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Exercise 2.

Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
This symptoms of hay fever include watery and itchy eyes and a runny,
congested nose. People suffering from hay fever may experience occasional wheezing
and repeated bouts of sneezing and may even lose their sense of smell. Some victims
of hay fever may also have stopped-up ears. About 30 percent of those who suffer
from hay fever may develop the symptoms associated with periodic asthma or a sinus
infection. The allergen-antibody theory does not fully explain allergic reactions
because the membranes and glands in eyes and ears are controlled by the independent
nervous system, which keeps these organs in balance. But the independent nervous
system itself is part of the emotional- response center and may cause the feelings of
anger, fear, resentment, and lack of self-confidence in reaction to allergy-causing
The most common cause of hay fever is the pollen of ragweed, which blossoms
during the summer and autumn. When airborne pollen particles, as well mold, come
into contact with the victim’s membranes, they can cause allergic reactions that release
histamine and result in virtual blockage of air passages. To prevent hay fever or to
decrease the severity of its symptoms, contact with the ragweed pollen should be
reduced. Although some communities have attempted to eliminate the plants that
cause the reactions, elimination programs have not been successful because airborne
pollen can travel considerable distances. Antihistamine can help with short but severe
attacks. Over extended periods of time, however, patients are prescribed a series of
injections of the substance to which they are sensitive in order to increase immunity
and thus be relieved of the seasonal allergy.
(Resource: Toefl test strategies by Eli Hinkel, Ph.D)
1. It can be inferred from the passage that the phrase “hay fever” refers to________.
A. fodder for cattle B. a seasonal discomfort
C. viral bacteria D. a lung disease
2. According to the passage, the symptoms of the allergy are predominantly________.
A. abdominal B. intestinal C. respiratory D.
3. What can be inferred from the first paragraph?
A. Hay fever may cause severe allergic reactions and even death.
B. The cause of allergic reactions has not been determined.
C. The nervous system balances allergic reactions.
D. People should not have an emotional response to allergic reactions.
4. According to the passage, patients suffering from hay fever may also
A. hunger pains B. mood swings C. nervous blockages D. sensory
5. The word “resentment” is closest in meaning to________.
A. reprieve B. reprisal C. irritation D. grief
6. According to the passage, the irritants are transported by________.
A. wind B. food C. travelers D. air passages
7. The word “blockage” in the passage is closest in meaning to________.
A. obstruction B. bleeding C. enlargement D. dryness
8. According to the passage, to avoid incidents of hay fever, patients need to________.
A. avoid interactions with other patients B. avoid exposure to pollen
C. increase their self-confidence D. take doses of prescribed
9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a cause of allergies?
A. pollen B. mold C. flowers D. injections
10. A paragraph following this passage would most probably discuss________.
A. how the nervous system alerts patients.
B. how the immune system reacts to allergens
C. what other diseases can be relieved by vaccines.
D. What flowers are harmless to hay fever patients.

Exercise 3. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
A pilot cannot fly by sight alone. In many conditions, such as flying at night
and landing in dense fog, a pilot must use radar, an alternative way of navigating.
Since human eyes are not very good at determining speeds of approaching objects,
radar can show a pilot how fast nearby planes are moving. The basic principle of radar
is exemplified by what happens when one shouts in a cave. The echo of the sounds
against the walls helps a person determine the size of the cave. With radar, however,
the waves are radio waves instead of sound waves. Radio waves travel at the speed of
light, about 300,000 kilometers in one second. A radar set sends out a short burst of
radio waves. Then it receives the echoes produced when the waves bounce off objects.
By determining the time it takes for the echoes to return to the radar set, a trained
technician can determine the distance between the radar set and other objects. The
word “radar”, in fact, gets its name from the term “radio detection and ranging”.
“Ranging” is the term for detection of the distance between an object and the radar set.
Besides being of critical importance to pilots, radar is essential for air traffic control,
tracking ships at sea, and for tracking weather systems and storms.
1. What is the main topic of this passage?
A. The nature of radar. B. History of radar.
C. Alternatives to radar. D. Types of ranging.
2. According to the passage, what can radar detect besides location of objects?
A. Shape B. Size C. Speed D. Weight
3. The word “exemplified” in the passage can be replaced by_________.
A. “specified” B. “resembled” C. “illustrated” D. “justified”
4. The word “shouts” in the passage most closely means_________.
A. “exclaims” B. “yells” C. “shoots” D. “whispers”
5. Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage?
A. argumentative B. explanatory C. humorous
D. imaginative
6. According to the passage, the distance between a radar set and an object can be
determined by_________.
A. the time it takes for a burst of radio waves to produce echoes when the waves
bounce off the object
B. the term “ranging” used for detection of the distance between an object and
the radar set
C. the time it takes for the radio waves to produce echoes and bounce off the
D. the time it takes for the echoes produced by the radio waves to return to the
radar set
7. Which type of waves does radar use?
A. tidal B. sound C. heat D. radio
8. The word “tracking” in the passage most closely means_________.
A. sending B. searching for C. ranging D. repairing
9. Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph?
A. A history of flying. B. Other uses of radar.
C. The technology used by pilots. D. Uses of some technology.
10. What might be inferred about radar?
A. It takes the place of a radio. B. It has improved navigational safety.
C. It was developed from a study of sound waves.
D. It gave birth to the invention of the airplane.

