column) FROM table GROUP BY column1 HAVING <aggregate function> condition. and without HAVING.. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 34 ..

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS JOINS: Sometimes we have to select data from two or more tables to make our result complete. We have to perform a join.right outer join or full outer join.INNER JOIN: The INNER JOIN returns all rows from both tables where there is a match. those rows will not be listed.It displays all the rows of first table or second table or both depending on left outer join . Syntax: SELECT <column1>. --Outer Join: Outer join uses two tables to extract the data . <column3> FROM <first_table> INNER JOIN second_table ON <first_table. y LEFT OUTER JOIN MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 35 .keyfield> = <second_table.keyfield>. If there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders. -. <column2>.

<column3> FROM <first_table> LEFT JOIN second_table ON <first_table. <column2>. ON <column3> FROM = <first_table>RIGHT second_table <first_table. JOIN <column2>.keyfield> = <second_table.keyfield>. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>. y RIGHT OUTER JOIN: It displays all the rows of the second table of the join.keyfield>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS It displays all the rows of the first table of the join. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 36 . Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>.keyfield> <second_table.

keyfield> <second_table. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>. JOIN second_table <column2>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS y FULL OUTER JOIN It displays all the rows of the first table and second table of the join. ON <column3>FROM = <first_table>FULL <first_table.keyfield>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 37 .

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 38 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS UNION and INTERSECT operations ----Union: It is used to combine the tuples of two different tables. ----INTERSECT: It select the common tuples in both the tables.

It is similar to default constraint except that only one column can be specified as primary key.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Constraints in SQL A constraint is a condition or check applicable on field or set of fields. Unique constraint: This constraint ensures that no two rows have same value in the specified column(s). Unique constraint b. gross decimal). this means the column can never be empty. Example b. Check constraint a. If you write the keyword NOT NULL after the data type of a column. Primary key constraint: This declares a column as the primary key of the table. Different Constraints a. Consider the following SQL command Create table employee (ecode integer NOT NULL. ename varchar2(9) NOT NULl. Example MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 39 . Default constraint d. Primary key constraint c.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS c. d. Examples MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 40 . When a user does not enter value for the column (having default value). Check constraint: This constraint limits values that can be inserted into a column of a table. Default constraint: A default value can be specified for a column using the DEFAULT clause. automatically the defined default value inserted in the field.

Duplicate values are allowed in simple index. Query: create index id on studentcse(rollno).Drop index: It is used to vanish the existing index. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 41 . and each index is given a name. they are just used to speed up queries.Create Index: It creates a simple index on a table. Syntax: CREATE INDEX <index_name> ON <table_name> (column_name). It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table. -.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INDEXES Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. -. Syntax: DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name. The users cannot see the indexes.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 42 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: drop index id.

The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database. etc. The database design and structure will NOT be affected by the from studentcse where rollno>300.columname n>From <table_name>. a stored procedure. By adding functions. or from inside another view. joins.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS VIEWS: A view is a virtual table based on the result-set of a SELECT statement. and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from a single table. --CREATE VIEW: This command creates the view of a table. Using Views A view could be used from inside a query. or join statements in a view.. Syntax: Create view <viewname> as select <columnname1. You can add SQL functions. to a view. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 43 . insert into vw values(&rollno. A view contains rows and columns. WHERE. where. it allows you to present exactly the data you want to the user.columname2.«««. just like a real table.'&name'). Query: create view vw as select rollno.

