# Chemistry Study Sheet Textbook Study Chapters Conversion: pp318, Q13-26. Ideal Gas Equation: pp320, Q2731.

Molar Volume: pp323, Q32-35. Volume Stoichiometry: pp324 Various Gas Question Sheets *Gas powerpoint is also on educate And I am currently asking to have the working for the gas questions online too. Conversions Pressure 1 atmosphere = 760 mmHg = 101 325 Pa = 101.325kPa Divide by the unit you have, multiply by the unit you want Temperature

Laws Boyle s Law P PV = k P1V1 = P2V2 Charles Law V T V=kT 

Degrees Celsius has the same increments as degrees Kelvin. To convert, plus 273. Volume mL (cm3) L(dm3) m3

Gay-Lussac s Law(LOL) P T P = kT 

To convert forward, multiply by 10-3. To convert back, multiply by 103. To skip an increment and increase or decrease straight from mL to m3, multiply by 106 or 10-6 accordingly. Kinetic Molecular Theory (Quote this in the test!) - Gases are made up of particles moving with constant random motion. - The average kinetic energy increases as temperature increases. - Collisions with outer gas particles and with the walls of the container are perfectly elastic. (No energy is lost or gained) - The forces of attraction and repulsion between gas particles are practically zero. - The particles are very far apart The volume of the particles is very small compared to the volume of the container. - Gases do not follow these assumptions, especially if they are subjected to high pressure, low volume and low temperature environments. - Gases that obey all the five assumptions are said to be Ideal . Eg. H2, He.

ALL LAWS ABOVE COMBINED 

Ideal Gas Equation PV = nRT; where: P = Pressure in Pa(Nm-3) V = Volume in m3 n = Number of Moles (don t forget that moles = 
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R = Ideal Gas Constant; 8.31JK-1 T = Temp in Kelvin. s.t.p = Standard Temperature and Pressure = 273K and 101 325Pa. Molar Volume n= ; Where at S.T.P Vm = 22.4L And at S.L.C Vm = 25.4L These will be written on the test You don t need to learn them :D

Se s 1 Write a c e ical e ation and balance it. 2. Using the grams provided within the question, use the moles = mass over molar mass rule to find the moles. Then use ratios to find out the moles of substance given. Only use the numbers in front, eg. A ratio of two would come from 2 a, not H2. 3. From there, use a the PV = nRT rule, OR, if the question contains either S.L.C or S.T.P, use the n = V upon Vm rule. 4. We only use the easy peasy switcheroo mole rule when BOTH THE REACTANT AND PRODUCT ARE GASES. WHEN BOTH THE

Air Pollution Ozone layer From Chlorofluorocarbons. (CFC s) CHFCl2 (With UV) CHFCl + Cl *Cl is a free radical. Cl + O3 ClO +O2 CLO + O3 2O2 +Cl The free radical, Cl, persists, destroying ozone. To reduce, stop using CFC s in aerosol cans. Note that this has already been reduced greatly and the hole is shrinking. Air Pollution Global Warming From Burning fossil fuels, creates the greenhouse effect Greenhouse gases include CO2, CH4, NO2, H2O. Ways to reduce Plant more trees, stop deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. Consider alternative energy sources. See Inconvenient Truth notes too. It s not convenient for me to type them all out. -

REACTANT AND PRODUCT ARE GASES.

Composition of Air N2 78.08% O2 20.95% Ar 0.93% CO2 0.03%

Test is on Friday, 8.35-10.35

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Air Pollution Acid Rain - From SO2 (A natural impurity and NOx from burning fossil fuels and combustion reactions. - Generally has a pH of 6, but is recorded much lower. - Wet Deposition is when it is in the form of rain, etc. - Dry Deposition is when it falls to the earth as dust. It is a problem because it can damage vegetation and lowers the pH of soil. This can leach out harmful metal ions like Al3+. It also lowers the pH of waterways, and can speed up metal corrosion. It also dissolves stonework, especially limestone and marble. Chemical Equations SO2 + H2O H2SO3 (Sulphurous acid) H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid) NOx + H2O HNO2 (Nitrous Acid) + HNO3 (Nitric Acid) *Learn these acids. To reduce acid rain, reduce fossil fuel burning and scrub gases before releasing them. 
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Cont oll d Variabl : Variables that you keep the same so it is a fair test. Ind p nd nt Variabl : The variable that you change to test. Dependant Variable: The variable that is the impact of the deliberate change.  

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Extra Theory Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of particles/moles -Avogadro, Molar volume theory.

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