INTRODUCTION TO RDBMS A Relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Codd. Most popular commercial and open source databases currently in use are based on the relational model. A short definition of an RDBMS may be a DBMS in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways. An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spread across several tables. This differs from flat-file databases, in which each database is self-contained in a single table. Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Small database systems, however, use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries. RDBMS data is structured in database tables, fields and records. Each RDBMS table consists of database table rows. Each database table row consists of one or more database table fields. RDBMS store the data into collection of tables, which might be related by common fields (database table columns). RDBMS also provide relational operators to manipulate the data stored into the database tables. Most RDBMS use SQL as database query language. Edgar Codd introduced the relational database model. Many modern DBMS do not conform to the Codd¶s definition of a RDBMS, but nonetheless they are still considered to be RDBMS. The most popular RDBMS are MS SQL Server, DB2, Oracle and MySQL.

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INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE The Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply Oracle) consists of a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. As of 2008, Oracle had become a major presence in database computing. An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information. A database server is the key to solving the problems of information management. In general, a server reliably manages a large amount of data in a multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this is accomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also prevents unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery. Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing creates large pools of industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture, each new system can be rapidly provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need for peak workloads, because capacity can be easily added or reallocated from the resource pools as needed. Physical and logical structuring in Oracle An Oracle database system ² identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance ² identified persistently by an instantiation number comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor). Users of Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as databuffers, SQL commands and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (which hold transactional history). Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.

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The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files. Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments; for example, Data Segments, Index Segments etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage. At the physical level, data-files comprise one or more data blocks, where the block size can vary between datafiles. Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the SYSTEM table space. The SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary ² and often (by default) indexes and clusters. (A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user-objects in the database). Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the SYSTEM tablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces). If the Oracle database administrator has instituted Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually on different servers, attach to a central storage array. This scenario offers numerous advantages, most importantly performance, scalability and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid computing has introduced shared resources where an instance can use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in the grid. The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.

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e. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 4 . No keys are used. It requires low software and It requires high software and hardware hardware requirements. 2. It support DBMS 1 There is no relationship concept. Keys are used. present. No data integrity. It is easy to retrieve data in both. It is more secure. amount of data in it. It support single user. 4. tables. It is less secure. Support null values. It is possible to edit record in both DBMS and RDBMS. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RDBMS It is use to establish relationship concept between two database objects i. It does not support null values. Used for smaller organizations Large organizations where large where security is not major amount data is maintain and security is concern. It reads data as files internally.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between RDBMS and DBMS S. Both store data in the form of tables. Normalization concept is not Normalization is present. also important. 3. Examples: FoxPro Examples: SQL Server MS-Access Oracle Similarities between RDBMS and DBMS 1. It reads tables internally. Data integrity concept is present. It is possible to store and retrieve It is possible to store and retrieve large fewer amounts of data in it. Both are used for storage. requirements.

Some data types in SQL are: char. Max size is specified in parenthesis. Usually. and how they are stored. Holds variable-length character string. date etc. The various Data Types along with their description are shown below: Data Type char(size) varchar(size) number(size) Date Description Holds fixed-length character string.d) Holds a Number value with a maximum number of digits of "size" total. how the values are processed by the computer.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Data Type A data type is a set of data with values having predefined characteristics. Max 255 bytes. number. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 5 . Holds a Date value. Holds Number value with a max number digits specified in parenthesis. with a maximum number of "d" digits to the right of the decimal. number(size. Size is specified in parenthesis. Each language has its own data types. a limited number of such data types come built into a language. The language usually specifies the range of values for a given data type.

desg varchar2(10)). .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Create Table With CREATE TABLE. a new table can be created.b_no number. column_name2 data_type. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 6 . Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query:To select all the column from the table:select * from studentcse.. A row represents a single record while a column represents attributes/fields which can be thought of as one of the components contributing to make a varchar2(10). The above statement creates an empty table (containing no records) named Details having fields-e_no.. A table can be considered as a basic structure within which data is stored. Syntax: CREATE TABLE table_name (column_name1 Query: create table emp1(e_no number. data types have to be mentioned for each field.dept varchar2(10). While creating a table. SQL Select This statement is used to view data from the table. It consists of rows and columns.

