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Jobin Francis Anto Sahaya Dhas D Anoop B K
Assistant Professor, Vimal Jyothi Professor, Vimal Jyothi Engineering Assistant Professor, Vimal Jyothi
Engineering College, Kannur College, Kannur Engineering College, Kannur

Abstract- Images convey relevant data and information in biological detected with the help of image processing. [4]Image processing
sciences. Digital image processing and the image analysis technology plays a crucial role in the detection of plant diseases since it
have a vital role in biology and agricultural sectors. Automatic detection provides best results and reduces the human efforts.
of plant diseases and cultivation of healthy plants is of great importance
and agricultural automation.[1] The case of a plant, the term disease is The image processing could be used in the field of agriculture
defined as any impairment happening to the normal physiological for several applications. It includes detection of diseased leaf,
function , producing characteristic symptoms. The studies of plant stem or fruit, to measure the affected area by disease, to
diseases refer to studying the visually observable patterns of a particular determine the color of the affected area. Pepper cultivation is one
plant. The identification of plants, leaves, stems and finding out the pests of the most remunerative farming enterprises in India. Black
or diseases, or its percentage is found very effective in the successful pepper is the most commonly used spice in the world. Its
cultivation of crops. The naked eye observation is the approach adopted successful growth was reported in areas where the temperature
by many of the farmers for the detection and identification of plant ranges from 15-400C. The pepper plants give the better
diseases. It requires continuous monitoring and found less useful on cultivation if sufficient requirement is provided. [5,6, 7]Plant
large farms. Also, the farmers are unaware of non -native diseases. [1,2] disease is one of the main causes which degrade the quantity and
With the aid of imaging technology the plant disease detection systems quality of the product. The naked eye observation by the experts
automatically detect the symptoms that appear on the leaves and stem of is approach usually taken in identification and detection of plants.
a plant and helps in cultivating healthy plants in a farm. These systems
[4,8]This approach is time consuming in huge farms or land
monitor the plant such as leaves and stem and any variation observed
from its characteristic features, variation will be automatically identified
areas. This paper discusses the importance of image processing
and also will be informed to the user. This paper provides an evaluative techniques in detection and identification of plant diseases in the
study on the existing disease detection systems in plants. earlier stages and thereby the quality of the product could be
Keywords: Plant diseases, Image Segmentation, masking, disease LITERATURE SURVEY
detection, feature extraction
Different methodologies had been discussed by various
INTRODUCTION researchers in detecting and identifying plant diseases.Revathi et
al propossed a system to classify the Cotton Leaf Spot Diseases
The external appearance is the most important quality Using Image Processing Edge Detection Techniques. The edge
attribute of agriculture products. This outer appearance greatly detection based image segmentation had been done initially.
affects their point of - sale value and consumer’s buying Hiary and Bani –Ahamed carried out the disease detection using a
behavior. Therefore , the quality inspecting and grading systems three-fold mechanism. In this, at first, the infected region was
are essential in agricultural field to cultivate good healthy plants. identified using k-means clustering. Next extracting the features
[1] using color co-occurrence methodology and finally classification
Plant diseases cause a major production and economic losses is done by NN’s. Arivazhagan et al., proposed a four step process
in the agricultural industry. The disease management is a for classification of the disease. First a color transformation
challenging task.[3] Usually the diseases or its symptoms such as structure for the input RGB image is created then the green pixels
colored spots or streaks are seen on the leaves or stem of a plant. are masked and removed using a threshold value in the
In plants. most of the leaf diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria, segmentation process. Then compute the texture feature using
and viruses. The diseases caused due to these organisms are color co- occurrence method finally, the extracted features are
characterized by different visual symptoms that could be passed through the classifier. The image segmentation is done
observed in the leaves or stem of a plant[2,4]. Usually, these using Otsu method in “Grading Method of Leaf Spot Disease
symptoms are detected manually. With the help of image Based on Image Processing” by ShenWeizheng andWu Yachun.
processing, Automatic detection of various diseases can be The RGB image values were converted into HSI color model, and
the value of H plane are taken for the further analysis. Dhaygude interpretation. To avoid these limitations, the acquired RGB
and Kumbhar proposed the detection algorithm consists mainly images were converted into HSV format. After the conversion
four steps the RGB image are converted into HSV plane. The from RGB to HSV, the hue and saturation components are taken
masking process is done by using the values of mostly green for further analysis since these two components contain most of
colored pixels. Next useful segments are extracted out using the information. Computations from RGB to HSV are carried out
segmentation techniques from the value of SGDM matrices on a per pixel basis.
generated. Camargo and J.S. Smith describes an image processing
method that identifies visual symptoms of plant diseases by Image Segmentation
analyzing the colored images. The segmentation process is carried out in two phases,
METHODOLOGY (i)The masking process and (ii)threshold based segmentation.