Exercise 4. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
Today’s cars are smaller, safer, cleaner, and more economical than their
predecessors, but the car of the future will be far more pollution-free than those on the
road today. Several new types of automobile engines have already been developed
than run on alternative sources of power, such as electricity, compressed natural gas,
methanol, steam, hydrogen, and propane. Electricity, however, is the only zero-
emission option presently available.
Although electric vehicles will not be truly practical until a powerful, compact
battery or other dependable source of current is available, transport experts foresee a
new assortment of electric vehicles entering everyday life: shorter-range commuter
electric cars, three-wheeled neighborhood cars, electric delivery vans, bikes and
As automakers work to develop practical electrical vehicles, urban planners and
utility engineers are focusing on infrastructure systems to support and make the best
use of the new cars. Public charging facilities will need to be as common as today’s
gas stations. Public parking spots on the street or in commercial lots will need to be
equipped with devices that allow drivers to charge their batteries while they stop, dine,
or attend a concert. To encourage the use of electric vehicles, the most convenient
parking in transportation centers might be reserved for electric cars.
Planners foresee electric shuttle buses, trains, buses and neighborhood vehicles all
meeting at transit centers that would have facilities for charging and renting.
Commuters will be able to rent a variety of electric cars to suit their needs: light
trucks, one-person three-wheelers, small cars, or electric/gasoline hybrid cars for
longer trips, which will no doubt take place on automated freeways capable of
handling five times the number of vehicles that can be carried by freeway today.
1. The following electrical vehicles are all mentioned in the passage
A. vans B. trains C. planes D. trolleys
2. The author’s purpose in the passage is to_________.
A. criticize conventional vehicles
B. support the invention of electric cars
C. narrate a story about alternative energy vehicles
D. describe the possibilities for transportation in the future
3. The passage would most likely be followed by details about_________.
A. automated freeways B. pollution restrictions in the future
C. the neighborhood of the future D. electric shuttle buses
4. The word “compact” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to________
A. long-range B. inexpensive C. concentrated D. squared
5. In the second paragraph, the author implies that_________.
A. a dependable source of electric energy will eventually be developed.
B. everyday life will stay much the same in the future.
C. a single electric vehicle will eventually replace several modes of
D. electric vehicles are not practical for the future
6. According to the passage, public parking lots of the future will be_________.
A. more convenient than they are today B. equipped with charging devices
C. much larger than they are today D. as common as today’s gas stations
7. The word “charging” in this passage refers to_________.
A. electricity B. credit cards C. aggression D. lightning
8. The word “foresee” in this passage could best be replaced with_________.
A. count on B. invent C. imagine D. rely on
9. The word “commuters” in paragraph 4 refers to_________.
A. daily travelers B. visitors C. cab drivers D. shoppers
10. The word “hybrid” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to_________.
A. combination B. hazardous C. futuristic D.

