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SYLLABUS COPY
REGULATION 2013
CE6605 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II
LT P C
3003
UNIT I PLANNING FOR SEWERAGE SYSTEMS 7
Sources of wastewater generation – Effects – Estimation of sanitary sewage flow –
Estimation of storm runoff – Factors affecting Characteristics and composition of
sewage and their significance – Effluent standards – Legislation requirements.
UNIT II SEWER DESIGN 8
Sewerage – Hydraulics of flow in sewers – Objectives – Design period - Design of
sanitary and storm sewers – Small bore systems - Computer applications – Laying,

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joining & testing of sewers – appurtenances – Pumps – selection of pumps and pipe
Drainage -. Plumbing System for Buildings – One pipe and two pipe system.

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UNIT III PRIMARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE 9
Objective – Selection of treatment processes – Principles, Functions, Design and

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Drawing of Units - Onsite sanitation - Septic tank with dispersion - Grey water
harvesting – Primary treatment – Principles, functions design and drawing of screen,
grit chambers and primary sedimentation tanks – Construction, operation and
Maintenance aspects.
En
UNIT IV
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SECONDARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE
Objective – Selection of Treatment Methods – Principles, Functions, Design and
12

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Drawing of Units - Activated Sludge Process and Trickling filter – Oxidation ditches,
UASB – W aste Stabilization Ponds – Reclamation and Reuse of sewage - sewage

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recycle in residential complex - Recent Advances in Sewage Treatment –
Construction and Operation & Maintenance of Sewage Treatment Plants.
UNIT V DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AND SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
g.n
Standards for Disposal - Methods – dilution – Self purification of surface water
9

– Sludge digestion – Biogas recovery – Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering –


disposal – Advances in Sludge Treatment and disposal.
et
bodies – Oxygen sag curve – Land disposal – Sludge characterization – Thickening

TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
The students completing the course will have
x ability to estimate sewage generation and design sewer system including
sewage pumping stations
x required understanding on the characteristics and composition of sewage, self
purification of streams
x ability to perform basic design of the unit operations and processes that are
used in sewage treatment

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TEXT BOOKS:
1. Garg, S.K., "Environmental Engineering" Vol. II, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi,
2003.
2. Punmia, B.C., Jain, A.K., and Jain. A., "Environmental Engineering", Vol.II,
Lakshmi Publications, News letter, 2005.
REFERENCES:
1. "Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment", CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban
Development, Government of India, New Delhi, 1997.
2. Metcalf & Eddy, "Wastewater Engineering" – Treatment and Reuse, Tata McGraw
Hill Company, New Delhi, 2003.
3. Karia G L & Christian R A, "W astewater Treatment", Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi, 2013.

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CE6605 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II


LTPC
3003
(Civil engineering VI SEM)

Aim and Objective of the Subject


1. To educate the students on the principles and design of Sewage
Collection,
Conveyance, treatment and disposal.
2. It exposes the students in planning of sewerage system.
3. This course enables the students to develop skill on sewage treatment and

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Need and Importance for Study of the Subject

Having successfully taken this course, student will be able to

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The student shall have a comprehensive design knowledge related to various
Unit Operation and processing systems.
x
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Know the basic concepts of sewage planning and its appropriate

x
maintenance.
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Enlighten the basic concepts of sewage treatment.

x Effluent Treatment plant


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Industry Connectivity and Latest Developments

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x Sludge reduction
x
x
All Manufacturing industries
Energy recovery through the sludge g.n
 Energy like heat and Electricity
 Organic fertilizer
 Sewage farming
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Industrial Visit (Planned if any)

1. Dairy Effluent treatment plant –Aavin Milk and Dairy products, Reddiyarpatti,
Tirunelveli

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Department of Civil Engineering

Detailed Lesson Plan

Name of the Subject& Code: CE6605 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II


TEXT BOOKS:
1. Garg, S.K., "Environmental Engineering" Vol. II, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi,
2003.
2. Punmia, B.C., Jain, A.K., and Jain. A., "Environmental Engineering", Vol.II,
Lakshmi Publications, News letter, 2005.
REFERENCES:
1. "Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment", CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban
Development, Government of India, New Delhi, 1997.
2. Metcalf & Eddy, "Wastewater Engineering" – Treatment and Reuse, Tata McGraw

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Hill Company, New Delhi, 2003.
3. Karia G L & Christian R A, "W astewater Treatment", Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi, 2013.

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S l. Hours Cumulati
Boo

No
Unit
asy Topics
Planned ve hours
k
No.

1 1 En
UNIT-I : PLANNING FOR SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
Sources of wastewater generation, Effects 1 1 T1

2 1 gin
Water Carriage System,Conservency
system, Dry & W et weather flow
1 2 T1

3
4
1
1
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Estimation of sanitary sewage flow
Estimation of storm runoff
2

rin 4 T1

5 1
Factors affecting Characteristics and
composition of sewage and their
significance
2
g.n 6
T1,R
1

6 1 Characteristics of sewage

Effluent standards, Legislation


1 et7
T1,R
2, R1
T1,R
7 1 requirements 1 8
1
UNIT – II : SEWER DESIGN
8 2 Sewerage systems ,Hydraulics of flow in 3 T1,T
11
sewers – Objectives 2
Design period - Small bore systems -
9 2 Computer applications 1 12 T1

10 Design of 2
2 14 Net
sanitary and storm sewers
T1,T
11 Laying, 1 15
2
joining & testing of sewers 2, R1

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Boo
S l. Hours Cumulati
Unit Topics k
No Planned ve hours
No.
12 2 Appurtenances 1 16 T1

13 Pumps – selection of pumps and pipe 1 17 T1,T


2
Drainage
2

14 Plumbing System for Buildings – One pipe 1 18 T1


2
and two pipe system
UNIT – III : PRIMARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE

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15 3 Objective – Unit Operation and Processes

Selection of treatment processes – Onsite


1 19 T1
T1,R
16
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harvesting
2 21 2,
net

17 3 asy
Primary treatment – Principles,
functions design and drawing of screen
2 23
T1,T
2

18 3 En
grit chambers 2 25
T1,R

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primary sedimentation tanks
2
T1,R
19

20
3

3
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Operation and Maintenance aspects.
2

2 rin
27

29
2
R2,R
1

UNIT – IV : SECONDARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE g.n


21

22
4 Objective – Selection of Treatment
Methods
Principles, Functions, Design and
1

2
et30

32
T1

T1,T
4 Drawing of Units - Activated Sludge
2
Process
T1,T
23 4 Trickling filter 2 34
2
T1,T
24 4 Oxidation ditches 2 36
2
25 4 UASB 2 38 T1
26 Waste Stabilization Ponds – Reclamation 2
4 40 T1
and Reuse of sewage

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Boo
S l. Hours Cumulati
Unit Topics k
No Planned ve hours
No.
Recent Advances in Sewage Treatment –
27 Construction and Operation & Maintenance 2 R2,R
4 42
of Sewage Treatment Plants. 1

UNIT-V : DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AND SLUDGE


T1,T
28 5 Standards for Disposal 1 43
2
Methods – dilution – Self purification of
29 2 T1,T
5 surface water 45

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30 5
bodies
Land disposal – Sewage farming 1 46
2
T1,T

31w.E 5 Sludge characterization 1 47


2
T1,n
et
32

33
5
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Sludge Thickening 1

1
48
T1,T
2
T1,T

34
5

5 En
Sludge digestion – Biogas recovery
Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering – 1
49

50
2
T1,T

35
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disposal
Advances in Sludge Treatment and 1 51
2
T1,T
5
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disposal.

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2

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UNIT-1
PLANNING FOR SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
PART-A
1. What are tw o products of sew age treatment? Define Population Equivalent
(May/June 2016)
Sew age treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastew ater, including
household sew age and runoff (effluents). It includes physical, chemical, and biological
processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants.
Population equivalent or unit per capita loading, (PE), in waste-water treatment is
the number expressing the ratio of the sum of the pollution load produced during 24
hours by industrial facilities and services to the individual pollution load in household
sewage produced by one person in the same time.

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2. Define (a) SULLAGE (b)MINAS (May/June 2016)
SULLAGE
The waste water generated from kitchens and bathrooms due to bathing, washing cloths

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utensils etc.,
MINAS

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Minimum National Standards
3. What is know n as sew erage? What are the tw o types of sewage system? List
the components of sew erage system? What is peak drainage discharge? (Nov/Dec
2015) (May/June 2014)
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The removal of waste water and refuse by means of sewer. It consists of a network of
sewer pipe lines laid in order to carry the sewage from individual homes to the sewage
treatment plant.
The two types of sewage system are,
a. Combined system:
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When the drainage is taken along with the sewage
then it is called as combined system. g.n
b. Separate system:
When the drainage and sewage are taken
independently of each through two different sets of sewage is called as
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separate system.

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a) Combined system b) Separate


system
The components of sewerage system are,
a. House sewers.
b. Lateral sewers.
c. Branch sewers.
d. Main sewers.
e. Outfall sewers.
f. Man holes.
The method estimating the maximum rate of storm runoff is called as peak drainage
discharge.

4. What are the impacts of nutrients on water bodies? (Apr/May 2015)

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Excess nutrients in water bodies lead to Algal Bloom and Eutrophication. Nutrients
lead to excessive growth of algae (Algae bloom) on the water surface, W hich prevents

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penetration of sunlight and oxygen into it. The Dissolved oxygen (DO) level of water
decreases and adversely affects the aquatic animals (Eutrophication)

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5. What is the effect of oxygen demanding waste on w ater bodies? How do you
estimate the storm runoff? (Apr/May 2011) (Apr/May 2015)

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The aerobic condition will no longer be maintained and putrefaction will set in.
x Rational method
Qp= (K.Pc.A)/36 gin
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Qp = Peak rate of runoff in cumecs,
K = Coefficient of runoff,

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A = Catchment area, in hectares, Pc = Critical rainfall intensity, in cm/hr.
x Empirical formulae
Intensity duration curve
P= a/(T +b)
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PC = P = Rain intensity in cm/hr
T = Time in minutes, a & b = Constants
For T varying between 5 to 20 minutes, a = 75 & b = 10,
et
P= 75/T+10
For T varying between 5 to 20 minutes, a = 100 & b = 20,
P= 100/T+20
For localities where rainfall is frequent P= 343/T+ 18
x Kuichling’s formula
Storm frequency = 10 years , P= 267/T+20
Storm frequency = 15 years, P = 305/T +20

6. What is the effect of oxygen demanding waste on w ater bodies? (Nov /Dec
2014)

i) DO levels will decrease in water bodies


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ii) Aquatic life will be destroyed

7. Enumerate the sources of w aste w ater (Nov /Dec 2014)

i) Residence (excreta, sullage) ii) Institutions iii) Commercial establishment


iii) Commercial establishment iv) Industrial process v) Ground water infiltration
vi) Storm runoff

8. Why do analyses BOD and COD usually give different results for the same
waste water (Nov/ Dec 2013)

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) means the amount of oxygen (in mg/L) the
microorganisms like bacteria need to 'eat' the organic pollutants (sugars, fat, proteins, ...).
Note that not all Pollution can be removed (eaten) by bacteria. BOD value in polluted
water is normally higher than the fresh water. Increased BOD can be resulted due to

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domestic sewage, petroleum residues and wastes of animals and crops.
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is the amount of oxygen required to degenerate all

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pollution in a chemical way (by adding oxidising agents and heating). In general with
chemical destruction you can remove more polution than with the biological way.
As BOD is only a measurement of consumed oxygen by aquatic microorganisms to

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decompose or oxidize organic matter and COD refers the requirement of dissolved
oxygen for the oxidation of organic and inorganic constituents both. Hence COD must be
greater than BOD.
En
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9. What is suspended solids ,What is the effect of suspended solids on w ater
bodies (Nov/ Dec 2013)

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Total suspended solids (TSS) are particles that are larger than 2 microns found in the

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water column. Anything smaller than 2 microns (average filter size) is considered a
dissolved solid. Most suspended solids are made up of inorganic materials, though

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bacteria and algae can also contribute to the total solids concentration
Suspended solids can clog fish gills, reducing their growth rate. They also reduce light

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penetration. This reduces the ability of algae to produce food and oxygen. W hen the
water slows down, the suspended sediment settles out and drops to the bottom, a
process called siltation

10. Name sew age characteristics with which organic matter concentration is
expressed (May/June 2013)

BOD- Biological Oxygen Demand COD- Chemical Oxygen Demand


TOC- Total Organic Carbon Total solids

11. Distinguish betw een “dry w eather flow ” and “wet w eather flow” (May/June
2012), (Nov/Dec 2012)
Dry w eather flow /sanitary sew age
It is the quantity of waste water that flows through a sewer in dry weather when no storm
water in the sewer.

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Wet w eather flow /storm w eather flow


Is the additional flow that would occur during the rainy season .it consists of runoff
available from, yards, roofs, streets, open spaces etc., during rainfall.
State the necessity of waste w ater characterization. (May/June 2012)
Reduce the spread of communicable diseases caused by pathogenic organisms in
the sewage Prevent the pollution of surface and ground water.

12. Explain the meaning and significance of time of concentration.(Apr/May 2011)


(Nov / Dec 2011)

Time of concentration is the period after which the entire catchment area starts
contributing to the runoff in drains.
TC=Ti + Tf
Ti –Inlet Time

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It is used to indicate the

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b) Outlet time
c) Peak time
d) Maximum Runoff asy
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It is used to drain the storm water drains.

