Two novel simple control strategies €or current-controlled,
pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transistor inverters are presented. Both
methods are based on the three-level hysteresis comparators which select appropriate inverter output voltage vectors via switching electrically programmable read-only memory (EPROM) table.

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Two novel simple control strategies €or current-controlled,
pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transistor inverters are presented. Both
methods are based on the three-level hysteresis comparators which select appropriate inverter output voltage vectors via switching electrically programmable read-only memory (EPROM) table.

© All Rights Reserved

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JANUARY 1991

PWM-Inverters

Marian P. Kaimierkowski, M e m b e r , IEEE, Maciej A. Dzieniakowski, Member, IEEE, and Waldemar Sulkowski

pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transistor inverters are presented. Both

methods are based on the three-level hysteresis comparators which se-

lect appropriate inverter output voltage vectors via switching electri-

cally programmable read-only memory (EPROM) table. The first

controller works with current components represented in a stationary

coordinate system (ac components) and the second one with compo-

nents represented in a rotated (field-oriented) coordinate system (dc

components). The theoretical principle of these methods are discussed.

/

The results of comparative study which illustrate performance of the \

proposed controllers in comparison to the most popular scheme based \ FILun

IIV

on three independent two-level histeresis comparators are presented.

\I \

INTRODUCTION a

‘Sa

C URRENT control technique plays the most important role

in current-controlled PWM inverters which are widely ap-

plied in high performance ac drives and reactive power com-

Fig. 1. Representation of stator current is as space vector. CY - 0 station-

ary coordinate system. x - y field coordinates which rotate with angular

speed us.

pensation systems. Various current control strategies have been

developed in recent years [31-[7], [11]-[17].

A predictive [6] and a double predictive [7] strategy which

estimate the switching state resulting in minimum switching esis comparators which select appropriate inverter voltage vec-

frequency have been proposed by Holtz and Stadtfeld. Another tors via switching EPROM table. This guarantee a precise zero

approach has been introduced by Mayer and Pfaff [ 121. voltage vector selection and therefore leads to decreasing of in-

A constant inverter switching frequency regulator calculates verter switching frequency. The first regulator works with the

an inverter voltage vector, once every sample step, that will current components represented in a stationary coordinate sys-

force the current to track the current command. However, these tem CY - p and the second one with the components represented

regulators require complex calculations. in a rotated (field-oriented) coordinate system x - y (Fig. 1).

Another space-vector-based hysteresis current regulator has

been presented by Nabae, Ogasawa, and Akagi [13]. This reg- REPRESENTATION

OF THE INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE

ulator is able to suppress the high harmonic current in steady- AS A SPACE VECTOR

state and give the quick current response in transient state. But

it still uses an estimation of the counter EMF based on the de- To describe inverter output voltage and the analysis of the

rivative of high frequency current components. The other type motor current control methods the concept of a complex space

of currant regulators are based on sinusoidal PWM modulator vector will be applied. This concept gives the possibility to rep-

[ 171. The regulators of this category give very good define fre- resent three-phase quantities (currents or voltages) with the help

quency spectrum. The linear PI-controller which is normally of one space vector and is very often used in the analysis of ac-

used in this type of regulators has infinite gain for dc only. machines [2], [lo].

Therefore, it cannot eliminate an error in transients states. If the neutrals N of the motor and M of the dc-link are not

In this paper two novel simple space vector current control connected (Fig. 2(a)) then eight conduction modes of the in-

strategies are presented. Both are based on three-level hyster- verter are possible. The inverter output voltage can be repre-

sented as a complex-vector as

Manuscript received May 16, 1989; revised May 22, 1990. This paper elkn’’ fork = 1, * * ,6

was presented at the 1989 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, gk = (1)

fork = 0.7.

Milwaukee, WI, June 26-29.

The authors are with the Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics,

00-662 Warszawa, ul. Koszykowa 75, Grn.E.IIIp., Poland. The state of switches in inverter legs A , B , C denoted as pat-

IEEE Log Number 9038030. terns s k ( S A , s,, s,) corresponds to each vector E k , where for

KAZMIERKOWSKI er al. : NOVEL SPACE VECTOR BASED CURRENT CONTROLLERS FOR PWM-INVERTERS 159

Fig. 2. (a) Simplified diagram of inverter feeding induction motor (b) rep-

resentation of output voltages as space vectors.

Fig. 3. Block diagram of proposed current vector controller working with components represented in stationary coordinate

system a - 0 (ac components).

