Quadrature Ihybrid Junctions or 3DB Directional Coup manner illustrated in Fig. 6. They were tested >2nd
lers found to have minimum isolations of 35 db over the 8.2
Two HewlettPackard X752A multihole directional to 12.4 kmc band and a maximum vswr of 1.7.
couplers were selected whose couplings differed from
each other by less than 0.1 db and varied from 2.7 db T Junction
to 3.3 db over the 8.2 to 12.4 kmc band. This T junction, whose symmetrical arm forms the
Waveguide Bends TEM input terminal for the multiplexing antenna, is
simply a carefully constructed tapered waveguide bi
These bends, shown at the bottom of Fig. 6, were all furcation. It splits the power incident from the sym
electroformed on precisionmachined aluminum man metrical arm into two equal components within at least
drels, which were subsequently dissolved out in boiling + 0.1 db. The symmetrical arm is matched to a vswr less
sodium hydroxide. The electrical lengths of the various than 1.02 over most of the 8.2 to 12.4 kmc band, in
paths were checked and adjusted, where necessary, until creasing to 1.05 at the low end of the band. The total
they were within a degree of each other over the 8.2 to length of the junction is 3 inches.
12.4 kmc band.
BroadBand MagicT's ACKNOWLEDGMENT
A pair of Airtron's No. 44055 broadband MagicT's The authors wish to thank Seymour B. Cohn for his
were obtained for this purpose, and were oriented in the advice and assistance.
SummaryRadio transmissions in the vhf and uhf frequency re fast variation about the median in a small sector which
gion over land areas always contend with the irregularities of the is independent of the transmission distance but is de
terrain and the presence thereon of dispersed quantities of trees,
buildings, and other manmade structures, or wave propagation in pendent on the speed of the vehicle and on the frequency
cumbrances. The determination of path attenuation is not easily of the transmission.
satisfied by simple, curved, or plane earth calculations. However, In the practical sense, the systems engineer is inter
quantitative wave propagation data are available in varying degrees ested in knowing how well his equipment will be able to
which take into account conditions experienced by fixedtofixed and service an area, or how well his equipment will cover
fixedtomoving transmissions over irregular terrain. This available many areas in a very large area. Some of these areas
statistical wave propagation information on terrain effects vs fre
quency, antenna height, polarization, and distance is analyzed, ex may typify curved earth while other areas may be highly
pressed by empirical formulas, and presented in the form of nomo mountainous; all others will be in between these areas
graphs and correction curves amenable for use by the systems engi in terms of surface irregularity.
neer. This irregular terrain has dotted on it, trees, build
INTRODUCTION ings, and other manmade wave propagation encum
R ADIO transmissions above 40 mc more often than
brances. If one could run the entire gamut of terrain
conditions in a statistical manner and arrive at the
not take place over irregular terrain so that the transmission loss which would have to be designed into
ordinary method of calculating propagation at a system at a given frequency to provide the desired
tenuation over plane earth, curved earth, and simple coverage, it would appear that such information would
diffraction edges becomes unsatisfactory. As one moves be invaluable to the systems engineer.
about in irregular terrain in a vehicle, the received signal Fortunately, such data have been collected and stud
is characterized by a slow variation dependent on the ied by the Federal Communications Commission for use
major features of the terrain and on distance, and by a in connection with their studies of the vhf and uhf tele
*Original manuscript received by the IRE, February 5, 1957; vision allocation problems, and by others in connection
revised manuscript received, June 7, 1957.
t U.S. Army Signal Eng. Labs., Fort Monmouth, N. J. with mobile service.
1384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IRE October
The majority of the terrain data,' on which the fol f=transmission frequency' in megacycles
lowing material will be derived, are based on survey d =distance from transmitter in miles
(1lta taken by commercial organizations in various Pt = effective radiated power in watts.
parts of the country including New York, N. Y.; Wash Eq. (1) is limited to those geographical areas which
ington, D. C.; Cleveland, and Toledo, Ohio; Harrisburg, are similar to plane earth, such as relatively short over
Easton, Reading, Pittsburgh, and Scranton, Pa.; Kan water and very flat barren land paths. Even in these
sas City, Mo.; Cedar Rapids, Iowa; San Francisco, areas man has erected bridges, Texas towers, billboards,
Calif.; Bridgeport, Conn.; Nashville, Tenn.; Fort and so forth, which alter considerably the propagation
Wayne, Ind.; Richmond and Norfolk, Va.; and Newark, characteristics as expressed by the theoretical plane
