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An ADTRAN White Paper

4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul


Reference Architecture
Delivering Scalable Reliability using
Right-sized Packet Optical Technologies
Abstract Solution Requirements
The following document provides a description of the A key benefit of the using a mobile backhaul architecture
ADTRAN® mobile backhaul reference architecture. that delivers scalable reliability with the use of right sized
packet optical—right-sized packet optical technologies is that
This mobile backhaul reference architecture uniquely
the solution can uniquely meet both the requirements of the
provides mobile backhaul operators with a solution that
MNO and the backhaul network operator. These benefits are
offers next-generation carrier Ethernet services and allows
outlined below.
for the migration of incumbent SONET/SDH service and
transport architectures. The paper will outline a service • Provides a scalable architecture supporting future
architecture that meets the stringent requirement of 4G growth in service bandwidth, site/customer count, and
Mobile Network Operators (MNOs). It should be noted network size.
that this is a versatile reference architecture providing the
• Supports both legacy and next generation service
network operator with a highly scalable, agile packet optical
(including synchronization) delivery and transport.
networking and carrier Ethernet services solution to support
new and existing revenue streams whether mobile, residential • Assures compliance to Service Level Agreements (SLA)
or business services based. via the use of Performance Monitoring (PM) customer
web-portal.
Market Background
The relentless demand for premium video services is putting • Minimizes the operational costs associated with end to
a tremendous strain on network access infrastructures as end service activation, assurance and diagnostics.
service providers look to support the resulting backhaul Architecture Recommendations
traffic. Mobile video traffic exceeded 50 percent of mobile ADTRAN proposes a solution architecture that directly
traffic in 2011 and the average mobile connection speed addresses customer requirements by providing the following
will surpass 1 Mbps in 20141. The growing need to stay solution attributes:
competitive in the costly mobile backhaul and residential
broadband markets have service providers demanding a • Deterministic Quality of Service (QoS) through Layer 2
scalable solution that can successfully address both markets. connection oriented Ethernet.

In the past, operators constructed parallel backhaul • Reduced latency by utilizing optical switching and
networks to separate distinct service segments ensuring they limiting routing hops.
did not impact the quality of one another—a method that is • Eliminated capacity bottlenecks within Layer 3 packet-
not only expensive to build and manage, but limits scalability. processing devices.
The required architecture must be leveraged to eliminate the
• Greater scalability by dedicating separate wavelengths to
need for capital intensive overlays to grow service providers
each cell site, each MNO.
overall addressable market opportunity in both mobile and
residential backhaul applications through scalable service • Supported migration from legacy TDM/PDH and
separation. This approach delivers scalable reliability by SONET/SDH services to Ethernet and Optical
extending low latency, MEF-certified, wavelength-separated Transport Network (OTN).
Ethernet services to residential and business customers
• Simplified operational model by focusing on standards-
and cell sites over the same network infrastructure. This
based Layer 2 OAM protocols.
enables important service isolation for each individual
mobile network operator that may share a single cell site • Increased service assurance scalability by performing
or simultaneously offer residential broadband or business Y.1731 PM processing in hardware.
Ethernet with wholesale backhaul services. The unique • Simplified services management engine, the ADTRAN
component of this mobile backhaul architecture is the use Advanced Operational Environment (AOE).
of right-sized or mobile backhaul optimized packet optical
technologies.

1 Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011–2016
An ADTRAN White Paper • 3
MTSO Sites
End-to-End SLA Monitoring & Reporting

Microwave BSC
MSC
MPLS PE
PDSN Routers

DCS

NID/EAG
IP/MPLS
CSR S-GW Core
MME

RRH/DAS Metro Network


Fiber Hub Sites (MPLS/Ethernet) ILL336A

Multi-Operator NID/EAG
Cell Sites CSR

NxT1/E1, DS3, OC-3/ Protected Fiber Optic Mobile Operator


STM-1, GE/10GE, or Transport Ring Equipment: MPLS PE
µ-wave/MMW (SONET/SDH, Carrier routers, DCS, RNC/
Ethernet, MPLS, etc.) BNC, etc.
Metrocell/Microcell

Mobile Operator Mobile Backhaul Mobile Backhaul Mobile Operator Mobile Operator
Access Network Access Network Transport Network Converged Packet Core Backbone

Mobile Backhaul Network

Figure 1: Typical Mobile Network Architecture with Mobile Backhaul Network portion highlighted.

