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Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting

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Bhagyashree. Kalyanshetti1 Prof. V. A. Bagali1

1

M. Tech. Student 2Assistant Professor

1,2

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

1,2

BLDEA’s CET Vijayapur India

Abstract— The study of new transformerless Unified power

flow controller (UPFC) is modulated. The conventional

UPFC that consists of zig-zag bulky transformer. Which

occupies more space and losses on transmission lines are

more. Hence to overcome this problem, the new proposed

method of transformerless UPFC is developed by adding two

cascaded multilevel inverters (CMI). In traditional UPFC as

shown inffigure.1, it consists of two back to back connected

inverter. Hence UPFC can control active and reactive power,

it is very useful, flexible ac transmission system device

(FACTS).

Key words: UPFC, Cascaded Multilevel Inverters (CMI),

FACTS Devices

Fig. 2: Transformerless UPFC structure configuration. (a)

Single phase cascaded multilevel inverter (CMI). (b) CMI

I. INTRODUCTION

H-bridge modules.

These conventional UPFC are costlier, since they have to use

high rating inverters, and zigzag transformers that makes it II. WORKING OF TRANSFORMERLESS UPFC

much complicated. Power loss is more, i.e. almost 50% of

total power loss. The overall conventional UPFC makes it

bulky. The percentage of failure is high.

As of late there are two new UPFC structures are

developed. 1) The matrix converter based UPFC. 2)

Distributed power flow controller (DPFC) invented with the

help of traditional UPFC. But both UPFC still need to utilize

transformers which can bring about high cost, response with Fig. 3: (b) Transformerless UPFC Phaser diagram

respect to time is less, structure utilizes more space(bulky) By introducing series and shunt CMI, The

and losses are more. transformerless UPFC features are as listed below,

Hence Cascaded multilevel inverters(CMI) it is the The traditional UPFC uses back-to-back inverters and

main and only practical useful inverter innovation by not shares dc supply, but the transformerless UPFC utilizes

using of transformers, a vast number of diodes and capacitors no transformer hence itfcandachieve low-cost, less

since, it can lead to high voltage levels. To solve this problem weight, minimum size, maximum efficiency, and

two CMIs has been invented. One is series cascaded maximum reliability & quick dynamic response.

multilevel inverter and another is shunt cascaded multilevel The main difference between traditional UPFC and

inverter.

transformerless UPFC is that, connecting shunt CMI

To avoid transformer completely, new method is after series CMI. And these CMIs have distinct dc

developed by using CMI. Which is shown in above fig. 2. But capacitor voltage.

however we still have to use isolation transformer. The

The exchange of active power is eliminated between two

arrangement of CMI is associated directly with transmission

CMIs, hence overall DC capacitors that are connected

line &$shunt CMI. And shunt CMI connected in parallel with

are not constant.

the sending end next to the series CMI. The transformerless

Modular CMIs are used by proposed UPFC and provides

UPFC have more advantages than traditional UPFC. i.e., fast

high greater flexibility and reliability because of their

dynamic response, maximum efficiency, maximum

inherent redundancy.

reliability, cost is less and light weight.

The proposed UPFC technique is different from the

traditionalt UPFC. Fig3: (b.)shows the phasorddiagramwof

Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting

(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

& receiving end voltage fare VS0 and VR respectively. VS0

is not having any phase change i.e., it aligned with real axis.

Hence its value is zero. The desired voltage VC is controlled

by series CMI to generate [newgsendingjend voltageg] VS.

& also thed series CMI controlsythe activedand (4)

reactivefpower generated in the transmission system. The Where, n = number of harmonics, s = total no. of *

work of shunt CMI is to inject currentgIP into theknew H- bridge modules,αk=[switching angle for the kt]

transmission busgtoumakeaactive powerf zero in both CMIs.

Hence seriesdCMIscurrent IC anddshuntaCMIrcurrent IP are

perpendicularttowtheirgvoltages respectively. (5)

Therefore, for the operation of UPFC there are two Represents a THD minimization, with considering

main steps, two constraints:

1) Series CMI injected voltage VC is calculated for active//

reactive power in the transmission line as expressed in

(5)] And

(1) (6)

2) To achieve zero active power in both CMIs the shunt The minimum THD values can be calculated with

injected current IP is calculated as expressed in (10) and the help of MATLAB software by using (14) and (15) two

(11). constraints.