N. J. In each of these locations, a number of radials earth formula.
were investigated. In all, over the uhf range, 288 to 910 While the theoretical received field strength increases
mc, 804 miles on 63 radials are represented in the data. with frequency, all other constraints being the same, it
The method of measurement, while not the same at all is important to note that the voltage across the input to
locations, falls into three categories: continuous mobilea receiver will be the same at all frequencies when the
recording sampling every 0.2 mile, spot measurements receiving antenna is a halfwave dipole. However, if the
properly weighted so as to be considered unbiased, and antenna at the higher frequency is constructed so that
clusters of measurements. In the vhf region, 50 to 250 it presents an effective area equal to that of the half
mc, approximately 1400 measurements, consisting of wave dipole at the lower frequency, then this increased
continuous data analyzed over 1mile and 2mile sectors, field strength at the higher frequency will be realized as
are included in the data. increased voltage at the input to the receiver.
In discussing service area, we will be concerned with The measured field strength data1 over irregular ter
expressing the percentage of locations one could expect rain were compared with what one could expect over
to cover statistically at a predescribed distance. Thus, plane earth rather than curved earth, since the best
if one arbitrarily divides a 10mile circle into 100 equal
median field strength data fit for distances up to 30 to
parts with each division represented by a point (loca 40 miles shows that the inverse distance squared trend
tion) and superimposes this configuration on the statisti
for plane earth is better than the curved earth field, at
cally derived landscape represented by the data, then least for low antenna heights. Beyond 30 miles to 40
10 per cent coverage would mean that 10 of the points miles the data are sufficiently meager as to be unworthy
(locations) would receive satisfactory or better trans of analysis as a representive quantity of data. Ihere
missions, while at the balance of the points reception fore, the median field at a given frequency can be de
would not be possible. Likewise, when considering 90 per scribed by the theoretical plane earth field intensity, less
cent coverage, 90 of the 100 points would receive trans the median deviation therefrom. This median deviation
missions while the balance would have no reception. data from the theoretical plane earth field, called ter
Actually, in dividing the circle into 100 locations, it
rain factor, is shown in Fig. 1. The straight line oln this
was assumed that these locations represented the median figure very nearly passes through all the FCC data, and
value of signals in the immediate vicinity of the location,
it will be noted that the deviation from the plane earth
since one finds that in the immediate vicinity of a givenfield strength varies inversely with the frequency and is
location, say a few hundred feet, there will be fine varia
independent of distance. The intersection of this line
tions in received field strength. with the theoretical plane earth field strength is at
TERRAINFREQUENCY, DISTANCE DEPENDENCE 40 mc, so that the variation with frequency is with re
spect to this frequency.
The theoretical plane earth field strength expression With this statistical information, (1) becomes em
is given by pirically for the median field at the 50 percentile loca
hthDhr_ tions, E,o, independent of frequency
95d2 40hth \/
E6 = Sp1dt. (2)
where
E =field intensity in microvolts per meter This E60 field strength may be obtained quickly from
ht=transmitting antenna height in feet the nomograph, Fig. 2.
hr=receiving antenna height in feet The theoretical plane earth received power between
halfwave dipoles (3) is independent of frequency.
I H. Fine, "UHF Propagation Within Line of Sight," FCC, TRR
Rep. No. 2.4.12; June 1, 1951. Contains material taken from K. A.
Norton, M. Schulkin, and R. S. Kirby, "Ground Wave Propagation Pr = 0.345 ( r) Pt X 1014. (3)
Over Irregular Terrain at Frequencies Above 50 MC," Ref. C, Rep.
of the Ad Hoc Committee of the FCC for the Evaluation of the
Radio Propagation Factors Concerning the Television and Fre Making use of the power law variation with frequency
quency Modulation Broadcasting Services in the Frequency Range
Between 50 and 250 MC; June 6, 1949. for the median deviation from the theoretical plane
1957 Egli: Radio Propagation Above 40 iMC Over Irregular Terrain
49
oU ) 77r 7d
+5 IILEGEND: + aFCC DATA (REFERENCE) +5 5 htI,, g hr
W w
Ica 0 * RCA WEST RADIAL
0 0 (REFERENCE) C
a 
10 60
l

c:>
00a _5 se *1
: !
5
IL W
1 5 t2 70
z a
i'A
3~
0 110 70
z z
Iv___t.1
_ _
_ _ II 20
30
.5
to*
60
80 wo
< IK 40 w 40 .i x
Zzo
O < S
z j w
50 (50 50
2 m ¢:
S
44
.20 __ _)  S_ 2
5
w 90
m IL
)o z
z 5  40
10 oI Ioo,N, 9W 41l.i,,,
0w
100
1koz i.