we can get rid of this problem.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS The Where Clause We might want to retrieve records which satisfy a particular condition. The SQL Select retrieves values from database table which may be repetitive. Syntax: SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name Query: select distinct * from studentcse. we make use of the clause Where. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 7 . For example. Adding the word Distinct to Select. we want to retrieve Employee names from database table Employee with salaries above 14000. To do this. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. Thus Where clause is used to specify a selection criterion. The Distinct Keyword Distinct keyword is used to retrieve values that are distinct or non-repetitive.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Sorting Sorting is an important feature of any database. We can arrange data according to the sequence we need to put them into. Order by Clause ORDER BY is used to get the result in the sorted manner. Unless Explicitly stated. Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno desc. Syntax: DELETE FROM table_name WHERE column_name = some_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 8 . the order by clause sorts the result in ascending order. Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name Query: select * from studentcse order by rollno. SQL Delete The SQL delete is used to delete rows from a database table.

attributes. Query: drop table studentdet. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 9 . Syntax: DROP TABLE <table_name>. and indexes will also be deleted) Permanently then drop command can be used for the purpose. Query: delete from studentcse where name like '__n%'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: delete from studentcse where rollno=106. DROP TABLE If the user want to delete a table (the table structure. Query: delete from studentcse where name='Radhika' and marks>300.

we might find that there is a need to modify the data.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRUNCATE Truncate command is used to simply get rid of the data but not the table itself. Syntax: UPDATE table_name SET column_name = new_value WHERE column_name = old_value MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 10 . SQL Update Update statement is used to edit or update data in the table. Once there's data in the table. To do so. Syntax: TRUNCATE TABLE <table_name>. we can use the UPDATE command. Query: truncate table student1.

Query: update studentcse set marks=marks+10 where rollno>205 and name like 'Anish'.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: update studentcse set marks=721 where rollno>205. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 11 .

Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name Query: alter table studentdet1 drop column s_address.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Modify Table: alter table: Once a table is created in the database. ALTER TABLE is basically used to Change Add Drop a a a column column column name . MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 12 . Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name MODIFY column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 modify(s_name varchar2(20)).Change the data type for a column Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name datatype Query: alter table studentdet1 add(s_address varchar2(10)). there are many occasions where one may wish to change the structure of the table.

Query: rename emp to emp2. Syntax: select column_name alias_name from table_name.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Rename Column Alias are used to rename a table¶s columns for the purpose of a particular query. Tab: This command is used to view all the tables. Syntax: select * from tab. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 13 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Describe: This command is used to describe the structure of the the structure of the table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 14 . Syntax: describe tablename. Query: describe emp2.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 15 . multiplication. division. Syntax: select <arithmetic operation>fieldname from <tablename>. Query: select sal+10 from emp2.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Arithmetic Functions: Various functions like as addition. subtraction are used on the database. Query: select sal/10 from emp2.

These operators take as input one or more arguments (operands) and return a result. *. Logical operators (NOT. >. -. <). ). MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 16 . OR). AND. The various Operators along with their description are shown below in tabular form: Operator Description = > < >= <= <> LIKE AND OR NOT Equal Greater than Less than Greater than or equal to Less than or equal to Not equal to String comparison test Logical And returns TRUE when both the specified conditions are true Logical Or returns TRUE when atleast one of the specified conditions is true Logical Not returns TRUE when none one of the specified conditions is true Query: select * from studentcse where marks>300. Comparison Operators ( =.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Logical Operators: Oracle provides a set of built-in operators-Arithmetic Operators (+.

Syntax: SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2 Query: select * from students where rollno between 111 and 113.226. value2.. select ename from employee where ecity like 'APS' AND ecode IN(select ecode from company where desg like 'Manager').333.') Query: select * from student where sid in(101. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 17 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Range Searching: SQL In & Between The IN keyword is used to test whether a value(s) is present in the list of values specified after the keyword IN. The BETWEEN keyword is used to test whether or not a value is present between the two values mentioned in the query followed by the keyword BETWEEN.387). Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN ( value1...336.

text. Syntax: select * from <table_name> where <column_name> Not between <Range1> and <Range2>..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Not between The NOTBETWEEN .. or dates. These values can be numbers. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 18 . AND operator selects a range of data between two values.

select * from studentcse where name like '__m%'. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 19 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Pattern Matching: The Like Clause: The Like condition can be used to search for a particular pattern in a column in a database table. select * from studentcse where name like 'A%'. Syntax: SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name LIKE pattern Query: select * from studentcse where name like 'R%' and marks>300.

