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Charlemagne

By: Thannalin, Pimmada, Teerapat, Nat and Ronnakit


Class: 1008
Timeline
Timeline 742 CE - 843CE
742 CE- Pepin the Short (son of Charles the Great).
751 CE- He took over the Franks by killing the Merovingian kings.
754 CE- Pope Steph crowned Pepin the Short to be the king of the Franks.
756 CE- In return for making Pepin the king of Franks, he protected the pope from the Lombards.
The Lombards are the people that wanted to kill the pope.
768 CE- Pepin died and he decided to divide the kingdom into 2 pieces for his 2 sons, Charles and
Carloman to rule.
771 CE- Charles poisoned Carloman. Charles gained control over the Franks empire.
774 CE- Conquest of Lombards: The Lombards threatened the pope. So, the pope asked Charles
(Charlemagne) to bring an army to Italy and defeat the Lombards. Which he did easily.
777 CE- Charlemagne’s Spanish Campaign started. Spanish Campaign is a campaign that was started
with a one single goal -----> to kick out the Muslims from Europe.
795 CE- Leo III was named the new pope on the same day that pope Hadrian died. It was on
Christmas Day. This cost a lot of conflicts because the noble believed that they should hold the
position of the pope.
799 CE- Pope Leo III was brutally assaulted, which he nearly die from. The pope was sent back to
Rome by Charlemagne. This was because he hopes that time will soften the people’s thought on the
new pope. Charlemagne arrested the attackers that attacked the pope as well.
800 CE- Charlemagne decided to go to Rome with the arrested attackers that assaulted pope Leo III.
Leo III decided to exile them instead of sentencing them to death. This act made him really popular.
Leo III also cleared his charges that was placed on him by his political enemies as well.
800 CE- With Charlemagne helping out the pope so much. Pope Leo III decided to crowned him
“Holy Roman Empire.”
813 CE- Charlemagne passed down the power to his son. Near this time, Charlemagne’s Spanish
Campaign ended and the Muslims were kicked out of Europe.
814 CE- Charlemagne died.
843 CE- Treaty of Verdun was signed between the three sons of Louis the Pious (The son of
Charlemagne). The treaty was signed in order to stop the three years Carolingian civil war. This
treaty divided Carolingian empire into three pieces. Which is France, Germany and Italy.
Rise
- The rise of power of Carolingian Family began with Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel and
officially began with his father Pepin the Short.
- Charles Martel was the mayor of the palace of the 4 “Do nothing kings” of Franks Empire.
- He basically became the most powerful person in the country.
- Once he died his son, Pepin the Short became the next mayor of the king.
- He then killed all the kings and replace the old family with Carolingian Family.
- Once Pepin died he let his 2 sons rules the Empire.
- One of them whose name is Charles killed his brother, renamed himself to Charlemagne, and start
to rule the Frankish Kingdom.
Fall
- The Dynasty has reached its peak when Charlemagne became King until his death.
- After his death the dynasty undergo a period decline and fragmentation.
- His son Louis the Pious became the next king.
- Eventually he died and there was civil between 3 of his son for the throne.
- The civil war last for 3 years and ended with the Treaty of Verdun.
- The Treaty of Verdun basically divided up the Frankish empire into 3 pieces and each of the sons
will rule each of them.
- The Carolingian eventually died out over time and became completely extinct in 1122CE.
Treaty of Verdun
- The treaty was signed in 843
- It divided the Frankish Kingdom into 3 parts which are
divided between 3 of Louis the Pious sons.
- Lothair I received Middle Francia which later become Italy.
- Louis the German received East Francia and later become
Germany.
- Charles the Bald received West Francia which later
became France.
- This treaty shaped the entire modern Europe.
Holy Roman Emperor
- Charlemagne was crowned the “Holy Roman Emperor” in the year 800 CE by Pope Leo III.
- First he was happy with this title but 2 weeks later he found out that he was tricked by the pope.
- At that time, Charlemagne was a very powerful king.
- With the pope crowning him the title “Holy Roman Emperor”, the pope now was the kingmaker and
has more power than the king.
- This means that the government system that Charlemagne created was less powerful than the
church.
- Charlemagne was used as a “product” to tell other people that Christianity is more powerful than
anything in the world.
- He is “controlled” by the church.
Charlemagne was an idealist, driven by deep convictions
and beliefs, his concern for education and religions led to a
series of reform known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Education Reform
Charlemagne valued education very much as he made his children to be well-educated and even
studied himself as well (Charlemagne still can’t read or write). He built churches, schools and more.
Part of the Charlemagne Renaissance was the growth of scholar, literature and more. (They studied
because they wanted to read the Bible and the Greek teachings became lost).
Church Reform
- He built schools, libraries, and churches.
- His desire were to strengthen the church from inner reform and expansion.
- He would conquered land and make them convert to christianity.
- He strengthen the church’s power by that improving their teachings, advancing the skill of clergy
(Christian’s monk) and more.
- Under him he made Europe more literal but they only read the Bibles.
- The power of the church remains throughout the middle ages until the protestant reform.
Tithe
Tithe is one tenth of annual produce or earnings taken as contribution to the
Church. People are required to pay tithe regardless of whether they like it or not. It
is a taxes paid to the churchs and god. No tithes no going to heaven.
Political Reform
- He basically made Europe use absolute power. Absolute power means that Charlemagne will
have all of the power to decide everything in the empire.
- He introduced the system of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is a government systems that the
government officials would make the decisions. However, the emperor’s power still remains.
- He also introduced scabini. There will be 7 scabini in the court. This made the laws and the
court more stable. Scabini is a person that knows/studies all of the laws. Charlemagne also
banned the judge from taking bribe as well.
Economic Reform
- Charlemagne abolished the monetary system, which was based on gold.
- The gold standard was abolished because there was a low amount of gold storage.
This was because the trade route from Africa to Byzantine was lost.
- He standardized silver coins based on weight and value.
- He also lessened the power of the nobles, so the lower classes can participate in
trade.
- With this the empire’s trade flourish because there was a large amount of silver
throughout Europe. It is the silver coin that we use now today.
Effect: How did Charlemagne damage Europe?
- Due to the spread of Christianity, the Greek ideas were forgotten.
- Charlemagne educated Europe in order for them to read the bible.
- He made Europe into absolute power. This power was connected to religious power. Religious
power gave you authority. Who made you king?....GOD.
Did Charlemagne restore Roman Empire?
No, however Charlemagne became “Holy Roman Emperor”. It gave the pope more power because
actually the trick was...the power of the Roman empire is now connected to the figure of the
church...which is why Roman Catholic church. It made the church looks like the only thing left from
the Roman Empire. This helped with the pope controlling the empire with absolute power with the
Charlemagne as the front.
What did he do for the security of Europe?
Secure Europe from the Muslim from taking over.
- This is a bad thing because when Rome is gone.
- Muslim and Byzantine were the only place that Greek teachings remain. Muslim conquered
Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is a part of Rome, which means that there was still Greek
teachings left.
- With Charlemagne kicking Muslim out and continuing the spread of Christianity. If Muslim
takes over Europe, Europe will become more advance during that time….theory
Geography
Land Area: about 1,112,000 km2(429,000 sq mi)