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13. Distinguish betw een “self cleansing velocity” and “Non scouring velocity”
(Nov/Dec2013)

Self cleansing velocity


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The silting of sewers can be avoided by generating high velocities that would not permit
the solids to settle down i.e. the velocity should be such as to cause automatic self
cleaning velocity.
Non scouring velocity g.n
et
The smooth interior surface of a sewer pipe gets scoured due to the continuous
abrasion caused by the suspended solids present in sewage .this scouring and wear and
tear of the pipe interior is much more pronounced at velocities higher than what can be
tolerated by the pipe materials .this wear and tear of the sewer pipes will not only reduce
their life span but also reduce their carrying capacities .in order to avoid these
complications ,it is therefore necessary to limit the maximum velocity that will be
produced in the sewer pipe at any time. This velocity is known as non scouring velocity.

14. What is suspended solids ,What is the effect of suspended solids on w ater
bodies

Total suspended solids (TSS) are particles that are larger than 2 microns found in the
water column. Anything smaller than 2 microns (average filter size) is considered a
dissolved solid. Most suspended solids are made up of inorganic materials, though
bacteria and algae can also contribute to the total solids concentration

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Suspended solids can clog fish gills, reducing their growth rate. They also reduce light
penetration. This reduces the ability of algae to produce food and oxygen. W hen the
water slows down, the suspended sediment settles out and drops to the bottom, a
process called siltation

15. What is BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand), COD (Chemical oxygen demand)?
Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the amount
of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break
down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a
specific time period
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount
of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of
organic pollutants found in surface water. It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

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16. What is critical rainfall duration? What is intensity of rainfall?

Maximum runoff will be obtained from the rain having duration equal to the time of

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concentration. This is called critical rainfall duration
The intensity of a rain is the rate at which it is falling, and it is expressed in cm/hr

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PART-B
1. Factors affecting Characteristics and composition of sew age and their
significance (May/June 2016)

a)Rate of w ater supply: The quantity of waste water produced from a community
would naturally depend upon the rate of water supply per capita per day. The quantity of
waste water entering the sewers would be less than the total quantity of water supplied.
This is because of the fact that water is lost in domestic consumption, evapotaion,lawn
sprinkingling, fire fighting,industrial consumption etc.However ,private source of water
supply anf infilteration of subsoil water in the sewers increase the waste water flow
rate.Generally the waste water quantity may be assumed to be 80% of the quantity of
water supply .The sewers should be designed for a minimum of 150 litres per capita per
day (lpcd) .
b)Population grow th: The sewerage system is designed for the quantity of waste

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water not only of the present population but also of the population of few year hence,the
population forecast may be done by the following methods

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Geometrical increase

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Incremental increase
Decreased rate of growth
Graphical extension
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Graphical comparison method

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Zoning method or Master plan method
Ratio and correlation
Growth composition analysis
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c)Design period: The branches and main sewers are designed for the population
which may occur at the end of one generation of 30 years. This period of 30 years is
called the design period.
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d)Type of area Served: The quantity of waste water produced depend upon

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whether the area to be served is residential, commercial or industrial .The waste water
from the residential area directly depends upon the rate of water supply. If there is no
infiltration of water in the sewers, and if there is no infiltration of water in the sewers, and
if there are no private sources of supply, the waste water produced from the residential
area may be assumed to be equal to 70 to 80% of the water supplied through the public
supply system
e)Infiltration of Sub-soil water: Ground water of subsoil water may infiltrate into
the sewers through the leaky joints. Exfiltration is the reverse process which indicate the
flow of waste water from the sewer into the ground, while due to the infiltration the quantity
of flow through sewer increases, exfiltration results in decease in the flow and consequent
increase in the pollution of ground water. Both infiltration as well as exfiltration are
undesirable and take place due to imperfect joints.
Infiltration depends on depth of sewer, size of sewer, length, nature and type of soil, type
of joints, workmanship, and sewer material

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2.a. How to estimate the design sew age discharge Addition due to unaccounted
private w ater supplies

Public uses Private wells and tube wells in addition with public distribution
Addition due to infiltration
Sewer pipes are laid below ground water table-water seeps in to pipes through faulty
joints or cracks- quantity depends on height of water table and extends of faults
Ground water table is below sewer pipes- infiltration occurs it depends
on permeability of ground soil
Subtraction due to water losses
Water lost due to leakage in distribution system does not appear as sewage
Subtraction due to water not entering the sew erage system
Water used in boilers, streets, lawns, and gardens does not produce sewage

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Net quantity of sew age produced =75 to 80% of the accounted water supplied from
water works

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2.b.Explain time of concentration

The time of concentration consist of two parts


c.
asy
The inlet time or overland flow time or time of equilibrium
Ti= (0.885 L3/H) 0.385
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Where Ti =inlet time in hours

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L=length of overland flow in kilometers from
the critical point to the mouth of the drain

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H=total fall of level from the critical point to
the mouth of the drain in meters
ii . The channel flow time or gutter flow time Tf rin
Tf = Length of drain / velocity in the drain
Total time of concentration Tc = Ti + Tf g.n
3. Explain the legal requirements and standards regarding treatment of sew age
(May/June 2014), (May/June 2013), (Nov/Dec 2012)
et
i) The Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1992 (Urban Waste Water
Treatment)
Regulations, 1994
The Ervironmenta1 Protection Agency Act, 1992 (Urban W aste W ater Treatment)
Regulations, 1994 (S.I. 419 of 1994) were made in December, 1994 .This provide
framework for action to deal with the
pollution threat from urban wastewater. Specific requirements apply in relation to
x Collecting systems;
x Treatment plants; and
x Monitoring of discharges.

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Appropriate treatment is defined in the Regulation as 'treatment of urban 'waste water by


any process and/or disposal system which after discharge allows the receiving - waters to
meet the relevant quality objectives and relevant provisions of the Directive and of other
Community Directives'.
ii) Water Pollution Acts, 1977- 1990
The discharge of any trade effluent means (any effluent from any ,works, apparatus, plant
or drainage pipe used for the disposal to waters or to a sewer of any liquid (whether
treated or untreated), or sewage effluent to "waters" requires an Effluent Discharge
license which is granted by the relevant local authority under the W ater Pollution Acts.
iii) The Waste Management Act, 1996
The W aste Management Act,, 1996 requires local authorities to' prepare a, waste
management plan. The plan (which should include sludges from treatment plants) must
take into account "the prevention, minimization, collection, recovery and disposal of non-

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hazardous waste within its functional area"
iv) The Building Regulations, 1991

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The Building Regulations, which came into operation in June, 1992, apply to new buildings
and to extensions, material alterations; and certain' changes of use of existing buildings,
and apply across all 'local auth6rity areas, replacing Building.Bye-laws which were

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operated in the larger urban authority areas. In order to assist designers, constructors and
installers, the Department of the Environment has published Technical Guidance

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Documents (TGDs) for each part of the First' schedule to the Regulations. The parts
which are chiefly relevant to small wastewater –treatment systems include:
Part A: Structure
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Part C: Site preparation and resistance to moisture
Part D: Materials and Workmanship
Part H: Drainage and Waste Disposal
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v) The Public Health Act, 1878 rin
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The Public Health (Ireland) Act, 1878 'is frequently used to abate nuisance caused by
the accumulation of raw or treated 'sewage. The Act prohibits the discharge of sewage

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or filthy water into any natural stream or watercourse or into any canal, pond or lake
unless the discharge is freed from all excrementitious or foul or noxious matter. The Act
'allows for a statutory nuisance to exist where a pool, gutter, watercourse, privy, urinal,
cesspool, drain or ashpit is so foul or in such a state as to be a nuisance or injurious to
health.
vi) Fisheries Acts, 1959-1990
Deleterious matter is defined as "any substance (including explosive liquid or gas) the'
entry or discharge of which into any waters is liable to render those or any other waters
poisonous or injurious to fish, spawning grounds or the food of any fish or to injure fish in
their value as human food, or to impair the usefulness of the bed and soil of any waters as
spawning grounds or their capacity to produce the food of fish".
vii) Environmental Protection Agency, Act, 1992
Allows the Agency to publish criteria and procedures for the operation and maintenance of
wastewater treatment plants for the purposes of environmental protection. The Agency is
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also required procedures for the design and operation of small wastewater treatment
systems which the Agency considers to be appropriate for the protection of the
environment
Table 1: Disposal Standards of CPCB for Quality of Treated
Wastewater
Pa r a m e t e r O n l a n d f or Into inland Into public sewers
irrigation Indian s ur f a c e w a t e r s Indian Standards:
S t a n da r d s : Indian Standards: 3 3 0 6 (1 9 7 4 )
pH 3307 5(1.5974) 2459.50 -(199.074) 5.5 - 9.0
B O D ( f or f i v e da y s a t 2 0 0 C ) 10- 0 30 350
COD 9-.0 250 -
Suspended solids 200 100 600
Total dissolved solids 210 2100 2100

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(Tinem
Oil and grease
Phenolic compounds
0-
10
-
40
10
1
45
20
5

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Cyanides
Sulphides
0.2
-
0.2
2
2
-
Fluorides
Total residual chlorine
Pesticides
asy -
-
-
2
1
-
15
-
-
Arsenic
Cadmium En 0.2
-
0.2
2
0.2
1
Chromium (hexavalent)
C o p p er gin -
-
0.1
3
2
3
L ead
Mercury
Nickel
ee -
-
-
0.1
0.01
3
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1
0.01
3
Selenium
Zinc
Chlorides 600
-
-
0.05
5
1000
g.n 0.05
15
1000
B o ro n
Sulphates
Sodium (9%) 60
1000
-
2

60
2
1000
et 2
1000

Ammoniacal nitrogen - 50 50
Radioactive materials
x Alpha emitters 10-8 10-7 10-7
x (m
Bielltia-ceumrieit/tm
erls) 10-7 10-6 10-6
( m ic r o -
4. Different Methods of domestic w aste water disposal (Systems of Sanitation)
curie/ml)
x CONSERVENCY SYSTEM
x WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM
CONSERVENCY SYSTEM
Sometimes the system is also called as dry system. This is out of date system but is
prevailing in small towns and villages. Various types of refuse and storm water are
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collected conveyed and disposed of separately. Garbage is collected in dustbins placed


along the roads from where it is conveyed by trucks ones or twice a day to the point of
disposal. all the non combustible portion of garbage such as sand dust clay etc are used
for filling the low level areas to reclaim land for the future development of the town. The
combustible portion of the garbage is burnt. The decaying matters are dried and disposed
of by burning or the manufacture of manure. Human excreta are collected separately in
conservancy latrines. The liquid and semi liquid wastes are collected separately after
removal of night soil it is taken outside the town in trucks and buried in trenches. After 2-3
years the buried night soil is converted into excellent manure. In conservancy system
sullage and storm water are carried separately in closed drains to the point of disposal
where they are allowed to mix with river water without treatment.
WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM
With development and advancement of the cities urgent need was felt to replace

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conservancy system with some more improved type of system in which human agency
should not be used for the collection and conveyance of sewage .After large number of
experiments it was found that the water is the only cheapest substance which can be

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easily used for the collection and conveyance of sewage. As in this system water is the
main substance therefore it is called as water carriage system.

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In this system the excretal matter is mixed up in large quantity of water their ars taken out
from the city through properly designed sewerage systems, where they are disposed of

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after necessary treatment in a satisfactory manner.
The sewages so formed in water carriage system consist of 99.9% of water and .1%

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solids .All these solids remain in suspension and do not changes the specific gravity of
water therefore all the hydraulic formulae can be directly used in the design of sewerage
system and treatment plants.
SEWERAGE SYSTEMS: ee
1) Separate System Of Sewage
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2) Combined System Of Sewage
3) Partially Comined Or Partially Separate System g.n
SEPARATE SYSTEM OF SEWERAGE
et
In this system two sets of sewers are laid .The sanitary sewage is carried through sanitary
sewers while the storm sewage is carried through storm sewers. The sewage is carried to
the treatment plant and storm water is disposed of to the river.
Advantages:
1) Size of the sewers are small
2) Sewage load on treatment unit is less
3) Rivers are not polluted
4) Storm water can be discharged to rivers without treatment.
Disadvantage
1) Sewerage being small, difficulty in cleaning them
2) Frequent choking problem will be their
3) System proves costly as it involves two sets of sewers

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4) The use of storm sewer is only partial because in dry season the will be converted in
to dumping places and may get clogged.
COMBINED SYSTEM OF SEWAGE
When only one set of sewers are used to carry both sanitary sewage and surface water.
This system is called combined system.
Sewage and storm water both are carried to the treatment plant through combined sewers
Advantages:
1) Size of the sewers being large, chocking problems are less and easy to clean.
2) It proves economical as 1 set of sewers are laid.
3) Because of dilution of sanitary sewage with storm water nuisance potential is reduced
Disadvantages:
1) Size of the sewers being large, difficulty in handling and transportation.

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2) Load on treatment plant is unnecessarily increased
3) It is uneconomical if pumping is needed because of large amount of combined flow.

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4) Unnecessarily storm water is polluted
PARTIALLY COMINED OR PARTIALLY SEPARATE SYSTEM
A portion of storm water during rain is allowed to enter sanitary sewer to treatment plants

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while the remaining storm water is carried through open drains to the point of disposal.
Advantages:-

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The sizes of sewers are not very large as some portion of storm water is carried through

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open drains.Combines the advantages of both the previous systems.
Silting problem is completely eliminated.
Disadvantages:-
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1. During dry weather, the velocity of flow may be low.

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2. The storm water is unnecessary put load on to the treatment plants to extend.
3. Pumping of storm water in unnecessary over-load on the pumps.
Suitable conditions for separate sew erage systems:- g.n
A separate system would be suitable for use under the following situations:
x
x
Where rainfall is uneven.
Where sanitary sewage is to be pumped.
et
x The drainage area is steep, allowing to runoff quickly.
x Sewers are to be constructed in rocky strata. The large combined sewers would be
more expensive.
Suitable conditions for combined system:-
x Rainfall in even throughout the year.
x Both the sanitary sewage and the storm water have to be pumped.
x The area to be sewered is heavily built up and space for laying two sets of pipes is
not enough.
x Effective or quicker flows have to be provided.
After studying the advantages and disadvantages of both the systems, present day
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construction of sewers is largely confined to the separate systems except in those cities
where combined system is already existing. In places where rainfall is confined to one
season of the year, like India and even in temperate regions, separate system are most
suitable.