Syntax: Select sysdate from dual. Its predefined in ORACLE database. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 20 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS ORACLE Table dual Dual is a dummy table. Syntax: select * from dual.

Syntax: SELECT avg(column) FROM <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. but return a single value. (i) AVG (Average): It returns the average value of a column. (ii) MIN (Minimum): It returns the lowest value of a column in a table.AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS: Aggregate functions operate against a collection of values. Syntax: SELECT min(column) FROM <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 21 .

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 22 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) MAX(Maximum): It returns the highest value of a column in a table. Syntax: SELECT max(column) FROM <table_name>.

Syntax: Select sqrt(value) from <table_name>. It can also be applied on dual table.NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: Numeric functions are applied on any table having numeric data.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. (i) ABS (Absolute): It returns the absolute value of any numeric data. Syntax: Select abs(value) from <table_name> (ii)SQRT (Square root) It is used to find square root of any numeric value. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 23 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) POWER: This numeric function calculates the power of any numeric value. round(value. Syntax: Select <table_name>.no. of digits desired after decimal ) from MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 24 .power of value) from <table_name> (iv) ROUND: This function is used to get a rounded figure of a decimal value. Syntax: Select power(value.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 25 . of digits desired after decimal) from <table_name>. (vi) EXTRACT function: It returns a value extracted from a date or an internal value.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (v) Trunc: It shows the specified number of digits after truncating the other digits after decimal. Syntax: Select trunc( Syntax: Select extract (<value_name> from µvalue¶) from <table_name>.

(viii) FLOOR Function: It returns the immediate smaller integer of given decimal value. Syntax: Select FLOOR(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 26 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (vii) MOD: This function returns the remainder provided two numbers dividend and divisor.divisor) from <table_name>. Syntax: Select MOD(dividend.

Syntax: Select CEIL(value) from <table_name> MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 27 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ix) CEIL Function: It returns the immediate greater integer value of the given decimal value.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS -. (ii) UPPER: It returns char. Syntax: Select ascii(char) from <table_name>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 28 .STRING FUNCTIONS: There are various functions in SQL that can be applied on the string type data. Syntax: Select upper(string/column_name) from <table_name>. (i) ASCII: It returns the decimal representation in the database character set of the first character of string. with all letters uppercase.

(iii) INITCAP: It returns char. with all letters lowercase. Syntax: Select lower(string/column_name) from <table_name>. with first letter of each word capitalized. Syntax: Select initcap(string/column_name) from <table_name>.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (ii) LOWER: It returns char. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 29 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iv) LPAD & RPAD: What this function does is that it fills up the extra space in the field with the padding either from the left or from the right. Syntax: select lpad(fieldnames) from tablename. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 30 .

(ii) To_Number: It is used to convert character to number datatype. DATE. then n is converted to a VARCHAR2 value exactly long enough to hold its significant digits. format) from <table_name>. or BINARY_DOUBLE.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS --CONVERSION FUNCTIONS: (i) To_Char: TO_CHAR (number) converts n to a value of VARCHAR2 datatype. using the optional number format fmt. Syntax: Select to_number(µvalue¶) from <table_name>. The value n can be of type NUMBER. BINARY_FLOAT. Syntax: Select to_char(value. If you omit fmt. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 31 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS (iii) To_Date: It converts a character field to a date field. Syntax: Select to_date(µdate¶. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 32 . µformat¶) from <table_name>.

and without the GROUP BY function it was impossible to find the sum for each individual group of column values.<aggregate function>(column2) FROM <table_name> GROUP BY <column1>.. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 33 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS GROUP BY CLAUSE: GROUP BY. Syntax: SELECT column1.. was added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called.

<aggregate function>(column) FROM table GROUP BY column1 HAVING <aggregate function> condition. Syntax: SELECT column1.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS HAVING CLAUSE: HAVING.. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 34 . was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used against aggregate functions (like SUM).. it would be impossible to test for result conditions.. and without HAVING..