S = 1 the upper switch and and for S = 0 the lower switch is forms an output current space-vector according to,,i and is@,

conducting in the inverter leg. Thus, for example vector 41, ( 1, commands. Accuracy of the current formation is determined by

0, 0 ) represents switches state shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b) the width of hysteresis zone of three-level comparators HC, and

shows the space vectors of the inverter output voltage given HCB (Fig. 3). The practical implementation of three-level hys-

by (1). teresis comparator is shown in Fig. 4(a). The digital output sig-

nals (&, d,) of comparators select the state of inverter switches

( S A , S,, S,) using the switching table. This table defines the

CURRENTVECTORCONTROLLER WORKING WITH

COMPONENTS REPRESENTEDIN A STATIONARY

inverter output voltage (Fig. 5). To understand contents of the

table it is necessary to compare mutual positions of the voltage

COORDINATE SYSTEM(Y - 3!,

vectors and the limits of current error area (Fig. 6 ) . This com-

The proposed current vector controller (CVC) working in parison points out: if the outputs of the both comparators are in

(Y - /3 coordinate ( C V C ab) is shown in Fig. 3. The system the active state ( 1 or - 1) then the output voltage vector is ex-

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 6, NO. I, JANUARY 1991

riat

I 4 1

i'"

I -

(b)

Fig. 4. (a) Implementation of three-level hysteresis comparator. (b) limits of current vector area (in case of A H << H ) .

1"

OR

ca,-in a axis; epm-in 6 axis; e,,-in A phase; €,-in B phase.

(zero level) the second one makes a choice of the output voltage

vector; if the both comparators have the zero state then the zero

vector is applied to the load.

The current control in a coordinate system a! - p gives

possibility to form the inverter output currents ia, iB, ic

(Fig. 7) on the basis of the well-known transformation a! -

P/A, B, C.

CURRENTVECTORCONTROLLER WORKINGWITH

COMPONENTSREPRESENTED

IN A FIELD-ORIENTED

COORDINATESYSTEMX - Y

l The proposed current vector controller working in x - y co-

Fig. 6. Mutual position of voltage vectors and current limits. ordinates (CVC xy ) is shown in Fig. 8 . The field-oriented stator

KAZMIERKOWSKI et al. : NOVEL SPACE VECTOR BASED CURRENT CONTROLLERS FOR PWM-INVERTERS 161

Fig. 8. Block diagram of proposed current vector controller working with components represented in field-onented coordinate

system x - y (dc-components).

I62 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 6. NO. I , JANUARY 1991

L-

t / 'Sa

II 1 I

I'iII~II~~~ITIMII~IIIIII~III~III~II

0

6

5

L

3

2

1

0

0 0.03

0.6

(b)

Fig. 11. Basic signal waveforms for proposed methods at same load conditions and same accuracy of phase current formation

(a) CVC cup. (b) CVC xy.

~

KAZMIERKOWSKI et al. : NOVEL SPACE VECTOR BASED CURRENT CONTROLLERS FOR PWM-INVERTERS 163

Fig. 12. Experimental signal waveform for CVC a(3 current controller.

current commands isxc and ,,i (Fig. 1) as well as the slip fre-

quency command wRc are input quantities of the system. The

current vector components is,, ,i are converted from the mea-

sured line currents i, and i, in the A B C / ( Y - p block. The

corresponding field oriented components of the stator vector ,i

and is, are obtained from the stationary components is, and is,

by coordinate transformation a - P / x - y . The instantaneous

current errors E , and E? are delivered to the three-level hysteresis Fig. 13. Experimental signal waveform for CVC xy current controller.

comparators HC, and HC,. (Fig. 4).For the current control strat-

egy it is enough to analyze only signs of voltage vector com-

ponents us, and us?. For the control ,i - the us, component is where d, and d, are digitized output signals of the comparators.

To find relation between signs of components usx, us\. and in-

d, = 1 and us > 0 verter output voltage vector & given by (1) it is necessary to

detect the position of the field coordinates x - y . The digitized

d, = -1 andus, <0 (2) variables d,, d? and the rotor flux position y s ( N ) - (sectors)

create a digital word, which by accessing the address of the

d, = 0 and usx = 0 EPROM obtains the set of switching pulses ( S A , SE, S), pre-

sented in Fig. 9. In contrast to the approach presented by Rod-

and for the control is, the us, component is riquez and Kastner [ 161 the complex plane of Fig. 2(b) is divided

not into six but into 24 sectors. This provides very convenient

d, = 1 and usy > 0 cooperation with three-level hysteresis comparators and more

precise selection of the output vectors. Each sector is delimited

dy = - 1 and us? < 0 (3) as shown in Fig. 10. The selection table is created according to

the following principles: in each sector the vector is chosen

d , = 0 and us\. = 0 whose us, and uss components have the same sign as the com-

164 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. VOL. 6, NO. 1, JANUARY 1991

II

-ai.