4 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


ADTRAN Mobile Backhaul
Reference Architecture
Mobile Broadband Demands an Improved Mobile
Backhaul Architecture
Today, the mobile phone is hardly a phone. It is a device as user can not be allowed to become a source of subscriber
powerful and application rich as the computer laptops that dissatisfaction because of a network capacity bottleneck.
sit on our kitchen tables. Subscribers to mobile services are Network bottleneck can cause expensive subscriber churn or
rapidly expanding their typical application usage patterns slow the uptake of the next differentiated mobile services. For
from a small percentage of their daily voice calls made while mobile carriers the largest network expense is backhaul. Now,
out of the home or office to nearly all their daily calls. Have more than ever, operators are looking for ways to reduce
you ever found yourself at your desk talking on your mobile transport costs in the backhaul network by more efficiently
device while using your desk phone as only a clock? Data utilizing bandwidth and optimizing their network to support
usage on mobile devices is really evolving. Not too long ago multiple technologies —such as circuit-based DS1/E1 and
a person was using their mobile device to look up a few SONEST/SDH and next-generation packet-based solutions
compressed web pages, WAP-based sports scores, weather like Ethernet and IP.
forecasts or to play a rudimentary card or board game
such as solitaire or checkers. Today, with advanced mobile
Mobile Backhaul, a Transition from Circuit to
Packet-based Architectures
appliances, we are now mobile gamers using our devices to
As the cost of backhauling traffic continues to rise, the
enjoy latency sensitive multi-player games seen previously
need to drive down costs continues to be the central focus
only on portable gaming consoles. Some of us send and
of operators. The lower cost per bit delivered and higher
receive hundreds of emails daily while others stream videos
scalability compared to legacy access make the conversion
to enjoy sports highlights or upload content to video sharing
to Ethernet-based IP-enabled packet network inevitable. In
websites via their mobile device.
other words, this network conversion will occur (over time),
To enable this advancement of next generation mobile not only to support the growth in new applications and
applications and to deliver the full value of mobility, MNOs mobile users, but, to drive down the rapidly rising cost
must migrate their networks to support highly efficient RF of backhaul.
standards. These 4G standards such as Long-Term Evolution
What specifically do we mean by the term backhaul?
(LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
An example of the backhaul network is illustrated in
Access (WiMAX) are being deployed as the next evolution
Figure 1. Backhaul is defined as the transport architecture
beyond today’s 3G mobile technologies. These new 4G
used to access and aggregate traffic between cell sites and
technologies will allow many times the current bandwidth to
the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) or central
be supported; 100 Mbps speeds will be supported per cell site
office. The traffic can include data, management, control,
per MNO. The existing circuit-based backhaul architectures
clock synchronization, OAM and voice. Mobile backhaul
that have served mobile backhaul networks well no longer
consists of legacy SONETS/SDH, TDM/PDH and next-
can respond to the network and customer demands. Web-
generation Gigabit Ethernet services as 4G infrastructure
page downloads are slower than they were last year, video
is deployed by MNOs.
is jerky. The same advanced mobile applications that led
to a growing subscriber base and increased revenue per

An ADTRAN White Paper • 5
4G Backhaul Requirements Simplify Services Growth and Scale
As it is difficult to forecast the demand for mobile
Before we explore the attributes of a successful, robust applications, the ability to effectively expand to more
mobile backhaul reference model we need to review the key sites, more services, more traffic is critical. Initial MNO
overarching 4G Backhaul requirements expected by MNOs. requirements ask for the delivery of 50 - 300 Mbps of
• Deliver a reliable, low cost connection Ethernet services capacity to be delivered to each and every
cell site. As multiple MNOs can share a single cell tower
• Simplify services growth and scale
site bandwidth demand per cell site could exceed 1 Gbps.
• Support both legacy and next generation service and At the other end of the backhaul link located at the Mobile
synchronization delivery and transport Switching Center (MSC) or MTSO MNOs request either
multiple 1 Gbps or 10Gbps interface hand offs to aggregate
• Provide PM Web-portal
their multiple cell site connections. It must be understood
Deliver a Reliable, Low Cost Connection that, unlike Central Office (CO) or MTSO buildings cell
The primary objectives of the backhaul network is to provide sites, intermediate hub or aggregation sites are often not
a reliable connection from the eNode B cell site equipment environmentally controlled and therefore require telecom
and the mobile core 3GPP equipment at the lowest possible equipment to be temperature hardened to operate at
cost per bit delivered. A reliable connection has the ability to -40° C up to 65° C. In order to simplify deployment for
continuously provide a high Quality of Experience (QoE) as the backhaul operator and to provide the highest level
needed to support ‘always-on’ premium real-time services. of customer service to MNO customers the following
In order to do this the connection must prioritize the QoS requirement have been cited in many 4G mobile
levels of premium services over other traffic and ensure the backhaul tenders.
connection supports high service availability and resiliency.
• Service scalability
A more detailed summary the required solution should
exhibit the following attributes: – 300 Mbps up to 1 Gbps per site
• Service availability, resiliency – Multiple MNO customer per site
– Provide full redundancy for facilities,
– 10 Gbps interface to MTSO
ports, and power.
• Network scalability/flexibility
m Support dual homing via MPLS-TP and/or LACP
– Temperature hardening, outside cabinet ready
m Support for G.8032 Ethernet ring topologies
– Optical and Copper GigE; 10 GigE and
m Dual power feeds or redundant power supplies
100Base-T interfaces
m Provide lightning protection/isolation for Ground
Potential Rise (GPR)
• QoS
– Support low latency
m <5ms one-way FDV from cell site to Exchange
m Limit Router Hops and Switching points
m Provide Support for Traffic Management;
H-QoS Mechanisms