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS JOINS: Sometimes we have to select data from two or more tables to make our result complete. those rows will not be listed.keyfield>.INNER JOIN: The INNER JOIN returns all rows from both tables where there is a match.right outer join or full outer join. -.keyfield> = <second_table. <column3> FROM <first_table> INNER JOIN second_table ON <first_table. If there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders. We have to perform a join. Syntax: SELECT <column1>. <column2>. y LEFT OUTER JOIN MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 35 . --Outer Join: Outer join uses two tables to extract the data .It displays all the rows of first table or second table or both depending on left outer join .

ON <column3> FROM = <first_table>RIGHT second_table <first_table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS It displays all the rows of the first table of the join. JOIN <column2>.keyfield> = <second_table.keyfield>. <column2>. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>.keyfield>.keyfield> <second_table. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>. <column3> FROM <first_table> LEFT JOIN second_table ON <first_table. y RIGHT OUTER JOIN: It displays all the rows of the second table of the join. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 36 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS y FULL OUTER JOIN It displays all the rows of the first table and second table of the join. JOIN second_table <column2>. ON <column3>FROM = <first_table>FULL <first_table.keyfield> <second_table. Syntax: SELECT <cloumn1>.keyfield>. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 37 .

----INTERSECT: It select the common tuples in both the tables.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS UNION and INTERSECT operations ----Union: It is used to combine the tuples of two different tables. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 38 .

ename varchar2(9) NOT NULl. this means the column can never be empty. Primary key constraint c. Different Constraints a. Primary key constraint: This declares a column as the primary key of the table. Check constraint a. gross decimal).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Constraints in SQL A constraint is a condition or check applicable on field or set of fields. Consider the following SQL command Create table employee (ecode integer NOT NULL. Default constraint d. It is similar to default constraint except that only one column can be specified as primary key. Unique constraint b. Example MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 39 . If you write the keyword NOT NULL after the data type of a column. Unique constraint: This constraint ensures that no two rows have same value in the specified column(s). Example b.

When a user does not enter value for the column (having default value). d. Check constraint: This constraint limits values that can be inserted into a column of a table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS c. automatically the defined default value inserted in the field. Examples MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 40 . Default constraint: A default value can be specified for a column using the DEFAULT clause.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INDEXES Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. Query: create index id on studentcse(rollno). It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table.Create Index: It creates a simple index on a table.Drop index: It is used to vanish the existing index. and each index is given a name. -. Duplicate values are allowed in simple index. -. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 41 . Syntax: CREATE INDEX <index_name> ON <table_name> (column_name). The users cannot see the indexes. Syntax: DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name. they are just used to speed up queries.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 42 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: drop index id.

or join statements in a view. insert into vw values(&rollno. and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from a single table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS VIEWS: A view is a virtual table based on the result-set of a SELECT statement. etc.«««. joins. You can add SQL functions. or from inside another view.columname n>From <table_name>.'&name').columname2. The database design and structure will NOT be affected by the from studentcse where rollno>300. where. WHERE. to a view. just like a real table. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 43 . The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database. --CREATE VIEW: This command creates the view of a table. A view contains rows and columns. Using Views A view could be used from inside a query. it allows you to present exactly the data you want to the user. By adding functions. Syntax: Create view <viewname> as select <columnname1. Query: create view vw as select rollno. a stored procedure.

functions. PL/SQL's syntax strongly resembles that of Ada. */ Numeric variables variable_name number(P[.Exception-handling (optional) END /* Sample comment spanning multiple lines. the programmer appends the variable type NUMBER to the name definition.. ("Precision" in this context refers to the number of digits which the variable can hold. functions. used in the Oracle database. and just like Ada compilers of the 1980s the PL/SQL runtime system uses Diana as intermediate representation.S]) := value.Declaration block (optional) BEGIN -. PL/SQL is one of three languages embedded in the Oracle Database.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS INTRODUCTION TO PL/SQL PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to the SQL database language. one can further append these in round brackets. it was included in the Oracle Database server v7 (as database procedures. The key strength of PL/SQL is its tight integration with the Oracle database. and anonymous blocks.. History PL/SQL made its first appearance in Oracle Forms v3. To specify the (optional) precision(P) and the (optional) scale (S).) MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 44 . Some other SQL database management systems offer similar extensions to the SQL language. Basic code structure PL/SQL programs consist of procedures. packages. "scale" refers to the number of digits which can follow the decimal point. Each of these is made up of the basic PL/SQL unit which is the block.Program proper EXCEPTION -. separated by a comma. the other two being SQL and Java. triggers and anonymous blocks) followed by Oracle Reports v2. To define a numeric variable. A few years later. Blocks take the general form: DECLARE -.