North = North Sea and Great Britain(Anglo Saxons Kingdoms),


Low(Land)countries, English Channel
South = Mediterranean Sea, Corsica Island ,Papal State, most of the south
contains high mountains (Alpe Mt. range)
West = North Atlantic Ocean, Brittany and Spain
East = Slavic States [Indo-European family] (Czech Republic, Poland, and
Slovakia ect.)

Modern Countries
● France
● Germany(Aachen, capital city)
● Switzerland
● Luxembourg
● Belgium
● Netherland
● Czech Republic
● Poland
● Slovakia
● West part of Austria
● Some northwest part of Italy
Cities
Capital city: Aachen
- Reims
- Paris
- Strasbourg
- Pavia
- Barcelona
- Tours
- Salzbourg
- Vienne
- Pisa
- Foutenny
- Corvey
- Bremen
- Hamburg
- Lyon
Aachen City ➵ Capital City of Charlemagne Empire
- also known as Bad Aachen
and Aachen Spa

- developed from the Roman


settlement and spa

- medieval Imperial residence


of Charlemagne

- westernmost city in
Germany

- near borders with Belgium


and Netherlands
Aachen City ➵ Capital City of Charlemagne Empire
- 768, after coronation as
the king of Franks
Charlemagne spend
Christmas at Aachen