separated by a comma.. triggers and anonymous blocks) followed by Oracle Reports v2. History PL/SQL made its first appearance in Oracle Forms v3. the programmer appends the variable type NUMBER to the name definition. A few years later. functions. Some other SQL database management systems offer similar extensions to the SQL language. it was included in the Oracle Database server v7 (as database procedures. "scale" refers to the number of digits which can follow the decimal point.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to the SQL database language. and anonymous blocks..) MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 44 . The key strength of PL/SQL is its tight integration with the Oracle database.Program proper EXCEPTION -. To define a numeric variable. PL/SQL's syntax strongly resembles that of Ada. Basic code structure PL/SQL programs consist of procedures.Exception-handling (optional) END /* Sample comment spanning multiple lines. ("Precision" in this context refers to the number of digits which the variable can hold. and just like Ada compilers of the 1980s the PL/SQL runtime system uses Diana as intermediate representation. Each of these is made up of the basic PL/SQL unit which is the block. one can further append these in round brackets. used in the Oracle database. packages. functions.S]) := value. the other two being SQL and Java. To specify the (optional) precision(P) and the (optional) scale (S). */ Numeric variables variable_name number(P[.Declaration block (optional) BEGIN -. Blocks take the general form: DECLARE -. PL/SQL is one of three languages embedded in the Oracle Database.

for example: TO_DATE('31-12-2004'. decimal. The TO_DATE function can be used to convert strings to date values. long raw. Oracle provides a number of data types that can store dates (DATE. using as a definition the second quoted string. 'NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE = To convert the dates to strings one uses the function TO_CHAR (date_string. integer. Other datatypes for character variables include: varchar. There follows in brackets the maximum number of characters which the variable can store. however DATE is most commonly used. blob. nchar2. The function converts the first quoted string into a date.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS A selection of other datatypes for numeric variables would include: binary_float. numeric. nchar. raw. smallint. DATETIME.'dd-mon-yyyy'. double precision. dec. format_string). TIMESTAMP etc). MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 45 . Programmers define date variables by appending the datatype code "DATE" to a variable name. float. long. bfile Date variables variable_name date := '01-Jan-2005'.'dd-mm-yyyy') "or" TO_DATE American') ('31-Dec-2004'. binary_double. the programmer normally appends the variable type VARCHAR2 to the name definition. clob. char. real. To define a character variable. int. binary_integer Character variables variable_name varchar2(L) := 'Text'.

triggers.Cobol.Advantage of pl/sql over sql is.PL/SQL is used for Cursors and Triggers . PL/SQL is programming language used to write various sql statements together.. SQL is a structured query language used for various operations such as retrieval. We can write cursors for fetching number of records at a time...dml.Foxpro like languages.procedures etc.manipulation of data using DML.DDL statements.sql writtens querys by using ddl.DML. And also packages and triggers.SQL statements are invoked from a host environment like C/C++. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 46 . 3.. Embedded SQL . Java or any other programming languages...One more advantage is subprogramming like procedures and functions. SQL is Structured Query Language used for DDL.where plsql uses cursors. 2. In sql querys process at a time where as in plsql it done step by step or recoed by record ...PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between SQL and PL/SQL 1.Pascal. Embeded SQL is used to embed SQL statements in C. Both sql and pl/sql are languages used to acess data with in oracle data can write many sql statements within a pl/sql block.dcl etc.

Oracle loads the compiled procedure (or package) into the shared pool in the system global area (SGA). including the Oracle server. When an application calls a procedure stored in the database. The procedure (or package) is stored in a database. which processes PL/SQL program units.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS PL/SQL Execution Environment The PL/SQL engine. and the PL/SQL and SQL statement executors work together to process the statements within the procedure. is a special component of many Oracle products. The following Oracle products contain a PL/SQL engine: y y y y y Oracle server Oracle Forms (Version 3 and later) SQL*Menu (Version 5 and later) Oracle Reports (Version 2 and later) Oracle Graphics (Version 2 and later) Page 47 MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 .

For example. Also. you can pass anonymous blocks to Oracle from applications developed with these tools: y y y y y Oracle precompilers (including user exits) Oracle Call Interfaces (OCIs) SQL*Plus Server Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 48 . which can be either an anonymous block or another stored procedure.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS You can call a stored procedure from another PL/SQL block. you can call a stored procedure from Oracle Forms (Version 3 or later).

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Displaying user message on the screen Set server output on Set server output off MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 49 .