50 60 tOO 150 200 300 1000
40 80 500
FREQUENCY IN MEGACYCLES PER SECOND _ 150 w ;5 g;., 30 co 39
(10
x 200 z 200 zz
Z
400 z
400 0 IL
500 500 oZ
130
I
w w
p 15006
lo
3) Pt X 1O14.
0.345
W
X
P0 =
d2
(4)
f2000
ax
Kl 50
3000
a 20 81
I0a.
o1 4
I 60
1°
Eqs. (2) and (4) show that nature, by interposing 4000
5000
30
the frequency dependence of the field strength and re 50 PERCENTILE LOCATION
MEDIAN FIELD STRENGTH.
ceived power above 40 mc over plane earth. Thus, while
the theoretical received field strength over plane earth Fig. 2Received power over plane earth and 50 per cent location
median field strengthone watt radiated.
increases with frequency, the median received field in
tensity above 40 mc over irregular terrain is independent
of frequency, and while the theoretical received power Assume:
between halfwave dipole antennas is independent of Transmission frequency, 150 mc
frequency, over irregular terrain the median received Dipole antennas, halfwave
power above 40 mc varies inversely as the frequency Transmitting antenna height, 100 feet
squared. Receiving antenna height, 10 feet
For the purpose of the systems engineer, in making Service range, 10 miles
irregular terrain calculations it is preferable to use the Service to 90 per cent of locations at 10 miles
plane earth received power (3) shown in nomographic 50 kc IF bandwidth
form in Fig. 2, in its theoretical form because field Suburban noise
strength, median value statistically derived, and re No transmission line losses.
ceived power theoretically derived are, at this point of
exploration of irregular terrain propagation, independ Required: Transmitter power output.
ent of frequency. The theoretical received power in db below one watt
It is interesting to note that if one determines from will be from Fig. 2, 119 dbw. The field strength at 50
diffraction theory the depth of hills2 which will result in per cent of the locations, Fig. 2, will be 17.5 db above
one microvolt per meter, one watt radiated.
the median loss of Fig. 1, the statistical irregular terrain
can be conceived as hills with a depth of about 500 feet.
TERRAINFREQUENCY DEPENDENCE
It is also interesting to note that the New York west
radial terrain over which data are available3 has an ir If one explores the data' in terms of the distribution
regular depression of about 500 feet, 12 miles in extent of received field strength over irregular terrain, one finds
and distance from the transmitter. Most of the data that the overall terrain distribution when plotted in
were accumulated in this portion of the radial, and the decibels above the theoretical plane earth attenuation,
median values below plane earth theory are shown in is lognormally distributed. Thus, on probability paper,
Fig. 1 as the composite for the entire radial. the terrain distribution will appear linear and may be
At this point in the paper it will be well to assume a described by its median value and standard deviation,
rather simple problem and use it as a means of exempli Fig. 3. The terrain distribution of field intensity in the
fying the development of the material to be presented. vhf band, taken at a center frequency of 127.5 mc ap
pears to have an overall standard deviation of 8.3 db,
2 K. Bullington, "Radio propagation variations at vhf and uhf,"
while the terrain distribution of field intensity in the
PROC. IRE, vol. 38, pp. 2732; January, 1950. uhf region centered around 510 mc, appears to have an
3 G. G. Brown, J. Epstein, and D. W. Peterson, 'Comparative overall standard deviation of 11.6 db. Of course, the
propagation measurements; television transmitters at 67.25, 288,
510 and 910 megacycles,' RCA Rev., vol. 9, pp. 171201; June, 1948. median deviation from theoretical plane earth field is
I I 1:
I J (Y1 ,11il 1ip
I ,11 Gclo)er
+ 1%0  140
I I 1 5_
+20____=_
W
;Z 0
+10 _skK_ 75 ir
w
w
135
oW>
a 130
Uf) 2
w 0
al
J
65 >
0
 125 3
j  a
20 C=0 z
3 w
z
0
w
60 i
B
52 0.1 2 S 10 20 30 50 TO 80 90 95 98 99 999.9 z 5 Z  5000 120
_
0
PERCENT OF LOCATIONS w
w
w
m
z 2000
w
+ 20
w
_m
15
20050 500
110 w
w
In 3:
+15 \ 
z
w
C)
J
+10 z
45
z
w
 200 0
0
i U1) 30
z
+5 z w
Z a
40 ct
0
50 +40 w
SO
50 L'~ 100
(r 5 40
0
10
0 95
i35 
15 100 r
20 20
CAUTIN
 90
2 5 [THE FIELD
STRENGTH CANNOT BE
9992 25
Fig. 5Free spaceone watt radiated between halfwave dipoles.