6 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


Support Both Legacy and Next Generation Provide PM Web-Portal
Service and Synchronization Delivery Packet networks by definition are shared networks that can
and Transport be over provisioned or over booked. Their performance
Since the deployment of Ethernet enabled 4G/LTE eNodeB can vary dramatically depending how they are provisioned
will take several years to complete, legacy 2G and 3G base and configured. Because of this reality the MNO requires
stations and their legacy access services will also need to be that mobile backhaul operators verify they are meeting
supported for many years to come. This means that next- the stringent SLA regarding Ethernet frame delay, frame
generation access, aggregation and transport solutions must delay variation and frame loss (Table 2). The MNO as a
provide both legacy and next generation service delivery service provider requires this SLA assurance information be
and transport. The table below is a list of services and the provided in near real-time and therefore requests the ability
associated access medium most commonly used to carry to view network performance monitoring data on-demand.
that service: This in turn requires the mobile backhaul provider to not
Table 1: Legacy and 4G Access Requirements only measure and capture the PM metrics but also make the
data viewable in a presentable format on a secure customer
Mobile Cell Site Service Common web-portal.
Generation Required Access Used
Table 2: Typical SLA Requirements
2G TDM or PDH T1 or E1
3G UMTS ATM IMA E1/STM-1 SLA Common Access Used

3G CDMA ML-PPP T1/OC-3 Attribute SLA Requirement

4G Ethernet Fiber Max 1-way frame delay < 5ms


Max frame delay variation +/- 1ms
Along with this access protocol requirement used to carry Bit Error Rate (BER) < 1E10-9
the voice, data and network signals from the cell site, the Frame Error Rate (FER)
backhaul network must also distribute network timing or Frame Loss Ratio < 1E10-6
to each cell site to ensure the entire network is properly (FLR)
synchronized. When using synchronous protocol like TDM/
PDH and SONEST/SDH this requirement is easily met, but When looking in Table 2 at the sub-microsecond SLA
when asynchronous Ethernet access is used, alternate timing attributes, that need to be verified and reported to the
distribution methods are required. These mainly are: customer, we must recognize that typical accuracy of
• Synchronous Ethernet based on ITU-T G.8261/8262 to software PM measurements found with Ethernet switches
support sub 50 ppb frequency synchronization accuracy usually fall in the range from 10 ms to 100 ms. This is too
slow to accurately verify sub 5 ms ranges and therefore will
• IEEE 1588-2008 (1588v2) readiness to support future
not suffice in mobile backhaul applications. Microsecond
phase and time of day synchronization accuracy to
(sub-millisecond) level measurement accuracy is required
microsecond levels
and this cannot be achieved in a Carrier Ethernet Access
Gateway (EAG) without the use of hardware processors
to eliminate the nondeterministic delay incurred by time
stamps processed in software.
• SLA assurance
– Standard-based PM tool set supporting
ITU-T Y.1731, Y.1564
– Customer viewable PM dashboard/web portal
• Sub 1ms PM accuracy

An ADTRAN White Paper • 7
Reference Architecture An example of a mobile backhaul network with
dedicated fiber access technologies is provided in Figure 2.
Recommendations This backhaul link is single-tiered: a direct connection
In order to address the requirements we have just outlined, without any intermediate aggregation point from the cell
ADTRAN offers several architectural recommendations. site to the MSC. This simplified network approach using
Ethernet reduces complexity, latency and cost associated
• Limit latency, reduce network complexity
compared to alternate packet-based connectivity from the
• Implement scalable service separation cell site to the MSC. In this example, ADTRAN recommends
• Use OTN to support SONET/SDH to that redundant GigE uplinks be deployed from each cell site
Ethernet migration back to the MSC site, with each 1GigE connection being
terminated on a separate blade on the Ethernet aggregation
• Implement simplified service management device to ensure both link resiliency as well as hardware
redundancy. Note that the use of CWDM or DWDM optics
Limit Latency, Reduce Network Complexity can be used in this model to provide fiber preservation in
As highlighted in the previous 4G Backhaul requirements the mobile backhaul network. By delivering up to 2 GigE
section, the key focus of the mobile backhaul network should of bandwidth per cell site (Figure 2), it ensures that the
be to provide reliable Ethernet services to the cell site at the mobile backhaul connection is not a bottleneck for the radio
lowest cost per bit. In order to accomplish this goal and to access network for many years. This eliminates the need
address any open questions related to traffic management for complex traffic engineering schemes in the backhaul
functions and their integration into the MPLS core, packet network given that there is no congestion in the backhaul
optical networking and high-capacity Ethernet and network and the Provider Edge (PE) router has direct
optical switching should be used in the backhaul network visibility to each cell site. In this model, the PE routers
whenever possible. The use of switching eliminates potential have non-blocking, resilient 10G connections into the
bottlenecks and complexities associated with advanced Ethernet aggregation device and will map MPLS tunnels
packet processing functions in the backhaul network. into 802.1q/q-in-q attachment circuits. Per-EVC shaping
This reduces latency which directly goes to improving allows the PE router to have complete control over traffic
QoS. Also, non-blocking, multi-Gigabit access connectivity management to each cell site.
should be delivered to each cell site to limit re-architecting
in order to keep up with the advancement in mobile access
technologies. This simplified network approach using
Ethernet reduces complexity and cost associated with
alternate packet-based architectures. MTSO site
Multi-homed Uplinks
Redundant from Redundant
1G Links Terminated ETOS Cards
Ethernet EVCs 100 & 101 on Separate ETOS cvards