Fig. 14. Error area for CVC or@-controller. (a) In stationary coordinates. (b) In rotated coordinates.

i

Fig. 15. Error area for CVC xy controller. (a) In stationary coordinates. (b) In rotated coordinates.

parator outputs dx,d, respectively; if the above condition is sat- area is exactly defined in the stationary coordinates for C V C

isfied for two vectors the one lying closer to the symmetry axis &controller and in the rotated (field) coordinates for C V C xy-

is chosen; the zero vector is a applied when both comparators controller, respectively (Figs. 14 and 15). To compare the pro-

are in zero state. posed regulator with another control schemes a different per-

formance indices are considered (the number of switchings in

period, additional losses, current distortion factor, etc.) but in

Fig. 16 only the number of switchings in period is shown. Note

RESULTS that both proposed controllers reduce number of switchings in

period in comparison with other methods.

The research has been carried out in two main directions:

explaining and presenting the operation of the both proposed

controllers; performance comparison with the most popular CONCLUSION

scheme based on the two-level hysteresis comparators presented

in [l], [16]. The presented space-vector based controllers have the fol-

The waveforms for the proposed C V C crp and C V C xy cur- lowing features and advantages: hardware implementation is

rent controllers are shown in Fig. l l . The inverter is supplying very simple and practically free of adjustment; they need only

an induction machine at steady state motor load operation. These two hysteresis comparators and an EPROM table; no motor

oscilograms are obtained by digital simulation for the same load counter EMF calculation is required; by using three-level com-

conditions and the same accuracy of the line currents formation. parators the zero vectors are naturally and systematically ap-

Note that the zero voltage vector is systematically applied in plied to the load; the regulator switches between the adjacent

both control methods (see voltage vector sequence). The con- and the zero vectors. As shown in this paper the space-vector

trollers switches between adjacent states and zero. approach is very helpful in creation this new current control

The simulation results are verified by laboratory test. The strategies. The connection of a priori information located in the

voltage and current vector components as well as voltage vector EPROM table with on line information from three-level com-

sequence are shown in Figs. 12 and 13. Since the both control parators lead to realization of very simple but intelligent current

methods are based on space vector approach the current error controllers.

KAZMIERKOWSKI et al. : NOVEL SPACE VECTOR BASED CURRENT CONTROLLERS FOR PWM-INVERTERS I65

- 358.8 of a new discrete pulse modulated current regulator,” in

IEEEIIAS Annual Meeting Conf. R e c . , Oct. 1988.

[6] J. Holtz and S . Stadtfeld, “Field-oriented control by forced mo-

tor currents in a voltage fed inverter drive,” in Rec. IFAC Sym-

- 288.8

posium Control in Power Electronics and Electrical Drives,

Lausanne, Switzerland 1983, pp. 103-1 IO.

[7] J. Holtz and S. Stadtfeld, “A PWM inverter drive system with

on-line optimized pulse patterns,” in EPE Conf. R e c . , Brussels

1985, pp. 3.21-3.25.

[8] M. P. Kazmierkowski and W. Sulkowski, “Transistor inverter-

fed induction motor drive with vector control system,” in

- 5ee.e IEEEIIAS Annual Meeting Conf. R e c . , pp. 162-168, 1986.

[9] M. P. Kazmierkowski and A. Wojciak, “Current control of VSI

PWM inverter-fed induction motor,” Przeglad Elektrotechni-

- 388.8 czny, Nr. 9, 1988.

[IO] W. Leonard, Control of Electrical Drives. Berlin: Springer Ver-

lag, 1985.

[ I 11 L r Malesani and P. Tenti, “A novel hysteresis control method

for current-controlled VSI-PWM inverters with constant modu-

lation frequency,” in IEEEIIAS Annual Meeting Con$ Rec., pp.

7ee.e 851-855, 1987.

[I21 H. R. Mayer and G. Pfaff, “Direct control of induction motor

~ 5ee.e currents design and experimental results,” in EPE Conf. Rec.,

Brussels, Belgium, 1985, pp. 3.7-3.12.