Exercise 5. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
The Stone Age was a period of history which began in approximately two
million B.C and lasted until 3000 B.C. Its name was derived from the stone tools and
weapons that modern scientists found. This period was divided into the Paleolithic,
Mesolithic, and Neolithic Ages.
During the first period (2 million to 8000 B.C), the first hatchet and use of fire
for heating and cooking were developed. As a result of the Ice Age, which evolved
about one million years into the Paleolithic Age, people were forced to seek shelter in
caves, wear clothing, and developed new tools.
During the Mesolithic Age (8000 to 6000 B.C), people made crude pottery and
the first fish hooks, took dogs hunting, and developed the bow and arrow, which was
used until the fourteenth century A.D.
The Neolithic Age (6000 to 3000 B.C) saw humankind domesticating sheep,
goats, pigs, and cattle, being less nomadic than in previous eras, establishing
permanent settlements, and creating governments.
1. Into how many periods was the Stone Age divided?
A. two B. three C. four D. five
2. The word “derived” is closest meaning to___________.
A. originated B. destroyed C. inferred D. discussed
3. Which of the following was developed earliest?
A. fish hook B. bow and arrow C. hatchet D. pottery
4. Which of the following developments is NOT related to the conditions of the Ice
A. farming B. clothing C. living indoors D. using fire
5. The word “crude” is closest meaning to__________
A. extravagant B. complex C. vulgar D. primitive
6. The author states that the Stone Age was so named because____________.
A. it was very durable like stone B. there was little vegetation
C. the stools and weapons was made of stone D. the people lived in stone
7. The word “nomadic” is closest meaning to___________.
A. sedentary B. wandering C. primitive D.
8. The word “eras” is closest meaning to___________.
A. families B. periods C. herds D. tools
9. Which of the following best describes the Mesolithic Age?
A. people were inventive B. people were warriors
C. People stayed indoors all the time D. people were crude
10. With what subject is the passage mainly concerned?
A. The Neolithic Age B. The Stone Age C. The Ice Age D.
The Paleolithic Age

Exercise 7. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
May 7th 1840 was the birthday of one of the most famous Russian composers of
the nineteenth century: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the son of a mining inspector.
Tchaikovsky studied music as a child and later studied composition at the St.
Petersburg Conservatory. His greatest period of productivity occurred between 1876
and 1890, during which time he enjoyed patronage of Madame von Meck, a woman he
never met, who gave him a yearly living stipend. Madame von Meck later terminated
her friendship with Tchaikovsky, as well as his living allowance, when she, herself,
was facing financial difficulties. It was during the time of Madame von Meck’s
patronage, however, that Tchaikovsky created the music for which he is most famous,
including the music for the ballets of “Swan Lake” and “The Sleeping Beauty”.
Tchaikovsky’s music, well-known for its rich melodic and sometimes melancholy
passages, was one of the first that brought serious dramatic music to dance. Before
this, little attention had been given to the music behind the dance. Tchaikovsky died
ostensibly of cholera on November 6th 1893, though there are now some scholars who
argue that he committed suicide.
1. The best title for this passage could be_________.
A. “The Life and Music of Tchaikovsky”
B. “Development of Tchaikovsky’s Music for Ballets”
C. “Tchaikovsky’s Relationship with Madame von Meck”
D. “The Cause of Tchaikovsky’s Death”
2. According to the passage, all of the following describe Madame von Meck
A. she had economic troubles B. she was generous
C. she was never introduced to Tchaikovsky D. she enjoyed
Tchaikovsky’s music
3. According to the passage, Tchaikovsky’s music is most well-known for_________.
A. it’s repetitive and monotonous tones B. the ballet-like
quality of music
C. the richness and melodic drama of the music D. its lively,
capricious melodies
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. Tchaikovsky’s influence on ballet music. B. Tchaikovsky’s unhappiness
leading to suicide.
C. The patronage of Madame von Meck. D. Tchaikovsky’s productivity
in composing.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that_________.
A. it was not the music behind the dance that made Tchaikovsky famous
B. there is suspicion on the cause of Tchaikovsky’s death
C. Madame von Meck was one of the most famous Russian composers
D. Madame von Meck was one of Tchaikovsky’s girlfriends