The methodology adopted in this work can be subdivided into (i)Masking of green pixels
the following set of subsections as shown in the figure below. Masking of pixels means the pixel value in an image set to
zero or some other value. Since the green color indicates the
healthy region of the plant leaves, to find the diseased portion it is
better to avoid green region to increase the speed of processing.
When the intensity of the green pixels is greater than the pre-
defined value, then all those values set to zero. After masking,
pixels with zeros values are discarded. In masking process
diseased portion of the leaf is identified using the H and S plane
values and a value of “1” is allocated to the particular portion.
Rest of the regions a value of “0” is given. As a result a binary
image containing only ones and zeros is obtained. Thus the
diseased area of the leaves can be extracted out.
(ii)Threshold based Segmentation
Similarity based segmentation is adopted to segment the input
images on the basis of similarity in the intensity or gray levels in
an image. This type of threshold based method is simple but very
Fig 1. Block Diagram Representation
powerful approach for segmenting images based on an image
space region. This method was usually used for light objects in a
First the leaf set images are taken with an image acquisition dark back ground or dark objects in a light background.
module and then desired preprocessing steps starts. The images Threshold based algorithm will choose a proper threshold value T
under analysis were then segmented by using threshold based to divide image’s pixels into several classes and separate objects
methods. The segmented results were used for deciding whether from the background. A binary image simply means an image
the pepper plant under observation are healthy or not. contains only values of zeros and ones. Then the binary image is
multiplied with the original RGB color image. In this way, the
Image acquisition
infected portion of the leaf is extracted.
The test leaf images are taken using a digital camera. Then
In this work the leaf mask and the damaged area mask thus
different image processing techniques are applied to the leaf or
generated are taken for the further analysis. The Damaged Area
stem which is captured by the camera. Proper illumination should
Mask was multiplied with the resized RGB image obtained after
be provided at the time of illumination. The images of leafs and
the pre-processing step. Since the mask contains only 1’s and 0’s
stem were taken from the same distance. Image acquisition
and in the mask the diseased portion of the leaves are having the
module should be placed at a constant distance with the plant
value of 1’s. When this image is multiplied with the RGB image,
during the time of capturing the images as it affects the accuracy
only the diseased portions will come out as a result of
of the system.
Color Transformation
Detection of the diseased portion
The RGB images were converted into HSV color space
The segmented output image shows the portion of the leaves
representation. In the RGB model each color appears in its
affected by a particular disease. Then the total affected area can
primary spectral components of red, green and blue and this
be calculated by counting the no of pixel values in the output
model is based on a Cartesian co-ordinate system. Though RGB
image. The Leaf Mask generated is an image which exactly
model matches to the human eye in such a way as strongly
separates the leaf portion and the entire background using the
perceptive to the primary colors, this model is not well suited for
values of the Saturation plane. This Leaf Mask could be used for
describing colors in terms that are practical for human
finding the total leaf area of a particular leaf. Here a value is
calculated which is called as the Damage Ratio (DR). This ratio
is calculated by dividing the damaged area by the total leaf area.
( )
DR = ×100 %
( )

From the value of Damage ratio the level of disease affected

can be calculated.
Feature extraction
Feature extraction is the process of defining a set of features,
or image characteristics, which will most efficiently or
meaningfully represent the information that was important for
analysis and classification. Feature extraction involves reducing
the amount of resources required to describe a large set of
data.The extracted features are expected to contain the relevant
information from the input data, so that the desired task can be
performed by using this reduced representation instead of the
complete initial data.An important approach to region description
is to quantify its texture content. Texture descriptor provides
measures of properties such as smoothness, coarseness and
Fig. 2 RGB to HSV conversion
regularity. In this work statistical techniques are used to describe
the textures. In this step Grey Level Co-occurrence matrix of the Fig 2 shows the conversion of the input RGB image into the
leaf images are calculated.Grey-level co-occurrence matrix Hue, Saturation and Value planes. The HSV image is further
(GLCM) creates a matrix from image a given image I. This subjected to masking.
matrix creates the GLCM by calculating how often a pixel with
grey -level value i occurs horizontally adjacent to a pixel with the The fig 3 shows the masked output for the given test image.
value j. Each element (i, j) in GLCM specifies the number of
times that the pixel with value i occurred horizontally adjacent to
a pixel with value j. If I be an intensity image, GLCM scales the
image to eight grey-levels. Texture features can be extracted
using the GLCM values.
Disease classification
The classification process is done by adopting Neural
Network. Back propagation method is considered under the
supervised learning mechanism. The feed forward back
Propagation Neural Network is generally consisting of three
layers such as an input layer, a hidden layer, and an output layer.
The neural network is to be trained with the available data.
The image analysis was carried out using MATLAB R2012A.
In this work, a set of twenty leaves were used for testing. Fig 1
shows the color conversion of a test input from RGB to HSV

Fig3. Leaf mask and damaged area mask

The fig 4 shows the output of the detected spot of disease. Table 1 Damage Ratio (DR) Results

Fig 4.Window showing the diseased portions

The fig 5 shows the results of the test images for a set of 16
leaves in that 10 leaves are unhealthy and 6 leaves are healthy.

If the DR value is set to a particular threshold value then a

comparison can be made on the amount of area affected by the
diseases. If the value of DR is less than some threshold, say five
percentages or less, then it is known that that leaf or that
particular plant is less affected by the disease and further
diagnosis can be given and the disease can be nullified earlier. If
the DR value is greater, then it is assured that leaf is above the
specified limit and the disease affected become severe. Then that
particular plant can be replaced from the set of plants. In this way
the healthy plants can be extracted out from a farm or from
garden with the help this algorithm.
The algorithm identifies two types of diseases with the help
of neural networks. Berry spot Disease and Quick wilt Disease.
Berry spot disease is a type of fungal disease found in pepper
plants when a plant is affected by this particular type of disease
the fertilizers can be added to rectify the problem. Fertilizers such
as Pseudo- monash can be added to this type of plant. Quick-wilt
disease is a type of disease due to the deficiency of minerals such
as nitrogen, magnesium and potassium. So when this type of
disease is identified the system will identify the type of disease
Fig5. Leaf images taken for disease detection and identification and the system will prescribe to add minerals to the particular
plant. The following table shows the results obtained after testing.
Twenty leaves were given for testing and the system correctly
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