The CASE statement simplifies some large IF-THEN-ELSE structures. IF-THENELSE constructs.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Conditional Statements The following code segment shows the IF-THEN-ELSIF construct. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. CASE WHEN x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. IF x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 50 . The ELSIF and ELSE parts are optional so it is possible to create simpler IF-THEN or. ELSIF x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. END IF. END CASE. WHEN x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block to find greatest number among three numbers. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 51 .

WHEN 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. or by raising an exception. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 52 . PL/SQL provides several iteration constructs. and Cursor FOR loops. Loops can be terminated by using the EXIT keyword. WHILE loops. LOOP statements Syntax: LOOP statement1. FOR loops. statement2. END CASE.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CASE statement can be used with predefined selector: CASE x WHEN 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. Looping As a procedural language by definition. END LOOP. including basic LOOP statements.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 53 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block that display table for entered no using for loop.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS WHILE loops Syntax: WHILE LOOP .. END LOOP..PUT_LINE(RecordIndex. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 54 .. FOR loops Cursor FOR loops FOR RecordIndex IN (SELECT person_code FROM people_table) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. Sequential Statements Syntax: GOTO record Where record is place in the PL/SQL to which goto label shift the control of program. END LOOP.person_code).do something..

A roolback statemet given at the SQL prompt can be used to undo a part of entire transaction. The changes made to the table is a two step process.saves work done. Savepoint savepoint_name. Syntax: Commit.identifies a point in transaction to which you can later roll back. Oracle treats a series of operators as a single entity. Rollback [to[savepoint]savepointname]. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 55 . 1. 2. 3. 4. SET TRANSACTION.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRANSACT-SQL (T-SQL) It is a part of PL/SQL.Change transaction options like isolation level and what rollback segment to use.restore database to original since the last COMMIT. SAVEPOINT. ROLLBACK. COMMIT. secondly to make change permanent a commit statement has to be given at SQL prompt. First the changes requested are done.

The price change is to be than recorded to the table oldprice along with productnumber (pno). Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 56 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: If price of product 10 is less than 4000 then change the price to 4000. date of change of price and oldprice.

Insert a record in employ2 table. To see that the total salary does not exceed 20.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code as following: 1. 3. then check. Update salary of Raman & Teena by 2000 & 1500. made to the salary of the person. If total_salary>20.000 then undo the update. 2.000. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 57 .

When a query returns multiple rows. including queries that return only one row. Cursor Attribute Values %FOUN %ISOPE %NOTFOU %ROWCOU D N ND NT OPEN before exception FALSE after First FETCH NULL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE exception NULL NULL FALSE FALSE exception 0 0 1 1 before NULL after TRUE Next FETCH(es) before TRUE after TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE data dependent data dependent data dependent Last FETCH before TRUE after FALSE MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 58 . you can execute FETCH repeatedly until all rows have been retrieved. which identifies the result set. or package. subprogram. Moreover. PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. or multiple rows. We use three commands to control a cursor: OPEN. First. one can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursors PL/SQL uses two types of cursors: implicit and explicit. one. Explicit Cursors The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. we release the cursor with the CLOSE statement. we initialize the cursor with the OPEN statement. FETCH. Then. one can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. and CLOSE. When the last row has been processed.

where return_type must represent a record or a row in a database table. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. we name it and associate it with a specific query using the syntax: CURSOR cursor_name [(parameter[. Passing Cursor Parameters We use the OPEN statement to pass parameters to a cursor.)] [RETURN return_type] IS select_statement. which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. we can reopen it.. Fetching with a Cursor The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the result set one at a time. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 59 . Closing a Cursor The CLOSE statement disables the cursor. and parameter stands for the following syntax: cursor_parameter_name [IN] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expression] Opening a Cursor Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the result set. the OPEN statement also locks those rows. each formal parameter in the cursor declaration must have a corresponding actual parameter in the OPEN statement. Unless we want to accept default values. Once a cursor is closed..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CLOSE before FALSE after TRUE TRUE exception data dependent exception exception FALSE Declaring a Cursor When we declare a cursor. parameter]. and the result set becomes undefined. Each fetch retrieves the current row and then advances the cursor to the next row in the result set.

