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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

5, Issue 04, 2017 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting


Bhagyashree. Kalyanshetti1 Prof. V. A. Bagali1
1
M. Tech. Student 2Assistant Professor
1,2
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
1,2
BLDEA’s CET Vijayapur India
Abstract— The study of new transformerless Unified power
flow controller (UPFC) is modulated. The conventional
UPFC that consists of zig-zag bulky transformer. Which
occupies more space and losses on transmission lines are
more. Hence to overcome this problem, the new proposed
method of transformerless UPFC is developed by adding two
cascaded multilevel inverters (CMI). In traditional UPFC as
shown inffigure.1, it consists of two back to back connected
inverter. Hence UPFC can control active and reactive power,
it is very useful, flexible ac transmission system device
(FACTS).
Key words: UPFC, Cascaded Multilevel Inverters (CMI),
FACTS Devices
Fig. 2: Transformerless UPFC structure configuration. (a)
Single phase cascaded multilevel inverter (CMI). (b) CMI
I. INTRODUCTION
H-bridge modules.
These conventional UPFC are costlier, since they have to use
high rating inverters, and zigzag transformers that makes it II. WORKING OF TRANSFORMERLESS UPFC
much complicated. Power loss is more, i.e. almost 50% of
total power loss. The overall conventional UPFC makes it
bulky. The percentage of failure is high.

Fig. 3: (a) Transformerless UPFC system configuration.

Fig. 1: Conventional UPFC


As of late there are two new UPFC structures are
developed. 1) The matrix converter based UPFC. 2)
Distributed power flow controller (DPFC) invented with the
help of traditional UPFC. But both UPFC still need to utilize
transformers which can bring about high cost, response with Fig. 3: (b) Transformerless UPFC Phaser diagram
respect to time is less, structure utilizes more space(bulky) By introducing series and shunt CMI, The
and losses are more. transformerless UPFC features are as listed below,
Hence Cascaded multilevel inverters(CMI) it is the  The traditional UPFC uses back-to-back inverters and
main and only practical useful inverter innovation by not shares dc supply, but the transformerless UPFC utilizes
using of transformers, a vast number of diodes and capacitors no transformer hence itfcandachieve low-cost, less
since, it can lead to high voltage levels. To solve this problem weight, minimum size, maximum efficiency, and
two CMIs has been invented. One is series cascaded maximum reliability & quick dynamic response.
multilevel inverter and another is shunt cascaded multilevel  The main difference between traditional UPFC and
inverter.
transformerless UPFC is that, connecting shunt CMI
To avoid transformer completely, new method is after series CMI. And these CMIs have distinct dc
developed by using CMI. Which is shown in above fig. 2. But capacitor voltage.
however we still have to use isolation transformer. The
 The exchange of active power is eliminated between two
arrangement of CMI is associated directly with transmission
CMIs, hence overall DC capacitors that are connected
line &$shunt CMI. And shunt CMI connected in parallel with
are not constant.
the sending end next to the series CMI. The transformerless
 Modular CMIs are used by proposed UPFC and provides
UPFC have more advantages than traditional UPFC. i.e., fast
high greater flexibility and reliability because of their
dynamic response, maximum efficiency, maximum
inherent redundancy.
reliability, cost is less and light weight.
The proposed UPFC technique is different from the
traditionalt UPFC. Fig3: (b.)shows the phasorddiagramwof

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Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting
(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

transformerless UPFC. Here original sendinggend voltaged


& receiving end voltage fare VS0 and VR respectively. VS0
is not having any phase change i.e., it aligned with real axis.
Hence its value is zero. The desired voltage VC is controlled
by series CMI to generate [newgsendingjend voltageg] VS.
& also thed series CMI controlsythe activedand (4)
reactivefpower generated in the transmission system. The Where, n = number of harmonics, s = total no. of *
work of shunt CMI is to inject currentgIP into theknew H- bridge modules,αk=[switching angle for the kt]
transmission busgtoumakeaactive powerf zero in both CMIs.
Hence seriesdCMIscurrent IC anddshuntaCMIrcurrent IP are
perpendicularttowtheirgvoltages respectively. (5)
Therefore, for the operation of UPFC there are two Represents a THD minimization, with considering
main steps, two constraints:
1) Series CMI injected voltage VC is calculated for active//
reactive power in the transmission line as expressed in
(5)] And

(1) (6)
2) To achieve zero active power in both CMIs the shunt The minimum THD values can be calculated with
injected current IP is calculated as expressed in (10) and the help of MATLAB software by using (14) and (15) two
(11). constraints.
(2)
Where, V. CONTROL DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT

(3)

III. FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY MODULATION (FFM) FOR


CMIS
The modulation for CMIs are done with the help of two ways.
1) FFM 2) PWM. Before developing exact UPFC module, the
modulation of CMI is needed. Comparing both FFM and
PWM techniques, the FFM module have lower switching Fig. 5: Control system diagram of transformerless UPFC. (a)
frequencies. Now a days FFM strategy is studied for the lower Overall control diagram for power flow & overall control
modules and minimization of THD values. Here to achieve diagram for dc capacitor voltage control]
low THD and fast response of CMI is done with the help of A. Stage 1
FFM by introducing high number of modules. i.e., 10 H-
bridge modules for CMI of series and 20 H-bridge modules In stage 1 the calculation of upper layer control is done. The
for CMI of shunt. upper layer consists of value of P*/Q*. VC0 is the reference
voltage for series CMIl. To keep active power zero IP0 is
IV. FOR MINIMUM THD VALUE SWITCHING ANGLES used, for series & shunt CMIsl as expressed in (10), (11)
instead of estimating VC0 from (5), another way is to
The conventional FFM operation principle is shown in Fig. 4. calculate from figure. 5.2.2(b).
The example for 11 level CMI shown. Each 5 H-bridge
modules develops quasi-square wave VH1, VH2, VH3, VH4, B. Stage 2
VH5 and it is having identical dc voltage. Our aim is to obtain in stage 2 overall series DC control and overall shunt DC
minimum THD values by using more number of [H-bridge control is done in this fig.5.2.29(a) Vdc_sh and Vdc_se are
modules for transformerless UPFC. the DC voltage references of both CMIs for series CMI Pse
The CMI output voltage is expressed in terms of 1/I²c is injected and the product is send to Rse series CMI and
Fourier series, as shown in Fig. 4 is the introduced ΔVc is in phase with series CMI.

Fig. 6: Control system for transformerless UPFC (b) In


detailed calculation from P*//Q* to V *C0 & I ∗ P0, & (c)
Fig. 4: Operation principle of FFM. current closed-loop control for shunt CMI.]

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Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting
(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

C. Stage 3 The phase angle between VS and VR is 30° hence


In stage III Voltage generated [for series CMI] & current current is 14-A.
generated [for shunt CMI.] From the reference Vc by FFM
output voltage must be directly generated for series CMI
decoupling feedback control current for shunt CMI output
current is controlled.

VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


The UPFC can function as a perfect phase angle regulator,
which achieves the desired phase shift (leading or lagging) of
the original sending-end voltage without any change in
magnitude. Fig. 9: shunt CMI line currents ILa, ILb, ILc and phase
Three operating points with different shifted phases voltage Vpa, Vpb.
are considered as shown in Fig. 13(a) case A1: 30°, (b) case
A2: 15°, and (c) case A3: 0°. All three phase shifting cases
(case A1 to case A3) have been tested and corresponding test
results are as shown,
1) Fig.5 shows the experimental waveforms of UPFC
operating from case A1 to case A2 (Phase shifting 30° to
15°). As mentioned before, in the test setup, there is
already 30° phase difference between the original
sending-end are as shown in above figure.
Fig. 10: Shunt CMI line voltage Vpab, line current ILa.

Fig. 7: UPFC operating points with different phase shifting:


(a) case A1:30°, (b) case A2: 15°, and (c) case A3:0° Fig. 11: Dynamic response measured for phase shifting of
A. Case A1 Phase angle (30° to 15°) A2 to A3.
Fig.8 experimental results of case A1to A2 (30°to15°) since C. Line Impedance Compensation (B1 to B2)
there is already phase shift between VS0 and VR for case A1 UPFC phase shifting is different from line impedance
VS=VR because series CMI voltage VC injects VS0 by phase compensation. Fig 12. Shows 3 different operating levels
shift of 30°. There for resulting line current is zero. For case with line impedance recompense.
A2 VS is shifted from VS0 by 15° hence 7-A line current  Case B1: without compensation of line impedance
because of 15°phase shift between VS and VR. equalize to 0.5pu.
 Case B2: after compensation line impedance equal to
1pu.
 Case B3: line impedance equal to infinity.
In Case B1 (similar to A2 to A3) voltage between
VS and VR (30° phase shift) is 0.5p.u. The resulting line
current is equal to 0.31H (0.5P.U). This line current is
nominal current for transformer 1 & transformer 2. For case
B2 and B3 due to current limitation in transformers, UPFC is
used controlled the increment line impedance.
Fig. 8: Simulation waveform of UPFC operating at phase
shift of 30° to 15°
B. Phase shifting (A2 to A3)
Similarly simulation waveform of UPFC performing phase
shift of 15° to 0° as shown in figure 9,10,11. Fig.9. showing
VPA VPB shunt CMI phase voltages and ILA, ILB, ILC are
the line currents. The phase voltages are generated by FFM
in the form of staircase with optimized switching angles as
shown in fig 10. for case A3 since it is 0° phase shifting
compensation is zero therefore VS=VS0. Fig. 12: Shunt CMI line voltage Vpab, line current ILa.]

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Analysis of Transformerless UPFC with FFM Phase Shifting
(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/492)

Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1021–1027, Nov.


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VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK [10] J. Z. Bebic, P. W. Lehn, and M. R. Iravani, “P-Δ
characteristics for the unified power flow controller -
This report represent analysis of transformerless UPFC with
Analysis inclusive of equipment ratings and line limits,”
FFM phase shifting, and the features are mentioned below:
IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1066–1072,
 FFM of the CMI for exceedingly low THD of output Jul. 2003.
voltage, glow switching losses & maximum efficiency; [11] C. D. Schauder, L. Gyugyi, M. R. Lund, D. M. Hamai,
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 For both series & shunt CMIs Dc capacitor voltage “The operation experience of KEPCO UPFC,” in Proc.
balance is controlled. 8th Int. Conf. Electr. Mac. Syst., 2005, pp. 2502–2505.
 Fast dynamic response (<10 Ms), The transformerless
UPFC with invented modulation & control an be
established anywhere in the grid to increase energy
transmission govern the existing grids, reduce
transmission over-crowding & enable high a penetration
k of renewable energy sources.]
The future work of this project is need to adding
fuzzy logic controller to minimize THD values and to still
improve the load side magnitude. By eliminating PI controller
the complexity will be reduced.

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