_30 GREATER THAN FREE SPACE
40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300 500 1000
FREQUENCY IN MEGACYCLES PER SECOND
field strength does not exceed the free space value for 10 Fig. 6 Received power terraini factor for fixedto
vehicuilar or mobile service.
miles of 53 db above one microvolt per meter obtained
from Fig. 5. Under conditions of greatly increased an
tenna heights and/or service to a small percentile of rection factor to the theoretical plane earth received
locations, the calculated field strength could exceed the power imposed by irregular terrain. The P50 value fol
free space field. If such is the case, the free space field lows an inverse frequency squared relation as per (4), at
should be used. It is interesting to note that while the P97.7 an inverse frequency cubed relation, and at P2.3
median field strength (2) and terrain factor for 50 per an inverse frequency relation. As previously determined,
cent of the locations (Fig. 4), are independent of fre the theoretical received power is  119 dbw. The terrain
quency, for percentages of locations less than 50, the correction factor for the 90 percentile location at 150
field strength increases with frequency, and for E2.3 the mc is 23 db, and the received power at this location
field strength varies as f'!2. Likewise for percentages of will be 142 dbw, or the halfwave dipoletohalfwave

locations greater than 50, the field strength decreases dipole path attenuation for this degree of service is 142
with frequency and for E97.7 varies inversely as "/2. f db. The free space received power is 95.4 dbw from
Likewise, Fig. 6 has been prepared to reflect the cor Fig. 3 which exceeds that for the 90 percentile location.
1957 Egli: Radio Propagation A )ove 40 MVC Over Irregular Terrai,'n3 1387
z
4
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
STD. DEVIATION 5.5 D8
GOOD SOIL
w T
_II IrlTIl
r 20 _  _ _
6
5
30
01 2 5 10 a20 30 50 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.9
POO SOIL
PERCENT LOCATIONS
40 60 80 100 150 200 300400 600 1000 minima is one wavelength in free space, while in the di
MEGACYCLES
rection away from or toward the radiation, the distance
Fig. 7Minimum effective antenna height for vertical polarization. between signal minima is the free space halfwave
distance. With this information, in vehicular service
proposed that when vertically polarized transmissions the small sector amplitude fluctuations in received car
are under consideration, Fig. 7 be used in finalizing the rier level will increase in rapidity with frequency and
effective height of low antennas. the speed of the vehicle, or
In our problem at 150 mc with an antenna height of v
10 feet it can be seen from Fig. 7 that even with vertical A = ' and in practical terms, A 0.003 fv (5) =
2 J
hiI 2 0
0 100 0 5
U.1 :1 4
.005 _ _ _ _ _ _
.5 3 '003=
50 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e 9 WO11111
t ICRO SECONDS DEL AY
40 .3 REFERRED TO STRONGEST SIGNAL
.2
1.5 Fig. 11Echoes in vehicles from a fixed transmission.
.1
lI
Fig. 9Fluctuations in vehicles. pears qualitatively to be independent of frequency and
wave polarization, at least within the frequency range
of 60 to 3300 mc. The consequences of multipath propa
gation are not serious for fixed transmission conditions,
yet may be very serious in moving situations. For fixed
service, movements of the receiving antenna either hori
zontally or vertically for a distance in the order of a few
wavelengths ordinarily cleans up multipath distorted
patterns in television reception. More multipath dis
tortion appears in highly builtup and mountainous
areas where large offpath reflecting surfaces are present.
Directive antennas greatly reduce multipath effects,"
which means that for equal antenna apertures, the use
of the higher frequencies will result in less multipath dis
FEET
tortion.
The only good statistical results, unfortunately unre
Fig. 10Maximum small sector variation. lated to all of the terrain data made use of herein and
therefore not representative of all the conditions on
these small sector field strength variations. It may well which this paper is based, are based on tests in the New
be, at least for the present, that equipment should be York area,'2 where one encounters considerable, and
designed to the median value of these find grain varia perhaps the worst, multipath propagation conditions. In
tions for the percentage of locations service desired. order to understand the difficulties one may encounter in
engineering vehicular wide band systems, the New York
TERRAINWIDE MODU LATION BANDWIDTH EFFECTS data,12 have been altered (Fig. 11) to reflect the number
The field strength variations discussed so far have of echoes per second for a vehicle speed of one mile per
been those taken over a very narrow bandwidth of the hour vs delay of these echoes with amplitudes between
transmission frequency. On wideband systems distor 0 and 6 db less than the strongest received signal. Thus
tion effects may be introduced resulting from propaga a remote television transmitter installed in a vehicle pa
tion via more than one path. These distortions may troling New York at 30 miles per hour would present to
cause cross talk in multichannel voice systems, or the fixed television receiver a picture with thirty, 0 to
shadows in television reception. This subject will be 6db echoes per second having j,usec delay, 9 shadows
touched on lightly because not very much statistical per second having 3,usec delay, and so forth. Besides
data are available nor is literature available on the ef this ghosting of the picture that is taking place, the syn
fects of multipath propagation on various types of chronous circuit of the television receiver is in essence
modulation. The severity of multipath distortion" ap flipflopping from the direct signal path amplitude to
1' D. W. Peterson, "Army Television Problems Phase II Tasks 1 12 W. R. Young, Jr. and L. Y. Lacy, "Echoes in transmission at
and 2 Final Report," January, 1956, RCA. Work performed under a 450 megacycles from landtocar radio units," PROC. IRE, vol. 38,
Signal Corps Contract No. DA36039sc64438. pp. 255258; March, 1950.