5. Differentiate between a) Separate system, Combined system b) Sew erage


system

a)
S.No Separate system Combined system
1. The quantity of sewage to be treated is less, As the treatments of both are
because no treatment of storm water is done. done,the treatment is costly.
2. In the cities of more rainfall this system is In the cities of less rainfall this

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3.
more suitable.
As two sets of sewer lines are to laid,
system is suitable.
Overall construction cost is higher

w.E This system is cheaper because sewage is than separate system.


carried in underground sewers and storm
4.
system. asy
In narrow streets, it is difficult to use this It is more suitable in narrow
streets.
5.
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Less degree of sanitation is achieved in this High degree of sanitation
system, as storm water is disposed achieved in this system.
is

without any treatment.


b)Sew erage System
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S.No
1.
CONSERVENCY SYSTEM
Very cheap in initial cost
ee WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM

rin
It involves high initial cost
2. Due to foul smells from the latrines, they
are to be constructed away from living g.n
As there is no foul smell latrines
remain clean and neat and hence are

3.
room so building cannot be constructed
ascompact units. et
constructed with rooms, therefore
buildings may be compact.
The aesthetic appearance of the city Good aesthetic appearance of city can
cannot be improved be obtained
4. For burial of excremental matter large Less area is required as compared to
area is required conservancy system.
5. Excreta is not removed immediately Excreta are removed immediately with
hence its decomposition starts before water, no problem of foul smell or
removal, hygienic trouble.
6. This system is fully depended on human As no human agency is involved in
Agency .In case of strike by the this system ,there is no such problem
sweepers;there is danger of insanitary as in case of conservancy system
conditions

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6. Explain the various characteristics and composition of sew age and state their
environmental significance. (Nov/Dec 2013)
Effects of sew age on environment
 When untreated sewage is discharged into some river stream, floating solids
present in the discharged sewage may be washed up on to the shore, near the
point of disposal, where they decompose and create foul smells and bad odours.
 The large amount of organic matter present in the discharged sewage will also
consume the DO from the river stream in getting oxidised and may thus seriously
decrease the DO of the river stream, causing fish kills and other undesirable
effects.
 The discharge water will contaminate the river water with pathogenic bacteria.
 Health problem and disease have often been caused by discharging untreated or
inadequately treated wastewater. Such discharges are called water pollution and

ww result in the spreading of disease, fish kills and destruction of other forms of aquatic
life.
 The pollution of water has a serious impact on all living creatures and can

w.E negatively affect the use of water for drinking, household need, recreation, fishing,
transportation and commercial.
 Characteristics
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 Physical characteristics
 Chemical characteristics

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 Biological characteristics
Physical characteristics
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(i) Colour (ii) Odour (iii) Temperature (iv) Turbidity (v) Total solids
Colour:
ee
Fresh domestic sewage is grey somewhat resembling a weak solution of soap with

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the passage of time as putrefaction starts, it begins to get black. The colour of septic
sewage is more or less black or dark in colour. Industrial wastewater when mixed with
domestic sewage may also add colour.
Odour:
g.n
starts to get stale, it begins to give offensive odour.
et
Normal fresh sewage has a musty odour which is normally not offensive, but as it

Within 3 to 4 hours, all the oxygen present in the sewage gets exhausted and it
starts emitting offensive odour of H2S gas and other sulphur compounds produced by
anaerobic micro-organisms.
Offensive odours can be harmful in many ways such as
(i) Reduction in appetite for food
(ii) Lowering in water consumption
(iii) Impaired respiration, nausea and vomiting
(iv) Cause for mental perturbation
Temperature:
Generally the temperature of wastewater is higher than that of the water supply due
to addition of warm water from the households and from industries. When the wastewater

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flows in closed circuits, its temperature rises further. This results in the increase in the
velocity of water and also increase in its bacterial activity.
The change in the temperature affects the wastewater in the following ways.
(i) As the temperature rises, its viscosity increases
(ii) The bacterial activity increases with increase in temperature up to about 60°C.
After this, if again falls this affects the design in wastewater units and their
efficiency.
(iii) The increase in temperature of wastewater, when discharged into receiving
waters, affects the aquatic life.
(iv) Abnormally high temperatures can faster the growth of undesirable water plants
and wastewater fungus in the receiving water.
Turbidity:
The turbidity of wastewater depends on the quantity of solid matters present in the

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suspension state. It depends upon the strength of sewage or wastewater. The stronger or
more concentrated the sewage, the higher is its turbidity.

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Total Solids:
Total solids in wastewater exist in three different forms.
(i) Suspended solids (ii) Colloidal solids (iii) Dissolved solids.

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The suspended solids may be further subdivided into
(a) Settleable solids (b) Non-settleable solids.
Chemical characteristics:
En
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(i) pH value (ii) Chloride content (iii) Nitrogen content (iv) Fats, grease and oil content
(v) Sulphides, sulphate and H2S gas (vi) DO (vii) Chemical Oxygen Demand (viii) Bio-

pH value: ee
Chemical oxygen demand (BOD) (ix) Stability and relative stability

rin
The test for pH value of wastewater is carried out to determine whether it is acidic

g.n
or alkaline in nature. Fresh sewage is alkaline in nature. A high concentration of either an
acid or alkali in wastewater is indicative of industrial wastes.
Chloride content:

sewage.
et
Chlorides are mineral salts and therefore are not affected by biological action of

Nitrogen content:
The presence of nitrogen in wastewater indicates the presence of organic matter in
it. It is essential to the growth of protista and plants as such is known as nutrient or
biostimulant.
It is present in the following forms
(i) Ammonia nitrogen or free ammonia
(ii) Organic nitrogen
(iii) Albuminoid nitrogen
(iv) Nitrites nitrogen
(v) Nitrates nitrogen
Fats, grease and oils:

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Fats and oil are mainly contributed from kitchen wastes, they are major
components of food stuffs such as butter, lard, margarine and vegetable oils and fats. Fats
are also commonly found in meats, seeds, nuts and some fruits.
Grease and oils are also discharged from industries like garages, workshops,
factories, etc.
Surfactants:
Surfactants come primarily from synthetic detergents. These are discharged from
bathroom, kitchens, washing machines, etc.
Alkyl-benzene-sulfonate (ABS), atype of surfactant commonly used in synthetic
detergents is more troublesome since it is not biodegradable.
Phenols, pesticides and agricultural chemicals:
Phenols are mostly found in industrial wastewater. If such wastewater are directly
discharged into receiving streams, they cause serious taste problems in drinking water,

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specially when water is disinfected by chlorination.
Toxic compounds:

w.E Copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic and boron are some of the cations which
are toxic to micro-organisms resulting in the malfunctioning of the biological treatment
plants.

asy
Sulphate, sulphides and H2S gas:
Sulphates and sulphides are formed due to decomposition of various sulphur

En
containing substances present in wastewater.

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The H2S gas produced caused bad smells and odour. H2S gas gets oxidised
biologically to sulphuric acid resulting in corrosion to sewer pipes.
Other gases:

(i) Nitrogen (N2)


ee
Following are the gases that are commonly found in untreated wastewater.

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(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
g.n
found in all water including wastewater

(v)
(vi)
Ammonia (NH3)
Methane (CH4) matter present in the wastewater.
et
are as a result of decomposition of organic

Methane gas is the principal by-product of the anaerobic decomposition of the organic
matter in wastewater.
This gas is colourless, odourless and is highly combustible. Since its explosion
hazard is high, manholes, sewer junctions, junction chambers etc, should be kept well
ventilated.
Oxygen consumed:
It is the oxygen required for the oxidation of carbonaceous matter.
Dissolved oxygen:
It is the amount of oxygen in the dissolved state in the wastewater.
If DO is less, the aquatic animals like fish etc., are likely to be killed near the vicinity
of disposal.

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Oxygen demand:
The pressure of oxygen is essential for the livelihood of organisms. The aerobic
action continues onl till the oxygen is present in wastewater and after that anaerobic
action begins, resulting in putrefaction.
It can be expressed in following ways.
(i) BOD (ii) COD (iii) TOD (iv) Theoretical oxygen demand
Bio-chemical Oxygen demand (BOD):
It is a measure of the oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter present in the
sample, through the action of micro-organisms contained in a sample of wastewater.
Chemical Oxygen demand (COD):
The COD test is specifically more suitable to measure organic matter present in
industrial wastes having compounds that are toxic to biological life.

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Total organic carbon (TOC):
It is used to evaluate the amount of organic matter present in the wastewater is to
determine the amount of organic carbon in the wastewater.

w.E
Total oxygen demand (TOD):
It is based on the quantitative measurement of the amount of oxygen used to burn

asy
the organic substances and to a minor extent, inorganic substances.
Theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD):

En
This is a theoretical method of computing the oxygen demand of various
constituents of the organic matter present in wastewater.

gin
7. A separate sew erage system has to be designed for a suburb near Delhi for a
rainfall frequency of 2 years. This tow n is already provided w ith adequate w ater

ee
supply from w ater-works at per capita rate of 200 l/day / person. Compute the
maximum storm drainage discharge for which the S.W. drain, of a pocket draining

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an area of 20 hectares will be designed. Also compute the peak design discharge

g.n
for which the sew ers of this pocket will be designed. Make use of hourly rainfall
charts (plate 3.1) and assume the concentration time (or inlet time) as 20 minutes.
The population of the pocket discharging sew age is 9000. Make any other
assumption if needed and not given.
Given data: Frequency of rainfall = 2 years
Water Supply = 200 l/day / person
et
Area= 20 hectares
Inlet time =20 minutes
Population = 9000
To find:Maximum storm drainage discharge,Peak design discharge
Soln: The maximum one hour rainfall having 2 years frequency near Delhi = 4
cm: and from table 3.3, the dispersion factor for an area of 20 hectares
Po= 4.0 X 1.0 = 4 cm/hr
Using Pc=Pc x (2/(1+Tc)): W here Tc is in hours
= 4 (2/ (1+20/60))
= 4(2/ (1+0.33))
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= 8/1.33=6cm/hr
Assuming K=0.55 Qp =1/36 K Pc A
Qp=(1/36) X 0.55 X 6X 20 cumecs
=1.83 cumec
Town is provided with water supply of 200 litre/day/person
=1800 cu.m/day
The sewage produced per day = 0.8x 1800 = 1440 cu.m/day
=0.0167 cumecs
Maximum sewage discharge = 3x0.0167 = 0.05
cumecs

8.

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g.n
et
8.

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9.

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g.n
et

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UNIT-2
SEWER DESIGN
PART- A
1. Mention some shapes of sew er pipes? What are the forces acting on sew er
pipes?
Shapes of sewer
x Circular shape
x Egg shape
x Horse shoe shape
x Parabolic shape
x Elliptical shape

ww x Rectangular shape
Forces acting on sewer pipes

w.E  Internal pressure of sewage


 Pressure due to external loads

asy
 Temperature stress
 Flexural stress

En
2. What are the materials used for constructing sew er pipes? Give some qualities
of the good sew er pipes

gin
Materials used for constructing sew er pipes
• Vitrified clay
• Cement concrete
• Asbestos cement
• Cast iron
ee rin
• Lead sewers
• Plastic sewers g.n
• Brick sewers
Qualities of the good sew er pipes
 Resistance to corrosion
et
 Resistance to abrasion
 Strength and durability
 Light weight
 Economy and cost
3. What is meant by catch basins?
Catch basins are nothing but street inlets provided
with additional small setting basins for avoiding the entry of the
particles like grit, sand, debris in to the sewer pipes
4. What are the various methods of ventilation for sew ers?
• Use of ventilating columns

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• Use of ventilating manhole covers


• Proper design of sewers
• Use of mechanical devices
5. What is Small Bore Sew er? Write some Construction Benefits of Small Bore
Sew er
The Small Bore Sewer is a watertight small diameter wastewater
collection system that provides servicing with superior operational and
environmental performance at a significantly lower cost as compared to historic
gravity sewers
x Overall system is flexible, modular and adaptable
x Shallow gradient piping installations eliminate need for heavy equipment –
local manpower and hand tools can be used for trenching

ww x Piping is not sensitive to curvilinear alignment, inflective gradients or sharp


slope changes

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6. Write some Environmental Benefits of Small Bore Sew er
x 21x reduction of greenhouse gases through methane

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capture when compared to equivalent carbon dioxide gas
impact
x
En
Conveyance of methane for reuse in electricity generation
x Sealed system means zero groundwater infiltration and zero sewage seepage

gin
7. How to Test leakage in sewer pipes?
The ends of the sewer is plugged, the water is now filled in the

ee
manhole at the upper end and is allowed to flow through the sewer line. The depth

rin
of the water i s the man hole is maintained to the testing head of about 1.5m. The
sewer line is watched by moving along the trench.
8. Explain One pipe system in sew erage Two pipe systems in sewerage?
g.n
The pipe of waste water from sinks, baths and wash basins and

connected to sewerage system. Gulley (gutter) traps and waste pipes are et
branches of soil pipes is connected to one main pipe. This main pipe is directly

completely distributed but all traps of water closets, basins, etc. are completely
ventilated to preserve water seal.
Soil and waste pipes are distinct and separate. The soil pipes are connected to
sewer directly whereas waste pipes are connected through a trapped gulley (gutter).
All traps of all appliances are completely ventilated.
9. What is the significance of self cleansing velocity in sew er design and what is
the maximum velocity
Sewage should flow at all times with sufficient velocity to prevent the settlement of solid
matter in the sewer. Self Cleansing Velocity is the minimum velocity that ensures non
settlement of suspended matter in the sewer.
The following minimum velocities are generally employed
x Sanitary sewer = 0.6 m/sec