nchar2. nchar. long raw. the programmer normally appends the variable type VARCHAR2 to the name definition. Programmers define date variables by appending the datatype code "DATE" to a variable name. long. DATETIME. float. dec.'dd-mm-yyyy') "or" TO_DATE American') ('31-Dec-2004'. 'NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE = To convert the dates to strings one uses the function TO_CHAR (date_string. real. The function converts the first quoted string into a date. double precision. smallint. for example: TO_DATE('31-12-2004'. clob. bfile Date variables variable_name date := '01-Jan-2005'. Oracle provides a number of data types that can store dates (DATE. using as a definition the second quoted string. blob. binary_double. binary_integer Character variables variable_name varchar2(L) := 'Text'. char. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 45 . The TO_DATE function can be used to convert strings to date values. There follows in brackets the maximum number of characters which the variable can store.'dd-mon-yyyy'. raw. decimal. however DATE is most commonly used. To define a character variable. numeric. integer. Other datatypes for character variables include: varchar. format_string). int.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS A selection of other datatypes for numeric variables would include: binary_float. TIMESTAMP etc).

And also packages and triggers..Foxpro like languages. SQL is Structured Query Language used for DDL. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 46 .procedures etc. SQL is a structured query language used for various operations such as retrieval.sql writtens querys by using ddl.Advantage of pl/sql over sql is. PL/SQL is programming language used to write various sql statements together.. Both sql and pl/sql are languages used to acess data with in oracle data base.DDL statements.manipulation of data using DML.Pascal.One more advantage is subprogramming like procedures and functions.. Embeded SQL is used to embed SQL statements in C.Cobol.where plsql uses cursors. Java or any other programming languages. In sql querys process at a time where as in plsql it done step by step or recoed by record . 3. Embedded SQL .you can write many sql statements within a pl/sql block..dcl etc. 2.. We can write cursors for fetching number of records at a time...triggers.PL/SQL is used for Cursors and Triggers ..SQL statements are invoked from a host environment like C/C++.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Difference between SQL and PL/SQL 1.dml.DML.

and the PL/SQL and SQL statement executors work together to process the statements within the procedure. including the Oracle server.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS PL/SQL Execution Environment The PL/SQL engine. which processes PL/SQL program units. is a special component of many Oracle products. The procedure (or package) is stored in a database. The following Oracle products contain a PL/SQL engine: y y y y y Oracle server Oracle Forms (Version 3 and later) SQL*Menu (Version 5 and later) Oracle Reports (Version 2 and later) Oracle Graphics (Version 2 and later) Page 47 MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 . When an application calls a procedure stored in the database. Oracle loads the compiled procedure (or package) into the shared pool in the system global area (SGA).

Also. For example. which can be either an anonymous block or another stored procedure.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS You can call a stored procedure from another PL/SQL block. you can pass anonymous blocks to Oracle from applications developed with these tools: y y y y y Oracle precompilers (including user exits) Oracle Call Interfaces (OCIs) SQL*Plus Server Manager Oracle Enterprise Manager MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 48 . you can call a stored procedure from Oracle Forms (Version 3 or later).

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Displaying user message on the screen Set server output on Set server output off MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 49 .

ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. WHEN x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. The ELSIF and ELSE parts are optional so it is possible to create simpler IF-THEN or. END CASE. The CASE statement simplifies some large IF-THEN-ELSE structures.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Conditional Statements The following code segment shows the IF-THEN-ELSIF construct. CASE WHEN x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. END IF. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. IF x = 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. IF-THENELSE constructs. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 50 . ELSIF x = 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block to find greatest number among three numbers. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 51 .