- he remained in a mansion
which extended

- no significant building
activity at Aachen, apart
from the building of
Palatine Chapel and
Palace The Palatine Chapel
Roman Catholic church

- Charlemagne spent
winters in Aachen
between 792 and his The Palace at Aachen
death in 814
Aachen City (Continue)
- Aachen became the focus
of his court and the
political center

- Aachen gained reputation


by transforming from an
ancient city of power into
a modern hub of education
Here they come Sir, I understand you...
I’m fabulous
- After his death, he was
buried in the church he
again….
built; his original tomb has
been lost

- his remains are preserved


in the Karlsschrein
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Aachen City (Last)
- Aachen was regional importance, it
achieved a modest position in the
trade in woollen cloths

- As an imperial city, Aachen held


political privileges that allowed it to
remain independent of the troubles
of Europe.

- It remained a direct vassal of the


Holy Roman Empire throughout
most of the Middle Ages.
Reims
- Reims, a city lies 129 km (80
mi) northeast of Paris, France.

- founded by the Gauls

- became a major city during the


period of the Roman Empire

- played a ceremonial role in


French monarchical history as
the site of the crowning of the
kings of France.

- was used as a place for the


anointing, the most important
part of the coronation of
French kings.

- The first king crowned in Reims


was Louis the Pious, the son of
Charlemagne.

* Charlemagne was crown at Rome not in Reims.


Pavia
- located at northern Italy, 35 kilometres (22 miles)
south of Milan on the lower Ticino river.

- the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known


for agricultural products including wine, rice,
cereals, and dairy products.

- The city of Pavia played a key role in the war


between the Lombard Kingdom of Pavia and the
Franks led by Charlemagne.

- In 773, Charlemagne declared war and invaded


into northern Italy defeating the Lombard army.

- Charlemagne laid siege to Pavia and then Verona,


capturing the seat of Lombard power.

- Upon entering Pavia in triumph, Charlemagne


crowned himself king of the lands of the former
Kingdom of Pavia.
Government
- created a government: the idea of the Christian
ruler to have power and authority over both the
state and the church.
- form of government was a monarchy that governs
over various districts.

- Charlemagne also believed that he should be the


one to manage the divine laws.

- to control the enormous territory, Charlemagne


built a form of government based on the division of
these states.

- He put his sons in charge of different kingdoms,


similar to federation, the forming of states into a
single group with centralized control.

- He set up a network between the states with


messengers, known as missi, who would travel to
different districts and report back to him.

- Many of the missi were members of the church


and in charge of managing justice.
Government (2)
Charlemagne had three roles as a ruler:
- he controlled the army
- defended the church
- the supreme judge

He introduced some lawful reforms, approves by aristocrats.

Under the ruler’s direct control, his court’s officials were:


● Chamberman → the head of the court’s
representatives and the royal treasury.
● Seneschal or Mayor → handled the king’s food and
supervised the estates.
● Cup-bearer → in charge of the ruler’s wine cellar and
vineyards.
● Marshall or Constable → looked after the ruler’s
stables and was commander-in-chief of the military
● Chaplain → the high priests; he help and supervised
religious ceremonies of the king, king’s family, and of
the officials of the king.

- The taxes were paid by the defeated nations, and the


domestic population paid it through contributions, i.e.
gifts.
Social Structure
Language
During this era, people used a language called “Frank,” which was the German
language(German Tribes). And the German came from Latin(Charlemagne’s name also from LATIN
meant Charles The Great), and the word came from Greek. Latin was the language for a pope. Latin
still used in the era for writing either poetry or history. Charlemagne loved the German language, so
he introduced people to use German to write, and he made German grammar before he died.
Source
http://fdargelas.free.fr/Charlemagne/Timeline%20of%20the%20Life%20of%20Charlemagne.htm
https://classroom.synonym.com/why-did-pope-leo-iii-crown-charlemagne-the-first-holy-roman-emperor-12086572.html
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory/chapter/charlemagnes-reforms/
https://medievaleurope.mrdonn.org/holyromanemperor.html
https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/c/Charlemagne.htm
https://www.quora.com/What-language-did-Charlemagne-speak
https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1emh7q/what_language_did_charlemagne_speak/
https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-type-government-did-charlemagne-create-520875
https://medievalwall.com/historical-figures/charlemagne-political-life-warfare/