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x Storm sewer = 1.0 m/sec


x Partially combined sewer = 0.7 m/sec
The maximum velocities in the sewer pipes should not exceed more than 2.4
m/sec. This max velocity in the sewer should not exceed this limit of 2.4
m/sec. It is to avoid the excessive sewer abrasion and also to avoid steep
slopes.
10. What are the component parts of Manhole?
Access Shaft, W orking chamber, The Benching (i.e) the bottom or invert portion of
manhole
The sidewalls, Steps or ladders, Cover and Frame

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
11. Define design period? What are the factors governing the design period?
(Apr/May 2011)
ee rin
The future period for which a provision is made in the water supply
scheme is known as design period.

g.n
Following design period can be considered for different components of sewerage
scheme.
1. Laterals less than 15 cm diameter: Full development
2. Trunk or main sewers: 40 to 50 years
3. Treatment Units: 15 to 20 years
et
4. Pumping plant: 5 to 10 year
The factors governing design period are,
a. Design period should not exceed the life period of the structure.
b. If the funds are not in a sufficient, the design period as to be decreased.
c. The rate of interest on borrowing and the additional money invested.
12. Computer Applications of sew er design (May/June 2016)
 Optimal design of Sewer Systems
 Hydraulics performance
 Defect Coding
 Defect Mapping

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 Defect Rating
 Renewal method selection
 Failure probability
 Failure consequences
 Site considerations
 Design review
H2OMAP Sew er is a powerful, stand-alone GIS-based computer program for use
in the planning, design, analysis, and expansion of sanitary, storm and combined sewer
collection systems.
EPA SWMM model to design the sanitary sewer system
GWN-STORM Pipe, manhole and drainage information are stored in dBASE III
files. Once the input is completed, the storm sewer network can be automatically sized

ww
and located by invert elevations.
SewCAD,GIS applications(CAD-GIS, Browser-GIS) based

w.E
Fortran computer program called OGSDP to design a least-cost gravity
sanitary sewer system

asy
13. How to select a pump?
1. Non-clog Submersible pumps as appropriate are proposed. The pumps shall be of
single speed with low rpm

En
2. All pumps in a pumping station shall be of equal capacities

gin
3. For all pumping stations, provision is made for automatic and manual operations
4. Manual operation: Two starts and two stops

ee
5. Automatic operation: Six starts and stops

rin
6. Screens shall be provided ahead of wet well to prevent large size solids entering the
pump

g.n
7. Natural or forced ventilation system would be provided for all pumping stations
8. Level indicators are also provided in all stations

of flow s-state true or false and justify your answ er. (May/June 2012) et
14. A sew er has to be designed considering both minimum and maximum velocity

It is true. In order to keep the suspended form, a certain minimum velocity of flow
is required; otherwise the solid particle will settle in the sewer, resulting in clogging. At
higher velocity the flow becomes turbulent, resulting in continuous abrasion of the interior
surface of the sewer. Hence maximum velocity of the flow should be maintained.
15. Enumerate the various steps involved in the layout and construction of
sew ers. (Nov/Dec 2012)
x Setting out
x Alignment and gradient
x Excavation of trenches, timbering and dewatering
x Laying and jointing
x Testing and
x Backfilling
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16. Sew age pumps are not widely used in the sew age pumping –state true or false
and justify your answer. (Nov/Dec 2012)
It is true. Reciprocating pumps are more obsolete in modern sewage pumping
station .since they are liable to be clogged by solids or fibrous material, even though
sewage may have passed through coarse screens.
17. List the factors influencing the fixing of design period.(Apr/May 2011)
x Presence of solid matter
x Pressure
18. How is the capacity of w et well in a sew age pumping station
determined?(Nov/Dec 2011)
The capacity of the wet well is reckoned between the level at which air affects the
suction line of the pump of minimum duty installed in the pump house and the designed

ww
sewage level in the incoming sewer,i.e., the portion of the well below the upper most
starting point and the lower most stopping point.

w.E
19. What are the situations where the pumping of sew age becomes essential in
sew age management?(May/Jun 2013)
x To transport the suspended matter present in the sewage without getting

asy
clogged too often.
x In case where it is required to deal with difficult sludge.

En
x When a sewer has to go across a high ridge.
x When it is required to take out sewage from cellers or sub-basements of
buildings.
gin
x When outfall sewer is at low level

x
x
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20. State the advantages of egg shaped sewer sections. (May/Jun 2014)

rin
Suitable only where variation in discharge is not large
Suitable with separate sewerage system
x
circular sewer of equal capacity. g.n
The principal advantage is the slightly higher velocity for low flows over the

x
preferred for combined sewers. et
For low depth maintain hydraulic depth nearly uniform and therefore

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PART-B
1. Explain Laying, jointing, testing of sew er pipes , What are the steps involved
in laying of sew er pipes (May/June 2016)
i) Laying
All sewer pipes are laid starting from their outfall ends, towards their starting ends
The center line of the sewer is marked by drawing a line on the ground parallel to it.
Offset line is offsetted at a distance of about half the trench width +0.6m
Pegs- 15m interval
Temporary bench mark at 200 to300 m
a. Excavating trenches
x Road pavements –removed

ww x
x
x
Width of excavation depends on width of the trench
Width of the trench at the bottom is kept 15 cm more than dia of sewer
Excavated material is deposited in one end of the trench

w.E x Offset line on the other side

asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
b. Timbering or sheeting trenches
et
When trench is excavated in depths more than 2m-soil is supported by sheeting and
bracing the trenches
The bracing will absorb the soil pressure
The sheeting are wooden planks and placed in contact with trench sides
The braces or struts are the wooden pieces extending from one side of trench to the
other side
Rangers or wales are timber blanks which transfer the load from the sheeting boards to
cross braces
c. Dew atering of trenches
Water table is higher than sewer pipes –ground water infiltrates in to the sewer
The ground water is removed through an open jointed drain constructed below
sewer pipes which discharges in to water course

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d. Shaping the trench bottom to correct levels


Horizontal board is fixed on the posts is called sight rail. Vertical pencil line is
marked with help of theodolite Horizontally projecting needle is fixed at a known reduced
level The sting is stretched between the rails, This will establish a line which is parallel to
sewer pipes and with known height
It used for measuring the exact depth of excavation, level of top of foundation concrete,
and the level of the sewer pipes
e. Laying of sew er pipes
Smaller than 40 cm dia can be handled by masons
Larger pipes lowered by passing ropes around Machines –used
Socket and spigot are fitted in to each other
ii) Jointing of Sew er pipes

ww x
x
Ductile Iron and Cast Iron pipe: Rubber gasket – BIS 12820:1989
Stoneware pipes: Light caulking – not more than socket depth – Socket filled

w.E with cement mortar 1:1 with clean fine sand – faces were smoothened using
trowel forming45o
x
asy
RCC pipes with Collars: Light caulking – not more than socket depth – Socket
filled with cement mortar 1:2 with clean fine sand – faces were smoothened using
trowel forming 45o Jointing of Sewer pipes

En
• Haunching of Sewers: Encasing of Sewers:

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iii) Testing of Sew er pipes


Alignment test: Flashing of light or reflection of sunlight using mirror from one manhole
to another manhole. Atleast 75% sewer should be visible.

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Deflection test: Using Go-No-Go Mandrell – Max allowable deflection shall not exceed
5% of the pipe’s internal diameter

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Infiltration test: Tested when GW table is min of 1200m above the crown of the sewer
throughout the full length of the segment.
Less than 600mm dia = 10 l/mm/day/km g.n
Larger than 600mm dia = 30 /mm/day/km
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Hydraulic testing: Using Plumber’s expansion plug – tested between two Manholes.
Leakage test: Testing head of about 1.5m is maintained in Manholes.
Smoke test

2. Explain: Sew er appurtenances (May/June 2016)


Sewer appurtenances are the various accessories on the sewerage system and
are necessary for the efficient operation of the system. They include man holes, lamp
holes, street inlets, catch basins, inverted siphons, and so on.

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a) Man-holes: Man holes are the openings of either circular or rectangular in shape

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constructed on the alignment of a sewer line to enable a person to enter the sewer for
inspection, cleaning and flushing. They serve as ventilators for sewers, by the provisions

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of perforated man-hole covers. Also they facilitate the laying of sewer lines in convenient
length.
Man-holes are provided at all junctions of two or more sewers, whenever diameter of

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sewer changes, whenever direction of sewer line changes and when sewers of different
elevations join together.
b) Special Man-holes:
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Junction chambers: Man-hole constructed at the intersection of two large sewers. Drop
man-hole: W hen the difference in elevation of the invert levels of the incoming and
outgoing sewers of the man-hole is more than 60 cm, the interception is made by

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dropping the incoming sewer vertically outside and then it is jointed to the man-hole

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Flushing man-holes: They are located at the head of a sewer to flush out the deposits in
the sewer with water
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c) Street inlets: Street inlets are the openings through which storm water is admitted

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and conveyed to the storm sewer or combined sewer. The inlets are located by the sides
of pavement with maximum spacing of 30 m.

d) Lamp-holes: Lamp holes are the openings constructed on the straight sewer lines

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between two man-holes which are far apart and permit the insertion of a lamp into the
sewer to find out obstructions if any inside the sewers from the next man-hole.

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e) Catch Basins: Catch basins are small settling chambers of diameter 60 – 90 cm and
60 – 75 cm deep, which are constructed below the street inlets. They interrupt the

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velocity of storm water entering through the inlets and allow grit, sand, debris and so on
to settle in the basin, instead of allowing them to enter into the sewers.

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f) Inverted siphons: These are depressed portions of sewers, which flow full under
pressure more than the atmospheric pressure due to flow line being below the hydraulic
grade line. They are constructed when a sewer crosses a stream or deep cut or road or
railway line. To clean the siphon pipe sluice valve is opened, thus increasing the head
causing flow. Due to increased velocity deposits of siphon pipe are washed into the
sump, from where they are removed.

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3. Explain one pipe system and Tw o pipe system (May/June 2016)
One pipe system

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a. a soil pipe shall be connected to another soil pipe, a stack or direct to a drain;
b. a waste pipe shall be connected to another waste pipe, a soil pipe, a stack, direct

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to a drain or to a gully, which shall be connected to a drain; and

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c. a waste or any soil fixture trap may have a common ventilating pipe.
Two pipe system
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a. a soil pipe shall be connected to another soil pipe, a stack or direct to a drain;
b. a waste pipe shall discharge into another waste pipe, a stack or to a gully, which
shall be connected to a drain; and
c. waste and soil fixture traps shall be separately ventilated.

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UNIT-3
PRIMARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE
PART-A
1. What is the purpose of using velocity control device in a grit chamber?
The velocity control device in a grid chamber is providing for settling the
grid particles in the sewer pipes and then it is removed by an endless chain to which
perforated buckets are fixed
2. Mention the classification of treatment process of sewage
• Preliminary treatment
• Primary treatment

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• Complete final treatment

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3. State the purpose of using the skimming tanks
The skimming tanks are employed for removing oils & grease from the
sewage and placed before the sedimentation tanks

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4. Why baffles are provided in the sedimentation tank in sewage treatment?
Baffles are required to prevent the movement of organic matters

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and it escapes along with the effluent and to distribute the sewage uniformly

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through the cross section of the tank and thus to avoid short circuiting
5. What is screening? What are the types of screens? What are the

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methods of disposing screening waste
 Screening is the Removal of large floating, suspended and
settleable solids by passing the sewage through screens
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 Coarse screens Medium screens Fine screens
 Incineration Composting Dumping Digestion g.n
6. What is Incineration? composting?
The process of burning is called Incineration et
The screenings may also be disposed by burial. This process is technically called
composting
7. What is the principle behind sedimentation?
The turbulence is retarded by offering storage to sewage; these
impurities tend to settle down at the bottom of the tank offering such storage.
8. What are the types of grit channels? Explain Vaccuators
Horizontal flow type Aerated type
Grease can also be removed from the sewage by vacuum floation
method, by subjecting the aerated sewage to a vacuum pressure of about 0-25 cm
of mercury for 10-15 minutes in a vacuator. This causes the air bubbles to expand

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and move upward through the sewage to the surface. The rising bubbles lift the
grease and the lighter waste solids to the surface, where they are removed troughs.
Heavier solids settle to the tank bottom, where they are collected and carried away
for sludge treatment and disposal.
9. What is primary sedimentation, secondary sedimentation?
Sewage treatment, the sedimentation once before the biological
treatment is called primary sedimentation
Sewage treatment, the sedimentation once after the biological
treatment is called secondary sedimentation
10. What is detention time (or) detention period (or) Retention period?
It is the average theoretical time required for the sewage to flow

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through the tank.
Detention time for rectangular tank= (Volume of the tank/ Rate of flow)

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11. What is displacement efficiency?
= B .L .H / Q

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The ratio of the ‘flowing through period’ to the ‘Detention period’ is
called displacement efficiency

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12. What are the uses of Baffles? What are comminutors?
Baffles are required to prevent the movement of organic matter and

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its escape along with the effluent; and to distribute the sewage uniformly through the
cross-section of the tank, and thus to avoid short circuiting.