WHILE loops. PL/SQL provides several iteration constructs. Looping As a procedural language by definition. FOR loops. ELSE sequence_of_statements_N. END CASE. LOOP statements Syntax: LOOP statement1. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 52 . and Cursor FOR loops.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CASE statement can be used with predefined selector: CASE x WHEN 1 THEN sequence_of_statements_1. WHEN 2 THEN sequence_of_statements_2. END LOOP. statement2. including basic LOOP statements. Loops can be terminated by using the EXIT keyword. or by raising an exception.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 53 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Write a PL/SQL block that display table for entered no using for loop.

MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 54 . END LOOP..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS WHILE loops Syntax: WHILE LOOP .PUT_LINE(RecordIndex..person_code). Sequential Statements Syntax: GOTO record Where record is place in the PL/SQL to which goto label shift the control of something. END LOOP. FOR loops Cursor FOR loops FOR RecordIndex IN (SELECT person_code FROM people_table) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT..

ROLLBACK.identifies a point in transaction to which you can later roll back.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS TRANSACT-SQL (T-SQL) It is a part of PL/SQL. 2. COMMIT.Change transaction options like isolation level and what rollback segment to use. Oracle treats a series of operators as a single entity. 1.saves work done. A roolback statemet given at the SQL prompt can be used to undo a part of entire transaction. 3. Syntax: Commit. SET TRANSACTION. SAVEPOINT. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 55 . Rollback [to[savepoint]savepointname]. Savepoint savepoint_name.restore database to original since the last COMMIT. First the changes requested are done. The changes made to the table is a two step process. 4. secondly to make change permanent a commit statement has to be given at SQL prompt.

The price change is to be than recorded to the table oldprice along with productnumber (pno). Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 56 . date of change of price and oldprice.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: If price of product 10 is less than 4000 then change the price to 4000.

000. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 57 . If total_salary>20. Update salary of Raman & Teena by 2000 & 1500. 2.000 then undo the update. To see that the total salary does not exceed 20. 3. then check. made to the salary of the person. Insert a record in employ2 table.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code as following: 1.

one can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. FETCH. First. Cursor Attribute Values %FOUN %ISOPE %NOTFOU %ROWCOU D N ND NT OPEN before exception FALSE after First FETCH NULL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE exception NULL NULL FALSE FALSE exception 0 0 1 1 before NULL after TRUE Next FETCH(es) before TRUE after TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE data dependent data dependent data dependent Last FETCH before TRUE after FALSE MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 58 . PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements. we initialize the cursor with the OPEN statement. one can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block. subprogram. Explicit Cursors The set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero. When the last row has been processed. we release the cursor with the CLOSE statement. or package. When a query returns multiple rows.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursors PL/SQL uses two types of cursors: implicit and explicit. depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. you can execute FETCH repeatedly until all rows have been retrieved. or multiple rows. which identifies the result set. We use three commands to control a cursor: OPEN. Moreover. Then. including queries that return only one row. and CLOSE. one.

which consists of all rows that meet the query search criteria. we name it and associate it with a specific query using the syntax: CURSOR cursor_name [(parameter[. parameter]. and the result set becomes undefined. Closing a Cursor The CLOSE statement disables the cursor.. Unless we want to accept default values.. Passing Cursor Parameters We use the OPEN statement to pass parameters to a cursor. Fetching with a Cursor The FETCH statement retrieves the rows in the result set one at a time. where return_type must represent a record or a row in a database table. each formal parameter in the cursor declaration must have a corresponding actual parameter in the OPEN statement. Each fetch retrieves the current row and then advances the cursor to the next row in the result set. and parameter stands for the following syntax: cursor_parameter_name [IN] datatype [{:= | DEFAULT} expression] Opening a Cursor Opening the cursor executes the query and identifies the result set. we can reopen it.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS CLOSE before FALSE after TRUE TRUE exception data dependent exception exception FALSE Declaring a Cursor When we declare a cursor. For cursors declared using the FOR UPDATE clause. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 59 . the OPEN statement also locks those rows.)] [RETURN return_type] IS select_statement. Once a cursor is closed.

and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor. You cannot use the OPEN. FETCH. we can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable. PL/SQL lets you refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. Although we cannot use the OPEN. We can refer to the most recent implicit cursor as the SQL cursor. you can use cursor attributes to get information about the most recently executed SQL statement Using Cursor Attributes Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes: 1) 2) 3) 4) %FOUND %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND %ROWCOUNT. You can use cursor attributes in procedural statements but not in SQL statements MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 60 . FETCH. But. Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor. these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit Cursors Oracle implicitly opens a cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicitly declared cursor. and CLOSE statements to control the SQL cursor.