NodeB/eNodeB CSR/EAG 1G or 2G
per cell site
MPLS Core

EVCs 102 & 103


Ethernet MEF-Compliant
Ingress Policing
PE Routers
Egress
NodeB/eNodeB CSR/EAG
Shaping

802.1q/q-in-q
Attachment Circuits
EVC 100
EVC 101 10G Nx10G MPLS Tunnel
EVC 102
EVC 103

Per-EVC Egress Shaping Performed 802.1q/q-in-q


at PE Routers via H-QoS Attachment Circuits
mapped to MPLS tunnels.

Figure 2: Recommended Architecture for Single-tier Mobile Backhaul Network

8 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


ADTRAN’s Ethernet Transport Optical Switch 1 GigE Implement Scalable Service Separation
(ETOS-1) cards are ideally suited for deployment as the From previous sections it is understood that the backhaul
Ethernet aggregation element in this architecture. ETOS- network must be ready to support more sites, more services,
1 cards can be deployed redundantly in adjacent slots more traffic due to the often strong demand for new high
with a non-blocking 40G link between the two cards to bandwidth services. For multi-tiered access networks with
ensure redundancy to the cell sites and to the upstream intermediate fiber hubs that are not co-located at the
PE routers. For an additional level of resiliency, not shown MSC, ADTRAN recommends the use of Ethernet switching
in the figures, ADTRAN recommends terminating the combined with wavelength separation of services to maintain
separate fiber access facilities on separate Ethernet blades a logical single-tier network and it associated benefits.
which are then geographically separated in different fiber In Figure 3, each cell site should have multi-homed
hub site locations. This technique is sometimes known as connections back to the fiber hub site, just as in Figure 2
cross-chassis link aggregation and provides important dual to improve reliability. However, rather than relying on
homing capabilities. To supplement the traffic management intermediate Ethernet switching elements between the fiber
that is enforced at the PE routers, the ETOS-1 cards support hub site and the PE routers at the edge of the MPLS core,
full MEF-compliant ingress traffic policers (1R2C, 2R3C) it is recommended that each redundant set of Ethernet
and egress shaping. The ETOS-1 cards use standards-based switch fabric of the ETOS-1 cards have a dedicated DWDM
Ethernet protocols, allowing them to be used with ADTRAN wavelength from the fiber hub site to the PE routers. By
NTE or 3rd party CSR solutions. If MPLS CSRs are used, implementing this optical switching architecture, latency is
the MPLS traffic can be passed transparently between the reduced due to the reduction of Ethernet switching hops.
PE routers and the cell sites. Jumbo frames are supported by Also, non-blocking connectivity is maintained between the
the ETOS-1 cards for future proofing of cell site traffic. Each PE routers and the cell sites, and the traffic management
ETOS-1 card supports 16x1G and 2x10G links (32x1G and functions are consistent with that of the single-tier
4x10G when deployed redundantly) to ensure non-blocking architecture.
connections between the PE routers and the cell sites.