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Comminutors or shredders are devices which break the larger

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sewage solids to about 6mm in size, when the sewage is screened through them.

g.n
13. Differentiate between unit operation and unit processes in waste water
treatment give atleast two examples in each. (Nov/Dec 2012)`

et
Methods of treatment in which the application of physical forces predominate are
known as unit operations. eg.screening, mixing, flocculation sedimentation.W hile
methods of treatment in which chemical or biological activities are involved are
known as unit process. Eg.chemical precipitation, gas transfer, disinfection.
14. Distinguish between grit chamber and plain sedimentation tank. (April/may
2011)
Grit chambers: Grit chambers are provided to protect moving
mechanical equipment from abrasion and accompanying abnormal wear. They
are intended to remove the grit present in the wastewater.
Sedimentation tank: the finely divided suspended organic matters are
present in the sewage.this organic matter undergoes a change of character,
only due to biological oxidation and nitrification taking place in the filter the

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organic solids are converted in to coagulated suspended mass which is heavier


and bulkier and would thus settle by gravity in the sedimentation tanks.
15. What are the differences in the functions of screen chamber and grit
chamber in the sewage treatment? (Nov/Dec 2011)
Screen chamber: screen chambers are used to remove the floating materials like
dead bodies of animals, pieces of wood, papers, rags, metal containers plastic or
rubber containers, grease etc., and also heavy settlable inorganic solids like grit
and fragments of masonry etc.
Grit chambers: grit chambers are intended to remove the grit present in the waste
water. They reduce the formation of heavy deposits in pipelines, channels and
conduits. They also reduce the frequency of digester cleaning.

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16. State the objectives of preliminary treatment of sewage. (May/June 2012)

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The object is to remove those constituents of the waste water, the presence of
which would otherwise interfere with subsequent treatment process or mechanical
equipment preliminary treatment process remove the floating matter present in the
sewage.
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17. What do you mean by on-site sanitation? Mention the methods of onsite

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sanitation. (May/June 2012), (May/June 2013), (May/June 2016)
On-site sanitation means collecting, treating and disposing or reuse of all the

Methods ee
wastewater within the boundaries of the premises.

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Septic Tanks, Pit latrines, Ventilated improved Pit latrines, composting toilets.

18. State the objectives of grey water harvesting. (May/June 2012), g.n (Nov/Dec
2013)
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It can be used for the purposes that don’t require potable water such as landscaping,
agriculture or for flushing toilets and thereby reducing potable water use.

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PART B
1. Explain Unit Operations/Processes, Functions,
Treatment Devices in sewage treatment
Unit Functio Treatment Devices
Operations/Processe n
Scsreening Removal of large floating, Bar racks and screens of various
suspended and settleable solids description
Grit Removal Removal of inorganic Grit chamber
suspended solids
Primary Sedimentation Removal of organic/inorganic Primary sedimentation tank
settleable solids

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Aerobic
Biological
Conversion of colloidal,
dissolved and residual
Activated sludge process units
and its modifications, Waste

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Suspended
Growth Process
Aerobic Biological
suspended organic matter into
settleable biofloc and stable
s
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nsicabove
stabilization ponds, Aerated
lagoons
Trickling filter, Rotating biological
Attached Growth
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A roaceersosbic biologicalasy
Conversion of organic matter
contactor
Anaerobic filter, Fluid bed
growth processes
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into CH4 & CO2 and relatively
stable organic residue
submerged media anaerobic
reactor, Upflow anaerobic sludge

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rotating biological contactor
Anaerobic Stabilization
of Organic Sludges ee
same as above Anaerobic digestor

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2. What is screening? Explain its types g.n
Screening
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A screen is a device with openings for removing bigger suspended or floating matter in
sewage which would otherwise damage equipment or interfere with satisfactory
operation of treatment units.
Types of Screens
Coarse Screens
Coarse screens also called racks, are usually bar screens, composed of vertical or
inclined bars spaced at equal intervals across a channel through which sewage flows.
Bar screens with relatively large openings of 75 to 150 mm are provided ahead of
pumps, while those ahead of sedimentation tanks have smaller openings of 50 mm.
Bar screens are usually hand cleaned and sometimes provided with mechanical
devices. These cleaning devices are rakes which periodically sweep the entire screen

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removing the solids for further processing or disposal. Hand cleaned racks are set
usually at an angle of 45° to the horizontal to increase the effective cleaning surface and
also facilitate the raking operations. Mechanical cleaned racks are generally erected
almost vertically. Such bar screens have openings 25% in excess of the cross section of
the sewage channel.
Medium Screen
Medium screens have clear openings of 20 to 50 mm.Bar are usually 10 mm thick on
the upstream side and taper slightly to the downstream side. The bars used for screens
are rectangular in cross section usually about 10 x 50 mm, placed with larger dimension
parallel to the flow.
Fine Screens

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Fine screens are mechanically cleaned devices using perforated plates; woven wire
cloth or very closely spaced bars with clear openings of less than 20 mm. Fine screens

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are not normally suitable for sewage because of clogging possibilities.

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3. Explain principle of working of Grit Chamber

Grit is the heavy inorganic fraction of the wastewater solids. It includes road grit, sand,
eggshells, ashes, charcoal, glass and pieces of metal; it may also contain some heavy

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organic matter such as seeds and coffee grounds. Grit has an average relative
density of ~2.5 and thus it has a much higher settling velocity than organic solids (~30
mm/s, compared with ~3 mm/s). There are two basic types of grit removal plant:
constant velocity grit channels and the various proprietary grit tanks or traps available
commercially.
Principle of Working of Grit Chamber
Grit chambers are like sedimentation tanks, designed to separate the intended
heavier inorganic materials (specific gravity about 2.65) and to pass forward the
lighter organic materials. Hence, the flow velocity should neither be too low as to
cause the settling of lighter organic matter, nor should it be too high as not to cause
the settlement of the silt and grit present in the sewage. This velocity is called

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"differential sedimentation and differential scouring velocity". The scouring velocity
determines the optimum flow through velocity. This may be explained by the fact that
the critical velocity of flow 'vc' beyond which particles of a certain size and density
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once settled, may be again introduced into the stream of flow. It should always be
less than the scouring velocity of grit particles. The critical velocity of scour is given
by Schield's formula:
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V = 3 to 4.5 (g (Ss - 1) d) 1/2

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A horizontal velocity of flow of 15 to 30 cm/sec is used at peak flows. This

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same velocity is to be maintained at all fluctuation of flow to ensure that only
organic solids and not the grit is scoured from the bottom.

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4. Explain in detail Septic tank with its design criteria (May/June 2016)

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Septic Tank
• Primary Sedimentation tank
• Detention period – 12 to 36 hours
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• W orks on the principle of anaerobicde composition

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• Rectangular chambers – either single or multiple compartment type –
constructed below GL• Removes about 60 to 70% dissolved matter from it

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Design Considerations
Number of souls per house hold: 5
Number of fixtures per house hold: 1
% of unit discharging simultaneously: 60
Discharge from each unit: 10 Lpm at peak hours
Surface area of sedimentation: 1 m2/10Lpm of peak discharge
Minimum depth for sedimentation: 30cm
Minimum detention time: 24 hours
Volume of fresh sludge: 0.0005m3 / capita / day
Digestion period: 45 days

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Digested sludge: 0.03 to 0.07 m3 / capita / annum
Minimum total volume of septic tank: 2 times the daily DF

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Cleaning interval: 1 to 4 years
Length to width ratio: 2 to 3 : 1

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Construction Aspects
• Baffle or tee is to penetrate at least 150mm below the liquid level
• Inspection pipes at the top of the tank
• No tank shall have more than 3 compartments
• Structure with more than 1 compartment produce better quality effluent

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• First compartment is twice the size of second


• Liquid depth – 1.0 to 1.8m
• Distance b/w the inlet and outlet pipe should be atleast equal to depth of liquid depth
of the tank
• Tank must have an effluent filter installed at the outlet pipe
• Inlets and outlets should be located at opposite ends of the tank
• Manholes to each compartment to be provided for easy inspection and access
Effluent disposal methods
x Soil absorption system

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x Biological filter ee rin
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x Upflow anaerobic filters

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5. Explain Grey water Harvesting
Greywater can be defined as any domestic wastewaterproduced, excluding sewage.

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The main difference between greywater and sewage (or blackwater) is the organic
loading. Sewage has a much larger organic loading compared to grey water.
Reuse options:
Laundry En
Toilet flushing
Irrigation of plants
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Source
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Grey water source and percent of household flow
Percent
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Category
Toilet
Kitchen waste
40
10
g.n
Black water

Misc
Laundry
5
15
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Gray water

Bath / Shower 30

Grey Water Reuse


Subsurface application
x Irrigation
Surface application
x Irrigation
x Toilet flushing

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x Cooling water
x Concrete water
x Fire sprinklers, hydrants
Merit
 Saves water
 Less discharge – more ecological sound
De-merit
 More costly

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6. Describe the advantage and Disadvantages of septic tank?


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Advantages
1. Septic tanks can be easily constructed and do not require any skilled supervision
during construction. More ever, there is no maintenance problem (except periodical
cleaning) as there is no moving part in it.
2. Their cost is reasonable compared to the advantages and sanitation they offer on
rural or urban areas, where no sewage system has been load.
3. An excellently functioning septic tank can considerably reduce the suspended solids
and BOD from sewage.
4. The sludge volume to be disposed of is quite less, as compared to that in a normal
sedimentation tank. The quantity is reduced due to digestion taking place in the tank
itself. The reduction in volume is about 60% and reduction in weight is about 30%

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5. The effluent from the septic tank can be disposed of an land in a soak-pit or a cost
pool, without mach trouble.

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6. They are best suited for isolated rural, areas, and for isolated hospitals, buildings etc.
Disadvantage

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1. If the tank is not properly functioning, which happens many is times then the effluents
will be very foul, dark and even worser than the influent.

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2. They require too large sizes for serving many people.
3. Leakage of gases from the top cover of septic tank may cause bad smells and
environmental pollution.
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4. Periodical cleaning, removal and disposal of sludge remain a tedious problem.

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5. The working of a septic tank is centre dictable and non-uniform.

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7.

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8.

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UNIT-4
SECONDARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE
PART-A
1. What are the types of trickling filters? What are the operational troubles in
trickling filter?
Types
 Conventional trickling filter
 High rate trickling filter
Operational troubles
 Fly nuisance
 Odour nuisance
 Ponding troubles
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2. Define sludge age ,sludge volume index
The sludge age is defined as the average time for which particles of

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suspended soil remain under aeration
Sludge volume index is defined as the volume occupied in ml by 1 gm of

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solids in the mixed liquor after settling for 30 minutes and is determined experimentally.
3. What are the methods of disposing the sewage effluent ,What are the different
types of sewage treatment?
Methods of disposing En
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 Disposal in water (dilution)
 By disposal on land
Types of sewage treatment
 Contact beds ee
 Intermittent sand filters
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 Trickling filters
 Miscellaneous types of filters g.n
What are the factors affecting sludge digestion and their control? et
4. Define sludge digestion,What are the stages in the sludge digestion process?

The process of stabilization of the sewage particles by decomposing the organic


matter under controlled anaerobic condition is called sludge digestion.
Stages in the sludge digestion process

 Acid fermentation
 Acid regression
 Alkaline fermentation
Factors affecting sludge digestion

 Temperature
 pH value
 mixing and stirring of raw sludge with digested sludge

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5. What are the types of incinerators has primary designed? What are the
methods of aeration?
Types of incinerators
 Multiple hearth furnaces
 Fluid bed furnace and infra red furnace

Methods of aeration

 Diffused air aeration


 Mechanical aeration
 Combined aeration
6. What is meant by sludge concentrator unit ? Give different types of thickener

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The sludge obtained in a sludge digestion plant contains too much of

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moisture and is therefore very bulky and may be reduced in its moisture content by
sending into sludge thicker unit (or) sludge concentrator unit.There are three types of
thickener units

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 Gravity thickener
 Floating thickener

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 Centrifugal thickener
7. What is biological treatment? What is biological film (or) slime layer
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Biological treatment is the process of changing the character of the
organic matter, and thus converting it into stable forms (like nitrates, sulphates) by
oxidation or nitrification.
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As the sewage percolates through the filtering media, fine colloidal
organic matter is trapped in the voids between the particles of the filtering media. It is
called as biological film.
8. What is sloughing? g.n
slime layer is known as sloughing
9. Distinguish between aerobic pond and anaerobic pond.(Nov/Dec 2014)
et
The break up or detachment of the biomass (biological solids) from the

Anaerobic pond: in aerobic pond, the entire depth is in aerobic condition except an
extremely shallow top layer. The anaerobic micro organisms do not require the
presence of DO in the water in order to function. Their requirement is met from the
oxygen chemically contained in the organic materials.
Aerobic pond: In aerobic stabilization ponds the oxygen is supplied by natural surface
aeration and by algal photosynthesis. The pond is kept shallow, so that it functions
aerobically throughout the depth.

10. What is meant by UASB reactor? State an advantage of it. (May/June 2014)
It is a technique for treating municipal waste water .the reactor maintains a high

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concentration of biomass through the formation of highly settable microbial sludge


aggregates.
Advantages
1. Space requirement is low comparable to the activated sludge system.
2. Requires lesser and simpler electromagnetic parts.
3. Electricity consumption is low.
4. Enables quicker sludge digestion.
11. What are the modified forms of conventional ASP? What is the significance
of sludge solids retention time in ASP design? (Nov/Dec 2013) (May/June
2014)
The plant consists of aeration tank, secondary settling tank a sludge return line and
excess sludge waste line. Both influents settled waste water and recycled sludge enters
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the tank at the head end and passes through the reactor via plug flow fashion.
The purpose of the return of the sludge is to maintain a sufficient concentration of

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activated sludge in the aeration tank so as to obtain the required degree of treatment in
the given time interval.

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12. How do you determine hydraulic loading rate of a trickling filter? (Nov/Dec
2013)

En
By the quantity of sewage applied per unit of surface area of the filter per day .this is
called hydraulic loading rate and expressed in million litres per hectare per day.