(2)

Where, V. CONTROL DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT

(3)

CMIS

The modulation for CMIs are done with the help of two ways.

1) FFM 2) PWM. Before developing exact UPFC module, the

modulation of CMI is needed. Comparing both FFM and

PWM techniques, the FFM module have lower switching Fig. 5: Control system diagram of transformerless UPFC. (a)

frequencies. Now a days FFM strategy is studied for the lower Overall control diagram for power flow & overall control

modules and minimization of THD values. Here to achieve diagram for dc capacitor voltage control]

low THD and fast response of CMI is done with the help of A. Stage 1

FFM by introducing high number of modules. i.e., 10 H-

bridge modules for CMI of series and 20 H-bridge modules In stage 1 the calculation of upper layer control is done. The

for CMI of shunt. upper layer consists of value of P*/Q*. VC0 is the reference

voltage for series CMIl. To keep active power zero IP0 is

IV. FOR MINIMUM THD VALUE SWITCHING ANGLES used, for series & shunt CMIsl as expressed in (10), (11)

instead of estimating VC0 from (5), another way is to

The conventional FFM operation principle is shown in Fig. 4. calculate from figure. 5.2.2(b).

The example for 11 level CMI shown. Each 5 H-bridge

modules develops quasi-square wave VH1, VH2, VH3, VH4, B. Stage 2

VH5 and it is having identical dc voltage. Our aim is to obtain in stage 2 overall series DC control and overall shunt DC

minimum THD values by using more number of [H-bridge control is done in this fig.5.2.29(a) Vdc_sh and Vdc_se are

modules for transformerless UPFC. the DC voltage references of both CMIs for series CMI Pse

The CMI output voltage is expressed in terms of 1/I²c is injected and the product is send to Rse series CMI and

Fourier series, as shown in Fig. 4 is the introduced ΔVc is in phase with series CMI.

detailed calculation from P*//Q* to V *C0 & I ∗ P0, & (c)

Fig. 4: Operation principle of FFM. current closed-loop control for shunt CMI.]

Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting

(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

In stage III Voltage generated [for series CMI] & current current is 14-A.

generated [for shunt CMI.] From the reference Vc by FFM

output voltage must be directly generated for series CMI

decoupling feedback control current for shunt CMI output

current is controlled.

The UPFC can function as a perfect phase angle regulator,

which achieves the desired phase shift (leading or lagging) of

the original sending-end voltage without any change in

magnitude. Fig. 9: shunt CMI line currents ILa, ILb, ILc and phase

Three operating points with different shifted phases voltage Vpa, Vpb.

are considered as shown in Fig. 13(a) case A1: 30°, (b) case

A2: 15°, and (c) case A3: 0°. All three phase shifting cases

(case A1 to case A3) have been tested and corresponding test

results are as shown,

1) Fig.5 shows the experimental waveforms of UPFC

operating from case A1 to case A2 (Phase shifting 30° to

15°). As mentioned before, in the test setup, there is

already 30° phase difference between the original

sending-end are as shown in above figure.

Fig. 10: Shunt CMI line voltage Vpab, line current ILa.

(a) case A1:30°, (b) case A2: 15°, and (c) case A3:0° Fig. 11: Dynamic response measured for phase shifting of

A. Case A1 Phase angle (30° to 15°) A2 to A3.

Fig.8 experimental results of case A1to A2 (30°to15°) since C. Line Impedance Compensation (B1 to B2)

there is already phase shift between VS0 and VR for case A1 UPFC phase shifting is different from line impedance

VS=VR because series CMI voltage VC injects VS0 by phase compensation. Fig 12. Shows 3 different operating levels

shift of 30°. There for resulting line current is zero. For case with line impedance recompense.

A2 VS is shifted from VS0 by 15° hence 7-A line current Case B1: without compensation of line impedance

because of 15°phase shift between VS and VR. equalize to 0.5pu.

Case B2: after compensation line impedance equal to

1pu.

Case B3: line impedance equal to infinity.

In Case B1 (similar to A2 to A3) voltage between

VS and VR (30° phase shift) is 0.5p.u. The resulting line

current is equal to 0.31H (0.5P.U). This line current is

nominal current for transformer 1 & transformer 2. For case

B2 and B3 due to current limitation in transformers, UPFC is

used controlled the increment line impedance.