Although we cannot use the OPEN. FETCH. PL/SQL lets you refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor. FETCH. You cannot use the OPEN. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. We can refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. But. you can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement Using Cursor Attributes Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: 1) 2) 3) 4) %FOUND %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND %ROWCOUNT. You can use cursor attributes in procedural statements but not in SQL statements MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 60 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit Cursors Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor. we can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement. and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor. Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor.

you use %FOUND to insert a row if a delete succeeds: DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = my_empno. delete. update.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS IMPLICIT CURSOR HANDLING implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an insert. UPDATE. or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows. UPDATE. Otherwise. the implicit cursor attributes yield null the implicit cursor attributes are referred by preceding the implicit cursor attribute with cursor name. %FOUND yields NULL. %FOUND yields FALSE.). %NOTFOUND yields FALSE. . or a SELECT INTO statement returned one or more rows. %FOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT.e sql). or returned by a SELECT INTO statement. Thereafter. or DELETE statement affected no rows. %ROWCOUNT MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 61 . %NOTFOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT.delete succeeded INSERT INTO new_emp VALUES (my_empno. or select into statement. In the following example.. IF SQL%FOUND THEN -. %ISOPEN always yields FALSE. SQL%FOUND Until a SQL data manipulation statement is executed. UPDATE. SQL%ISOPEN Oracle closes the SQL cursor automatically after executing its associated SQL statement. or DELETE statement affected one or more rows. SQL%NOTFOUND %NOTFOUND is the logical opposite of %FOUND. my_ename. SQL%ROWCOUNT %ROWCOUNT yields the number of rows affected by an INSERT. As a result. or DELETE statement. before oracle opens the sql cursor. Otherwise. the values of the cursor attributes always refer to the most recently executed sql statement.(i..

. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 62 . UPDATE. you use %ROWCOUNT to take action if more than ten rows have been deleted: DELETE FROM emp WHERE . END IF.. or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows.more than 10 rows were deleted . or DELETE statement affected no rows.. In the following example.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS yields 0 if an INSERT. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT > 10 THEN -..

Output: Records of employee table before execution: Program: Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 63 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%notfound.


Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%found. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


Records of employee table after execution:

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Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to give the no of records deleted by a delete statement in PL/SQL block. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


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PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 68 .

%Rowtype: This attribute is used to declare the single variable for various columns in a table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit cursor handling Kinds of variables: The types of attribute are a. %Type: This attribute is used when declaring variables that refer to data base column by using type variable. %Rowtype a.<column_name>%type. %Type b. Syntax: variable_name <table_name>. we need the name of columns and table to which the variable correspond. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 69 . b.

TOTAL).DA. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 70 .ENAME. the table employee has the following column.BP. employee(ENO.HRA.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query1: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100.

BP. employee(EMPNO. the table employee has the following column.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100. Using %ROWTYPE: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 71 .HRA.ENAME.TOTAL).DA.

Declare a cursor: A cursor is declared in the declare section of a PL/SQL block. Syntax: cursor <cursor_name> is select <statement>. d. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 72 . Fetch data from cursor into memory variable: Syntax: fetch <cursor_name> into variable_name. e. Close a cursor: Syntax: close <cursor_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Methods or steps to perform explicit cursor management a. c. Open a cursor: It is use to open cursor explicitly that is by the user. b. Syntax: open <cursor_name>. Exit from loop.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno. job of employees of department number 10. ename. Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 73 .

job of employees of department number 10. ename. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 74 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno.

salary).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno. Emp(eno.ename. sal of top 3 highest paid employees. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 75 .

Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 76 . Emp(eno. sal of top 3 highest paid employees.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno.ename.salary).

ename.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursor for loop Syntax: For <variable_name> in <cursor_name> Loop <SQL statement>. Query: To display eno. Before execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 77 . job of employee of department number 10 with the help of cursor for loop.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 78 .

ename. Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 79 . salary of top 3 highest paid employees with the help of cursor for loop.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display eno.