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13. Waste stabilization ponds are applicable for sewage management in rural
areas only.comment on this statement and justify your comment. (May/June
2013)
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Stabilization ponds are open flow-through earthen basins, specifically designed and
constructed to treat sewage and biodegradable industrial waste water.
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Justification:
 Open type g.n
 Requires long detention time.
 Stabilized by natural forces.
 Low cost treatment system
et
14. When will you prefer the anaerobic treatment of sewage over an aerobic
process? State the main objectives of providing advanced treatment of
sewage, how it are different from conventional treatment system. (May/June
2012),(Nov/Dec 2012) (May/June 2013)
 When DO content is very low.
 When Surface area is less
 For treating strong industrial wastes.
The main objectives are the removal of

 Nutrients like plant,nitrogen,phosphorous etc.,


 Suspended solids

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 B OD
 Dissolved solids
 Toxic substances
The Advanced wastewater treatment refers to methods and process that remove more
contaminants from the wastewater than the conventional treatment and techniques.
15. Distinguish between oxidation ditch and oxidation pond. (May/June 2012)
Oxidation ditch: it is essentially an extended aeration activated sludge process .it
consists of an endless ditch for the aeration tank and a rotor for aeration mechanism.
The ditch consists of a long continuous channel, usually oval in plan. There is no
primary tank used in the oxidation ditch process.
Oxidation pond/stabilization ponds: it is an open, flow through earthen basin of
controlled shape, specifically designed and constructed to treat sewage and
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biodegradable industrial wastes. The mixing is usually provided by natural processes
but may be augmented by mechanical or diffused aeration.

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PART – B

1. Explain the construction and working of trickling filter


Trickling Filters
Trickling filter is an attached growth process i.e. process in which microorganisms
responsible for treatment are attached to an inert packing material. Packing material
used in attached growth processes include rock, gravel, slag, sand, redwood, and a
wide range of plastic and other synthetic materials.

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Process Description
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Trickling Filter

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g.n
1.The wastewater in trickling filter is distributed over the top area of a vessel containing
non-submerged packing material.

the microorganisms growing as an attached biofilm. et


2.Air circulation in the void space, by either natural draft or blowers, provides oxygen for

3.During operation, the organic material present in the wastewater is metabolised by the
biomass attached to the medium. The biological slime grows in thickness as the organic
matter abstracted from the flowing wastewater is synthesized into new cellular material.
4.The thickness of the aerobic layer is limited by the depth of penetration of oxygen into
the microbial layer.
5.The micro-organisms near the medium face enter the endogenous phase as the
substrate is metabolised before it can reach the micro-organisms near the medium face
as a result of increased thickness of the slime layer and lose their ability to cling to the
media surface. The liquid then washes the slime off the medium and a new slime layer
starts to grow. This phenomenon of losing the slime layer is called sloughing.
6.The sloughed off film and treated wastewater are collected by an under drainage

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which also allows circulation of air through filter. The collected liquid is passed to a
settling tank used for solid- liquid separation.
Types of Filters
Trickling filters are classified as high rate or low rate, based on the organic and
hydraulic loading applied to the unit.
Low Rate
S.No Design Feature High Rate Filter
Filter
.
Hydraulic loading,
1. 1-4 10 - 40
m3/m2.d
Organic loading,kg
2. 0.08 - 0.32 0 .3 2 - 1 .0

ww
3.
BOD / m3.d
Depth, m. 1.8 - 3.0 0.9 - 2.5

w.E
4. Recirculation ratio 0
0.5 - 3.0 (domestic wastewater) upto
8 for strong industrial wastewater.

asy
1.The hydraulic loading rate is the total flow including recirculation applied on unit area of

En
the filter in a day, while the organic loading rate is the 5 day 20°C BOD, excluding the

gin
BOD of the recircular, applied per unit volume in a day.
2.Recirculation is generally not adopted in low rate filters.

ee
3.A well operated low rate trickling filter in combination with secondary settling tank may
remove 75 to 90% BOD and produce highly nitrified effluent. It is suitable for treatment of
low to medium strength domestic wastewaters.
rin
4.The high rate trickling filter, single stage or two stage are recommended for medium to
g.n
relatively high strength domestic and industrial wastewater. The BOD removal efficiency
is around 75 to 90% but the effluent is only partially nitrified.
et
5.Single stage unit consists of a primary settling tank, filter, secondary settling tank and
facilities for recirculation of the effluent. Two stage filters consist of two filters in series
with a primary settling tank, an intermediate settling tank which may be omitted in certain
cases and a final settling tank.

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ww
w.E
asy
2. Explain Activated Sludge Process

En
The most common suspended growth process used for municipal

gin
wastewater treatment is the activated sludge process as shown in figure:

ee rin
g.n
et

Activated sludge plant involves:


1. Wastewater aeration in the presence of a microbial suspension,

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2. Solid-liquid separation following aeration,


3. Discharge of clarified effluent,
4. Wasting of excess biomass, and return of remaining biomass to the
aeration tank.

In activated sludge process wastewater containing organic matter is aerated in


an aeration basin in which micro-organisms metabolize the suspended and
soluble organic matter. Part of organic matter is synthesized into new cells and
part is oxidized to CO2 and water to derive energy. In activated sludge systems
the new cells formed in the reaction are removed from the liquid stream in the
form of a flocculent sludge in settling tanks. A part of this settled biomass,

ww
described as activated sludge is returned to the aeration tank and the
remaining forms waste or excess sludge.

w.E
Activated Sludge Process Variables

The main variables of activated sludge process are the mixing regime, loading

asy
rate, and the flow scheme.
Mixing Regime

En
Generally two types of mixing regimes are of major interest in activated sludge
gin
process: plug flow and complete mixing. In the first one, the regime is
characterized by orderly flow of mixed liquor through the aeration tank with no
ee
element of mixed liquor overtaking or mixing

rin
with any other element. There may be lateral mixing of mixed liquor but there
must be no mixing along the path of flow.

g.n
In complete mixing, the contents of aeration tank are well stirred and uniform

same composition as the aeration tank contents.


The type of mixing regime is very important as it affects
et
throughout. Thus, at steady state, the effluent from the aeration tank has the

1. oxygen transfer requirements in the aeration tank,


2. susceptibility of biomass to shock loads,
3. local environmental conditions in the aeration tank, and
4. the kinetics governing the treatment process.
Flow Scheme
1. The flow scheme involves:
2. the pattern of sewage addition
3. the pattern of sludge return to the aeration tank and
4. the pattern of aeration.
Sewage addition may be at a single point at the inlet end or it may be at several
points along the aeration tank. The sludge return may be directly from the settling
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tank to the aeration tank or through a sludge reaeration tank. Aeration may be at
a uniform rate or it may be varied from the head of the aeration tank to its end.
3. Briefly discuss the functioning and advantage of an UASB (May/June 2013)

x UASB-The upflow Anaerobic sludge blanket. The UASB reactor maintains a high
concentration of biomass through the formation of highly settle able microbial sludge
aggregate . the waste water flows upwards through a layer of very active sludge to
cause anaerobic digestion of organics of the waste water .At the top of the reactor
,these phase separation between gas-solid-liquid takes place any biomass leaving
the reaction zone is directly recirculated from the settling g zone. The process is
suitable for both soluble waste waters as well as waste water containing particulate
matter.

x ww
The large scale adoption of this technique for treating municipal waste waters is

x w.E
comparatively of recent origin .

The X-section of a typical UASB reactor is shown .This reactor consist of an

asy
upflowing treatment tank, provided with a feed inlet distribution system at the tank
bottom . A gas solid-liquid separator (GSS) device is provided at the top to help

En
provide a quiescent zone at the top of the reactor.

The wastewaters enters the tank from the bottom and flows upward through the
x
gin
sludge bed. The sludge bed develops micro-organisms capable of Flourishing in an
oxygen deficient environment.

x ee rin
The sludge bed (blanket) traps the suspended organics of the up moving
wastewater. The suspended solids trapped in the sludge bed are degraded by the

g.n
producing methane and CO2 (ie, biogas, which is a mixture of 65-70% methane, and
30-35% CO2).The biogas produce of during the anaerobic decomposition, reducing

x
the BOD and suspended solids of the wastewater.
et
The methane or biogas is collected at the top of the tank in a gas collector ,from
where it can be withdrawn for use as a by-product, while the water sludge mixture is
made to enter a setting tank where the sludge mixture is made to enter a setting
tank where the sludge settles down and flows back in to the bottom of the reactor.
The sludge will show good settling properties after an initial start up period,
followed by granulation, forming a sludge blanket or sludge bed in the lower past of
the reactor.

x The UASB, evidently operator as a suspended growth system, with no packing


material in the reactor. In this system, the microbes attack themselves to each other,
or to small particles of the suspended matter of sewage, to form granular or

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agglomerates and ultimately the sludge bed (blanket).The gas produced in the
process causes sufficient agitation to keys the sludge fully mixed.

x Retention of the bacteria contacting sludge in the reactor is one of the most
important features of the UASB process. The bacteria in the sludge continue to
perform their function of treating the incoming effluent. The continuous bacterial
presence and activity enables retention time in the reactor to be reduced to about 6-
8 hours ,as compared to at least 30 hrs, that is required in conventional sewage
treatment systems.

x The treated effluent is collected in gukters, and discharged out of the reactor. The
sludge is periodically shifted in to the drying beds, to be used as a soil enricher, The

ww
methane generated can be used as a gas for domestic or industrial use. It may also
be used for generation of electricity for running the plant, after the approximate

x w.E
dehydration and cleaning.

This process can be reactivated even after the plant remains shut down the for days

x
asy
or months, or after power breakdowns and interruptions in wastewater supply.

Like other high rate anaerobic systems, The various advantages offered by UASB
systems are
En
Advantages of UASB system:
gin
ee
x The space requirement of the system is quite comparable to that of an Activated
sludge, ie, about 0.5 acres per MLD, as compared to 2.5 acres per MLD required for
oxidation ponds, and 1.5 acres for Aerated lagoons.
rin
g.n
x The capital cost investment of such a plant is about Rs.20 lakh/MLD as compared to
about Rs.35lakh/MLD for an Activated sludge plant,Rs.75 lakh/MLD for oxidation
ponds and Rs.15lakh/MLD for Aerated lagoons.
et
x The system requires lesser and simpler electromagnetic parts as compared to the
ones required in an Activated sludge plant, leading to lower operation and
Maintenance cost.

x Electricity consumption in this system ,like all anaerobic systems, is quite low, and
the system is quite capable of withstanding long power failures.

x The sludge Production system is low, and the produced sludge is having quick
dewatering characteristics.

x The system enables quicker sludge digestion, as compared to the conventional


digestors.

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x Biogas is produced in the system as a by-product, which can be used to produce


electricity to run the system.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
(may / June 2012) ee
4. State the various advantages and disadvantages of conventional trickling filter

rin
Conventional trickling filter or ordinary trickling filters or standard rate trickling or low
rate trickling filter.
g.n
Advantages and disadvantages of trickling filters

Advantages:
et
(i) Rate of filter loading is high, as such requiring lesser land area and smaller
quantities of filter media for their installations.

(ii) Effluent obtained from the trickling filters is sufficiently nitrified and stabilized.
They can be removed about 75% of BOD and about 80% of suspended solids. The
effluent can, therefore be easily disposed of in smaller quantity of dilution water.

(iii) W orking of trickling filter is simple, and does not require any skilled supervision.

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(iv) They are flexible in operation, and they can, therefore, withstand the application
of variety of sewages having different concentration and composition. Even if they are
over- loaded, they can recoup after test.

(v) They are self-cleaning.

(vi) Mechanical wear and tear is small, as they contain less mechanical equipment.

(vii) Moisture content of sludge, obtained from trickling filters, is as high as 99% or so.

(viii) Trickling filters have been found to be operated more efficiently in warm weather,
and produce an effluent appreciably lower in BOD. Hence , they are of immense- use in
hot countries like India.

ww
Disadvantages of trickling filters:

1.
w.E
The head loss through these filters is high, making automatic dosing of the filter
necessary (through siphonic dosing tank)

2.
asy
Cost of construction of trickling filters is high.

3.

4. En
These filters cannot treat raw sewage, and primary sedimentation is a must.

These filters pose a number of operational troubles such as

x Fly nuisance gin


x Odour nuisance ee rin
x Ponding nuisance

g.n
et

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ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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6.

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asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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7.

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asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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asy
En
gin
ee rin
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et

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UNIT V
DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AND SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
PART A
1. Explain the oxygen deficit of a polluted river stream
The oxygen deficit at any D at any time in a polluted river stream is the
difference between the actual D.O content of water at the time and the saturation D.O
content at the water temperature
[oxygen deficit(D) =Saturation DO - actual D.O]
2. What is De-oxygenating Curve, Re-oxygenating curve
In the polluted stream, the D.O content goes on reducing due to decomposition of
volatile organic matter.

ww
The rate of deoxygenation depends upon the amount of the organic matter remaining
to be oxidisied at the given time as well as on the temperature of reaction.

w.E
In order to counter- balance the consumption of DO due to de-oxygenation, atmosphere
supplies oxygen to the water, and the process is called re-oxygenation. The rate at
which the oxygen is supplied by the atmosphere depends.

asy
1. The depth of the receiving water
2. The condition of the body of water

En
3. The saturation deficit or the oxygen deficit
4. The temperature of water
gin
3. What is Oxygen Deficit Curve, Define the term “Dilution Factor”?
ee
The amount of resultant oxygen deficit can be obtained algebraically adding the de-

rin
oxygenation and re-oxygenation curve. The resultant curve so obtained is called the
oxygen sag curve or the oxygen deficit curve

g.n
Dilution Factor is the ratio of the quantity of the diluting water to that of the sewage is
known as the Dilution Factor.

4. What are the methods adopted for sewage disposal and what are the natural
forces of purification?
et
1. Dilution is disposal in water.
2. Effluent Irrigation or Broad Irrigation or Sewage forming is disposal on
land.
The natural forces of purification
1. Dilution and dispersion.
2. Sedimentation
3. Oxidation – reduction in sun-light.
4. Oxidation
5. Reduction

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5. What are the factors affecting self purification of polluted streams?

a) Temperature
b) Turbulence
c) Hydrography such as the velocity and surface expanse of the river stream.
d) Available dissolved oxygen and the amount and type of organic matter.
e) Rate of re aeration.
6 . Write the equation for find out the B.O.D. of the diluted water.