MTSO Site
Redundant Multi-homed Uplinks
1G Links Terminated Dedicated wavelengths from Redundant
on Separate ETOS cards per pair of ETOS cards ETOS Cards

Ethernet EVCs 100 & 101 Fiber Hub Site


NodeB/eNodeB CSR/EAG

MPLS Core

1G or 2G
per cell site
Ethernet
EVCs 102 & 103 PE Routers
NodeB/eNodeB CSR/EAG

802.1q/q-in-q
Attachment Circuits

EVC 100
EVC 101 10G Nx10G
EVC 102 MPLS Tunnel
EVC 103

Per-EVC Egress Shaping Performed 802.1q/q-in-q Attachment Circuits


at PE Routers via H-QoS Mapped to MPLS tunnels

Figure 3: Recommended Architecture for Multi-Tier Mobile Backhaul Network

An ADTRAN White Paper • 9
The key benefit of this architecture is its simplicity and (TPR-10-4) insert Forward Error Correction (FEC) and
scalability which ensures that the connectivity between optical regeneration into the optical layer to increase the
the cell sites and the MPLS core not become a network fiber reach. To further ensure the current and future high
bottleneck. The architecture also for the centralization of levels QoS that low latency architectures provide ADTRAN
traffic management functions at the PE routers. Performance recommends eliminating the strain on traffic management
assurance functions like Connectivity Fault Management mechanisms by provisioning separate physical paths for
(CFM) and Link OAM functions are performed in the each MNO and/or service segment (cell site versus DSLAM
ETOS cards to provide segmented OAM visibility and backhaul). To facilitate this unique scalable separation of
hierarchical QoS. services, the Total Access® 5000 has integrated DWDM
support through passive optics, fixed OADMs, or mini
In many multi-tiered architectures the intermediate
ROADMs with support for up to 88 wavelengths per hub
access and aggregation tier follows a ring topology to improve
site, and various other network topologies for maximum
resiliency. However, the additional aggregation nodes/fiber
flexibility in allocating wavelengths to the fiber hub sites. The
hub sites sitting on the ring may result in increased latency,
ADTRAN Total Access 5000 Ethernet aggregation chassis
negatively impact the QoS of the other cell site traffic sharing
supports this architecture allowing the separate aggregation
the ring. This is why it is critical to eliminate router hops
of multiple customers’ premium services. It should also be
and Ethernet switching elements by using Optical Add
noted that unlike typical packet optical solutions, mobile
Drop Multiplexing (OADM) to optically switch multiple
backhaul applications can require temperature hardened
cell site backhaul paths around the ring (Figure 4).
solutions to support operation in -40° C up to 70° C
Often the distance between mobile backhaul intermediate
solution may be deployed in street cabinets and other
hub sites sitting on the ring are too far apart from each
uncontrolled environments.
other to support common 80km optics. It this case low-
latency, non-switching 10G optical transponder modules

Physical Network View


Ethernet
Aggregation
Platform

MNO C 44, 88 or more


10Gig λ
IP/MPLS
MNO A
Core
Dedicated pairs of Ethernet,
MNO B Low latency Optical OTN or Optical
switching (Transponding) switching fabric separated
used to eliminate per MNO or per service
points of delay.

Logical Network View


Ethernet
Aggregation
Platform
IP/MPLS
MNO A Core
Logical dedicated path per MNO or per service
of the physical network shown above.

Figure 4: Logically each MNO or each service segment has its own dedicated, redundant P2P
fiber subtended from PE router