1390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IRE Octobet'
NOISE LEVELz 174 + 10 LOG B
1000 + 60  5l00 l
 220
500
10
300 +55 a 1o5
200 6
150 4
100 +50 3
110
10 50
1.5
30 +45 1.0 a
20 n _8 _15
NOISE 2GURE

GOOD  
10 
IS 40 z .4
6 _2
40 60 8O 100 150 200 300 400 500 1000
15 35,x.1 .5 w_ .3 w
FREOUENCY IN MEGACYCLES
C
_
z .2 
5120
Fig. 12Median indigenous noise. Z3 +35_ .15 z
rain factor will not change whether we deal with the _____~IN
movingtomoving, fixedtofixed, or fixedtomoving
situations, then the median signal received by a vehicle
in motion from another vehicle in motion is precisely
that given in Fig. 4. However, by statistical theory,'4 it
would appear that the standard deviation would be the 40 50 60 so 100 150 200 500 500 1000
FREQUENCY N MEGACYCLES PER SECOND
square root of the sum of the variances of two fixedto Fig. 15 Vehiculartovehicular received power terrain factor.
moving distributions which in this type of transmission
can be considered of the same magnitude. Thus the
standard deviation for vehiculartovehicular trans is difficult to answer. If the terrain is less irregular than
mission is the V/2 times the standard deviation for the the statistical irregular terrain, then better than pre
fixedtovehicular transmission. This is in essence the dicted performance should result. On the other hand, in
correction factor which must be applied to Fig. 6, in terrain more irregular than the statistical, a poorer per
order to obtain the vehiculartovehicular received formance should result. However, field operational pro
power terrain factor shown in Fig. 15. If the given prob cedures should be developed which permit a rapid
lem were a vehiculartovehicular system, fictitiously as evaluation of the service coverage from a given location.
suming antenna heights were maintained for this serv A possible technique for rapid evaluation is one based
ice, the path attenuation at 10 miles to the 90 per on a system utilizing the "ground clutter" pattern seen
centile location would be 119 db, from Fig. 2, plus 32.5 on the radar (PPI) scope.15
db, from Fig. 15, or 151.5 db compared to a path at
tenuation of 142 db derived earlier in this paper for the CONCLUSION
fixedtovehicular or mobile transmission. The trans This paper is considered a modest start in the direc
mitter power level of 49 dbm, on Fig. 14, must be raised tion of supplying irregular terrain propagation informa
to 58.5 dbm or 700 watts for vehiculartovehicular tion applicable to systems engineering. The author en
equivalent service. courages constructive criticism or the supply of data
which may be beneficial for deriving better statistical
REMARKS data. For example, much data are required on frequen
The statistical method of handling propagation over cies above 1000 mc; the nature of the fine variations and
irregular terrain can be used in frequency assignment their effects upon types of modulation; propagation
studies to determine the number of rf channels which data on vehiculartovehicular transmissions; good sta
should be designed into equipment for cochannel and tistical small sector variation data; and so forth.
adjacent channel field service. It has important usage in
vulnerability studies of mutual interference, intentional ACKNOWLEDGMENT
and unintentional jamming, and countermeasures. It The author wishes to express his gratitude to all those
also appears to have application in spectrum allocation referenced authors who have made this paper possible
studies. by their efforts in collecting propagation data.
Of course the burning question of how well a particu
lar piece of equipment will act in a given environment
15 R. E. Lacy and C. E. Sharp, "Radartype propagation survey
14A. Hald, "Statistical Theory with Engineering Applications," experiments for communication systems," 1956 IRE CONVENTION
John Wiley and Sons, New York, N. Y.; 1952. RECORD, part 1, pp. 2027.