B.O.D. of the diluted mixture


C=[ CS.QS+ CR.QR] / [QS+ QR]
Where

ww Cs = B.O.D. of sewage
CR = B.O.D. of river
Qs =Sewage discharge

w.E QR = Discharge of the river


7. What do you mean by Oxidation, Reduction?

asy
The oxidation of the organic matter prevent in sewage effluents, will start as soon
as the sewage out falls into the river water containing dissolved oxygen. The deficiency
of oxygen so created will be filled up by the atmospheric oxygen. The process of
En
oxidation will continue till the organic matter has been completely oxidized. This is the

gin
most important action responsible for effecting self purification of rivers.

Reduction occurs due to hydrolysis of organic matter settled at the bottom either

ee
chemically or biologically. An aerobic bacteria will help in splitting the complex organic

rin
constituents of sewage into liquids and gases and thus paving the way for their ultimate
stabilization by oxidation.

8. Give three important methods of disposal of sludge. What are methods g.n
adopted for sludge drying?
Methods adopted for disposal of sludge
1. Sludge disposal into water.
2. Sludge disposal by application on land.
et
3. Sludge disposal by clogging.
4. Sludge disposal by composting.
Methods adopted for sludge drying
1. Drying the sludge on prepared sand beds.
2. Drying the sludge on centrifuges.
3. Drying the sludge by heat dryers
9. Define the term “Sewage sickness”. What the types of preventive measure are
in adopted for sewage sickness?
When sewage is applied continuously on a piece of land, the soil pores or voids
may get filled up and clogged with sewage matter retrained in them. The time taken for

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such a clogging will, of course depend upon the type of soil and the load present in
sewage. The organic matter will thus, of course, be mineralized, but with the evolution
of four gases like H2S, Co2, CH4.

This phenomenon of soil getting clogged is known as sewage sickness.

Preventive measure in adopted for sewage sickness


1. Primary treatment of sewage
2. Choice of land
3. Under-drainage of sool.
4. Giving rest to the land.
5. Rotation of crops

ww 6. Applying shallow depths.


10. What are the unit operation / process on the sludge treatment? What is the
purpose of thickening? What are the types of thickening? (May/June

w.E
2012),(Nov/Dec 2012)
Sludge treatment may include all or a combination of the following unit operations and
processes
asy
1. Thickening or concentration
2. Digestion
3. Conditioning
En
4. Dewatering
5. Drying
6. incineration
gin
ee
The purpose of thickening is to reduce moisture content of the sludge, and
consequently to increase the solids concentration.
1. Gravity thickening rin
2. Air Floatation.
3. Centrifugation. g.n
11. What is meant by “Elutriation” “chemical conditioning”?
et
Elutriation is literally a “washing” of the sludge. It is a unit operation in which a
solid or a solid-liquid mixture is intimately mixed with a liquid for the purpose of
transferring certain components to the liquid.
Chemical conditioning is the process of adding certain chemicals to enable
coalescence of sludge particle facilitating easy extraction of moisture.
Eg: Alum, ferric, chloride, lime.
12. Define the term “sludge age”? What is the purpose of dewatering?
It is defined as the ratio between mars of suspended solids (MLSS) in the system
(M) to Mass of solids leaving the system / day.
1. Cost of trucking sludge to ultimate disposal site is reduced, because of reduce
sludge volume consequent to dewatering.
2. Ease in handling dewatering sludge.
13. What are the concerns in the application of sewage on to land? (Nov/Dec

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2011)
1. The garbage is dumped in to low lying areas or depression s available nearby.
2. Dumping is done in layers of 1 to 2m.
3. Each layer is covered by 0.2m thickness of good earth.
4. Each layer is compacted by movement of dumping vehicles.
14. How does one improve the dewater ability of sludge? Name the methods of
disposal of sewage by land treatment. (Nov/Dec 2011), (Nov/Dec 2012) .
(May/June 2012)
1. Air drying in sludge drying beds.
2. By mechanical means such as vacuum filtration,centrifugation,pressure filtration
etc.,
Methods of disposal of sewage by land treatment
Disposed of by spreading over farm land and ploughing under after it has dried.

ww(i)
(ii)
Wet dewatered sludge can be incorporated in to soil directly by injection.
wet sludge is discharged in to number of shallow trenches
(iii) After the formation of sludge cake t is covered with dry earth.

w.E
15.Name the feed material sources for biogas recovery in a sewage treatment
plant? (May/Jun 2013)
1. Cow dung
2. Cattle waste
3. Piggery waste asy
4. Poultry droppings
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et

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PART – B
1. Discuss the need for sludge dewatering and explain the various sludge
dewatering methods. (Nov/Dec 2013)

Sludge dewatering

Dewatering is a physical unit operation used to reduce the moisture content of the
sludge and thus to increase the solids concentration.

Need for sludge dewatering.

1. Cost of trucking sludge to ultimate disposal site is reduced because of reduced


sludge volume consequent to dewatering.

ww
2. Ease in handling dewatered sludge.
3. Increase in calorific value of sludge by removal of moisture, prior to incineration.
w.E
4. Rendering the sludge totally odourless and non-put risible.

asy
5. Sludge dewatering is commonly required prior to land filling to reduce lechate
production at landfill site.
Various methods.
En
Sludge drying beds.
gin
Mechanical methods.
Vacuum filters. ee rin
Sludge drying beds.

g.n
This method of dewatering and drying the sludge is especially suitable for those

et
locations where temperature is higher, similar to the one prevailing in our country

Sludge Drying bed

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A sludge drying bed usually consists of a bottom layer of gravel of uniform size
over which is laid a bed of clean sand. Open jointed tile under drains are laid in the
gravel layer to provide positive drainage as the liquid passes through the sand and
gravel.

Under drains are made of vitrified clay pipes or tiles of at least 10cm diameter
laid with open joint. Under drains are placed not more than 6m apart. Graded gravel is
placed around the under drains in layers up to 30cm with a minimum of 15cm above the
top of the under drains. Atleast 8cm of the top layer should consists of gravel of 3 to
6mm size.

Clean sand of effective size of 0.5 to 0.75mm and uniform co-efficient not greater

ww
than 4.0 is placed over the gravel. The depth of sand may vary from 15 to 30cm.

The drying beds are commonly 6 to 8m wide and 30 to 45m long. A length of

w.E
30m away from the inlet should not be exceeded with a single point of wet sludge
discharge ,when the bed slope is about 0.5% .multiple discharge points should be used

asy
with large sludge beds to reduce the length of wet sludge travel. In order to have
flexibility in operation, beds should be at least two in number.

En
The area needed for dewatering the sludge is dependent on total volume of
sludge, climate, temperature and location. Areas required for drying beds range from

gin
0.1 to 0.15m2/capita with dry solids loading of 60 to 120Kg/m2/year for digested mixed
sludge.

ee
Sludge should be deposited evenly to a depth of not greater than 20cm.when
rin
digested sludge is deposited on a well drained bed of sand described above ,the

g.n
dissolved gases tend to buoy up float the solids leaving a clear liquid at the bottom
which drains off in a few hours after which drying commences by evaporation. The

et
sludge cake shrinks producing cracks which accelerates evaporation from the sludge
surface. W ith good drying conditions, the sludge will dewater satisfactorily and become
fit for removal in about 2 to 3 weeks producing a volume reduction of 20 to 40%.dried
sludge can be removed by shovel or forks when the moisture content is less than
70%.when the moisture content reaches 40%, the cake becomes lighter and suitable for
grinding .wheel barrows or pickup trucks are used for hauling of sludge cakes.

Mechanical methods.

Vacuum filtration is the most common mechanical method of dewatering, filter


presses and centrifugation being the other methods.

Chemical conditioning is normally required prior to the mechanical methods of


dewatering.

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Mechanical methods may be used to dewater raw or digested sludge’s


preparatory to heat treatment by vacuum filtration because the coarse solids are
rendered fine during digestion.

Hence filtration of draw primary or a mixture of primary and secondary sludge’s


permits slightly better yields, lower chemical requirements and lower cake moisture
contents than filtration of digested sludge’s.

When the ratio of secondary and primary sludge increase, it become more and
more difficult to dewater the filter. The feed solids concentration would demand unduly
large filter surface. In this method, conditioned sludge is spread out in a thin layer on the
filtering medium, the water portion being separated due to the vacuum and the moisture

ww
content is reduced quickly.

Vacuum filters.

w.E Vacuum filters consists of a cylindrical drum over which is laid a filtering medium
of wool, cloth or felt ,synthetic fiber or plastic or stainless steel mesh or coil springs. The

asy
drum is suspended horizontally so that one quarter of its diameter is submerged in a
tank containing sludge. The valves and piping’s are arranged to apply a vacuum on the

En
inner side of the filter medium as the drum rotates slowly in the sludge. The vacuum
holds the sludge against the drum as it continues to be applied as the drum rotates out

gin
of the sludge tank. This pulls water away from the sludge leaving a moist cake mat at
the outer surface. The sludge cake on the filter medium is scraped from the drum just

ee
before it enters the sludge tank again. The filtration rate is expressed in kg of dry solids

rin
per square meter of medium per hour. It varies from 10kg/m2/hr for activated sludge
alone to 50kg/m2/hr for primary sludge’s.

g.n
2. Discuss the principle of the self purification process of stream and factors
influencing the process (May/June 2012)
et
When sewage is discharges into a natural body of water, the receiving water gets
polluted due to waste products, present in sewage effluents. But the conditions do not
remain so for ever, because the natural process of purification such as dilution,
sedimentation, oxidation-reduction in sunlight, etc, go on acting upon the pollution
elements, and bring back the water into its original condition. The automatic purification
of polluted water, in due course is called the self purification phenomenon. However if
the self purification is not achieved successfully due to either too much of pollution
discharged into it or due to other causes, the river water itself will get polluted, which
inturn, may also pollute the sea where the river outfalls.

Factors influencing

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1. Temperature
2. Turbulence
3. Hydrography such as the velocity and surface expanse of the river stream.
4. Rate of reaeration etc.
Temperature

Beside affecting the dilution and sedimentation rates, the temperature also affects the
rate of biological and chemical activities, which are enhanced at high temperatures and
depressed at lower temperatures. The dissolved oxygen content of water, which is very
essential for maintaining aquatic life and anaerobic conditions (so as to avoid the

ww
anaerobic decomposition and subsequent nuisance caused by the eruption of foul
orders) is also influenced by temperature.

w.E At higher temperature, the capacity to maintain the D.O concentration is low,
while the rate of biological and chemical activities are high, causing thereby rapid

asy
depletion of D.O. this is likely to lead to anaerobic conditions, when the pollution due to
putrescible organic matter is heavy.

Turbulence
En
gin
The turbulence in the body of water helps in breaking the surface of the stream of lakes,
and helps in rapid re-aeration from the atmosphere. Thus it helps in maintaining aerobic

ee
conditions in the river stream, and in keeping it clean. Too much of turbulence, however

rin
is not desirable, because it cannot be the bottom sediment, increases the turbidity and
retards algae gowth, which is useful in reaeration process. W ind and under current in
lakes and oceans cause turbulences which affect their self-purification.
g.n
The hydrography
et
Affects the velocity and surface expanse of the river stream, High velocities
cause turbulence and rapid reaeration, while large surface expanse (for the same cubic
contents) will also have the same effects.

Dissolved oxygen

The large the amount of dissolved oxygen present in water, the better and earlier the
self purification will occur.

The amount and type of organic matter and biological growth present in water will
also affect the rate of purification. Algae which absorbs carbondioxide and gives out
oxygen, is thus very helpful in the self purification process.

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The rate of reaeration

The rate at which the D.O deficiency is replenished, will considerably govern the
self purification process. The greater is the rate, the quicker will be self-purification, and
there will be no chances of development of anaerobic conditions.

3. Explain about oxygen sag curve and its importance (May/June 2012)

Oxygen deficit curve

In a running polluted stream exposed to the atmosphere, the deoxygenation as


well as the re-oxygenation go hand in hand. If de-oxygenation is more rapid than the re-
oxygenation, an oxygen deficit results.

ww
(Note; if the D.O content becomes zero, anaerobic conditions will no longer be
maintained and putrefaction will set in)

w.E The amount of resultant oxygen deficit can be obtained by algebraically adding
the de-oxygenation and re-oxygenation curves. The resultant curve so obtained is
asy
called the oxygen sag curve or the oxygen deficit curve. From this curve, the oxygen
deficit (D) and oxygen balance (i.e 100-D) percent in a steam after a certain lapse of
time, can be found out.
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It can also be seen that when the de-oxygenation rate exceeds the re-
oxygenation rate, the oxygen sag curve shows increasing deficit of oxygen, but when

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both the rate becomes equal, the critical point is reached, and then finally when the rate

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of de-oxygenation falls below that of re-oxygenation, the oxygen deficit goes on
decreasing till becoming zero.

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4. Enumerate various processes involved in the sludge treatment and disposal.
Explain the mechanism of anaerobic and aerobic sludge digestion with their
relative merits and demerits (May/June 2012)

Stages in the sludge digestion process


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Three distinct stages have been found to occur in the biological action involved in the
natural process of sludge digestion. The stages are

1. Acid fermentation
2. Acid regression
3. Alkaline fermentation
Acid fermentation stage or acid production stage

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In this first stage of sludge digestion, the fresh sewage-sludge begins to be acted
upon by anaerobic and facultative bacteria called acid formers. These organisms
solubilize the organic solids through hydrolysis. The soluble products are then
fermented to volatile acids and organic alcohols of low molecular weight like propionic
acid, acetic acid, etc. Gase like methane, CO2, and H2S are also evolved. Intensive acid
production makes the sludge highly acidic, and lowers the pH, value to less than 6.
Highly putrefaction odours are evolved during this stage, which continues for about 15
days or so (at about 21°C). BOD of the sludge increases to some extent, during this
stage.