Fig. 8: Simulation waveform of UPFC operating at phase

shift of 30° to 15°

B. Phase shifting (A2 to A3)

Similarly simulation waveform of UPFC performing phase

shift of 15° to 0° as shown in figure 9,10,11. Fig.9. showing

VPA VPB shunt CMI phase voltages and ILA, ILB, ILC are

the line currents. The phase voltages are generated by FFM

in the form of staircase with optimized switching angles as

shown in fig 10. for case A3 since it is 0° phase shifting

compensation is zero therefore VS=VS0. Fig. 12: Shunt CMI line voltage Vpab, line current ILa.]

Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting

(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

1999.

[5] M. A. Sayed and T. Takeshita, “Line loss minimization

in isolated substations and multiple loop distribution

systems using the UPFC,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,

vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 5813–5822, Jul. 2014.

[6] H. Fujita, Y. Watanable, and H. Akagi, “Transient

analysis of a unified power flow controller and its

application to design of dc-link capacitor,” IEEE Trans.

Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 735–740, Sep. 2001.

Fig. 13: Line current Ila & series CMI phase voltage Vca [7] H. Fujita, H. Akagi, and Y. Watanable, “Dynamic

control and performance of a unified power flow

controller for stabilizing an AC transmission system,”

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1013–

1020, Jul. 2006.

[8] L. Liu, P. Zhu, Y. Kang, and J. Chen, “Power-flow

control performance analysis of a unified power-flow

controller in a novel control scheme,” IEEE Trans.

Power Del., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1613–1619, Jul. 2007.

[9] S. Kanna, S. Jayaram, and M. M. A. Salama, “Real and

reactive power coordination for a unified power flow

Fig. 14: Measured dynamic response for case B1 to B2 controller,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 19, no. 3, pp.

1454–1461, Aug. 2004.

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK [10] J. Z. Bebic, P. W. Lehn, and M. R. Iravani, “P-Δ

characteristics for the unified power flow controller -

This report represent analysis of transformerless UPFC with

Analysis inclusive of equipment ratings and line limits,”

FFM phase shifting, and the features are mentioned below:

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1066–1072,

FFM of the CMI for exceedingly low THD of output Jul. 2003.

voltage, glow switching losses & maximum efficiency; [11] C. D. Schauder, L. Gyugyi, M. R. Lund, D. M. Hamai,

All UPFC purpose, to accomplish independent active & T. R. Rietman, D. R. Torgerson, and A. Edris,

reactive power flow control over the transmission lined; “Operation of the unified power flow controller (UPFC)

such ask voltage regulation, line impedance under practical constraints,” IEEE Trans. Power Del.,

compensation, phase shifting or simultaneous control of vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 630–639, Apr. 1998.

voltage, impedance, & phase angle, thus. [12] S. Y. Kim, J. S. Yoon, B. H. Chang, and D. H. Baek,

For both series & shunt CMIs Dc capacitor voltage “The operation experience of KEPCO UPFC,” in Proc.

balance is controlled. 8th Int. Conf. Electr. Mac. Syst., 2005, pp. 2502–2505.

Fast dynamic response (<10 Ms), The transformerless

UPFC with invented modulation & control an be

established anywhere in the grid to increase energy

transmission govern the existing grids, reduce

transmission over-crowding & enable high a penetration

k of renewable energy sources.]

The future work of this project is need to adding

fuzzy logic controller to minimize THD values and to still

improve the load side magnitude. By eliminating PI controller

the complexity will be reduced.

REFERENCES

[1] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding Facts:

Concept and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission

Systems. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2000.

[2] L.Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S. L.Williams, T. R. Rietman,

D. R. Torgerson, and A. Edris, “The unified power flow

controller: A new approach to power transmission

control,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 10, no. 2, pp.

1085– 1097, Apr. 1995.

[3] A. Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

Shahidehpour, and R. Feuillet, “UPFC for enhancing

power system reliability,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol.

25, no. 4, pp. 2881–2890, Oct. 2010.

[4] H. Fujita, Y. Watanabe, and H. Akagi, “Control and

analysis of a unified power flow controller,” IEEE Trans.

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