10 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


Use OTN to Support SONET/SDH to Implement Simplified Service Management
Ethernet Migration As a key player in the successful deployment of Carrier Ethernet
OTN was developed as an evolution to SONET. It adds services, ADTRAN is supporting more than just a full-featured and
a simplified digital wrapper to the payload it transports, cost-effective hardware solution set—it is a service management
provides FEC, and a management layer along with dedicated ecosystem. Carriers must deploy service delivery solutions which
channels to guarantee throughput. Core and metro systems minimize the operational costs associated with end to end service
typically handle port rates ranging from 10 Gbps (OTU-2) activation, assurance and diagnostics. ADTRAN delivers these
to 112 Gbps (OTU-4). The switch fabrics to deal with these solutions. ADTRAN is known for delivering innovative Carrier
speeds need to handle a minimum of 40 Gbps and often Ethernet opera¬tional tools like TScan loop diagnostics and EZ
substantially more. These systems have very high start- service provisioning, which reduce operational expenses. These same
up costs, require their own EMS and additional training. tools have now been incorporated in the innovative ADTRAN AOE,
Requirements for OTN at the edge are much different and in which is ADTRAN’s services management platform, as value added
many cases simpler than the core. Multi-service aggregation software products.
with a range of low rate and mid speed client interfaces
• ServiceActivator is a simplified service turn-up tool which
are mapped over 10 Gbps (OTU-2) network connections.
leverages service templates created in…
Ideally, the OTN functionality is integrated into an existing
system through a simple card addition. ADTRAN’s OTN • ServiceDesigner is used to minimize the interaction and
Switchponder is a multi-service unit that integrates OTN time required for service activation. Automated provisioning
switch with DWDM transponder on a single card. It provides functions are supported via the AOE OSS GW, which supports
remotely configurable any-service to any-port operation. TL1 and XML interfaces.
It delivers OTN mapping, switching, aggregation, and • ServiceCheck makes use of ADTRAN’s extensive real-world
transport capabilities, allowing operators to simultaneously knowledge and experience in outside plant architectures and
transport SONET/SDH, Ethernet or other services such issues to provide comprehensive physical and logical layer
as Fibre Channel. Unlike other point to point muxponder diagnostics used to present usable corrective action to the
solutions, the ADTRAN switchponder delivers ring and customer.
mesh networking with the ability to add and drop traffic
at each location. • ServiceMonitor is a non-service affecting tool which provides
proactive reporting of customer bandwidth SLA compliance
and Y.1731 OAM PM statistics
NetVanta
8044M NTE • CapacityManager is an early warning tool, which reports the
8044M NTE
Connectivity Fault
Connectivity Fault
percent utilization on the Ethernet aggregator uplinks. These
Mgmt. Management operational tools enable carriers to confidently deploy business
CCM √
CCM 3 Ethernet services in large scale, providing carriers with best-in-
LBR √
LBR 3 class OPEX and CAPEX solutions for
LBM √
LTR LBM √ 3 • LinkManager is an Optical Layer design tool used for modeling
LTM √ ONE based networks. It uses a combination of automated
LTR 3
Performance Mon.
discovery and manual configuration to build a representation
LMR LTM √ 3
of a networks optical topology that can then be leveraged
LMM √
Performance
SLR Monitoring√ by other AOE Tools, such as ServiceActivator, to simply and
SLM √ automate operations functions.
LMR 3
1DM √
To reduce operational expense and downtime, and to provide
DMR LMM √ 3
improved SLA management for mobile backhaul networks,
DMM SLR √ 3
ServiceMonitor provides the tools to collect very granular SLA
SLM 3 PM statistics and convert the data into usable information for SLA
1DM 3 reporting and presentation. This data is pulled from the memory
DMR 3 on each of the Ethernet access gateways, such as the ADTRAN
NetVanta® 8044M EAG, residing at the cell sites. These SLA PM
DMM 3
statistics are based on industry-standard ITU-T Y.1731 metrics for
one-way delay, round-trip delay, jitter, real data frame loss, and
Figure 5: AOE ServiceMonitor SLA Monitoring synthetic data frame loss in addition to IEEE 802.1ag and Y.1731
Tools capture Y.1731 metrics for export to CFM data. ServiceMonitor not only collects the PM date but also
secure customer web-portal provides a mechanism to utilize the output of SLA data to send
proactive alarms whenever user-defined thresholds are exceeded
for the PM data. This SLA monitoring capability is a minimum
requirement in 4G LTE mobile backhaul networks.

An ADTRAN White Paper • 11
Recommendations Overview
ADTRAN’s mobile backhaul solution combines best-in-class Supports both legacy and next generation service and
Carrier Ethernet and edge-optimized, right-sized packet synchronization delivery and transport by using OTN to
optical technologies that minimizes service latency and support SONET/SDH to Ethernet migration on a single
supports both legacy and the rapid growth of next generation fiber facility
services. The solution provides the operator with a service
• Support for ITU-T G.709 OTN (ADTRAN OTOS
management ecosystem from which an operator can not
Modules) at the point of aggregation allows the
only manage their network but manage their customers’
transparent delivery and migration from SONET/
expectations.
SDH with use of the any-service, any-port OTN
Supports a reliable, low cost connection by limiting latency switchponder.
and reducing network complexity
• Support of multi-service Ethernet access gateways
• Non-blocking, wavelength separated multi-GE services (ADTRAN NetVanta 8044M) to allow delivery of both
to the cell site eliminate the need for complex traffic legacy TDM/PDH and 4G required Ethernet services to
engineering in the backhaul network. Complex traffic the cell site.
engineering schemes and meshing architectures can be
• Support for Synchronous Ethernet based on ITU-T
serviced for the MPLS core. The GE circuits can serve as
G.8262 and Timing over Packet via IEEE 1588-2008 to
attachment circuits to the MPLS network.
allow for the eventual retirement of traditional network
• With the point-to-point architecture, there is no need clock distribution methods.
for the added complexity of a dynamic control plane in
Supports the implementation of a HTML-based customer
the backhaul network. These circuits are best served to
PM portal to verify the compliance to strict SLA via an
remain static mappings while the dynamic control plane
Advanced Operational Environment
can be reserved for the MPLS core.
• Standard-based PM tool set supporting
• Integrated MPLS/MPLS-TP capabilities within the
ITU-T Y.1731, Y.1564
Ethernet Switching (ETOS) architecture provides OAM
and control plane integration into the existing MPLS • Allows the capture and presentation of delay, delay
core network variation and loss metrics to sub 1ms accuracy

Supports service growth, expansion without risking service • Provides a secure customer viewable PM dashboard/
quality by using scalable wavelength-separation of services. web portal for each MNO