Acid regression stage

ww In this intermediate stage, the volatile organic acids and nitrogeneous


compounds of the first stage are attacked by the bacteria, so as to form acid carbonates
and ammonia compounds, small amount of H2S and CO2 gases are also given off. The
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decomposed sludge has a very offensive odour and its pH value rises a little, and to be
about 6.8. the decomposed sludge also entraps the gases of decomposition, becomes

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foamy and rises to the surface of form scum. This sludge continues for a period of about
3 months or so. BOD of the sludge remains high even during this stage.

Alkaline fermentation stage:


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In this final stage of sludge digestion more resistant materials like proteins and
organic acids are attacked at broken up by anaerobic bacteria, called methane formers,

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into simple substances like ammonia, organic acids and gases. During this stage, the

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liquid seperates out from the solids, and the digested sludge is formed. This sludge is
granular and stable, and does not give offensive odours. (It has a musty earthy odour).

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This digested sludge is collected at the bottom of the digestion tank and is also called
ripened stage. Digested sludge is alkaline in nature. The pH value during this stage

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rises to a little above 7 (about 7.5 or so) in the alkaline range. Large volumes of
methane gas (having a considerable fuel value) along with small amount of CO2 and
nitrogen are evolved during this stage. This stage extends for a period of about one
month or so. The BOD of the sludge also rapidly falls down during this stage.

It is thus, seen that several months (about 4.5 months or so)are required for the
complete process of digestion to take place under natural uncontrolled conditions at
about 21°C. This period of digestion is however very much dependent upon the
temperature of digestion and other factors. If these factors are controlled, quicker and
effective digestion can be brought about as

Factors affecting sludge digestion and their control

Temperature

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pH value
Seeding with digested sludge
Mixing and stirring of the raw sludge with digested sludge
Disposal of digested sludge

The digested sludge from the digestion tank contains a lot of water, and is
therefore, first of all, dewatered or dried up before further disposal either by burning or
dumping.

Dewatering, drying and disposal of sludge by sludge drying beds

ww Drying of the digested sludge on open beds of land is quite suitable for hot
countries like India.

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Sludge drying beds are open beds of land, 45 to 60 cm deep and consisting of about 30
to 45 cm thick graded layer of gravel or crushed stone varying in size from 15 cm at

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bottom to 1.25 cm at top, and overlain by 10 to 15 cm thick coarse sand layer.

The sewage sludge from the digestion tank is brought and spread over the top of

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the drying beds to a depth of about 20 to 30 cm.

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A portion of the moisture, drains through the bed while most of it is
evaporated to the atmosphere. It usually takes about two weeks to two months for

Disposal of dewatered sludge


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drying the sludge,depending on the weather and condition of the bed.

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The dewatered sludge obtained from mechanical devices in western countries is
generally heat dried, so as to produce fertilizers. The wet sludge after mechanical

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dewatering is sometimes directly disposed of either in sea or in underground trenches
or burnt.

Disposal by dumping into the sea

The dewatered wet sludge may sometimes be discharged at sea from hopper
barges or through outfall sewers. This method can, however be adopted only in case of
cities situated on sea shores and where the direction of the normal winds are such as to
take the discharged sludge into the sea away from the shore line.

Disposal by burial into the trenches

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In this method, the digested sludge without dewatering is run into trenches. W hen the
sludge has dried to a firm state, it is covered at top with a thin layer of soil. After about a
month, the land is ploughed up with powered lime and planted with crops.

Disposal by incineration

The dewatered wet sludge produced in wastewater treatment plant may also be
disposed of by burning in suitably designed incinerators, when sufficient space is not
available for its burial near the plant site or the sludge cannot be dried and used as
manure.

Mechanism of aerobic and anaerobic sludge digestion with merits and demerits

ww Sludge digestion is a biochemical phenomenon involving organisms, enzymes,


food and environment. The principal objective of sludge digestion is to subject the

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organic matter present in the settled sludge of the primary and final sedimentation tanks
to anaerobic or aerobic decomposition so as to make it innocuous and amenable to
dewatering on sand beds or mechanical filter before final disposal on land, lagoon or
sea.
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Sludge digestion brings about reduction in volume. W hile anaerobic digestion of
sludge produces gas which can be utilized wherever feasible, aerobic digestion does

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not produce any utilizable by product other than well stabilized sludge.

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Anaerobic digestion is the biological decomposition of organic matter in absence of
oxygen. It consists of two distinct stages

 First stage (Acid fermentation) rin


 Second stage (Methane fermentation)
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Advantages

 Lower BOD concentration in digester supernatant


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 Production of odourless and easily dewaterable biologically stable
digested sludge.
 Recovery of more basic fertilizer value in digested sludge.
 Lower capital cost
 Fewer operational problems
Disadvantages

a. Higher power costs generate higher operating costs comparable with anaerobic
digestion
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b. Gravity thickening process following aerobic digestion and to generate high


solids concentration in the supernatant
c. Some aerobically digested sludges do not dewater easily in vacuum filtration
d. No methane gas is produced for recovery as a by product.
5. Explain the various actions involved in the self purification process of a
stream(May/June 2013)

Self purification of natural streams:

When the waste water or the effluent is discharged into a natural stream, the
organic matter is broken by bacteria to ammonia, nitrate, sulphate, carbondioxide etc

ww In this process of oxidation ,the DO content of natural water is utilized. Due to


this ,deficiency of DO is created. As the excess organic matter is stabilized ,the normal
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cycle will be restabilised in a process known as self purification wherein the oxygen is
replenished by its reaeration by wind.

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Water quality standards are often based upon maintenance of some minimum
dissolved oxygen concentration which will protect the natural cycle in the stream while
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taking advantageof its natural assimilative capacity.

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Actions involved in the self purification are physical,chemical and biological in nature

1. Dilution
2. Dispersion due to currents
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3. Sedimentation
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5. Reduction
6. Temperature
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7. Sunlight
1.Dilution:

When wastewater is discharged into the receiving water,dilution takes place due
to which the concentration of organic matter is reduced and the potential nuisance of
sewage Is also reduced.

When the dilution ratio I high ,large quantities of DO are always available which
will reduce te chances of putrefication and pollutional effect.Aerobic condition will
always exist because of dilution.
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2.Dispersion due to currents

Self purification of tream largely depend on currents which will readily disperse
the wastewater in the stream preventing locally the high concentration of
pollutants.High velocity improves reaeration which reduces the concentration of
pollutants. High velocity improves reaeration which reduces the time of recovery,
though length of stream affected by waste water is increased.

3.Sedimentation

If the stream velocity is lesser than the scour velocity of particles,sedimentation


of the particles will take place which will have two effects,

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will be removed by settling and hence water quality to the downstream will
be increased.
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4.Oxidation
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The organic matter present in the waste water by aerobic bacteria utilizing DO of
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the natural water, This process prevails till complete oxidation of organic matter. The

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stream which is capable of absorbing more oxygen rapidly through reaeration etc. and
in a short time.

5.Reduction
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The reduction occurs in the streams due to hydrolyi of the organic matter

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biologically or chemically.Anaerobic bacteria plit the organic matter into liquids and
gases thus paving way for their ultimate stabilization by oxidation.

6.Temperature

At low temperature the activities of bacteria is slow and hence rate of


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decomposition will also be slow though DO will be more because of increased solubility
of oxygen in water.At higher temperature ,however the self purification takes lesser time
though the quality of DO will be less.

7.Sunlight

It helps certain microorganisms to absorb co2 and give out oxygen, though
assisting in self purification.Sunlight act as a disinfectant and stimulate the growth of
algae which produce oxygen during day light but utilize oxygen at night hence wherever
there is algal growth,the water may be supersaturated in DO during daylight hours
though anaerobic condition exist in it.

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Zone of pollution in the river

The self purification process of a stream polluted by the effluent or waste water
discharged into it can be divided into following four zones.

1. Zone of degradation
2. Zone of active decomposition
3. Zone of recovery
4. Clean water zone
Zone of degradation

ww This zone is situated just below the outfalls sewer when discharging its content
into the stream.In this zone,water is dark and turbid having the formation of sludge

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deposits at the bottom.The DO is reduced to 40% of the saturation values.There is an
increase in the co2 content and reaeration is much slower than deoxygenation thou

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conditions are unfavorable for aquatic life,fungi at higher point and bacteria at lower
points breed small worms will work over and stabilize the sewage slugde.The
decomposition of solid matter takes place in this zone and anaerobic decomposition
prevails.
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Zone of active decomposition
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This zone is just after the degradation zone and I markrd by heavy
pollution.Water in thi zone become greyish and darker than the previous zone.The DO
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concentration in this zone falls down to zero.Active anaerobic organic decomposition

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takes place with the solution of methane, Hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and
nitrogen bubbling to the surfaces with masses of sludge forming black scum.

presence of anaerobic bacteria at the lower end.Protozoa and fungi will first
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Fish life is absent in this zone but bacterial flora will flourish in this zone with the

disappear.However near the end of this zone,as the decomposition slackens,reaeration


sets in and DO again rises to its original level of 40%

Zone of Recovery

In this zone ,the process of recovery starts, from its former condition.The
stabilization of organic matter takes place in this zone,Due to this most of the organic
matter settles down as sludge,BOD falls and DO content rises above 40%
value.Mineralization is active with the resulting formation of products like
Nitrates,Sulphides and Carbonates.Near the end of this zone,microscopic aquatic life
reappear,fungi decrease and algae reappears.

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Clear water zone

In this zone, the natural condition of the zone is restored with a result that

1. Water becomes clearer and attractive in appearance


2. DO rises to the saturation level and is much higher than BOD.
3. Oxygen balance is attained
Thus the recovery is said to be complete in this zone, though some pathogenic
organisms may be present in this zone.

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6. Enumerate the two general methods adopted for sewage disposal and
explaining the conditions favourable for their adoption.

There are two general methods of disposing of the sewage effluents.

a. Dilution is disposal in water.

b. Effluent Irrigation or Broad Irrigation or sewage farming is disposal on land.


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Disposal by dilution:-

Disposal by dilution is the process whereby the treated sewage or the effluent from the
sewage treatment plant is discharged into a river stream, or a large body of water, such
as a lake or sea. The discharged sewage in due course of time, is purified by what is
known as self purification process of natural waters. The degree and amount of
treatment given to raw sewage before

disposing it of into the river stream in question, will definitely depend not only upon the
quality of raw sewage but also upon the self purification capacity of the river stream and
the intended use of its water.

Conditions favouring Disposal by dilution.

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The dilution methods for disposing of the sewage can favourably be adopted under the

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following conditions.

1. W hen sewage is comparatively fresh (4 to 5 hrold) and free from floating and

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settleable solids. (or are easily removed by primary treatment)

2. W hen the diluting water (is the source of disposal) has a high dissolved oxygen (0-0)
content.
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3. W here diluting waters are not used for the purpose of navigation or water supply for
at least some reasonable distance on the downstream from the point of sewage
disposal.
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4. W here the flow currents of the diluting waters are favourable, causing no deposition,
nuisance or destruction of aquatic life.
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5. W hen the out fall sewer of the city or the treatment plant is situated near some
natural water having large volumes.

Disposal on land:-
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Disposal of Sewage Effluents on land for Irrigation: In this method, the sewage effluent
(treated or diluted) is generally disposed of by applying it on land. The percolating water
may either soon the water table or is collected below by a system of under drains. This
method can then be used for irrigating crops. This method, in addition to disposing of
the sewage may help in increasing crop yields (by 33% or so) as the sewage generally
contains a lot of fertilizing minerals and other elements. However, the sewage effluent
before being used as irrigation water, must be made safe. In order to lay down the
limiting standards for sewage effluents, and the degree of treatment required, it is
necessary to study as to what happens when sewage is applied on to the land as
irrigation water. The pretreatment process may be adopted by larger cities which can
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afford to conduct treatment of sewage when sewage is diluted with water for disposal
for irrigation, too large volumes of dilution water are generally not needed, so as not to
require too large areas for disposal.

7. Write short notes on i) Efficient irrigation and sewage farming ii) Sewage
sickness.

Efficient irrigation and sewage for morning:

Although, out wardly, both these terms are used as synonyms to each other, yet
there is one basic difference b/w the. This difference is that: in “efficient irrigation” (or
broad irrigation ), the chief consideration is the successful disposal of sewage, while in
sewage farming, the chief consideration in the successful growing of the crops. Hence

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in broad irrigation, the raw or settled. Sewage is discharged on vacant land which is
provided under neath with a system of properly laid under – drains. These under –

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drains basically consist of 15 to 20 cm river process tile pipes, load open founded at a
spacing of 12 to 30m. The efficient collected in these drains after getting filtered through

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the 5001 pores is a generally small (as a large quantity gets evaporated) and well
stabilized, and can be early disposal into some natural water courses, without any
further treatment. In case of sewage farming, however the tress is load upon the use of
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sewage efficient for irrigation crops and increasing the fertility of the soil. The pre-

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treatment of sewage in removing the ingredients which may prove harmful and toxic to
the plant is therefore, necessary in this case.

Sewage sickness:
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When sewage is applied continuously once. Piece of land, the soil pores or void

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may get filled up and clogged with sewage matter retained in them. The time taken for
such a clogging will, of course depend upon the type of and the load prevent in sewage.

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But when once these voids are clogged, free circulation for air will be prevented and
anaerobic conditions will develop on the pores. Due to those the aerobic de composition
of organic matter will stop, and anaerobic decomposition will start. The organic matter
will there, of course, be miner lord but with the evolution of foul gases live H2S, CO2,
CH4. This phenomenon of soil getting clogged is known as sewage sickness of land.

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8.

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9.

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