Otherwise. SQL%ROWCOUNT %ROWCOUNT yields the number of rows affected by an INSERT. IF SQL%FOUND THEN -.delete succeeded INSERT INTO new_emp VALUES (my_empno. you use %FOUND to insert a row if a delete succeeds: DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno = my_empno. Thereafter. %FOUND yields FALSE. or DELETE statement affected one or more rows. %NOTFOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT. or select into statement. or DELETE statement. or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows. the values of the cursor attributes always refer to the most recently executed sql statement. my_ename.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS IMPLICIT CURSOR HANDLING implicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an insert. UPDATE. SQL%NOTFOUND %NOTFOUND is the logical opposite of %FOUND. SQL%ISOPEN Oracle closes the SQL cursor automatically after executing its associated SQL statement. or returned by a SELECT INTO statement. before oracle opens the sql cursor. or DELETE statement affected no rows. %FOUND yields NULL. In the following example. %NOTFOUND yields FALSE.). update. %ROWCOUNT MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 61 .(i. Otherwise.. . SQL%FOUND Until a SQL data manipulation statement is executed. the implicit cursor attributes yield null the implicit cursor attributes are referred by preceding the implicit cursor attribute with cursor name. %FOUND yields TRUE if an INSERT. delete. UPDATE. UPDATE..e sql). or a SELECT INTO statement returned one or more rows. %ISOPEN always yields FALSE. As a result.

or a SELECT INTO statement returned no rows. IF SQL%ROWCOUNT > 10 THEN -. you use %ROWCOUNT to take action if more than ten rows have been deleted: DELETE FROM emp WHERE .. or DELETE statement affected no rows. END IF... UPDATE.more than 10 rows were deleted ..PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS yields 0 if an INSERT. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 62 . In the following example.

Output: Records of employee table before execution: Program: Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 63 .PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%notfound.


Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to check whether the record is deleted or not using sql%found. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


Records of employee table after execution:

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Query: Write a PL/SQL block of code to display a message to give the no of records deleted by a delete statement in PL/SQL block. Output: Records of employee table before execution:


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PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Records of employee table after execution: MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 68 .

b.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Implicit cursor handling Kinds of variables: The types of attribute are a.<column_name>%type. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 69 . %Type b. %Type: This attribute is used when declaring variables that refer to data base column by using type variable. %Rowtype a. %Rowtype: This attribute is used to declare the single variable for various columns in a table. we need the name of columns and table to which the variable correspond. Syntax: variable_name <table_name>.

BP. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 70 .DA. the table employee has the following column.HRA.TOTAL). employee(ENO.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query1: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100.ENAME.

DA.HRA. the table employee has the following column.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write PL/SQL code to calculate total salary of employee having Employee number 100. Using %ROWTYPE: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 71 . employee(EMPNO.TOTAL).ENAME.BP.

Syntax: cursor <cursor_name> is select <statement>. Syntax: open <cursor_name>. c. e. Open a cursor: It is use to open cursor explicitly that is by the user. Fetch data from cursor into memory variable: Syntax: fetch <cursor_name> into variable_name. d.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Methods or steps to perform explicit cursor management a. Close a cursor: Syntax: close <cursor_name>. Exit from loop. b. Declare a cursor: A cursor is declared in the declare section of a PL/SQL block. MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 72 .

Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 73 . ename. job of employees of department number 10.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno.

job of employees of department number 10. ename.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: Write a PL/SQL block to display eno. Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 74 .

ename.salary). Using %type: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 75 . Emp(eno. sal of top 3 highest paid employees.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno.

Using %rowtype: Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 76 . Emp(eno. sal of top 3 highest paid employees.salary).PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display ename and eno.ename.

Query: To display eno. Before execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 77 . job of employee of department number 10 with the help of cursor for loop. ename.PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Cursor for loop Syntax: For <variable_name> in <cursor_name> Loop <SQL statement>.

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 78 .

PRACTICAL FILE OF RDBMS Query: To display eno. salary of top 3 highest paid employees with the help of cursor for loop. Before execution After execution MONIKA/CSE 6th SEM/7026030250 Page 79 . ename.