• Provides greater scalability by dedicating wavelengths to


each cell site ensures that regardless of services demand
access facilities and aggregation will remain unsaturated
allowing traffic management mechanism to protect
end-user QoS.
• Multi-GE connectivity to each cell site ensures that the
backhaul infrastructure is not a bottleneck for the radio
access network
• Maintains deterministic QoS through Layer 2
connection oriented ethernet
• Maximizing the use of optical switching reduces latency
and eliminates Layer 3 processing as a scaling limitation
in the mobile backhaul network

12 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


Sample Network Topology
In the U.S as in other parts of the world leading MNOs have The specific solution attributes and associated benefits of this
been upgrading their infrastructure to support 4G LTE access type of mobile backhaul reference architecture that has been
and 3GPP core standards to support the growing demand introduced in this paper has led to its strong consideration
for mobile broadband services. U.S. MNOs such as Verizon for multiple MNO mobile backhaul tender responses. A
Wireless and AT&T Wireless have been sending out tenders summary of those attributes and benefits are as follows:
to local exchange carriers, independent operating companies
• Deployment of a single access and aggregation platform
and alternative access vendors for several years in an effort
to support a multiple site aggregation ring which can be
to source next-generation Ethernet services to backhaul
resiliently attached to the MPLS core at two locations.
traffic from these newly upgraded cell sites. Many of these
solicited companies were already supporting mobile backhaul • S ubtended 1G Ethernet EAGs at each cell sites with end
for 2G/3G sites using SONET (up to DS-3 levels per site), to end service aware management that allows for the
but now are being requested to support Ethernet services near term support for 1GigE and the future expansion
up to 300Mbps per MNO per site. It is noted that 3 or 4 for up to 10GigE per site.
MNOs could share a cell site tower pushing the bandwidth • Carrier class Ethernet solution based on redundant
requirements to 1Gbps per tower site. Many mobile backhaul Ethernet Transport Optical Switching (ETOS) to
providers have existing SONET/SDH infrastructure which aggregate cell site traffic at 1 and 10 Gbps increments.
cannot evolve to support next-generation packet optical
services nor can it support the stringent performance • Use of low latency optical transponder (TPR-10-4) to
monitoring requirements put forth by the MNOs. A sample allow for extended distances between nodes.
mobile backhaul network topology supporting the backhaul • Carrier class OTN solution based on OTN Transport
of 30 4G LTE sites inclusive of legacy 2G/3G SONET traffic Optical Switching (OTOS) to aggregate and eventually
is shown in Figure 5. The architecture allows the network migrate legacy SONET/SDH services to Ethernet at
operator to support the existing SONET network as well as 1.25 Gbps increments.
a scalable N x 10GigE aggregation ring on incumbent fiber
• Scalable to multiple 10G wavelengths using lower cost,
facilities. In addition to supporting the required 300Mbps
environmentally hardened fixed OADMs (ROADM) is
per cell site the solution allows for the in-service expansion
an option to improve optical network agility.
of each cell site to greater than 1 Gbps. It should be noted
that this sample network employs fixed Optical Add-Drop • Support for existing legacy (SONET) traffic
Multiplexing (OADM). This method is less capital intensive (transparently) with integrated OTN module, namely,
and functionally is deemed acceptable as cell site and MTSO the ADTRAN OTN Transport Optical Switching
locations rarely change location (fixed). For operators who (OTOS) Modules
wish to have a more agile network architecture, the ADTRAN
• Ability to extend to regional network and replace
solution also supports Reconfigurable OADMs (ROADMs)
existing DWDM platform
providing additional network flexibility and more rapid
service delivery in the event service ingress and egress points
need to be moved.

An ADTRAN White Paper • 13
This sample network topology provides the network operator a more
efficient, more operationally simplified network model that meets
the market requirements identified earlier in this paper.
• Maintains a reliable, low cost connection between 2G, 3G and
4G cell sites and mobile exchange
• Provides a scalable architecture supporting future growth in
service bandwidth, site/customer count, and network size
Total Access® 5000 +
• N x 10G Ethernet switch
• Supports both legacy and next generation service (including
synchronization) delivery and transport
OPTICAL NETWORKING EDGE
• N x 10G OTN Switchponder

• Assures compliance to SLA via use of PM customer web-portal • 1+1 redundant hardware to
ensure high availability
• Minimizes the operational costs associated with end to end
service activation, assurance and diagnostics. • Fixed (OADM) WDM
wavelengths ( ) OADM.
(ROADM is optional)

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• 3 x Ethernet (10Gig ERPS rings) Ethernet, OTN


• 1 x OTN (10Gig OTU-2 UPSR/SNCP ring) SONET (SDH)
MPLS Core
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NetVanta 8044M EAG

FAN MODULE
SLOT 2 1179678G2
EXPANSION

SLOT 1
EXPANSION 8 -PORT
1174881G1

SHDSL EFM 5 6
ACT ALM NetVanta 8044M 8 -PORT
GE-7 GE-8 1174801G1 1174881G1 8
GE-5 GE-6 1 2 7
7 USE COPPERONLY
5 6
CONDUCTORS
2A
+ 48V .....,
SHDSL EFM 5 3 4
+ 24V ....., 3A 8
1 2 7