Exercise 8. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the questions
in the following passage.
Every drop of water in the ocean, even in the deepest parts, responds to the
forces that create the tides. No other force that affects the sea is so strong. Compared
with the tides, the waves created by the wind are surface movements felt no more than
a hundred fathoms below the surface. The currents also seldom involve more than the
upper several hundred fathoms despite their impressive sweep.
The tides are a response of the waters of the ocean to the pull of the Moon and
the more distant Sun. In theory, there is a gravitational attraction between the water
and even the outermost star of the universe. In reality, however, the pull of remote
stars is so slight as to be obliterated by the control of the Moon and, to a lesser extent,
the Sun. Just as the Moon rises later each day by fifty minutes, on the average, so, in
most places, the time of high tide is correspondingly later each day. And as the Moon
waxes and wanes in its monthly cycle, so the height of the tide varies. The tidal
movements are strongest when the Moon is a sliver in the sky, and when it is full.
These are the highest flood tides and the lowest ebb tides of the lunar month and are
called the spring tides. At these times the Sun, Moon, and Earth are nearly in line and
the pull of the two heavenly bodies is added together to bring the water high on the
beaches, to send its surf upward against the sea cliffs, and to draw a high tide into the
harbors. Twice each month, at the quarters of the Moon, when the Sun, Moon and
Earth lie at the apexes of a triangular configuration and the pull of the Sun and Moon
are opposed, the moderate tidal movements called neap tides occur. Then the
difference between high and low water is less than at any other time during the month.
1. What is the main point of the first paragraph?
A. The waves created by ocean currents are very large.
B. Despite the strength of the wind, it only moves surface water.
C. Deep ocean water is seldom affected by forces that move water.
D. The tides are the most powerful force to affect the movement of ocean water.
2. The words "In reality" in the passage is closest in meaning to_________.
A. surprisingly B. actually C. characteristically D. similarly
3. It can be inferred from the passage that the most important factor in determining
how much gravitational effect one object in space has on the tides is_________.
A. size B. distance C. temperature D. density
4. The word "configuration" in the passage is closest in meaning to_________.
A. unit B. center C. surface D. arrangement
5. Neap tides occur when_________.
A. the Sun counteracts the Moon's gravitational attraction
B. the Moon is full
C. the Moon is farthest from the Sun
D. waves created by the wind combine with the Moon's gravitational attraction

Exercise 10. Choose from A, B, C, or D the one that best answers each of the
questions in the following passage.
Have you ever thought about the names of the months? Why are “January” and
“February” not called “Primo” or “Secondo”? Is it because the original names were
created in ancient times? Or is it because the originators preferred odd words?
Take February, for example. Say it aloud a few minutes and you start to wonder.
Most people don’t know who developed these names. However, a little research
reveals that the names of the months came mostly from a combination of the names of
Roman gods and goddesses, important festivals, and the original numbers of the
Julius Caesar and Pope Gregory XIII change the calendar to make it more exact.
Caesar developed a new calendar of 364 and a quarter days, the time it takes the earth
to orbit the sun from one spring season to the next. The Pope’s astronomers refined
the calendar regarding leap years; they determined that there should be no leap year in
years ending in 00- unless they were divisible by 400; the years 1700, 1800, 1900 and
2100 would not be considered leap years, while the years 1600 and 2000 would be.
This new Gregorian calendar was so accurate that today, scientists need only add leap
seconds every few years to the clock in order to keep the calendar matching the
Earth’s cycles.
1. What is the topic of the passage?
A. how the modern calendar was named and developed
B. how the months were named
C. how the leap year system was developed
D. how accurate the modern day is calendar
2. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that the author think the names of the months
A. odd B. difficult to pronounce C. inappropriate D. none of the
3. The word “they” in paragraph 3 refers to____________.
A. calendars B. days C. astronomers D. years
4. The word “accurate” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to____________.
A. interesting B. informative C. correct D.
5. Which of the following will be a leap year?
A. 2300 B. 2400 C. 2200 D. 2500
6. Which of the following is true of the Gregorian calendar?
A. It needs major improvements.
B. It was so well designed, it needs little adjusting today.
C. It copied the Roman calendar’s formula of leap years.
D. none of the answers
7. Why is Caesar important in calendar making?
A. He changed the length of the year B. He extended summer.
C. He has a month named for him D. He altered the number of days
in the year.
8. In what order is the information in the passage presented?
A. Caesar’s calendar, the Gregorian calendar, the modern calendar
B. Roman Gods, important festivals, original numbers of months
C. names of months, Caesar’s calendar, the Gregorian Calendar
D. none of the answers
9. The word “refined” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to___________.
A. studied B. invented C. observed D. improved
10. Why is the number of 364 and a quarter important?
A. It is the length of time from the beginning of spring to the end of winter.
B. It is the length of a planetary year.
C. It is the most accurate number for calendars.
D. It was a number randomly chosen by Caesar for his calendar.
________THE END_____