[13] A. Nabae, S. Ogasawara, and H. Akagi, “A novel control scheme

- 3ee.e for current-controlled PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,

vol. IA-22, no. 4, pp. 697-701, 1986.

[I41 G. Pfaff, A. Weschta, and A. Wick, “Design and Experimental

Results of a Brushless AC Servo Drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,

vol. IA-20, no. 4, pp. 814-821, 1984.

[I51 A. B. Plunkett, “A current controlled PWM transistor inverter

drive,” in IEEEIIAS, Annual Meeting Conf. Rec., pp. 785-792,

1979.

[I61 J . Rodriquez and G. Kastner, “Nonlinear current control of an

250, 1987.

y,,,,158. e

e. e85 e. e2 e. e35

Fig. 16. Number of switchings in period for different current regulators:

[I71 T. W. Rowan and R. J. Kerkman, “A New synchronous current

regulator and analysis of current regulated PWM inverters,” IEEE

Trans. Ind. A p p l . , pp. 678-690, July/Aug. 1986.

[18] H. H. Van der Broeck, H. Ch. Skudelny, and G. Stanke, “Anal-

ysis and realization of a pulsewidth modulator based on voltage

space vectors,” in IEEEIIAS Annual Meeting Con$ Rec., pp.

CVC aP-proposed regulator working in a - coordinates; 3BB - three 244-251, 1986.

independent two level comparators [ 151; x - y - regulator presented in

(161; CVC x y - proposed regulator working in x - y coordinates.

APPENDIX

Equivalent scheme

parameters (pu): Motor data:

rs 0.087

= PN = 1 . 1 KW

r R = 0.082 UN = 87/150 V

xs = 2.174 I N = 7.5A (Y)

Marian P. Kaimierkowski (M’89) was born

in Wolomin, Poland, on October 5, 1943. He

X R = 2.145 received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in elec-

xM = 2.054 trical engineering from the Institute of Control

and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University

of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, in 1968 and

REFERENCES 1972, respectively

From 1968 to 1970 he was employed at the

[I] D. M. Brod and D. W. Novotny, “Current control of VSI PWM Institute of Electrotechnics, and from 1972 to

inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. A p p l . , Vol. IA-21, No. 4, pp. 562- 1980 he was with the Institute of Control and

570, 1985. Industrial Electronics, the Warsaw University

121 H. Buhler, “Einfuhrung in die Theorie geregelter Drehstroman- of Technology, as an Assistant. From 1980 to 1983 he was with RWTH

triebe,” Bd. 1 und Bd.2, Basel Stuttgart, Birkhauser, 1977. Aachen, W&t Germany, as an Alexander von Humbolt Fellow and

[3] M . A. Dzieniakowski, and H. Tunia, “Formation of output cur- later in 1986-1987 he was a Visiting Professor at NTH Trondheim,

rent of voltage-fed inverter with application of alter-polar mod- Norway. Since 1985 he has been an Associate Professor at Warsaw

ulation,” in EPE Conf. Rec., Brussels, Belgium 1985. University of Technology and he is currently a Director of the Institute

[4] S. Fukuda, H. Hasegawa, and Y. Iwaji, “PWM technique for of Control and Industrial Electronics.

inverter with sinusoidal output current,” in PESC Conf. Rec., Dr. Kaimierkowski is engaged in research and theoretical work on

1988, pp. 35-41. electronical drive control and industrial electronics.

166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 6, NO. I. JANUARY 1991

Maciej A. Dzieniakowski (M’88) was born in Waldemar Sulkowski received the M.Sc. and

Skierniewice, Poland on May 13, 1951. He re- Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the

ceived the M.Sc (Eng.) and Ph.D. degrees from Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw,

the Warsaw University of Technology, War- Poland in 1979 and 1987, respectively.

saw, Poland, in 1975 and 1984, respectively. In 1981 he joined the power Electronic Re-

He is presently employed at the Institute of search Group in the Institute of Control and In-

Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw, as dustrial Electronics at Warsaw University of

a Lecturer. His main research interest is in the Technology, working on the development of

field of current and voltage formation methods transistor VSI and vector-controlled induction

in power electronics, and variable speed ac motor drive systems. His research interests in-

drives. clude power electronic hard and soft switching

inverters, control theory, and-dynamic systems modeling. Since 1986

he has been a Lecturer in the Department of Forestry and Agricultural

Engineering at Warsaw Agricultural University.

Dr. Sulkowski is a member of the Polish Electricians Society.

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