3 4
OPTICAL
BYPASS PWR RET
PWR RET B
A
CRAFT
8
6

1 GigE of new service capacity 2 x (OC-3/STM-1 of legacy Configuration for each EAG:
ADTRAN OPTI-6100 SONET/SDH MSPP
(inclusive of up to 16 DS1/E1 service capacity supported at • 1+1 GigE LACP client interface or any other legacy 3rd party MSPP
SAToP) supported at each of each of the 30 sites.
• 1 or 10G Resillient Ring (ERPS)
the 30 sites.
or Resilient P2P network interface
• DC Power

Figure 6: A sample Network Architecture using Packet Optical technologies to deliver both
Services Scalability and Reliability for a 30 cell site network

14 • 4G/LTE Mobile Backhaul Reference Architecture


List of Acronyms
2R3C 2 Rate 3 Color (Traffic Management) MSPP Multi-Service Provisioning Platform
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project MTSO Mobile Telephone Switching Office
4G 4th Generation Wireless Wide Area Networking NID Network Interface Device
AOE Advanced Operational Environment (ADTRAN NTE Network Termination Element
Service Management)
OAM Operations, Administration and Maintenance
BSC Base Station Controllers
OC-3 Optical Carrier, level 3 (155.52 Mbps)
BTS Base-Station Transceiver Sub-system
ONE Optical Networking Edge
CFM Connectivity Fault Management
OTN Optical Transport Network (ITU-T G.709)
CO Central Office (Exchange)
OTOS OTN Transport Optical Switch (ADTRAN)
CSR Cell Site Router
OTU-2 Optical Transport Unit, level 2 (10Gbps)
CWDM Course Wavelength Division Multiplexing
P2P Point to Point network
DCS Digital Cross-connect System (Solution)
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
PE Provider Edge
EAG Ethernet Access Gateway
PM Performance Monitoring
eNodeB Evolved Node B (4G BTS)
QoE Quality of Experience
ERPS Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (ITU-T
QoS Quality of Service
G.8032)
RAN Radio Access Network
ETOS Ethernet Transport Optical Switch (ADTRAN)
RNC Radio Network Controller
EVC Ethernet Virtual Circuit
SAToP Structure-Agnostic Time Division
FEC Forward Error Correction
Multiplexing (TDM) over Packet
Gbps Giga bit per second
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
GigE Gigabit Ethernet
SNCP Sub-Network Connection Protocol (OTN)
H-QoS Hierarchical Quality of Service
SONET Synchronous Optical Networking
LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol
STM-1 Synchronous Transport Module, level 1
LTE Long-Term Evolution (4G RAN)
STOS SONET/SDH Transport Optical Switch (ADTRAN)
MMW Millimeterwave radio
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
MNO Mobile Network Operator
TPR-10-4 4x10G Transponder (ADTRAN)
MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching
UPSR Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (SONET/SDH)
MPLS-TP Multi-Protocol Label Switching Transport Profile
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
MSC Mobile Switching Center

An ADTRAN White Paper • 15
About ADTRAN
ADTRAN, Inc. is a leading global provider of networking
and communications equipment, with a portfolio of more
than 1,700 solutions for use in the last mile of today’s
telecommunications networks. Widely deployed by carriers
and enterprises alike, ADTRAN solutions enable voice, data,
video, and Internet communications across copper, fiber,
and wireless network infrastructures. ADTRAN solutions
are currently in use by every major U.S. service provider and
many global ones, as well as by thousands of public, private
and governmental organizations worldwide.

ADTRAN, Inc.
901 Explorer Boulevard
Huntsville, Alabama 35806
P.O. Box 140000
Huntsville, Alabama 35814-4000
800 9ADTRAN

256 963-8000
256 963-8004 fax
info@adtran.com
www.adtran.com

TL19.1270

ADTRAN is an ISO 9001, ISO 14001,


and a TL 9000 certified supplier.

CN211A September Copyright © 2012 ADTRAN, Inc. All rights reserved. ADTRAN believes the informa-
tion in this publication to be accurate as of publication date, and is not responsible for error. Specifica-
tions subject to change without notice. ADTRAN, NetVanta, and Total Access are registered trademarks
of ADTRAN, Inc. and its affiliates in various countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document
are the property of their respective owners.
ADTRAN warranty duration and entitlements vary by product and geography. For specific warranty
information, visit www.adtran.com/warranty
ADTRAN products may be subject to U.S. export controls and other trade restrictions. Any export,
re-export, or transfer of the products contrary to law is prohibited. For more information regarding
ADTRAN’s export license, please visit www.adtran.com/exportlicense